HOME
The Info List - Philip II Of Spain


--- Advertisement ---



Philip II (Spanish: Felipe II; 21 May 1527 – 13 September 1598), called "the Prudent" (el Prudente), was King of Spain[a] (1556–98), King of Portugal
King of Portugal
(1581–98, as Philip I, Filipe I),[1] King of Naples and Sicily (both from 1554), and jure uxoris King of England
King of England
and Ireland (during his marriage to Queen Mary I
Queen Mary I
from 1554–58).[2] He was also Duke of Milan.[3] From 1555 he was lord of the Seventeen Provinces of the Netherlands. Known in Spain as "Felipe el Prudente" ('"Philip the Prudent'"), his empire included territories on every continent then known to Europeans, including his namesake the Philippines. During his reign, Spain reached the height of its influence and power. This is sometimes called the Golden Age. The expression "the empire on which the sun never sets" was coined during Philip's time to reflect the extent of his dominion. During Philip's reign there were separate state bankruptcies in 1557, 1560, 1569, 1575, and 1596. This was partly the cause of the declaration of independence that created the Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
in 1581. A devout Catholic, Philip is also known for organising a naval expedition against Protestant England in 1588, the Spanish Armada, which was unsuccessful, mostly due to storms and serious logistical problems. Philip was described by the Venetian ambassador Paolo Fagolo in 1563 as "slight of stature and round-faced, with pale blue eyes, somewhat prominent lip, and pink skin, but his overall appearance is very attractive". The Ambassador went on to say "He dresses very tastefully, and everything that he does is courteous and gracious."[4]

Contents

1 Early life: 1527–54 2 Domestic policy 3 Economy 4 Foreign policy

4.1 Italy 4.2 France 4.3 Mediterranean

5 Revolt in the Netherlands 6 King of Portugal 7 Relations with England and Ireland

7.1 King of England
King of England
and Ireland 7.2 After Mary I's death

8 Death 9 Legacy 10 In popular culture 11 Titles, honours and styles 12 Heraldry 13 Ancestry 14 Family 15 See also 16 Notes 17 References 18 Sources and further reading 19 External links

Early life: 1527–54[edit] The son of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V
Holy Roman Emperor Charles V
and his wife, Isabella of Portugal, Philip was born in the Spanish capital of Valladolid
Valladolid
on 21 May 1527 at Palacio de Pimentel, which was owned by Don Bernardino Pimentel (the first Marqués de Távara). The culture and courtly life of Spain were an important influence in his early life. He was tutored by Juan Martínez Siliceo, the future Archbishop of Toledo. Philip displayed reasonable aptitude in arts and letters alike. Later he would study with more illustrious tutors, including the humanist Juan Cristóbal Calvete de Estrella. Though Philip had good command over Latin, Spanish, and Portuguese, he never managed to equal his father, Charles V, as a polyglot. While Philip was also a German archduke of the House of Habsburg, he was seen as a foreigner in the Holy Roman Empire. The feeling was mutual. Philip felt himself to be culturally Spanish; he had been born in Spain and raised in the Castilian court, his native tongue was Spanish, and he preferred to live in Spain. This would ultimately impede his succession to the imperial throne.[5]

'The Baptism of Phillip II' in Valladolid, Spain. Historical ceiling preserved in Palacio de Pimentel (Valladolid).

In April 1528, when Philip was eleven months old, he received the oath of allegiance as heir to the crown from the Cortes of Castile. From that time until the death of his mother Isabella in 1539, he was raised in the royal court of Castile under the care of his mother and one of her Portuguese ladies, Dona Leonor de Mascarenhas, to whom he was devotedly attached. Philip was also close to his two sisters, María and Juana, and to his two pages, the Portuguese nobleman Rui Gomes da Silva and Luis de Requesens, the son of his governor Juan de Zúñiga. These men would serve Philip throughout their lives, as would Antonio Pérez, his secretary from 1541. Philip's martial training was undertaken by his governor, Juan de Zúñiga, a Castilian nobleman who served as the commendador mayor of Castile. The practical lessons in warfare were overseen by the Duke of Alba during the Italian Wars. Philip was present at the Siege of Perpignan in 1542 but did not see action as the Spanish army under Alba decisively defeated the besieging French forces under the Dauphin of France. On his way back to Castile, Philip received the oath of allegiance of the Aragonese Cortes at Monzón. His political training had begun a year previously under his father, who had found his son studious, grave, and prudent beyond his years, and having decided to train and initiate him in the government of Spain. The king-emperor's interactions with his son during his stay in Spain convinced him of Philip's precocity in statesmanship, so he determined to leave in his hands the regency of Spain in 1543. Philip, who had previously been made the Duke of Milan
Duke of Milan
in 1540, began governing the most extensive empire in the world at the young age of sixteen. Charles left Philip with experienced advisors—notably the secretary Francisco de los Cobos
Francisco de los Cobos
and the general Duke of Alba. Philip was also left with extensive written instructions that emphasised "piety, patience, modesty, and distrust." These principles of Charles were gradually assimilated by his son, who would grow up to become grave, self-possessed and cautious. Personally, Philip spoke softly and had an icy self-mastery; in the words of one of his ministers, "he had a smile that cut like a sword."[6] Domestic policy[edit] After living in the Netherlands
Netherlands
in the early years of his reign,[7] Philip II decided to return to Spain. Although sometimes described as an absolute monarch, Philip faced many constitutional constraints on his authority, influenced by the growing strength of the bureaucracy. The Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
was not a single monarchy with one legal system but a federation of separate realms, each jealously guarding its own rights against those of the House of Habsburg. In practice, Philip often found his authority overruled by local assemblies, and his word less effective than that of local lords.[8] Philip carried several titles as heir to the Spanish kingdoms and empire, including Prince of Asturias. The newest constituent kingdom in the empire was Navarre, a realm invaded by Ferdinand II of Aragon mainly with Castilian troops (1512), and annexed to Castile with an ambiguous status (1513). War across Navarre
Navarre
continued until 1528 (Treaties of Madrid
Madrid
and Cambrai). Charles V proposed to end hostilities with King Henry II of Navarre—the legitimate monarch of Navarre—by marrying his son Philip to the heiress of Navarre, Jeanne III of Navarre. The marriage would provide a dynastic solution to instability in Navarre, making him king of all Navarre
Navarre
and prince of independent Béarn, as well as lord of a large part of southern France. However, the French nobility under Francis I opposed the arrangement and successfully ended the prospects of marriage between the heirs of Habsburg
Habsburg
and Albret in 1541.

Philip, in the prime of his life, by Giacomo Antonio Moro

In his will Charles stated his doubts over Navarre
Navarre
and recommended that his son give the kingdom back. Both King Charles and his son Philip II failed to abide by the elective (contractual) nature of the Crown of Navarre, and took the kingdom for granted. This sparked mounting tension not only with King Henry II and Queen Jeanne III of Navarre, but also with the Parliament of the Spanish Navarre
Navarre
(Cortes, The Three States) and the Diputación for breach of the realm specific laws (fueros)—violation of the pactum subjectionis as ratified by Ferdinand. Tensions in Navarre
Navarre
came to a head in 1592 after several years of disagreements over the agenda of the intended parliamentary session. In November 1592, the Parliament (Cortes) of Aragón revolted against another breach of the realm-specific laws, so the Attorney General (Justicia) of the kingdom, Juan de Lanuza, was executed on Philip II's orders, with his secretary Antonio Perez taking exile in France. In Navarre
Navarre
the major strongholds of the kingdom were garrisoned by troops alien to the kingdom (Castilians) in conspicuous violation of the laws of Navarre, and the Parliament had long been refusing to pledge loyalty to Philip II's son and heir apparent without a proper ceremony. On 20 November 1592 a ghostly Parliament session was called, pushed by Philip II, who had arrived in Pamplona at the head of an unspecified military force, and with one only point on his agenda—attendance to the session was kept blank on the minutes: unlawful appointments of trusted Castilian officials and an imposition of his son as future king of Navarre
Navarre
at the Santa Maria Cathedral. A ceremony was held before the bishop of Pamplona (22 November), but its customary procedure and terms were altered. Protests erupted in Pamplona, but they were quelled.

Philip II wearing the order of the garter by Jooris van der Straeten, c. 1554

Philip II also grappled with the problem of the large Morisco population in Spain, who were sometimes forcibly converted to Christianity by his predecessors. In 1569, the Morisco
Morisco
Revolt broke out in the southern province of Granada in defiance of attempts to suppress Moorish customs. Philip ordered the expulsion of the Moriscos from Granada and their dispersal to other provinces. Despite its immense dominions, Spain was a country with a sparse population that yielded a limited income to the crown (in contrast to France, for example, which was much more heavily populated). Philip faced major difficulties in raising taxes, and collection was largely farmed out to local lords. He was able to finance his military campaigns only by taxing and exploiting the local resources of his empire. The flow of income from the New World
New World
proved vital to his militant foreign policy, but nonetheless his exchequer several times faced bankruptcy. Spanish culture flourished during Philip's reign, beginning the "Spanish Golden Age", creating a lasting legacy in literature, music, and the visual arts. One of the notable artists from Phillip II's court was Sofonisba Anguissola, who gained fame for her talent and unusual role as a woman artist. She was invited to the court of Madrid in 1559 and was chosen to become an attendant to Isabella Clara Eugenia (1566–1633). Anguissola also became a lady-in-waiting and court painter for the queen, Elizabeth de Valois. During her time as a court painter, Anguissola painted many official portraits of the royal family, a sharp departure from her previous personal portraits. Economy[edit]

Portrait of Philip II on 1/5 Philipsdaalder, struck 1566, Guelders, Low Countries

Charles V had left his son Philip with a debt of about 36 million ducats and an annual deficit of 1 million ducats. This debt caused Phillip II to default on loans in 1557, 1560, 1575, and 1596 (including debt to Poland, known as Neapolitan sums). Lenders had no power over the King and could not force him to repay his loans. These defaults were just the beginning of Spain's economic troubles as its kings would default six more times in the next 65 years.[9] Aside from reducing state revenues for overseas expeditions, the domestic policies of Philip II further burdened Spain and would, in the following century, contribute to its decline, as maintained by some historians.[10] Spain was subject to different assemblies: the Cortes in Castile, the assembly in Navarre, and one each for the three regions of Aragon, which preserved traditional rights and laws from the time when they were separate kingdoms. This made Spain and its possessions difficult to rule, unlike France, which while divided into regional states, had a single Estates-General. The lack of a viable supreme assembly led to power defaulting into Philip II's hands, especially as manager and final arbiter of the constant conflict between different authorities. To deal with the difficulties arising from this situation, authority was administered by local agents appointed by the crown and viceroys carrying out crown instructions. Philip II felt it necessary to be involved in the detail, and he presided over specialised councils for state affairs, finance, war, and the Inquisition. Philip II played groups against each other, leading to a system of checks and balances that managed affairs inefficiently, even to the extent of damaging state business, as in the Perez affair. Following a fire in Valladolid
Valladolid
in 1561, he resisted calls to move his Court to Lisbon, an act that could have curbed centralisation and bureaucracy domestically as well as relaxed rule in the Empire as a whole. Instead, with the traditional Royal and Primacy seat of Toledo now essentially obsolete, he moved his Court to the Castilian stronghold of Madrid. Except for a brief period under Philip III of Spain, Madrid has remained the capital of Spain. It was around this time that Philip II converted the Royal Alcázar of Madrid
Madrid
into a royal palace. The works, which lasted from 1561 until 1598, were done by tradesmen that came from the Netherlands, Italy, and France. King Philip II ruled at a critical turning point in European history toward modernity whereas his father Charles V had been forced to an itinerant rule as a medieval king. He mainly directed state affairs, even when not at Court. Indeed, when his health began failing, he worked from his quarters at the Palace-Monastery-Pantheon of El Escorial that he had built in 1584, a palace built as a monument to Spain's role as a center of the Christian world. But Philip did not enjoy the supremacy that King Louis XIV of France
France
would in the next century, nor was such a rule necessarily possible at his time. The inefficiencies of the Spanish state and the restrictively regulated industry under his rule were common to many contemporary countries. Further, the dispersal of the Moriscos from Granada – motivated by the fear they might support a Muslim invasion – had serious negative effects on the economy, particularly in that region. Foreign policy[edit]

Engraving of Philip II

Philip's foreign policies were determined by a combination of Catholic fervour and dynastic objectives. He considered himself the chief defender of Catholic Europe, both against the Ottoman Turks and against the forces of the Protestant Reformation. He never relented from his fight against heresy, defending the Catholic faith and limiting freedom of worship within his territories.[11] These territories included his patrimony in the Netherlands, where Protestantism had taken deep root. Following the Revolt of the Netherlands
Netherlands
in 1568, Philip waged a campaign against Dutch heresy and secession. It also dragged in the English and the French at times and expanded into the German Rhineland with the Cologne War. This series of conflicts lasted for the rest of his life. Philip's constant involvement in European wars took a significant toll on the treasury and caused economic difficulties for the Crown and even bankruptcies. In 1588, the English defeated Philip's Spanish Armada, thwarting his planned invasion of the country to reinstate Catholicism. But war with England continued for the next sixteen years, in a complex series of struggles that included France, Ireland and the main battle zone, the Low Countries. It would not end until all the leading protagonists, including himself, had died. Earlier, however, after several setbacks in his reign and especially that of his father, Philip did achieve a decisive victory against the Turks at the Lepanto in 1571, with the allied fleet of the Holy League, which he had put under the command of his illegitimate brother, John of Austria. He also successfully secured his succession to the throne of Portugal. With regard to Philip's overseas possessions, in response to the reforms imposed by the Ordenanzas, extensive questionnaires were distributed to every major town and region in New Spain
New Spain
called relaciones geográficas. These surveys helped the Spanish monarchy to govern these overseas conquests more effectively. Italy[edit] Main article: Italian Wars Charles V abdicated the throne of Naples to Philip on 25 July 1554, and the young king was invested with the kingdom (officially called "Naples and Sicily") on 2 October by Pope Julius III. The date of Charles' abdication of the throne of Sicily is uncertain, but Philip was invested with this kingdom (officially "Sicily and Jerusalem") on 18 November 1554 by Julius.[12] In 1556, Philip decided to declare war in the Papal States
Papal States
and temporarily held territory there, perhaps in response to Pope Paul IV's anti-Spanish outlook. According to Philip II, he was doing it for the benefit of the Church. In a letter from Francisco de Vargas to the Princess Dowager of Portugal, Regent of Spain, dated 22 September 1556, it is written:

"I have reported to your Highness what has been happening here, and how far the Pope is going in his fury and vain imaginings. His Majesty could not do otherwise than have a care for his reputation and dominions. I am sure your Highness will have had more recent news from the Duke of Alva, who has taken the field with an excellent army and has penetrated so far into the Pope's territory that his cavalry is raiding up to ten miles from Rome, where there is such panic that the population would have run away had not the gates been closed. The Pope has fallen ill with rage, and was struggling with a fever on the 16th of this month. The two Carafa brothers, the Cardinal and Count Montorio, do not agree, and they and Piero Strozzi are not on as good terms as they were in the past. They would like to discuss peace. The best thing would be for the Pope to die, for he is the poison at the root of all this trouble and more which may occur. His Majesty's intention is only to wrest the knife from this madman's hand and make him return to a sense of his dignity, acting like the protector of the Apostolic See, in whose name, and that of the College of Cardinals, his Majesty has publicly proclaimed that he has seized all he is occupying. The Pope is now sending again to the potentates of Italy for help. I hope he will gain as little thereby as he has done in the past, and that the French will calm down. May God give us peace in the end, as their Majesties desire and deserve!"[13]

Pope Paul IV
Pope Paul IV
charged a seven-member commission with preparing a peace agreement. The efforts were later abandoned and the war continued. On 27 August 1557, Fernando Alvarez de Toledo, Duke of Alba
Duke of Alba
and Viceroy of Naples, was at the walls of Rome, ready to lead his troops for a final assault. On 13 September 1557, Cardinal Carlo Carafa
Carlo Carafa
signed a peace agreement, accepting all of the duke's conditions.[14] Philip led Spain into the final phase of the Italian Wars. The Spanish army decisively defeated the French at St. Quentin in 1557 and at Gravelines in 1558. The resulting Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis
Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis
in 1559 secured Piedmont, Savoy, and Corsica
Corsica
for the Spanish allied states, the Duchy of Savoy, and the Republic of Genoa. France
France
recognised Spanish control over the Franche-Comté, but, more importantly, the treaty also confirmed the direct control of Philip over Milan, Naples, Sicily, Sardinia, and the State of Presidi, and indirectly (through his dominance of the rulers of Tuscany, Genoa, and other minor states) of all Italy[citation needed]. The Pope was a natural Spanish ally[citation needed]. The only truly independent entities on Italian soil were the allied Duchy of Savoy
Duchy of Savoy
and the Republic of Venice. Spanish control of Italy
Italy
would last until the early eighteenth century. Ultimately, the treaty ended the 60-year, Franco-Spanish wars for supremacy in Italy. By the end of the wars in 1559, Habsburg Spain
Habsburg Spain
had been established as the premier power of Europe, to the detriment of France. In France, Henry II was fatally wounded in a joust held during the celebrations of the peace. His death led to the accession of his 15-year-old son Francis II, who in turn soon died. The French monarchy was thrown into turmoil, which increased further with the outbreak of the French Wars of Religion that would last for several decades. The states of Italy were reduced to second-rate powers, and Milan and Naples were annexed directly to Spain. Mary Tudor's death in 1558 enabled Philip to seal the treaty by marrying Henry II's daughter, Elisabeth of Valois, later giving him a claim to the throne of France
France
on behalf of his daughter by Elisabeth, Isabel Clara Eugenia. France[edit] Main article: French Wars of Religion The French Wars of Religion
French Wars of Religion
(1562–98) were primarily fought between French Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). The conflict involved the factional disputes between the aristocratic houses of France, such as the House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
and House of Guise (Lorraine), and both sides received assistance from foreign sources. Philip signed the Treaty of Vaucelles
Treaty of Vaucelles
with Henry II of France
Henry II of France
in 1556. Based on the terms of the treaty, the territory of the Franche-Comté was to be relinquished to Philip. However, the treaty was broken shortly afterwards. France
France
and Spain waged war in northern France
France
and Italy
Italy
over the following years. Spanish victories at St. Quentin and Gravelines led to the Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis, in which France recognised Spanish sovereignty over the Franche-Comté. During the War of the Portuguese Succession, the pretender António fled to France
France
following his defeats and, as Philip’s armies had not yet occupied the Azores, he sailed there with a large Anglo-French fleet under Filippo Strozzi, a Florentine exile in the service of France. The naval Battle of Terceira
Battle of Terceira
took place on 26 July 1582, in the sea near the Azores, off São Miguel Island, as part of the War of the Portuguese Succession and the Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604). The Spanish navy defeated the combined Anglo-French fleet that had sailed to preserve control of the Azores
Azores
under António. The French naval contingent was the largest French force sent overseas before the age of Louis XIV.[15]

A marble bust of Philip II of Spain
Philip II of Spain
by Pompeo Leoni, son of Leone Leoni, Metropolitan Museum of Art

The Spanish victory at Terceira was followed by the Battle of the Azores
Azores
between the Portuguese loyal to the claimant António, supported by French and English troops, and the Spanish-Portuguese forces loyal to Philip commanded by the admiral Don Álvaro de Bazán. Victory in Azores
Azores
completed the incorporation of Portugal into the Spanish Empire.[16] Philip financed the Catholic League during the French Wars of Religion. He directly intervened in the final phases of the wars (1589–1598), ordering the Duke of Parma into France
France
in an effort to unseat Henry IV, and perhaps dreaming of placing his favourite daughter, Isabel Clara Eugenia, on the French throne. Elizabeth of Valois, Philip's third wife and Isabella's mother, had already ceded any claim to the French Crown with her marriage to Philip. However the Parlement de Paris, in power of the Catholic party, gave verdict that Isabella Clara Eugenia
Isabella Clara Eugenia
was "the legitimate sovereign" of France. Philip's interventions in the fighting – sending the Duke of Parma, to end Henry IV's siege of Paris in 1590 – and the siege of Rouen in 1592 contributed in saving the French Catholic Leagues's cause against a Protestant monarchy. In 1593, Henry agreed to convert to Catholicism; weary of war, most French Catholics switched to his side against the hardline core of the Catholic League, who were portrayed by Henry's propagandists as puppets of a foreign monarch, Philip. By the end of 1594 certain League members were still working against Henry across the country, but all relied on the support of Spain. In January 1595, therefore, Henry officially declared war on Spain, to show Catholics that Philip was using religion as a cover for an attack on the French state, and Protestants that he had not become a puppet of Spain through his conversion, while hoping to take the war to Spain and make territorial gain.[17] French victory at the Battle of Fontaine-Française marked an end to the Catholic League in France. Spain launched a concerted offensive in 1595, taking Doullens, Cambrai
Cambrai
and Le Catelet
Le Catelet
and in the spring of 1596 capturing Calais
Calais
by April. Following the Spanish capture of Amiens in March 1597 the French crown laid siege to it until it managed to reconquer Amiens from the overstretched Spanish forces in September 1597. Henry then negotiated a peace with Spain. The war was only drawn to an official close, however, after the Edict of Nantes, with the Peace of Vervins in May 1598. The 1598 Treaty of Vervins was largely a restatement of the 1559 Peace of Câteau-Cambrésis and Spanish forces and subsidies were withdrawn; meanwhile, Henry issued the Edict of Nantes, which offered a high degree of religious toleration for French Protestants. The military interventions in France
France
thus failed to oust Henry from the throne or suppress Protestantism in France, and yet they had played a decisive part in helping the French Catholic cause gain the conversion of Henry, ensuring that Catholicism would remain France's official and majority faith – matters of paramount importance for the devoutly Catholic Spanish king. Mediterranean[edit] Further information: Ottoman– Habsburg
Habsburg
wars

Titian; after the Battle of Lepanto
Battle of Lepanto
in 1571, Philip offers his short-lived heir Fernando to Glory in this allegory

Standard of the tercios morados of the Spanish army under Philip II

In the early part of his reign Philip was concerned with the rising power of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
under Suleiman the Magnificent. Fear of Islamic domination in the Mediterranean caused him to pursue an aggressive foreign policy. In 1558, Turkish admiral Piyale Pasha
Piyale Pasha
captured the Balearic Islands, especially inflicting great damage on Menorca
Menorca
and enslaving many, while raiding the coasts of the Spanish mainland. Philip appealed to the Pope and other powers in Europe to bring an end to the rising Ottoman threat. Since his father's losses against the Ottomans and against Hayreddin Barbarossa
Hayreddin Barbarossa
in 1541, the major European sea powers in the Mediterranean, namely Spain and Venice, became hesitant in confronting the Ottomans. The myth of "Turkish invincibility" was becoming a popular story, causing fear and panic among the people. In 1560, Philip II organised a Holy League between Spain and the Republic of Venice, the Republic of Genoa, the Papal States, the Duchy of Savoy and the Knights of Malta. The joint fleet was assembled at Messina
Messina
and consisted of 200 ships (60 galleys and 140 other vessels) carrying a total of 30,000 soldiers under the command of Giovanni Andrea Doria, nephew of the famous Genoese admiral Andrea Doria. On 12 March 1560, the Holy League captured the island of Djerba, which had a strategic location and could control the sea routes between Algiers
Algiers
and Tripoli. As a response, Suleiman sent an Ottoman fleet of 120 ships under the command of Piyale Pasha, which arrived at Djerba on 9 May 1560. The battle lasted until 14 May 1560, and the forces of Piyale Pasha
Piyale Pasha
and Turgut Reis
Turgut Reis
(who joined Piyale Pasha
Piyale Pasha
on the third day of the battle) won an overwhelming victory at the Battle of Djerba. The Holy League lost 60 ships (30 galleys) and 20,000 men, and Giovanni Andrea Doria
Giovanni Andrea Doria
was barely able to escape with a small vessel. The Ottomans retook the Fortress of Djerba, whose Spanish commander, D. Álvaro de Sande, attempted to escape with a ship but was followed and eventually captured by Turgut Reis. In 1565 the Ottomans sent a large expedition to Malta, which laid siege to several forts on the island, taking some of them. The Spanish sent a relief force, which finally drove the Ottoman army out of the island. The grave threat posed by the increasing Ottoman domination of the Mediterranean was reversed in one of history's most decisive battles, with the destruction of nearly the entire Ottoman fleet at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571, by the Holy League under the command of Philip's half brother, Don Juan of Austria. A fleet sent by Philip, again commanded by Don John, reconquered Tunis from the Ottomans in 1573. The Turks soon rebuilt their fleet, and in 1574 Uluç Ali Reis
Uluç Ali Reis
managed to recapture Tunis with a force of 250 galleys and a siege that lasted 40 days. Nevertheless, Lepanto marked a permanent reversal in the balance of naval power in the Mediterranean and the end of the threat of Ottoman control. In 1585 a peace treaty was signed with the Ottomans. Revolt in the Netherlands[edit] Main articles: Dutch Revolt
Dutch Revolt
and Eighty Years' War Philip's rule in the Seventeen Provinces
Seventeen Provinces
known collectively as the Netherlands
Netherlands
faced many difficulties, leading to open warfare in 1568. He appointed Margaret of Parma
Margaret of Parma
as Governor of the Netherlands, when he left the low countries for Spain in 1559, but forced her to adjust policy to the advice of Cardinal Granvelle, who was greatly disliked in the Netherlands, after he insisted on direct control over events in the Netherlands
Netherlands
despite being over two weeks' ride away in Madrid. There was discontent in the Netherlands
Netherlands
about Philip's taxation demands and the incessant persecution of Protestants. In 1566, Protestant preachers sparked anti-clerical riots known as the Iconoclast Fury; in response to growing Protestant influence, the army of the Iron Duke (Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, 3rd Duke of Alba) went on the offensive, further alienating the local aristocracy. In 1572 a prominent exiled member of the Dutch aristocracy, William the Silent (Prince of Orange), invaded the Netherlands
Netherlands
with a Protestant army, but he only succeeded in holding two provinces, Holland
Holland
and Zeeland. The war continued. The States General of the northern provinces, united in the 1579 Union of Utrecht, passed an Act of Abjuration declaring that they no longer recognised Philip as their king. The southern Netherlands
Netherlands
(what is now Belgium and Luxembourg) remained under Spanish rule. In 1584, William the Silent
William the Silent
was assassinated by Balthasar Gérard, after Philip had offered a reward of 25,000 crowns to anyone who killed him, calling him a "pest on the whole of Christianity and the enemy of the human race". The Dutch forces continued to fight on under Orange's son Maurice of Nassau, who received modest help from Queen Elizabeth I
Elizabeth I
in 1585. The Dutch gained an advantage over the Spanish because of their growing economic strength, in contrast to Philip's burgeoning economic troubles. The war came to an end in 1648, when the Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
was recognised by Spain as independent. King of Portugal[edit] Main article: Iberian Union

Anthony I of Portugal

In 1578 young king Sebastian of Portugal
Sebastian of Portugal
died at the Battle of Alcácer Quibir without descendants, triggering a succession crisis. His granduncle, the elderly Cardinal Henry, succeeded him as King, but Henry also had no descendants, having taken holy orders. When the Cardinal-King died two years after Sebastian's disappearance, three grandchildren of Manuel I claimed the throne: Infanta Catarina, Duchess of Braganza, António, Prior of Crato, and Philip II of Spain. António was acclaimed King of Portugal
King of Portugal
in many cities and towns throughout the country, but members of the Council of Governors of Portugal who had supported Philip escaped to Spain and declared him to be the legal successor of Henry. Philip II then marched into Portugal and defeated Prior António's troops in the Battle of Alcântara. The troops commanded by Fernando Álvarez de Toledo
Fernando Álvarez de Toledo
the 3rd Duke of Alba[18] imposed subjection to Philip before entering Lisbon, where he seized an immense treasure.[19] Philip II of Spain
Philip II of Spain
was crowned Philip I of Portugal in 1581 (recognized as king by the Portuguese Cortes
Portuguese Cortes
of Tomar) and a near sixty-year personal union under the rule of the Philippine Dynasty
Dynasty
began. This gave Philip II complete control of Portugal and Brazil. When Philip left for Madrid
Madrid
in 1583, he made his nephew Albert of Austria his viceroy in Lisbon. In Madrid
Madrid
he established a Council of Portugal
Council of Portugal
to advise him on Portuguese affairs, giving prominent positions to Portuguese nobles in the Spanish courts, and allowing Portugal to maintain autonomous law, currency, and government. This is on the well-established pattern of rule by councils. Relations with England and Ireland[edit] King of England
King of England
and Ireland[edit]

Titian
Titian
portrait of Philip as prince (1554), aged about twenty-four dressed in a lavishly decorated set of armour.

Philip's father arranged his marriage to 37-year-old Queen Mary I
Queen Mary I
of England, Charles' maternal first cousin. To elevate Philip to Mary's rank, his father ceded the crown of Naples, as well as his claim to the Kingdom of Jerusalem, to him. Their marriage at Winchester Cathedral on 25 July 1554 took place just two days after their first meeting. Philip's view of the affair was entirely political. Lord Chancellor Gardiner and the House of Commons petitioned Mary to consider marrying an Englishman, preferring Edward Courtenay. Under the terms of the Act for the Marriage of Queen Mary to Philip of Spain, Philip was to enjoy Mary I's titles and honours for as long as their marriage should last. All official documents, including Acts of Parliament, were to be dated with both their names, and Parliament was to be called under the joint authority of the couple. Coins were also to show the heads of both Mary and Philip. The marriage treaty also provided that England would not be obliged to provide military support to Philip's father in any war. The Privy Council instructed that Philip and Mary should be joint signatories of royal documents, and this was enacted by an Act of Parliament, which gave him the title of king and stated that he "shall aid her Highness ... in the happy administration of her Grace’s realms and dominions."[20] In other words, Philip was to co-reign with his wife.[21] As the new King of England could not read English, it was ordered that a note of all matters of state should be made in Latin
Latin
or Spanish.[21][22][23]

Philip and Mary I
Mary I
of England, 1558

Acts making it high treason to deny Philip's royal authority were passed in Ireland[24] and England.[25] Philip and Mary appeared on coins together, with a single crown suspended between them as a symbol of joint reign. The Great Seal shows Philip and Mary seated on thrones, holding the crown together.[21] The coat of arms of England was impaled with Philip's to denote their joint reign.[26][27] During their joint reign, they waged war against France, which resulted in the loss of Calais, England's last remaining possession in France. Philip's wife had succeeded to the Kingdom of Ireland, but the title of King of Ireland
King of Ireland
had been created in 1542 by Henry VIII after he was excommunicated, and so it was not recognised by Catholic monarchs. In 1555, Pope Paul IV
Pope Paul IV
rectified this by issuing a papal bull recognising Philip and Mary as rightful King and Queen of Ireland.[28] King's County and Philipstown in Ireland were named after Philip as King of Ireland in 1556. The couple's joint royal style after Philip ascended the Spanish throne in 1556 was: Philip and Mary, by the Grace of God King and Queen of England, Spain, France, Jerusalem, both the Sicilies and Ireland, Defenders of the Faith, Archdukes of Austria, Dukes of Burgundy, Milan and Brabant, Counts of Habsburg, Flanders and Tirol. However, the couple had no children. Mary died in 1558 before the union could revitalise the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
in England. With her death, Philip lost his rights to the English throne (including the ancient English claims to the French throne) and ceased to be King of England, Ireland and (as claimed by them) France. Philip's distaff great-grandson, Philippe I, Duke of Orléans, married Princess Henrietta of England
Princess Henrietta of England
in 1661; in 1807, the Jacobite claim to the British throne passed to the descendants of their child Anne Marie d'Orléans. After Mary I's death[edit] Further information: Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604)

Philip's European and North African dominions in 1581

Upon Mary's death, the throne went to Elizabeth I. Philip had no wish to sever his tie with England, and had sent a proposal of marriage to Elizabeth. However, she delayed in answering, and in that time learned Philip was also considering a Valois alliance. Elizabeth I
Elizabeth I
was the Protestant daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn. This union was deemed illegitimate by English Catholics, who disputed the validity of both the annulment of Henry's marriage to Catherine of Aragon
Aragon
and of his subsequent marriage to Boleyn, and hence claimed that Mary, Queen of Scots, the Catholic great granddaughter of Henry VII, was the legitimate heir to the throne. For many years Philip maintained peace with England, and even defended Elizabeth from the Pope's threat of excommunication. This was a measure taken to preserve a European balance of power. Ultimately, Elizabeth allied England with the Protestant rebels in the Netherlands. Further, English ships began a policy of piracy against Spanish trade and threatened to plunder the great Spanish treasure ships coming from the new world. English ships went so far as to attack a Spanish port. The last straw for Philip was the Treaty of Nonsuch signed by Elizabeth in 1585 – promising troops and supplies to the rebels. Although it can be argued this English action was the result of Philip's Treaty of Joinville with the Catholic League of France, Philip considered it an act of war by England. The execution of Mary, Queen of Scots, in 1587 ended Philip's hopes of placing a Catholic on the English throne. He turned instead to more direct plans to invade England and return the country to Catholicism. In 1588, he sent a fleet, the Spanish Armada, to rendezvous with the Duke of Parma's army and convey it across the English Channel. However, the operation had little chance of success from the beginning, because of lengthy delays, lack of communication between Philip II and his two commanders and the lack of a deep bay for the fleet. At the point of attack, a storm struck the English Channel, already known for its harsh currents and choppy waters, which devastated large numbers of the Spanish fleet. There was a tightly fought battle against the English Royal Navy; it was by no means a slaughter (the Spanish lost 5 ships whilst the English lost none), but the Spanish were forced into a retreat, and the overwhelming majority of the Armada was destroyed by the harsh weather. Whilst the English Royal Navy
Royal Navy
may not have destroyed the Armada at the Battle of Gravelines, they had prevented it from linking up with the army it was supposed to convey across the channel. Thus whilst the English Royal Navy may have only won a slight tactical victory over the Spanish, it had delivered a major strategic one—preventing the invasion of England. Eventually, three more Armadas were assembled; two were sent to England in 1596 and 1597, but both also failed; the third (1599) was diverted to the Azores
Azores
and Canary Islands to fend off raids. This Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604)
Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604)
would be fought to a grinding end, but not until both Philip II (d. 1598) and Elizabeth I
Elizabeth I
(d. 1603) were dead. The defeat of the Spanish Armada
Spanish Armada
gave great heart to the Protestant cause across Europe. The storm that smashed the Armada was seen by many of Philip's enemies as a sign of the will of God. Many Spaniards blamed the admiral of the Armada for its failure, but Philip, despite his complaint that he had sent his ships to fight the English, not the elements, was not among them. A year later, Philip remarked:

“ It is impiety, and almost blasphemy to presume to know the will of God. It comes from the sin of pride. Even kings, Brother Nicholas, must submit to being used by God's will without knowing what it is. They must never seek to use it. ”

— Philip II

The Spanish navy was rebuilt, and intelligence networks were improved. A measure of the character of Philip can be gathered by the fact that he personally saw to it that the wounded men of the Armada were treated and received pensions, and that the families of those who died were compensated for their loss, which was highly unusual for the time. While the invasion had been averted, England was unable to take advantage of this success. An attempt to use her newfound advantage at sea with a counter armada the following year failed disastrously. Likewise, English buccaneering and attempts to seize territories in the Caribbean were defeated by Spain's rebuilt navy and their improved intelligence networks (although Cádiz was destroyed by an Anglo-Dutch force after a failed attempt to seize the treasure fleet). Death[edit] Philip II died in El Escorial, near Madrid, on 13 September 1598, of cancer.[29] He was succeeded by his 20-year-old son, Philip III. Legacy[edit] Main article: Cultural depictions of Philip II of Spain

Philip's dominions in 1598

Under Philip II, Spain reached the peak of its power. However, in spite of the great and increasing quantities of gold and silver flowing into his coffers from the American mines, the riches of the Portuguese spice trade, and the enthusiastic support of the Habsburg dominions for the Counter-Reformation, he would never succeed in suppressing Protestantism or defeating the Dutch rebellion. Early in his reign, the Dutch might have laid down their weapons if he had desisted in trying to suppress Protestantism,[citation needed] but his devotion to Catholicism would not permit him to do so. He was a devout Catholic and exhibited the typical 16th century disdain for religious heterodoxy; he said, "Before suffering the slightest damage to religion in the service of God, I would lose all of my estates and a hundred lives, if I had them, because I do not wish nor do I desire to be the ruler of heretics."[30] The defeat of Protestantism was always uppermost in Philip's mind. For a while, he ruled England jointly with Queen Mary Tudor, and a reconciliation with the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
followed. Heresy
Heresy
trials were reestablished and hundreds of Protestants burned at the stake. England and Philip parted ways after the death of his Queen, nicknamed "Bloody Mary". Philip's gravest mistake over the long run was his attempt to violently eradicate Protestantism from the Netherlands, which was a major economic asset for the empire. Under harsh occupation, the Dutch finally rebelled and wrested independence after an 80-year war, the strain of which did Philip's realm little good. His greatest battlefield accomplishment was the defeat of the Ottoman fleet at Lepanto, which turned the tide against Turkish aggression. As he strove to enforce Catholic orthodoxy through an intensification of the Inquisition, students were barred from studying elsewhere, and books printed by Spaniards outside the kingdom were banned. Even a highly respected churchman like Archbishop Carranza of Toledo was jailed by the Inquisition for 17 years, for publishing ideas that seemed sympathetic in some degree with Protestantism. Such strict enforcement of orthodox belief was successful, and Spain avoided the religiously inspired strife tearing apart other European dominions. Yet, the School of Salamanca
School of Salamanca
flourished under his reign. Martín de Azpilcueta, highly honoured at Rome by several popes and looked on as an oracle of learning, published his Manuale sive Enchiridion Confessariorum et Poenitentium (Rome, 1568), long a classical text in the schools and in ecclesiastical practice. Francisco Suárez, generally regarded as the greatest scholastic after Thomas Aquinas
Thomas Aquinas
and regarded during his lifetime as being the greatest living philosopher and theologian, was writing and lecturing, not only in Spain but also in Rome (1580–1585), where Pope Gregory XIII attended the first lecture that he gave. Luis de Molina
Luis de Molina
published his De liberi arbitrii cum gratiae donis, divina praescientia, praedestinatione et reprobatione concordia (1588), wherein he put forth the doctrine attempting to reconcile the omniscience of God with human free will that came to be known as Molinism, thereby contributing to what was one of the most important intellectual debates of the time; Molinism
Molinism
became the de facto Jesuit doctrine on these matters, and is still advocated today by William Lane Craig
William Lane Craig
and Alvin Plantinga, among others.

Statue of Philip II at the Sabatini Gardens
Sabatini Gardens
in Madrid
Madrid
(F. Castro, 1753).

Because Philip II was the most powerful European monarch in an era of war and religious conflict,[31] evaluating both his reign and the man himself has become a controversial historical subject.[32] Even before his death in 1598, his supporters had started presenting him as an archetypical gentleman, full of piety and Christian virtues, whereas his enemies depicted him as a fanatical and despotic monster, responsible for inhuman cruelties and barbarism.[33] This dichotomy, further developed into the so-called Spanish Black Legend
Black Legend
and White Legend, was helped by King Philip himself. Philip prohibited any biographical account of his life to be published while he was alive, and he ordered that all his private correspondence be burned shortly before he died.[34] Moreover, Philip did nothing to defend himself after being betrayed by his ambitious secretary Antonio Perez, who published incredible calumnies against his former master; this allowed Perez's tales to spread all around Europe unchallenged.[35] That way, the popular image of the king that survives to today was created on the eve of his death, at a time when many European princes and religious leaders were turned against Spain as a pillar of the Counter-Reformation. This means that many histories depict Philip from deeply prejudiced points of view, usually negative.[36] However, some historians classify this anti-Spanish analysis as part of the Black Legend. In a more recent example of popular culture, Philip II's portrayal in Fire Over England
Fire Over England
(1937) is not entirely unsympathetic; he is shown as a very hardworking, intelligent, religious, somewhat paranoid ruler whose prime concern is his country, but who had no understanding of the English, despite his former co-monarchy there. Even in countries that remained Catholic, primarily France
France
and the Italian states, fear and envy of Spanish success and domination created a wide receptiveness for the worst possible descriptions of Philip II. Although some efforts have been made to separate legend from reality,[37] that task has proved extremely difficult, since many prejudices are rooted in the cultural heritage of European countries. Spanish-speaking historians tend to assess his political and military achievements, sometimes deliberately avoiding issues such as the king's lukewarmness (or even support) toward Catholic fanaticism.[38] English-speaking historians tend to show Philip II as a fanatical, despotical, criminal, imperialist monster,[39] minimising his military victories (Battle of Lepanto, Battle of Saint Quentin, etc.) to mere anecdotes, and magnifying his defeats (namely the Invincible Armada[40]) even though at the time those defeats did not result in great political or military changes in the balance of power in Europe. Moreover, it has been noted that objectively assessing Philip's reign would necessitate a re-analysis of the reign of his greatest opponents, namely England's Queen Elizabeth I
Elizabeth I
and the Dutch William the Silent, who are popularly regarded as great heroes in their home nations; if Philip II is to be shown to the English or Dutch public in a more favourable light, Elizabeth and William would lose their cold-blooded, fanatical enemy, thus decreasing their own patriotic accomplishments.[41] Philip II's reign can hardly be characterised by its failures. He ended French Valois ambitions in Italy
Italy
and brought about the Habsburg ascendency in Europe. He commenced settlements in the Philippines, which were named after him,[b] and established the first trans-Pacific trade route between America and Asia. He secured the Portuguese kingdom and empire. He succeeded in increasing the importation of silver in the face of English, Dutch, and French privateers, overcoming multiple financial crises and consolidating Spain's overseas empire. Although clashes would be ongoing, he ended the major threat posed to Europe by the Ottoman navy. In popular culture[edit] John Masefield
John Masefield
Philip the King. A Play in One Act. Heinemann, 1930. In Civilization VI, Philip II leads the Spanish empire. Titles, honours and styles[edit]

Cannon with arms of Philip II as King of Spain
King of Spain
and jure uxoris King of England and France.

Heir titles

Prince of Girona: 21 May 1527 – 16 January 1556 Prince of Asturias
Prince of Asturias
1528–1556

King of Castile as Philip II: 16 January 1556 – 13 September 1598

King of Castile, of León, of Granada, of Toledo, of Galicia, of Seville, of Cordoba, of Murcia, of Jaen, of the Algarves, of Algeciras, of Gibraltar, of the Canary Islands, of the Indias, the Islands and Mainland of the Ocean Sea.[c] Lord of Molina. Lord of Biscay.

King of Aragon
Aragon
as Philip I: 16 January 1556 – 13 September 1598

King of Aragón. King of the Two Sicilies.

King of Naples, of Jerusalem: Since 25 July 1554. King of Sicily. Duke of Athens, of Neopatria.

King of Valencia. King of Majorca. King of Sardinia, of Corsica. Margrave of Oristano. Count of Goceano. King of Navarre. Count of Barcelona, of Roussillon, of Cerdanya.

King of Portugal
King of Portugal
as Philip I: 12 September 1580 – 13 September 1598

King of Portugal and the Algarves
King of Portugal and the Algarves
of either side of the sea in Africa, Lord of Guinea and of Conquest, Navigation, and Commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia, and India, etc.

King of England
King of England
de jure uxoris as Philip I: 25 July 1554 – 17 November 1558

King of England, France
France
(titular). Defender of the Faith. King of Ireland

Imperial and Habsburg
Habsburg
patrimonial titles:

Duke of Milan: 11 October 1540 (secret donation)/25 July 1554 (public investiture) – 13 September 1598 Imperial vicar of Siena: since 30 May 1554 Archduke
Archduke
of Austria. Princely Count of Habsburg
Habsburg
and of Tyrol Prince of Swabia

Burgundian titles

Lord of the Netherlands: 25 October 1555 – 13 September 1598

Duke of Lothier, of Brabant, of Limburg, of Luxemburg, of Guelders. Count of Flanders, of Artois, of Hainaut, of Holland, of Zeeland, of Namur, of Zutphen. Margrave of the Holy Roman Empire. Lord of Frisia, Salins, Mechelen, the cities, towns & lands of Utrecht, Overyssel, Groningen.

Count Palatine of Burgundy, since 10 June 1556. Count of Charolais since 21 September 1558. Duke of Burgundy. Dominator in Asia, Africa

Honours

Knight of the Golden Fleece: 1531 – 13 September 1598 Grand Master of the Order of the Golden Fleece:[42] 23 October 1555 – 13 September 1598 Grand Master of the Order of Calatrava: 16 January 1556 – 13 September 1598 Grand Master of the Order of Alcantara: 16 January 1556 – 13 September 1598 Grand Master of the Order of Santiago: 16 January 1556 – 13 September 1598 Grand Master of the Order of Montesa: 8 December 1587 – 13 September 1598

Philip continued his father's style of "Majesty" (Latin: Maiestas; Spanish: Majestad) in preference to that of "Highness" (Celsitudo; Alteza). In diplomatic texts, he continued the use of the title "Most Catholic" (Rex Catholicismus; Rey Católico) first bestowed by Pope Alexander VI on Ferdinand and Isabella in 1496. Following the Act of Parliament
Act of Parliament
sanctioning his marriage with Mary, the couple was styled "Philip and Mary, by the grace of God King and Queen of England, France, Naples, Jerusalem, and Ireland, Defenders of the Faith, Princes of Spain and Sicily, Archdukes of Austria, Dukes of Milan, Burgundy and Brabant, Counts of Habsburg, Flanders and Tyrol".[43] Upon his inheritance of Spain in 1556, they became "Philip and Mary, by the grace of God King and Queen of England, Spain, France, both the Sicilies, Jerusalem and Ireland, Defenders of the Faith, Archdukes of Austria, Dukes of Burgundy, Milan and Brabant, Counts of Habsburg, Flanders and Tyrol".[43] In the 1584 Treaty of Joinville, he was styled "Philip, by the grace of God second of his name, king of Castille, Leon, Aragon, Portugal, Navarre, Naples, Sicily, Jerusalem, Majorca, Sardinia, and the islands, Indies, and terra firma of the Ocean Sea; archduke of Austria; duke of Burgundy, Lothier, Brabant, Limbourg, Luxembourg, Guelders, and Milan; Count of Habsburg, Flanders, Artois, and Burgundy; Count Palatine of Hainault, Holland
Holland
and Zeeland, Namur, Drenthe, Zutphen; prince of "Zvuanem"; marquis of the Holy Roman Empire; lord of Frisia, Salland, Mechelen, and of the cities, towns, and lands of Utrecht, Overissel, and Groningen; master of Asia and Africa".[44] His coinage typically bore the obverse inscription "PHS·D:G·HISP·Z·REX" (Latin: "Philip, by the grace of God King of Spain et cetera"), followed by the local title of the mint ("DVX·BRA" for Duke of Brabant, "C·HOL" for Count of Holland, "D·TRS·ISSV" for Lord of Overissel, &c.). The reverse would then bear a motto such as "PACE·ET·IVSTITIA" ("For Peace and Justice") or "DOMINVS·MIHI·ADIVTOR" ("The Lord is my helper").[45] A medal struck in 1583 bore the inscriptions "PHILIPP II HISP ET NOVI ORBIS REX" ("Philip II, King of Spain
King of Spain
and the New World") and "NON SUFFICIT ORBIS" ("The world is not enough").[46] Heraldry[edit]

Heraldry of Philip II of Spain

COMMON VERSIONS

1556–1558 (as Spanish monarch) 1558–1580 1580–1598

SPANISH REALMS VERSIONS

Kingdom of Navarre Kingdom of Galicia

1558–1580 1580–1598 1580–1598 1558–1580 1580–1598

BURGUNDIAN VARIANTS

Free County of Burgundy

1556-1580 1580-1898

ITALIAN VARIANTS

Duchy of Milan Kingdom of Sardinia Naples and Sicily

1554–1558 1558–1580 1580–1598 1580–1598 1554–1598

ORNAMENTED VERSIONS

Coat of arms at his investiture as Knight of the Order of the Garter (in 1554) Coat of arms (with the Eagle of St John as supporter) 1558–1580 Coat of arms (with the Eagle of St John as supporter) 1580–1598

Coat of arms as Spanish monarch and king Jure Uxoris of England (with symbols of the Crowns of Aragon, Castile and a cap of maintenance with the crest of England imperially crowned in the top) 1556–1558 Coat of arms with supporters, crest and motto 1558–1580 Coat of arms with supporters, crest and motto 1580–1598

Ancestry[edit]

Ancestors of Philip II of Spain

16. Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor

8. Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor

17. Eleanor of Portugal

4. Philip I of Castile

18. Charles, Duke of Burgundy

9. Mary, Duchess of Burgundy

19. Isabella of Bourbon

2. Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor

20. John II of Aragon

10. Ferdinand II of Aragon

21. Juana Enríquez

5. Joanna I of Castile

22. John II of Castile

11. Isabella I of Castile

23. Isabella of Portugal

1. Philip II of Spain

24. Edward, King of Portugal

12. Ferdinand, Duke of Viseu

25. Eleanor of Aragon

6. Manuel I of Portugal

26. John, Constable of Portugal

13. Beatrice of Portugal

27. Isabel of Barcelos

3. Isabella of Portugal

28. John II of Aragon
Aragon
(= 20)

14. Ferdinand II of Aragon
Aragon
(= 10)

29. Juana Enríquez
Juana Enríquez
(= 21)

7. Maria of Aragon

30. John II of Castile
John II of Castile
(= 22)

15. Isabella I of Castile
Isabella I of Castile
(= 11)

31. Isabella of Portugal
Isabella of Portugal
(= 23)

Family[edit]

Philip and his niece Anna banqueting with family and courtiers, by Alonso Sánchez Coello

Cenotaph of Philip and his family at El Escorial.

Philip was married four times and had children with three of his wives. Philip's first wife was his first cousin, Maria Manuela, Princess of Portugal. She was a daughter of Philip's maternal uncle, John III of Portugal, and paternal aunt, Catherine of Austria. They were married at Salamanca
Salamanca
on 12 November 1543. The marriage produced one son in 1545, after which Maria died 4 days later due to haemorrhage:

Carlos, Prince of Asturias
Carlos, Prince of Asturias
(8 July 1545 – 24 July 1568), died unmarried and without issue.

Philip's second wife was his first cousin once removed, Queen Mary I of England. The marriage, which took place on 25 July 1554 at Winchester Cathedral, was political. By this marriage, Philip became jure uxoris King of England
King of England
and Ireland, although the couple was apart more than together as they ruled their respective countries. The marriage produced no children, although there was a false pregnancy, and Mary died in 1558, ending Philip's reign in England and Ireland. Philip's third wife was Elisabeth of Valois, the eldest daughter of Henry II of France
Henry II of France
and Catherine de' Medici. She was also a distant relation of Philip-she was descended from their mutual ancestor Alfonso VII of León and Castile. The original ceremony was conducted by proxy (the Duke of Alba
Duke of Alba
standing in for Philip) at Notre Dame prior to Elisabeth's departure from France. The actual ceremony was conducted in Guadalajara upon her arrival in Spain. During their marriage (1559–1568) they conceived five daughters and a son, though only two of the girls survived. Elisabeth died a few hours after the loss of her last child. Their children were:

Stillborn son (1560) Miscarried twin daughters (August 1564). Isabella Clara Eugenia
Isabella Clara Eugenia
(12 August 1566 – 1 December 1633), married Albert VII, Archduke
Archduke
of Austria, Catherine Michelle (10 October 1567 – 6 November 1597), married Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy, and had issue. Miscarried daughter (3 October 1568).

Philip's fourth and final wife was his niece, Anna of Austria. By contemporary accounts, this was a convivial and satisfactory marriage (1570–1580) for both Philip and Anna. This marriage produced four sons and one daughter. Anna died of heart failure 8 months after giving birth to Maria in 1580. Their children were:

Ferdinand, Prince of Asturias
Ferdinand, Prince of Asturias
(4 December 1571 – 18 October 1578), died young. Charles Laurence (12 August 1573 – 30 June 1575), died young. Diego, Prince of Asturias
Diego, Prince of Asturias
(15 August 1575 – 21 November 1582), died young. Philip III of Spain
Philip III of Spain
(3 April 1578 – 31 March 1621). Maria (14 February 1580 – 5 August 1583), died young.

Princess Maria of Portugal

Queen Mary Tudor of England

Queen Elisabeth of Valois

Queen Anna of Austria by Sofonisba Anguissola

King Phillip II by Sofonisba Anguissola

See also[edit]

Descendants of Isabella I of Castile
Isabella I of Castile
and Ferdinand II of Aragon List of Portuguese monarchs List of Spanish monarchs The empire on which the sun never sets Royal Armoury of Madrid

Notes[edit]

^ Spain was a composite monarchy, and besides being the second Philip to rule Castille, he was the first to rule Aragon
Aragon
and the fourth to rule Navarre. ^ The Philippine archipelago was first sighted by Ferdinand Magellan on his expedition to the Spice Islands, but it was during Philip's reign that Spanish explorer Ruy Lopez de Villalobos renamed them from the archipelago of St. Lazarus to Las Islas Filipinas in Philip's honour. ^ With la incorporation of Portugal to the Monarchy the title changed to East and West Indies, the Islands and Mainland of the Ocean sea.

References[edit]

^ Also rendered as Felipe in Archaic Portuguese ^ Geoffrey Parker. The Grand Strategy of Philip II, (2000) ^ Garret Mattingly. The Armada p. 22, p. 66 ISBN 0-395-08366-4 ^ Davis, James C. (1970). Pursuit of Power: Venetian Ambassadors' Reports on Spain, Turkey, and France
France
in the Age of Philip II 1560–1600. New York: Harper & Row. pp. 81–82.  ^ James Boyden; Europe, 1450 to 1789: Encyclopaedia of the Early Modern World. ^ Encyclopedia of World Biography 2004. ^ Parker, Geoffrey. The Dutch Revolt.. London: Penguin. p.41. ^ Parker, The Dutch Revolt. p.42. ^ Gat, Azar (2006). War in Human Civilization (4. ed.). Oxford [u.a.]: Oxford University Press. p. 488. ISBN 978-0-19-923663-3.  ^ Elliott, J.H. (2002). Imperial Spain 1469–1716 (Repr. ed.). London [u.a.]: Penguin Books. pp. 285–291. ISBN 0-14-100703-6.  ^ As Philip wrote in 1566 to Luis de Requesens: "You can assure his Holiness that rather than suffer the least injury to religion and the service of God, I would lose all my states and a hundred lives if I had them, for I do not intend to rule over heretics." Pettegree 2002, p. 214. ^ Fernand Braudel, The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II, vol. 2 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995), 935–36 and notes. ^ Royall Tyler (editor) (1954). "Spain: September 1556". Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Vol. 13: 1554–1558. Institute of Historical Research. Retrieved 19 April 2013. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Salvador Miranda (2010). "The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church". Florida International University. Retrieved 2010-04-21.  ^ Jan Glete p.156 ^ Nascimiento Rodrigues/Tessaleno Devezas p.122 ^ Knecht French Civil Wars p272 ^ Geoffrey Parker The army of Flanders and the Spanish road, London, 1972 ISBN 0-521-08462-8, p. 35 ^ Henry Kamen, The duke of Alba (New Haven–London: Yale University Press, 2004), Pp. x + 204. ^ Adams, George Burton; Stephens, H. Morse, eds. (1901). "An Act for the Marriage of Queen Mary to Philip of Spain". Select Documents of English Constitutional History. MacMillan. p. 284 – via Internet Archive.  ^ a b c Louis Adrian Montrose, The subject of Elizabeth: authority, gender, and representation, University of Chicago Press, 2006 ^ A. F. Pollard, The History of England – From the Accession of Edward VI. to the Death of Elizabeth (1547–1603), READ BOOKS, 2007 ^ Wim de Groot, The Seventh Window: The King's Window Donated by Philip II and Mary Tudor to Sint Janskerk in Gouda (1557), Uitgeverij Verloren, 2005 ^ Robert Dudley Edwards, Ireland in the age of the Tudors: the destruction of Hiberno-Norman civilisation, Taylor & Francis, 1977 ^ Treason Act 1554 ^ Richard Marks, Ann Payne, British Museum, British Library; British heraldry from its origins to c. 1800; British Museum Publications Ltd., 1978 ^ American Numismatic Association, The Numismatist, American Numismatic Association, 1971 ^ Francois Velde (25 July 2003). "Text of 1555 Bull". Heraldica.org. Retrieved 2012-08-22.  ^ Koenigsberger, Helmut Georg (2012), Philip II, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, retrieved 31 January 2012  ^ The Myth of the Spanish Inquisition
Spanish Inquisition
on YouTube
YouTube
(at 21:27 – 21:40). BBC. ^ Fernández Álvarez, Manuel. Felipe II y su tiempo. Espasa Calpe, Madrid, 6th Ed. ISBN 84-239-9736-7 In the introduction to this work, Felipe is mentioned as the most powerful European monarch by resources and army, depicting Europe at the time as a world full of unsolved issues and religious conflicts ^ Cfr. Fernández Álvarez, Manuel. Felipe II y su tiempo. Espasa Calpe, Madrid, 6th Ed. ISBN 84-239-9736-7. Yet again, the several points of view towards his reign are mentioned in the Introduction ^ Kamen, Henry. Felipe de España, Madrid, Siglo XXI, 1997. Cultural depictions of the king are mentioned, although Kamen tends to place himself with those favouring the king ^ Fernández Álvarez, Manuel. Felipe II y su tiempo. Espasa Calpe, Madrid, 6th Ed. ISBN 84-239-9736-7. He discusses the lack of correspondence of the king because he ordered it burned, thus avoiding any chance of getting further into Philip's private life. ^ Vid. Marañón, Gregorio. Antonio Pérez: el hombre, el drama, la época. Madrid, Espasa Calpe, 1951, 2 vols. Judiciously argued review on the harm Perez did to the king, analyzing the king's responsibility on the assassination of Escobedo ^ "Ten Great Events in History – Chapter VII. The Invincible Armada (by James Johonnot)". Authorama.com. Retrieved 2012-08-22.  ^ Hume, Martin. Philip II of Spain, London, 1897. Martin tried to retrieve the prejudiced views on the king at his time, something Carl Bratli also tried to do in his Filip of Spanien (Koebenhaven, 1909). Their works oppose to those of Ludwig Pfandl, Felipe II. Bosquejo de una vida y un tiempo, Munich, 1938, who assessed very negatively Felipe's personality ^ In his work, Felipe II (Madrid, 1943) W.T. Walsh depicts Felipe's reign as a prosperous and successful one, tending to make an apology of it. Fernández Álvarez, in España y los españoles en la Edad Moderna (Salamanca, 1979), points out how White Legend supporters flourished during the 1940s and 1950s, and how they omitted the darkest issues of Felipe's reign ^ Those kinds of adjectives can be read in M. Van Durme's 1953 El Cardenal Granvela ^ Cabrera de Córdoba, Felipe II rey de España, ed. RAH, 1877, criticizes how Felipe's victories are being minimised by English historians, and points out the small consequences of defeats such as the Invincible Armada ^ This appreciation is noted by Martin Hume in his aforementioned work ("Philip II of Spain", London 1897), pointing out how difficult is to show Philip II in a more favorable light to his fellow Englishmen because of that. ^ Rocquet, Claude-Henri. Bruegel; or The Workshop of Dreams. Univ. of Chicago Press, 1991. ISBN 0226723429. ^ a b Waller, Maureen. Sovereign Ladies: The Six Reigning Queens of England. St. Martin's Press (New York), 2006. ISBN 0-312-33801-5. ^ "Treaty of Joinville". (in French) In Davenport, Frances G. European Treaties Bearing on the History of the United States and Its Dependencies. The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd., 2004. ^ See, inter alia, "Amberes Archived 3 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine." (in Spanish) and Standard Catalog of World Gold Coins. ^ Cremades, Checa. Felipe II. Op. cit. in "The Place of Tudor England". Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 6th Series, Vol. 12. Cambridge Univ. Press, 2003. ISBN 0521815614.

Sources and further reading[edit]

Henry Kamen, Philip of Spain (New Haven, Yale University Press, 1999) – the standard modern biographical source. Glyn Redworth, "Philip (1527–1598)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, online edition, May 2011 Retrieved 25 Aug 2011 Pettegree, Andrew (2002). Europe in the Sixteenth Century. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-20704-X. . Benton Rain Patterson, With the Heart of a King: Elizabeth I
Elizabeth I
of England, Philip II of Spain
Philip II of Spain
& the Fight for a Nation's Soul & Crown (2007) Rodriguez-Salgado, M.J. "The Court of Philip II of Spain". In Princes Patronage and the Nobility: The Court at the Beginning of the Modern Age, cc. 1450–1650. Edited by Ronald G. Asch and Adolf M. Birke. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991. ISBN 0-19-920502-7. Geoffrey Parker, Imprudent King: A New Life of Philip II (2014). Geoffrey Parker, The Grand Strategy of Philip II (New Haven, 1998). Markus Reinbold, Jenseits der Konfession. Die frühe Frankreichpolitik Philipps II. von Spanien 1559–1571 (Stuttgart, Thorbecke, 2005) (Beihefte der Francia, 61). Harry Kelsey, Philip of Spain, King of England: the forgotten sovereign (London, I.B. Tauris, 2011).

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Philip II of Spain.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Philip II of Spain

The Grand Strategy of Philip II" Letters of Philip II, King of Spain
King of Spain
1592–1597 Philip II of Spain
Philip II of Spain
(King of England)  Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Philip II". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  Philip II Letter, 1578 Dec. 2. From the Collections at the Library of Congress King Philip II Grant of Arms, 1566 Nov. 25. From the Collections at the Library of Congress Letters of Philip II, King of Spain, 1592–1597 at L. Tom Perry Special
Special
Collections, Brigham Young University Paul IV letter to Philip II, MSS 8489 at L. Tom Perry Special Collections, Brigham Young University

Philip II of Spain House of Habsburg Born: 21 May 1527 Died: 13 September 1598

Regnal titles

Preceded by Mary I as sole monarch King of England
King of England
and Ireland (jure uxoris) 25 July 1554 – 17 November 1558 with Mary I Succeeded by Elizabeth I

Preceded by Emperor Charles V Duke of Brabant, Limburg, Lothier and Luxemburg; Marquis of Namur; Count Palatine of Burgundy; Count of Artois, Flanders and Hainaut 16 January 1556 – 6 May 1598 Succeeded by Isabella Clara Eugenia Albert

Count of Charolais 21 September 1558 – 6 May 1598

Duke of Guelders; Count of Zutphen, Holland
Holland
and Zeeland 16 January 1556 – 26 July 1581 Dutch Republic

King of Naples 1554–1598 Succeeded by Philip III of Spain

King of Spain 1556–1598

Preceded by Henry King of Portugal
King of Portugal
and the Algarve disputed with António 1581–1598

Vacant Title last held by Francesco II Sforza Duke of Milan 1540–1598

Spanish royalty

Vacant Title last held by Charles I Prince of Asturias 1528–1556 Succeeded by Carlos

Prince of Girona 1527–1556

v t e

Monarchs of Spain

Charles I Philip II Philip III Philip IV Charles II Philip V Louis I Philip V Ferdinand VI Charles III Charles IV Ferdinand VII Joseph I Ferdinand VII Isabel II Amadeo I Alfonso XII Alfonso XIII Juan Carlos I Felipe VI

v t e

Spanish Empire

Timeline

Catholic Monarchs Habsburgs Golden Age Encomiendas New Laws
New Laws
in favour of the indigenous Expulsion of the Moriscos Ottoman– Habsburg
Habsburg
wars French Wars of Religion Eighty Years' War Portuguese Restoration War Piracy in the Caribbean Bourbons Napoleonic invasion Independence of Spanish continental Americas Liberal constitution Carlist Wars Spanish–American War German–Spanish Treaty (1899) Spanish Civil War Independence of Morocco (Western Sahara conflict)

Territories

Kingdoms of Naples, Sicily and Sardinia Milan Union with Holy Roman Empire Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, northernmost France Franche-Comté Union with Portugal Philippines East Pacific (Guam, Mariana, Caroline, Palau, Marshall, Micronesia, Moluccas) Northern Taiwan Tidore Florida New Spain
New Spain
(Western United States, Mexico, Central America, Spanish Caribbean) Spanish Louisiana (Central United States) Coastal Alaska Haiti Belize Jamaica Trinidad and Tobago Venezuela, Western Guyana New Granada (Panama, Colombia, Ecuador, a northernmost portion of Brazilian Amazon) Peru (Peru, Acre) Río de la Plata (Argentina, Paraguay, Charcas (Bolivia), Banda Oriental (Uruguay), Falkland Islands) Chile Equatorial Guinea North Africa (Oran, Tunis, Béjaïa, Peñón of Algiers, Western Sahara, Spanish Morocco, Ifni
Ifni
and Cape Juby)

Administration

Archivo de Indias Council of the Indies Cabildo Trial of residence Laws of the Indies Royal Decree of Graces School of Salamanca Exequatur Papal bull

Administrative subdivisions

Viceroyalties

New Spain New Granada Perú Río de la Plata

Audiencias

Bogotá Buenos Aires Caracas Charcas Concepción Cusco Guadalajara Guatemala Lima Manila Mexico Panamá Quito Santiago Santo Domingo

Captaincies General

Chile Cuba Guatemala Philippines Puerto Rico Santo Domingo Venezuela Yucatán Provincias Internas

Governorates

Castilla de Oro Cuba Luisiana New Andalusia (1501–1513) New Andalusia New Castile New Navarre New Toledo Paraguay Río de la Plata

Economy

Currencies

Dollar Real Maravedí Escudo Columnario

Trade

Manila galleon Spanish treasure fleet Casa de Contratación Guipuzcoan Company of Caracas Barcelona Trading Company Camino Real de Tierra Adentro

Military

Armies

Tercio Army of Flanders Free Company of Volunteers of Catalonia Indian auxiliaries Spanish Armada Legión

Strategists

Duke of Alba Antonio de Leyva Martín de Goiti Alfonso d'Avalos García de Toledo Osorio Duke of Savoy Álvaro de Bazán the Elder John of Austria Charles Bonaventure de Longueval Pedro de Zubiaur Ambrosio Spinola Bernardo de Gálvez

Sailors

Christopher Columbus Pinzón brothers Ferdinand Magellan Juan Sebastián Elcano Juan de la Cosa Juan Ponce de León Miguel López de Legazpi Pedro Menéndez de Avilés Sebastián de Ocampo Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca Alonso de Ojeda Vasco Núñez de Balboa Alonso de Salazar Andrés de Urdaneta Antonio de Ulloa Ruy López de Villalobos Diego Columbus Alonso de Ercilla Nicolás de Ovando Juan de Ayala Sebastián Vizcaíno Juan Fernández Felipe González de Ahedo

Conquistadors

Hernán Cortés Francisco Pizarro Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada Hernán Pérez de Quesada Francisco Vázquez de Coronado Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar Pedro de Valdivia Gaspar de Portolà Pere Fages i Beleta Joan Orpí Pedro de Alvarado Martín de Ursúa Diego de Almagro Pánfilo de Narváez Diego de Mazariegos Jerónimo Luis de Cabrera Pere d'Alberní i Teixidor

Battles

Old World

Won

Bicocca Landriano Pavia Tunis Mühlberg St. Quentin Gravelines Malta Lepanto Antwerp Azores Mons Gembloux Ostend English Armada Cape Celidonia White Mountain Breda Nördlingen Valenciennes Ceuta Bitonto Bailén Vitoria Tetouan Alhucemas

Lost

Capo d'Orso Preveza Siege of Castelnuovo Algiers Ceresole Djerba Tunis Spanish Armada Leiden Rocroi Downs Montes Claros Passaro Trafalgar Somosierra Annual

New World

Won

Tenochtitlan Cajamarca Cusco Bogotá savanna Reynogüelén Penco Guadalupe Island San Juan Cartagena de Indias Cuerno Verde Pensacola

Lost

La Noche Triste Tucapel Chacabuco Carabobo Ayacucho Guam Santiago de Cuba Manila Bay Asomante

Spanish colonizations

Canary Islands Aztec Maya

Chiapas Yucatán Guatemala Petén

El Salvador Honduras Nicaragua Chibchan Nations Colombia Peru Chile

Other civil topics

Spanish missions in the Americas Architecture Mesoamerican codices Cusco painting tradition Indochristian painting in New Spain Quito painting tradition Colonial universities in Latin
Latin
America Colonial universities in the Philippines General Archive of the Indies Colonial Spanish Horse Castas Old inquisition Slavery in Spanish Empire British and American slaves granted their freedom by Spain

v t e

Monarchs of Portugal

House of Burgundy (1139–1383)

Afonso I Sancho I Afonso II Sancho II Afonso III Dinis I Afonso IV Pedro I Fernando I Beatriz I

House of Aviz
House of Aviz
(1385–1580)

João I Duarte I Afonso V João II Manuel I João III Sebastião I Henrique I António I

House of Habsburg
House of Habsburg
(1581–1640)

Filipe I Filipe II Filipe III

House of Braganza
House of Braganza
(1640–1910)

João IV Afonso VI Pedro II João V José I Maria I with Pedro III João VI Pedro IV Maria II Miguel I Maria II with Fernando II Pedro V Luís I Carlos I Manuel II

Debatable or disputed rulers are in italics.

v t e

English, Scottish and British monarchs

Monarchs of England before 1603 Monarchs of Scotland before 1603

Alfred the Great Edward the Elder Ælfweard Æthelstan Edmund I Eadred Eadwig Edgar the Peaceful Edward the Martyr Æthelred the Unready Sweyn Edmund II Cnut Harold I Harthacnut Edward the Confessor Harold II Edgar Ætheling William I William II Henry I Stephen Matilda Henry II Henry the Young King Richard I John Henry III Edward I Edward II Edward III Richard II Henry IV Henry V Henry VI Edward IV Edward V Richard III Henry VII Henry VIII Edward VI Jane Mary I
Mary I
and Philip Elizabeth I

Kenneth I MacAlpin Donald I Constantine I Áed Giric Eochaid Donald II Constantine II Malcolm I Indulf Dub Cuilén Amlaíb Kenneth II Constantine III Kenneth III Malcolm II Duncan I Macbeth Lulach Malcolm III Donald III Duncan II Donald III Edgar Alexander I David I Malcolm IV William I Alexander II Alexander III Margaret of Norway First Interregnum John Balliol Second Interregnum Robert I David II Edward Balliol Robert II Robert III James I James II James III James IV James V Mary I James VI

Monarchs of England and Scotland after the Union of the Crowns
Union of the Crowns
in 1603

James I & VI Charles I Commonwealth Charles II James II & VII William III & II and Mary II Anne

British monarchs after the Acts of Union 1707

Anne George I George II George III George IV William IV Victoria Edward VII George V Edward VIII George VI Elizabeth II

Debatable or disputed rulers are in italics.

v t e

Monarchs of Luxembourg

County of Luxemburg
County of Luxemburg
(963–1354)

Elder House of Luxembourg (963–1136)

Siegfried (963–998) Henry I (998–1026) Henry II (1026–1047) Giselbert (1047–1059) Conrad I (1059–1086) Henry III (1086–1096) William I (1096–1131) Conrad II (1131–1136)

House of Namur (1136–1189)

Henry IV (1136–1189)

House of Hohenstaufen (1196–1197)

Otto (1196–1197)

House of Namur (1197–1247)

Ermesinde (1197–1247), with Theobald (1197–1214), and then Waleran (1214–1226)

House of Limburg (1247–1354)

Henry V (1247–1281) Henry VI (1281–1288) Henry VII (1288–1313) John I (1313–1346) Charles I (1346–1353) Wenceslaus I (1353–1354)

Duchy of Luxemburg
Duchy of Luxemburg
(1354–1794)

House of Limburg (1354–1443)

Wenceslaus I (1354–1383) Wenceslaus II (1383–1388) Jobst (1388–1411) Elisabeth (1411–1443) with Anthony (1411–1415), and then John II (1418–1425)

House of Valois-Burgundy (1443–1482)

Philip I (1443–1467) Charles II (1467–1477) Mary I
Mary I
(1477–1482) and Maximilian I (1477–1482)

House of Habsburg (1482–1700)

Philip II (1482–1506) Charles III (1506–1556) Philip III (1556–1598) Isabella Clara Eugenia
Isabella Clara Eugenia
(1598–1621) and Albert (1598–1621) Philip IV (1621–1665) Charles IV (1665–1700)

House of Bourbon (1700–1712)

Philip V (1700–1712)

House of Wittelsbach (1712–1713)

Maximilian II (1712–1713)

House of Habsburg (1713–1780)

Charles V (1713–1740) Mary II (1740–1780)

House of Habsburg-Lorraine (1780–1794)

Joseph (1780–1790) Leopold (1790–1792) Francis (1792–1794)

Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
Duchy of Luxembourg
(since 1815)

House of Orange-Nassau (1815–1890)

William I (1815–1840) William II (1840–1849) William III (1849–1890)

House of Nassau-Weilburg (1890–present)

Adolphe (1890–1905) William IV (1905–1912) Marie-Adélaïde (1912–1919) Charlotte (1919–1964) Jean (1964–2000) Henri (since 2000)

v t e

Infantes of Spain

The generations indicate descent from Carlos I, under whom the crowns of Castile and Aragon
Aragon
were united, forming the Kingdom of Spain. Previously, the title Infante
Infante
had been largely used in the different realms.

1st generation

Felipe II Infante
Infante
Fernando Infante
Infante
Juan Infante
Infante
João

2nd generation

Carlos, Prince of Asturias Fernando, Prince of Asturias Infante
Infante
Carlos Lorenzo Diego, Prince of Asturias Felipe III

3rd generation

Felipe IV Infante
Infante
Carlos Infante
Infante
Fernando Infante
Infante
Alfonso Mauricio

4th generation

Baltasar Carlos, Prince of Asturias Felipe Próspero, Prince of Asturias Infante
Infante
Fernando Tomás Carlos II

5th generation

None

6th generation

None

7th generation

Luis I Infante
Infante
Felipe Infante
Infante
Felipe Pedro Fernando VI Carlos III Felipe, Duke of Parma Infante
Infante
Luis, Count of Chinchón

8th generation

Infante
Infante
Philip, Duke of Calabria Carlos IV Fernando I of the Two Sicilies Infante
Infante
Gabriel Infante
Infante
Antonio Pascual Infante
Infante
Francisco Javier Fernando, Duke of Parma 1

9th generation

Infante
Infante
Carlos Clemente Infante
Infante
Carlos Domingo Infante
Infante
Carlos Francisco de Paula Infante
Infante
Felipe Francisco de Paula Fernando VII Infante
Infante
Carlos, Count of Molina Infante
Infante
Felipe María Infante
Infante
Francisco de Paula Infante
Infante
Pedro Carlos, Infante
Infante
of Portugal 1 Infante
Infante
Carlos1 Luis I of Etruria 2

10th generation

Infante
Infante
Antonio, Duke of Montpensier 2 Infante
Infante
Carlos, Count of Montemolin 1 Infante
Infante
Juan, Count of Montizón 1 Infante
Infante
Fernando1 Infante
Infante
Francisco de Asís, Duke of Cádiz1 Francisco de Asís, King consort of Spain 1 Infante
Infante
Enrique, Duke of Seville 1 Infante
Infante
Eduardo Felipe 1 Infante
Infante
Fernando María1 Infante
Infante
Sebastián, Infante
Infante
of Portugal 1 Carlos II, Duke of Parma 1

11th generation

Infante
Infante
Fernando Infante
Infante
Francisco de Asís Alfonso XII Infante
Infante
Francisco de Asís Infante
Infante
Gaetan, Count of Girgenti 2 Infante
Infante
Ludwig Ferdinand of Bavaria 2 Infante
Infante
Fernando of Orléans 1 Infante
Infante
Felipe of Orleans1 Infante
Infante
Antonio, Duke of Galliera 1 Infante
Infante
Luis of Orleans1 Carlos III, Duke of Parma 1

12th generation

Infante
Infante
Carlos of Bourbon-Two Sicilies 2 Infante
Infante
Ferdinand of Bavaria 2 Infante
Infante
Alfonso, Duke of Galliera 1 Infante
Infante
Luis Fernando of Orléans 1 Roberto I, Duke of Parma 1

13th generation

Alfonso, Prince of Asturias Infante
Infante
Jaime, Duke of Segovia Infante
Infante
Fernando Infante
Infante
Juan, Count of Barcelona Infante
Infante
Gonzalo Infante
Infante
Alfonso, Duke of Calabria 1 Infante
Infante
Fernando of Bourbon-Two Sicilies1 Infante
Infante
Luis Alfonso of Bavaria 1 Infante
Infante
José Eugenio of Bavaria 1 Infante
Infante
Alvaro, Duke of Galliera 1 Infante
Infante
Afonso of Orléans 1 Infante
Infante
Ataúlfo of Orléans 1

14th generation

Juan Carlos I Infante
Infante
Alfonso Infante
Infante
Carlos, Duke of Calabria 1

15th generation

Felipe VI

16th generation

None

1 title granted by Royal Decree 2 consort to an Infanta naturalized as a Spanish Infante

v t e

Austrian archdukes

1st generation

Frederick V Albert VI Sigismund

2nd generation

Cristopher Maximilian I John Wolfgang

3rd generation

Philip I of Castile Archduke
Archduke
Francis

4th generation

Charles I Ferdinand I

5th generation

Philip II of SpainS Maximilian II Ferdinand II FerdinandS JohnS John FerdinandS Charles II

6th generation

Charles, Prince of AsturiasS Ferdinand Rudolf V Ernest Matthias Maximilian III Albert VII Wenzel Frederick Charles Ferdinand, Prince of AsturiasS Ferdinand Carlos LorenzoS Diego, Prince of AsturiasS Philip III of SpainS Ferdinand III Charles Maximilian Ernest Leopold V Charles, Bishop of Wroclaw

7th generation

Charles Philip IV of SpainS Philipp John-Charles Albert CharlesS Ferdinand IV FerdinandS Alfonso Mauricio Leopold Wilhelm Ferdinand Charles Sigismund Francis

8th generation

Balthasar Charles, Prince of AsturiasS Ferdinand IV of Hungary Francisco FernandoS Philip August Maximilian Thomas Leopold VI Charles Joseph Ferdinand Joseph Alois Philip Prospero, Prince of AsturiasS Ferdinand ThomasS Charles II of SpainS

9th generation

Ferdinand Wenzel John Leopold Joseph I Leopold Joseph Charles III

10th generation

Leopold Joseph Leopold John

11th generation

Joseph IIT Charles JosephT Leopold VIIT FerdinandT Maximilian Franz, Archbishop-Elector of CologneT

12th generation

Emperor Francis IT Ferdinand III, Grand Duke of TuscanyT Charles, Duke of TeschenT Alexander Leopold, Palatine of HungaryT Joseph, Palatine of HungaryT Anton VictorT JohnT Rainer JosephT Archduke
Archduke
LouisT Cardinal- Archduke
Archduke
RudolfT Joseph FranzM Francis IV, Duke of ModenaM Ferdinand Karl JosephM MaximilianM Karl, Primate of HungaryM

13th generation

Emperor Ferdinand I Francis Leopold, Grand Prince of TuscanyT Leopold II, Grand Duke of TuscanyT Joseph Franz Franz Karl Johann Nepomuk Albert, Duke of Teschen Stephen, Palatine of Hungary Karl Ferdinand Francis V, Duke of ModenaM Frederick Ferdinand Ferdinand Karl ViktorM Archduke
Archduke
Rudolf Leopold Ludwig Ernest Alexander Sigismund Leopold Rainer Ferdinand Wilhelm Franz Heinrich Anton Maximilian Karl Joseph Karl

14th generation

Emperor Franz Joseph I Maximilian I of Mexico Karl Ludwig Ludwig Viktor Ferdinand IV, Grand Duke of TuscanyT Karl SalvatorT RainierT Ludwig SalvatorT John SalvatorT Karl Franz Joseph Friedrich, Duke of Teschen Charles Stephen Eugen Joseph August Ladislaus

15th generation

Crown Prince Rudolf Franz FerdinandM Otto Francis Ferdinand Karl Leopold FerdinandT Josef FerdinandT Peter FerdinandT Heinrich FerdinandT Robert FerdinandT Leopold SalvatorT Franz SalvatorT Albrecht SalvatorT Rainier SalvatorT Ferdinand SalvatorT Albrecht Franz, Duke of Teschen Karl Albrecht Leo Karl Wilhelm Joseph Francis Ladislaus Joseph Matthias

16th generation

Emperor Charles I Maximilian Eugen

Habsburg Tuscany

GottfriedT GeorgT RainerT Leopold MariaT AntonT Franz JosephT Karl PiusT Franz KarlT Hubert SalvatorT Theodor SalvatorT Clemens SalvatorT

Palatines of Hungary

Joseph Árpád István Géza Michael Koloman

17th generation

Descent of Charles I

Crown Prince Otto RobertM Felix Carl Ludwig Rudolf

Descent of Maximilian

Ferdinand Karl Heinrich Maria

Tuscany

Leopold FranzT GuntramT RadbotT JohannT GeorgT StephanT DominicT Friederich SalvatorT Andreas SalvatorT MarkusT JohannT MichaelT Franz SalvatorT Karl SalvatorT

Palatines

Joseph Karl Andreas Agustinus Nicholas Franz Johann Jacob Edward Karl Paul Rudolf

18th generation

Charles

Karl Georg LorenzM GerhardM MartinM Karl Philipp Raimund Joseph István Rudolf Carl Christian Karl Peter Simeon Johannes

Maximilian

Maximilian Heinrich Philipp Joachim Ferdinand Karl Konrad

Tuscany

SigismundT GeorgT GuntramT LeopoldT Alexander SalvatorT Thaddäus SalvatorT Casimir SalvatorT MatthiasT JohannesT BernhardT BenediktT

Palatines

Joseph Albrecht (1994–) Paul Leo (1996–) Friedrich Cyprian (1995–) Pierre (1997–) Benedikt Alexander (2005–) Nicolás (2003–) Santiago (2006–) Johannes (2010–) Paul Benedikt (2000–)

19th generation

Charles

Ferdinand Zvonimir Karl Konstantin AmedeoM JoachimM BartholomaeusM EmmanuelM LuigiM Felix Carl Andreas Franz Paul Johannes Carl Christian Johannes Thomas Franz Ludwig Michael Joseph Imre Christoph Alexander Lorenz Carl Johannes Ludwig Philipp

Maximilian

Nicholas Constantin Jacob Maximilian

Tuscany

Leopold AmedeoT MaximilianT LeopoldT Constantin SalvatorT Paul SalvatorT

S: also an infante of Spain T: also a prince of Tuscany M: also a prince of Modena

v t e

Princes and Princesses of Asturias

Leonor (2014–present)

Henry (1388–90) Maria (1402–05) John (1405–06) Catherine (1423–24) Eleanor (1424–25) Henry (1425–54) Joanna (1462–64) Alfonso (1464–68) Isabella (1468–70) Isabella (1470–78) John (1478–97) Isabella (1497–98) Michael (1498–1500) Joanna (1502–04) Charles (1504–16) Philip (1527–56) Charles (1556–68) Ferdinand (1571–78) Diego (1578–82) Philip (1582–98) Philip (1605–21) Balthasar Charles (1629–1646) Philip Prospero (1657–1661) Charles (1661–1665) Louis (1709–24) Ferdinand (1724–46) Charles (1759–88) Ferdinand (1788–1808) Isabella (1830–33) Isabella (1851–57) Alfonso (1857–68) Emanuele Filiberto (1871–73) Isabella (1875–80) Mercedes (1881–1904) Alfonso (1907–38) Felipe (1977–2014) Leonor (2014– )

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 88973996 LCCN: n78067330 ISNI: 0000 0001 0837 7767 GND: 118593862 SELIBR: 186544 SUDOC: 030249899 BNF: cb12170664z (data) ULAN: 500253117 NLA: 35079885 NDL: 00998296 NKC: jn20000700532 BNE: XX885445 RKD: 435

.