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Philip De Armind Curtin (May 22, 1922 Philadelphia
Philadelphia
– June 4, 2009)[1] was a Professor Emeritus of Johns Hopkins University[2] and historian on Africa
Africa
and the Atlantic slave trade. His most famous work, 1969's The Atlantic Slave Trade: A Census was one of the first estimates of the number of slaves transported across the Atlantic Ocean between the 16th century and 1870, yielding an estimate of 9,566,000 African slaves imported to the Americas.[3] Although subsequent authors have disputed this number (Joseph E. Inikori, for example, argues for an estimate of about 15 million)[4], his work remains the most commonly cited. He also wrote about how many Africans were taken and from what location, how many died during the middle passage, how many actually arrived in the Americas, and to what colonies/countries they were imported.[5]

Contents

1 Biography

1.1 Early life and education 1.2 Academic career 1.3 Personal

2 References 3 External links

Biography[edit] Early life and education[edit] Curtin was born in Philadelphia
Philadelphia
on May 22, 1922, and grew up in Webster Springs, West Virginia, the site of a coal and timber company owned by his family.[6][7] He attended Swarthmore College, where he was awarded a Bachelor of Arts degree during 1948, having had a recess of three years while he served in the United States Merchant Marine during World War II, serving aboard ship as a radio operator.[7] He did his graduate work at Harvard University, earning a Master of Arts degree during 1949 and was awarded his Ph.D. during 1953.[6] His doctoral dissertation, titled "Revolution and Decline in Jamaica, 1830-1865" addressed 19th-century history and economics of Jamaica.[7][8] Academic career[edit] After graduation, he began teaching at Swarthmore College
Swarthmore College
where he remained until 1956.[6] He relocated to the University of Wisconsin–Madison where he taught from 1956 through 1975. There, Curtin and fellow historian Jan Vansina established a department of African languages and literature during 1956, as part of one of the first academic African studies
African studies
programs established at a college in the United States.[7] From 1975 until the time of his death he was a member of the faculty of Johns Hopkins University
Johns Hopkins University
.[6] Recognized during 1983 as a MacArthur Fellow with its accompanying "genius grant", Curtin published a total of 19 books,[1] which include Death by Migration: Europe's Encounter with the Tropical World in the Nineteenth Century, described by the American Historical Review
American Historical Review
(AHR) as "ground-breaking."[9] In addition to the aforementioned calculation, he has challenged the common opinion that improvements of medicine were responsible for the increased attempts at European colonization of Africa
Africa
during the 19th century.[9] In his 1969 book The Atlantic Slave Trade: A Census, Curtin researched the sources of frequently used estimates of the number of individuals transported across the Atlantic Ocean by the slave trade. His analysis of shipping contracts and data from the ports of entry enabled him to estimate between 9 and 10 million individuals being transported on slave ships, with a margin of error of 20%, out of the 20 to 30 million that had been loaded aboard at ports in Africa.[10] Prior to Curtin's research, estimates of the number of individuals brought from Africa
Africa
as slaves ranged from 3.5 million to numbers as high as 100 million individuals. A widely cited number of 15 million slaves used by W. E. B. Du Bois, who had gotten the number from abolitionist Edward Dunbar. Another widely quoted estimate of 20 million slaves was based on calculations using data concerning slaves in Jamaica
Jamaica
that was adjusted for the entire Atlantic slave trade, though the original data used to make the calculations has since been lost.[7] His 1989 book Death by Migration combined medical and population history, tracing the effects of tropical diseases on Europeans in tropical Africa
Africa
during the time before medicines were available to treat these conditions effectively.[6] A controversial opinion piece published in a 1995 issue of The Chronicle of Higher Education titled "Ghettoizing African History" criticized the frequent equation of African and African American scholars in college and university departments of history with jobs concerning the history of Africa. Although Curtin mentioned that this practice might discourage some caucasian academicians from specializing in African studies, his comments were also an argument for more opportunities for African-American scholars.[10] While many visitors to Africa
Africa
have been to Gorée
Gorée
Island in Senegal, described as a site where as many as 20 million Africans were fattened for shipment across the Atlantic Ocean from the Slave House after being shackled there in dank cells, Curtin debunked the traditional account, stating that "[t]he whole story is phony". Curtin stated that the Slave House, one of the most beautiful houses on the island, would not have been used for storing slaves, that the rocks near the shore would make docking boats perilous and estimated that a total of no more than 50,000 slaves had passed through the island. Senegalese academics criticized Curtin's statement, stating that he was guilty of "stealing their history".[11] Books:

Africa
Africa
Remembered: Narratives by West Africans from the Era of the Slave Trade (editor, 1967)

♦ The Atlantic Slave Trade: A Census (1969) ♦ The Image of Africa: British Ideas and Action, 1780-1850 (1973, AHA Schuyler Prize) ♦ Africa
Africa
and the West: Intellectual Responses to European Culture (1974) ♦ Precolonial African History (1975, AHA pamphlet) ♦ Economic Change in Precolonial Africa: Senegambia in the Era of the Slave Trade (1975) ♦ African History (co-author, 1978) ♦ Cross-Cultural Trade in World History (1984) ♦ Death by Migration: Europe’s Encounter with the Tropical World in the Nineteenth Century (1989) ♦ The Tropical Atlantic in the Age of the Slave Trade (1991, AHA pamphlet) ♦ Why People Move: Migration in African History (1995) ♦ The Rise and Fall of the Plantation Complex: Essays in Atlantic History (1998) ♦ Disease and Empire (1998) ♦ Migration and Mortality in Africa
Africa
and the Atlantic World, 1700-1900 (2001) ♦ The World and the West (2002) ♦ On the Fringes of History: A Memoir (2005) Doctoral Supervision (University of Wisconsin-Madison): Doctoral Supervision (Johns Hopkins University): Personal[edit] A resident of Kennett Square, Pennsylvania, Curtin died at age 87 on June 4, 2009, in West Chester, Pennsylvania, with pneumonia cited as the cause of death. He was survived by his third wife, the former Anne Gilbert, as well as three sons and three grandchildren. His marriages to opera soprano singer Phyllis Curtin
Phyllis Curtin
and Patricia Romero both ended in divorce.[7] References[edit]

^ a b "Prof. Philip D. Curtin". getCITED.org. getCITED Inc. Retrieved 2007-03-09.  ^ "Faculty Directory". Johns Hopkins University. Archived from the original on 2007-02-08. Retrieved 2007-03-09.  ^ Lynn, Martin. "Notes & Queries: How many Africans were transported to the Americas as a result of the European slave trade? Has anyone tried to quantify how many died as a result?", The Guardian. Accessed June 16, 2009. ^ Schoenherr, Steve. "Atlantic Slave Trade". University of San Diego. Retrieved 2007-03-09.  ^ Curtin, Philip D. (1969). The Atlantic slave trade : a census ([3rd print.] ed.). Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 0-299-05404-7.  ^ a b c d e Boyd, Kelly. "Encyclopedia of historians and historical writing", pp. 281-282. Taylor & Francis, 1999. ISBN 1-884964-33-8. Accessed June 16, 2009. ^ a b c d e f Grimes, William. "Philip Curtin, 87, Scholar of Slave Trade, Is Dead", The New York Times, June 16, 2009. Accessed June 16, 2009. ^ Naedele, Walter F. "Philip D. Curtin, 87, scholar of the Atlantic slave trade", The Philadelphia
Philadelphia
Inquirer, June 14, 2009. Accessed June 16, 2009. ^ a b "The American Historical Review, 104.5: Book Review". History Cooperative. University of Illinois Press. December 1995. Retrieved 2007-03-09.  ^ a b Sulivan, Patricia. "Philip D. Curtin: Longtime Johns Hopkins University professor reshaped the history of the African slave trade", Baltimore Sun, June 14, 2009. Accessed June 16, 2009. ^ Murphy, John. " Senegal
Senegal
Slave House's past questioned", The Seattle Times, July 27, 2004. Accessed February 8, 2018.

External links[edit]

Philip Curtin - Daily Telegraph obituary [1] - New York Times [2] - Washington Post [3] - JHU Gazette [4] - H-NET

v t e

Presidents of the American Historical Association

1884–1900

Andrew Dickson White
Andrew Dickson White
(1884-85) George Bancroft
George Bancroft
(1886) Justin Winsor
Justin Winsor
(1887) William Frederick Poole
William Frederick Poole
(1888) Charles Kendall Adams
Charles Kendall Adams
(1889) John Jay (1890) William Wirt Henry (1891) James Burrill Angell
James Burrill Angell
(1892-93) Henry Adams
Henry Adams
(1893-94) George Frisbie Hoar
George Frisbie Hoar
(1895) Richard Salter Storrs
Richard Salter Storrs
(1896) James Schouler (1897) George Park Fisher (1898) James Ford Rhodes
James Ford Rhodes
(1899) Edward Eggleston
Edward Eggleston
(1900)

1901–1925

Charles Francis Adams Jr.
Charles Francis Adams Jr.
(1901) Alfred Thayer Mahan
Alfred Thayer Mahan
(1902) Henry Charles Lea
Henry Charles Lea
(1903) Goldwin Smith
Goldwin Smith
(1904) John Bach McMaster
John Bach McMaster
(1905) Simeon Eben Baldwin
Simeon Eben Baldwin
(1906) J. Franklin Jameson (1907) George Burton Adams (1908) Albert Bushnell Hart
Albert Bushnell Hart
(1909) Frederick Jackson Turner
Frederick Jackson Turner
(1910) William Milligan Sloane
William Milligan Sloane
(1911) Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
(1912) William Archibald Dunning (1913) Andrew C. McLaughlin
Andrew C. McLaughlin
(1914) H. Morse Stephens
H. Morse Stephens
(1915) George Lincoln Burr
George Lincoln Burr
(1916) Worthington C. Ford (1917) William Roscoe Thayer
William Roscoe Thayer
(1918-19) Edward Channing (1920) Jean Jules Jusserand
Jean Jules Jusserand
(1921) Charles Homer Haskins
Charles Homer Haskins
(1922) Edward Potts Cheyney
Edward Potts Cheyney
(1923) Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
(1924) Charles McLean Andrews
Charles McLean Andrews
(1924-25)

1926–1950

Dana Carleton Munro
Dana Carleton Munro
(1926) Henry Osborn Taylor (1927) James Henry Breasted
James Henry Breasted
(1928) James Harvey Robinson
James Harvey Robinson
(1929) Evarts Boutell Greene (1930) Carl L. Becker (1931) Herbert Eugene Bolton
Herbert Eugene Bolton
(1932) Charles A. Beard
Charles A. Beard
(1933) William Dodd (1934) Michael Rostovtzeff
Michael Rostovtzeff
(1935) Charles Howard McIlwain (1936) Guy Stanton Ford (1937) Laurence M. Larson (1938) William Scott Ferguson (1939) Max Farrand
Max Farrand
(1940) James Westfall Thompson (1941) Arthur M. Schlesinger Sr. (1942) Nellie Neilson (1943) William Linn Westermann
William Linn Westermann
(1944) Carlton J. H. Hayes (1945) Sidney Bradshaw Fay (1946) Thomas J. Wertenbaker
Thomas J. Wertenbaker
(1947) Kenneth Scott Latourette
Kenneth Scott Latourette
(1948) Conyers Read (1949) Samuel Eliot Morison
Samuel Eliot Morison
(1950)

1951–1975

Robert Livingston Schuyler (1951) James G. Randall (1952) Louis R. Gottschalk (1953) Merle Curti (1954) Lynn Thorndike
Lynn Thorndike
(1955) Dexter Perkins (1956) William L. Langer (1957) Walter Prescott Webb
Walter Prescott Webb
(1958) Allan Nevins
Allan Nevins
(1959) Bernadotte Everly Schmitt (1960) Samuel Flagg Bemis (1961) Carl Bridenbaugh (1962) Crane Brinton (1963) Julian P. Boyd (1964) Frederic C. Lane (1965) Roy Franklin Nichols (1966) Hajo Holborn (1967) John K. Fairbank (1968) C. Vann Woodward
C. Vann Woodward
(1969) Robert Roswell Palmer (1970) David M. Potter (1971) Joseph Strayer (1971) Thomas C. Cochran (1972) Lynn Townsend White Jr. (1973) Lewis Hanke (1974) Gordon Wright (1975)

1976–2000

Richard B. Morris (1976) Charles Gibson (1977) William J. Bouwsma (1978) John Hope Franklin (1979) David H. Pinkney (1980) Bernard Bailyn (1981) Gordon A. Craig
Gordon A. Craig
(1982) Philip D. Curtin (1983) Arthur S. Link (1984) William H. McNeill (1985) Carl Neumann Degler (1986) Natalie Zemon Davis
Natalie Zemon Davis
(1987) Akira Iriye (1988) Louis R. Harlan (1989) David Herlihy (1990) William Leuchtenburg (1991) Frederic Wakeman (1992) Louise A. Tilly (1993) Thomas C. Holt (1994) John Henry Coatsworth (1995) Caroline Bynum (1996) Joyce Appleby (1997) Joseph C. Miller (1998) Robert Darnton
Robert Darnton
(1999) Eric Foner
Eric Foner
(2000)

2001–Present

William Roger Louis (2001) Lynn Hunt (2002) James M. McPherson
James M. McPherson
(2003) Jonathan Spence (2004) James J. Sheehan
James J. Sheehan
(2005) Linda K. Kerber (2006) Barbara Weinstein (2007) Gabrielle M. Spiegel (2008) Laurel Thatcher Ulrich
Laurel Thatcher Ulrich
(2009) Barbara D. Metcalf (2010) Anthony Grafton
Anthony Grafton
(2011) William Cronon
William Cronon
(2012) Kenneth Pomeranz
Kenneth Pomeranz
(2013) Jan E. Goldstein (2014) Vicki L. Ruiz (2015) Patrick Manning (2016) Tyler E. Stovall (2017) Mary Beth Norton (2018)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 4942586 LCCN: n50017194 ISNI: 0000 0003 5388 0438 GND: 12909689X SELIBR: 182633 SUDOC: 028328833 BNF: cb12018692q (data) NDL: 0088

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