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Marcus Julius Philippus (Latin: Marcus Julius Philippus Augustus, Arabic:ماركوس جوليوس فيليبوس أوغسطس ;[a] c. 204 – 249 AD), also known commonly by his nickname Philip the Arab (Latin: Philippus Arabus, Arabic:فيليب العربي), also known as Philip, was Roman Emperor
Roman Emperor
from 244 to 249. He was born in Arabia Petraea, the Roman province
Roman province
of Arabia, in a city situated in modern-day Syria. He went on to become a major figure in the Roman Empire. He achieved power after the death of Gordian III, quickly negotiating peace with the Persian Sassanid Empire. During his reign, the city of Rome
Rome
celebrated its millennium. Among early Christian
Christian
writers, Philip had the reputation of being sympathetic to the Christian
Christian
faith. Probably for this reason, it was even claimed by some that he had converted to Christianity, which would have made him the first Christian
Christian
emperor. He supposedly tried to celebrate Easter
Easter
with Christians in Antioch, but the bishop Saint Babylas
Babylas
made him stand with the penitents.[1] Philip and his wife received letters from Origen.[2] Philip was betrayed and killed following a rebellion led by his successor, Gaius Messius Quintus Decius.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Accession to the throne 3 Reign

3.1 At the Limes 3.2 Ludi Saeculares

4 Downfall 5 Religious beliefs 6 Notes 7 References 8 Sources

8.1 Primary sources 8.2 Secondary sources

9 External links

Early life[edit] Little is known about Philip's early life and political career. He was born in what is today Shahba, Syria, about 90 kilometres (56 mi) southeast of Damascus, in the Trachonitis
Trachonitis
district.[3] At the time this was in the Roman province
Roman province
of Arabia,[4] and Glen Bowersock believes that Philip was indeed of Arab origin[5]. He was the son of a local citizen, Julius Marinus, possibly of some importance.[6] Allegations from later Roman sources (Historia Augusta and Epitome de Caesaribus) that Philip had a very humble origin or even that his father was a leader of brigands are not accepted by modern historians[7]. While the name of Philip's mother is unknown, he did have a brother, Gaius Julius Priscus, an equestrian and a member of the Praetorian Guard under Gordian III
Gordian III
(238–244).[8] In 234, Philip married Marcia Otacilia Severa, daughter of a Roman Governor. They had three children, a son named Marcus Julius Philippus Severus (Philippus II), born in 238,[6] a daughter called Julia Severa or Severina who is known from numismatic evidence but is never mentioned by the ancient Roman sources and a son named Quintus Philippus Severus, born in 247.[citation needed] Accession to the throne[edit]

Coin of Marcia Otacilia Severa, wife of Philip. The Greek legend states she received the title of Augusta.

Rock-face relief at Naqsh-e Rustam
Naqsh-e Rustam
of Shapur I
Shapur I
(on horseback) with Philip the Arab
Philip the Arab
and Emperor Valerian
Emperor Valerian
kneeling in surrender to the Persian king.

Philip's rise to prominence began through the intervention of his brother Priscus, who was an important official under the emperor Gordian III.[6] His big break came in 243, during Gordian III's campaign against Shapur I
Shapur I
of Persia, when the Praetorian prefect Timesitheus died under unclear circumstances.[9] At the suggestion of his brother Priscus, Philip became the new Praetorian prefect, with the intention that the two brothers would control the young Emperor and rule the Roman world as unofficial regents.[6] Following a military defeat, Gordian III
Gordian III
died in 244 under circumstances that are still debated. While some claim that Philip conspired in his murder, other accounts (including one coming from the Persian point of view) state that Gordian died in battle.[10] Whatever the case, Philip assumed the purple robe following Gordian's death. According to Edward Gibbon:

His rise from so obscure a station to the first dignities of the empire seems to prove that he was a bold and able leader. But his boldness prompted him to aspire to the throne, and his abilities were employed to supplant, not to serve, his indulgent master.[11]

Philip was not willing to repeat the mistakes of previous claimants, and was aware that he had to return to Rome
Rome
in order to secure his position with the senate.[3] However, his first priority was to conclude a peace treaty with Shapur I
Shapur I
of Persia, and withdraw the army from a potentially disastrous situation.[12] Although Philip was accused of abandoning territory, the actual terms of the peace were not as humiliating as they could have been.[13] Philip apparently retained Timesitheus’ reconquest of Osroene
Osroene
and Mesopotamia, but he had to agree that Armenia lay within Persia’s sphere of influence.[14] He also had to pay an enormous indemnity to the Persians of 500,000 gold denarii.[15] Philip immediately issued coins proclaiming that he had made peace with the Persians (pax fundata cum Persis).[13] Leading his army back up the Euphrates, south of Circesium
Circesium
Philip erected a cenotaph in honor of Gordian III, but his ashes were sent ahead to Rome, where he arranged for Gordian III’s deification.[16] Whilst in Antioch, he left his brother Priscus as extraordinary ruler of the Eastern provinces, with the title of rector Orientis.[17] Moving westward, he gave his brother-in-law Severianus control of the provinces of Moesia
Moesia
and Macedonia.[18] He eventually arrived in Rome in the late summer of 244, where he was confirmed Augustus.[3] Before the end of the year, he nominated his young son Caesar and heir, his wife, Otacilia Severa, was named Augusta, and he also deified his father Marinus, even though the latter had never been emperor.[13] While in Rome, Philip also claimed an official victory over the Persians with the titles of Parthicus Adiabenicus, Persicus Maximus and Parthicus Maximus.[19] Reign[edit]

Cippus commemorating Roman Millennium.

In an attempt to shore up his regime, Philip put a great deal of effort in maintaining good relations with the Senate, and from the beginning of his reign, he reaffirmed the old Roman virtues and traditions.[13] He quickly ordered an enormous building program in his home town, renaming it Philippopolis, and raising it to civic status, while he populated it with statues of himself and his family.[20] This creation of a new city, piled on top of the massive tribute owed to the Persians, as well as the necessary donative to the army to secure its acceptance of his accession, meant Philip was desperately short of money.[20] To pay for it, he ruthlessly increased levels of taxation, while at the same time he ceased paying subsidies to the tribes north of the Danube
Danube
that were vital for keeping the peace on the frontiers.[21] Both decisions would have significant impacts upon the empire and his reign.[22] At the Limes[edit] In 245, Philip was forced to leave Rome
Rome
as the stability established by Timesitheus was undone by a combination of his death, Gordian’s defeat in the east and Philip’s decision to cease paying the subsidies.[23] The Carpi moved through Dacia, crossed the Danube
Danube
and emerged in Moesia
Moesia
where they threatened the Balkans.[24] Establishing his headquarters in Philippopolis in Thrace, he pushed the Carpi across the Danube
Danube
and chased them back into Dacia, so that by the summer of 246, he claimed victory against them, along with the title "Carpicus Maximus".[25] In the meantime, the Arsacids of Armenia refused to acknowledge the authority of the Persian king Shapur I, and war with Persia flared up again by 245.[22] Ludi Saeculares[edit] Nevertheless, Philip was back in Rome
Rome
by August 247, where he poured more money into the most momentous event of his reign – the Ludi Saeculares, which coincided with the one thousandth anniversary of the foundation of Rome.[26] So in April 248 AD (April 1000 A.U.C.), Philip had the honor of leading the celebrations of the one thousandth birthday of Rome, which according to tradition was founded on April 21, 753 BC by Romulus. Commemorative coins, such as the one illustrated here, were issued in large numbers and, according to contemporary accounts, the festivities were magnificent and included spectacular games, ludi saeculares, and theatrical presentations throughout the city.[27] In the Colosseum, in what had been originally prepared for Gordian III’s planned Roman triumph
Roman triumph
over the Persians,[28] more than 1,000 gladiators were killed along with hundreds of exotic animals including hippos, leopards, lions, giraffes, and one rhinoceros.[29] The events were also celebrated in literature, with several publications, including Asinius Quadratus's History of a Thousand Years, specially prepared for the anniversary.[6] At the same time, Philip elevated his son to the rank of co-Augustus.[6] Downfall[edit] Despite the festive atmosphere, there were continued problems in the provinces. In late 248, the legions of Pannonia
Pannonia
and Moesia, dissatisfied with the result of the war against the Carpi, rebelled and proclaimed Tiberius
Tiberius
Claudius
Claudius
Pacatianus
Pacatianus
emperor.[30] The confusion that this entailed tempted the Quadi
Quadi
and other Germanic tribes
Germanic tribes
to cross the frontier and raid Pannonia.[26] At the same time, the Goths invaded Moesia
Moesia
and Thrace across the Danube
Danube
frontier, and laid siege to Marcianopolis,[31] as the Carpi, encouraged by the Gothic incursions, renewed their assaults in Dacia
Dacia
and Moesia.[26] Meanwhile, in the East, Marcus Jotapianus
Jotapianus
led another uprising in response to the oppressive rule of Priscus and the excessive taxation of the Eastern provinces.[32] Two other usurpers, Marcus Silbannacus
Silbannacus
and Sponsianus, are reported to have started rebellions without much success.[6] Overwhelmed by the number of invasions and usurpers, Philip offered to resign, but the Senate decided to throw its support behind the emperor, with a certain Gaius Messius Quintus Decius
Decius
most vocal of all the senators.[33] Philip was so impressed by his support that he dispatched Decius
Decius
to the region with a special command encompassing all of the Pannonian and Moesian provinces. This had a dual purpose of both quelling the rebellion of Pacatianus
Pacatianus
as well as dealing with the barbarian incursions.[34] Although Decius
Decius
managed to quell the revolt, discontent in the legions was growing.[22] Decius
Decius
was proclaimed emperor by the Danubian armies in the spring of 249 and immediately marched on Rome.[35] Yet even before he had left the region, the situation for Philip had turned even more sour. Financial difficulties had forced him to debase the Antoninianus, as rioting began to occur in Egypt, causing disruptions to Rome’s wheat supply and further eroding Philip’s support in the capital.[36] Although Decius
Decius
tried to come to terms with Philip,[33] Philip's army met the usurper near modern Verona that summer. Decius
Decius
easily won the battle and Philip was killed sometime in September 249,[37] either in the fighting or assassinated by his own soldiers who were eager to please the new ruler.[6] Philip's eleven-year-old son and heir may have been killed with his father and Priscus disappeared without a trace.[38] Religious beliefs[edit] Further information: Philip the Arab
Philip the Arab
and Christianity Some later traditions, first mentioned in the historian Eusebius in his Ecclesiastical History, held that Philip was the first Christian Roman Emperor. According to Eusebius (Ecc. Hist. VI.34), Philip was a Christian, but was not allowed to enter Easter
Easter
vigil services until he confessed his sins and ordered to sit among the penitents, which he did willingly. Later versions located this event in Antioch.[39] However, historians generally identify the later Emperor Constantine, baptized on his deathbed, as the first Christian
Christian
emperor, and generally describe Philip's adherence to Christianity
Christianity
as dubious, because non- Christian
Christian
writers do not mention the fact, and because throughout his reign, Philip to all appearances (coinage, etc.) continued to follow the state religion.[40] Critics ascribe Eusebius' claim as probably due to the tolerance Philip showed towards Christians. Saint Quirinus of Rome
Rome
was, according to a legendary account, the son of Philip the Arab.[41][not in citation given] Notes[edit]

^ In Classical Latin, Philip's name would be inscribed as MARCVS IVLIVS PHILIPPVS AVGVSTVS.

References[edit]

^ according to John Chrysostom ^ according to Eusebius. ^ a b c Bowman, pg. 36 ^ Bowersock, Glen W., Roman Arabia, Harvard University Press, 1994, pg. 122 ^ Or, as Romans were also calling these people, "Syrian" or "Saracen". Bowersock, Glen W., Roman Arabia, Harvard University Press, 1994, pgs. 123, 124 footnote 4, 125 ^ a b c d e f g h Meckler, Philip the Arab ^ Bowersock, Glen W., Roman Arabia, Harvard University Press, 1994, pgs. 122-123 ^ Potter, pg. 232 ^ Southern, pg. 70 ^ Southern, pg. 70; Bowman, pg. 36; Potter, pg. 234; Canduci, pg. 67 ^ The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, vol. I, p. 234, Edward Gibbon
Edward Gibbon
(The Online Library of Liberty). [1]. ^ Bowman, pg. 36; Southern, pg. 71 ^ a b c d Southern, pg. 71 ^ Potter, pg. 237 ^ Potter, pg. 237; Southern, pg. 71 ^ Bowman, pg. 36; Potter, pg. 238 ^ Bowman, pg. 36; Southern, pg. 71; Meckler, Philip the Arab ^ Potter, pg. 239 ^ Canduci, pg. 67 ^ a b Potter, pg. 238 ^ Potter, pgs. 238-239 ^ a b c Potter, pg. 240 ^ Bowman, pg. 36; Potter, pg. 240 ^ Bowman, pgs. 36-37 ^ Bowman, pg. 37; Southern, pgs 71-72 ^ a b c Bowman, pg. 37 ^ Southern, pg. 72 ^ Canduci, pg. 67; Martial; Coleman, Kathleen M., M. Valerii Martialis Liber Spectaculorum (2006), pg. lvi ^ Graham, T. (Writer and Director). (2000). The Fall [Television series episode]. In T. Graham (Producer), Rome: Power and Glory. Military Channel. ^ Meckler, Philip the Arab; Canduci, pg. 69 ^ Southern, pg. 73 ^ Meckler, Philip the Arab; Potter, pg. 239; Canduci, pg. 68 ^ a b Southern, pg. 74 ^ Southern, pg. 74; Bowman, pg. 37 ^ Southern, pg. 74; Meckler, Philip the Arab ^ Bowman, pg. 38 ^ Potter, pg. 241; Bowman, pg. 38 ^ Potter, pg. 241 ^ Philip the Arab
Philip the Arab
and Rival Claimants of the later 240s ^ Cruse, C.F., translator. Eusebius' Ecclesiastical History, Hendrickson Publishers, 1998 (fourth printing, 2004), pp. 220–221. ^ "Catholic Encyclopedia: Sts. Quirinus". Newadvent.org. 1911-06-01. Retrieved 2009-02-17. 

Sources[edit] Primary sources[edit]

Aurelius Victor, Epitome de Caesaribus Joannes
Joannes
Zonaras, Compendium of History extract: Zonaras: Alexander Severus to Diocletian: 222–284 Zosimus, Historia Nova

Secondary sources[edit]

Bowman, Alan K., The Cambridge Ancient History: The Crisis of Empire, A.D. 193-337, Cambridge University Press, 2005 Canduci, Alexander (2010), Triumph & Tragedy: The Rise and Fall of Rome's Immortal Emperors, Pier 9, ISBN 978-1-74196-598-8  Meckler, Michael L " Philip the Arab
Philip the Arab
(244-249 A.D.)", De Imperatoribus Romanis (1999) Potter, David Stone, The Roman Empire
Roman Empire
at Bay, AD 180-395, Routledge, 2004 Southern, Pat. The Roman Empire
Roman Empire
from Severus to Constantine, Routledge, 2001

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Philip the Arab.

A bio from the web site of New Zealand Association of Classical Teachers A brief bio from an educational Site on Roman Coins  "Philip the Arabian". Catholic Encyclopedia. 1913.   "Philippus, Marcus Julius". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911. 

Regnal titles

Preceded by Gordian III Roman Emperor 244–249 Succeeded by Decius

Political offices

Preceded by Tiberius
Tiberius
Pollenius Armenius Peregrinus, Fulvius Aemilianus Consul of the Roman Empire 245 with Gaius Maesius Titianus Succeeded by Gaius Bruttius Praesens , Gaius Allius Albinus

Preceded by Gaius Bruttius Praesens , Gaius Allius Albinus Consul of the Roman Empire 247–248 with Philippus II Succeeded by Lucius Fulvius Gavius Numisius Aemilianus
Aemilianus
, Lucius Naevius Aquilinus

v t e

Roman and Byzantine emperors

Principate 27 BC – 235 AD

Augustus Tiberius Caligula Claudius Nero Galba Otho Vitellius Vespasian Titus Domitian Nerva Trajan Hadrian Antoninus Pius Marcus Aurelius
Marcus Aurelius
and Lucius Verus Commodus Pertinax Didius Julianus (Pescennius Niger) (Clodius Albinus) Septimius Severus Caracalla
Caracalla
with Geta Macrinus
Macrinus
with Diadumenian Elagabalus Severus Alexander

Crisis 235–284

Maximinus Thrax Gordian I
Gordian I
and Gordian II Pupienus
Pupienus
and Balbinus Gordian III Philip the Arab
Philip the Arab
with Philip II Decius
Decius
with Herennius Etruscus Hostilian Trebonianus Gallus
Trebonianus Gallus
with Volusianus Aemilianus Valerian Gallienus
Gallienus
with Saloninus and Valerian II Claudius
Claudius
Gothicus Quintillus Aurelian Tacitus Florian Probus Carus Carinus
Carinus
and Numerian

Gallic Emperors: Postumus (Laelianus) Marius Victorinus (Domitianus II) Tetricus I
Tetricus I
with Tetricus II
Tetricus II
as Caesar

Dominate 284–395

Diocletian
Diocletian
(whole empire) Diocletian
Diocletian
(East) and Maximian
Maximian
(West) Diocletian
Diocletian
(East) and Maximian
Maximian
(West) with Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Constantius Chlorus
Constantius Chlorus
(West) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
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Licinius
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Licinius
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Licinius
I (East) and Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
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Licinius
II, Constantine II, and Crispus
Crispus
as Caesares (Martinian) Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(whole empire) with son Crispus
Crispus
as Caesar Constantine II Constans
Constans
I Magnentius
Magnentius
with Decentius as Caesar Constantius II
Constantius II
with Vetranio Julian Jovian Valentinian the Great Valens Gratian Valentinian II Magnus Maximus
Magnus Maximus
with Victor Theodosius the Great (Eugenius)

Western Empire 395–480

Honorius Constantine III with son Constans
Constans
II) Constantius III Joannes Valentinian III Petronius Maximus
Petronius Maximus
with Palladius Avitus Majorian Libius Severus Anthemius Olybrius Glycerius Julius Nepos Romulus Augustulus

Eastern/ Byzantine Empire 395–1204

Arcadius Theodosius II Pulcheria Marcian Leo I the Thracian Leo II Zeno (first reign) Basiliscus
Basiliscus
with son Marcus as co-emperor Zeno (second reign) Anastasius I Dicorus Justin I Justinian the Great Justin II Tiberius
Tiberius
II Constantine Maurice with son Theodosius as co-emperor Phocas Heraclius Constantine III Heraklonas Constans
Constans
II Constantine IV
Constantine IV
with brothers Heraclius
Heraclius
and Tiberius
Tiberius
and then Justinian II as co-emperors Justinian II
Justinian II
(first reign) Leontios Tiberios III Justinian II
Justinian II
(second reign) with son Tiberius
Tiberius
as co-emperor Philippikos Anastasios II Theodosius III Leo III the Isaurian Constantine V Artabasdos Leo IV the Khazar Constantine VI Irene Nikephoros I Staurakios Michael I Rangabe
Michael I Rangabe
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Michael II
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Basil I
the Macedonian Leo VI the Wise Alexander Constantine VII
Constantine VII
Porphyrogennetos Romanos I Lekapenos
Romanos I Lekapenos
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Constantine IX Monomachos
(sole emperor) Theodora Michael VI Bringas Isaac I Komnenos Constantine X Doukas Romanos IV Diogenes Michael VII Doukas
Michael VII Doukas
with brothers Andronikos and Konstantios and son Constantine Nikephoros III Botaneiates Alexios I Komnenos John II Komnenos
John II Komnenos
with Alexios Komnenos as co-emperor Manuel I Komnenos Alexios II Komnenos Andronikos I Komnenos Isaac II Angelos Alexios III Angelos Alexios IV Angelos Nicholas Kanabos (chosen by the Senate) Alexios V Doukas

Empire of Nicaea 1204–1261

Constantine Laskaris Theodore I Laskaris John III Doukas Vatatzes Theodore II Laskaris John IV Laskaris

Eastern/ Byzantine Empire 1261–1453

Michael VIII Palaiologos Andronikos II Palaiologos
Andronikos II Palaiologos
with Michael IX Palaiologos
Michael IX Palaiologos
as co-emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos John V Palaiologos John VI Kantakouzenos
John VI Kantakouzenos
with John V Palaiologos
John V Palaiologos
and Matthew Kantakouzenos as co-emperors John V Palaiologos Andronikos IV Palaiologos John VII Palaiologos Andronikos V Palaiologos Manuel II Palaiologos John VIII Palaiologos Constantine XI Palaiologos

Italics indicates a co-emperor, while underlining indicates an usurper.

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 67260910 LCCN: n88122633 ISNI: 0000 0001 1172 2509 GND: 11874223X SUDOC: 028082370 BNF:

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