PHILIPP OTTO RUNGE (German: ; 23 July 1777 – 2 December 1810) was a Romantic German painter and draughtsman. Although he made a late start to his career and died young, he is considered among the best German Romantic painters.
* 1 Life and work * 2 Runge and color * 3 References * 4 External links
LIFE AND WORK
The Hülsenbeck children, oil on canvas
Runge was born as the ninth of eleven children in
In 1804 he married and moved with his wife to
Runge was of a mystical, deeply Christian turn of mind, and in his artistic work he tried to express notions of the harmony of the universe through symbolism of colour, form, and numbers. He considered blue, yellow, and red to be symbolic of the Christian trinity and equated blue with God and the night, red with morning, evening, and Jesus, and yellow with the Holy Spirit (Runge 1841, I, p. 17). He also wrote poetry and to this end he planned a series of four paintings called The Times of the Day, designed to be seen in a special building and viewed to the accompaniment of music and poetry . This concept was common to romantic artists, who tried to achieve a "total art", or a fusion between all forms of art. In 1803 Runge had large-format engravings made of the drawings of the Times of the Day series that became commercially successful and a set of which he presented to Goethe. He painted two versions of Morning (Kunsthalle, Hamburg), but the others did not advance beyond drawings. "Morning" was the start of a new type of landscape, one of religion and emotion.
Runge was also one of the best German portraitists of his period; several examples are in Hamburg. His style was rigid, sharp, and intense, at times almost naïve.
RUNGE AND COLOR
Runge’s Farbenkugel (color sphere)
Runge's interest in color was the natural result of his work as a painter and of having an enquiring mind. Among his accepted tenets was that "as is known, there are only three colors, yellow, red, and blue" (letter to Goethe of July 3, 1806). His goal was to establish the complete world of colors resulting from mixture of the three, among themselves and together with white and black. In the same lengthy letter, Runge discussed in some detail his views on color order and included a sketch of a mixture circle, with the three primary colors forming an equilateral triangle and, together with their pair-wise mixtures, a hexagon.
He arrived at the concept of the color sphere sometime in 1807, as
indicated in his letter to Goethe of November 21 of that year, by
expanding the hue circle into a sphere, with white and black forming
the two opposing poles. A color mixture solid of a double-triangular
pyramid had been proposed by
Runge's premature death limited the impact of this work. Goethe, who
had read the manuscript before publication, mentioned it in his
Farbenlehre of 1810 as "successfully concluding this kind of effort."
It was soon overshadowed by
Michel Eugène Chevreul
* ^ Maltzahn, H. 1940, Philipp Otto Runge's Briefwechsel mit Goethe, Weimar: Verlag der Goethe-Gesellschaft . * ^ Runge, P. O. 1810, Die Farben-Kugel, oder Construction des Verhaeltnisses aller Farben zueinander, Hamburg: Perthes. * ^ Runge, P. O. 1840/41, Hinterlassene Schriften', 2. vols., D. Runge, ed., Hamburg: