The PHILIPPINE ASSEMBLY (sometimes called the PHILIPPINE NATIONAL
ASSEMBLY) was the lower house of the
The Assembly was created by the 1902 Philippine Organic Act of the
United States Congress
The inauguration of the assembly marked a "turning point in the
country’s history, for its creation marked the commencement of
Filipino participation in self-governance and a big leap towards
* 1 History
* 1.1 First nation-wide elections * 1.2 First Philippine Legislature
* 2 Election, qualifications, and responsibility of members * 3 Major issues * 4 Reorganization under the Jones Law of 1916
* 5 References
* 5.1 Bibliography
* 6 External links
United States of America
FIRST NATION-WIDE ELECTIONS
In accordance with the Philippine Organic Act, the Philippine Commission conducted a census in 1903, published on March 25, 1905. Two years after the census' publication, on July 30, 1907, the first Assembly elections were held, the first nationwide elections in the Phiilippines. Although several parties and independent candidates ran for the Assembly, two political parties dominated, the Nacionalista Party and the Progresista Party . The Nacionalista Party, which was in favor of "immediate and complete independence" from the United States and was led by future President Sergio Osmeña , captured a majority of the 80-seat Assembly.
FIRST PHILIPPINE LEGISLATURE
Main article: 1st Philippine Legislature
On October 16, 1907, the
While the candidates representing the Nacionalistas won majority of the seats in the assembly, the maneuvering to the election for the Speaker of the Assembly began, as the Speaker would be the most powerful Filipino in government. Quezon and Osmeña focused on aggregating the delegates around Osmeña's leadership, a task that became easier than the two had anticipated. With less than two dozen delegates, the Progresistas won't be able to elect a Speaker from their ranks and were marginalized from the talks amongst the Nacionalistas. Osmeña found two opponents for the Speakership: Gomez who defeated Lukban by 31 votes, and Pedro Paterno . However, Gomez's citizenship was questioned, and Paterno found himself to be Osmeña's leading opponent.
Gomez was found to be a Spanish citizen and a new election for his seat was called. Gomez still ran in the election and beat Lukban by a larger margin, about 400 votes. Gomez was permitted to take his seat, but not after seven months has passed, and after Osmeña was elected Speaker on October 16, 1907, with Quezon as the majority floor leader.
The defeat of the Progresistas in the elections hastened their downfall; the Nacionalista Party will continue to dominate the elections for the legislature, and the Progresistas, and later their successor the Democratas, will remain in opposition.
ELECTION, QUALIFICATIONS, AND RESPONSIBILITY OF MEMBERS
In the first 1907 election, 80 members were elected in a first past the post electoral system . In subsequent elections, 81 members were elected. There were three elections: in 1907, in 1909 , and in 1912 .
Throughout the Assembly's history, there was conflict in the legislature between the elected Assembly composed entirely of Filipinos and the appointed Commission made up of mostly American officials.
REORGANIZATION UNDER THE JONES LAW OF 1916
Under the Jones Law of 1916 , and following elections to both houses,
a bicameral legislature composed exclusively of Filipinos was
inaugurated on October 16, 1916. The
Philippine Commission was
replaced by the elected Senate of the
* ^ Robertson, James Alexander (July 1917). "The
* Zaide, Sonia M. (1994), _The Philippines: A Unique Nation_, All-Nations Publishing Co., ISBN 971-642-071-4