HOME
The Info List - Philip K. Dick



--- Advertisement ---


PHILIP KINDRED DICK (December 16, 1928 – March 2, 1982) was an American writer notable for publishing works of science fiction . Dick explored philosophical, social, and political themes in novels with plots dominated by monopolistic corporations, authoritarian governments , alternate universes , and altered states of consciousness . His work reflected his personal interest in metaphysics and theology , and often drew upon his life experiences in addressing the nature of reality , identity , drug abuse , schizophrenia , and transcendental experiences.

Born in Illinois before moving to California, Dick began publishing science fiction stories in the 1950s, initially finding little commercial success. His 1962 alternate history novel _The Man in the High Castle _ earned Dick early acclaim, including a Hugo Award for Best Novel . He followed with science fiction novels such as _Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? _ (1968) and _ Ubik _ (1969). His 1974 novel _ Flow My Tears, the Policeman Said _ won the John W. Campbell Memorial Award for best novel. Following a series of religious experiences in February–March 1974, Dick's work engaged more explicitly with issues of theology, philosophy, and the nature of reality, as in such novels as _ A Scanner Darkly _ (1977) and _ VALIS _ (1981). A collection of his non-fiction writing on these themes was published posthumously as _ The Exegesis of Philip K. Dick _ (2011). He died in 1982 of a stroke, aged 53.

In addition to 44 published novels, Dick wrote approximately 121 short stories, most of which appeared in science fiction magazines during his lifetime. A variety of popular films based on his works have been produced, including _ Blade Runner _ (1982), _Total Recall _ (1990), _ Minority Report _ (2002), _ A Scanner Darkly _ (2006), _Paycheck _ (2003), _Next _ (2007), and _ The Adjustment Bureau _ (2011). In 2005, _Time _ magazine named _ Ubik _ one of the hundred greatest English-language novels published since 1923. In 2007, Dick became the first science fiction writer to be included in The Library of America series .

CONTENTS

* 1 Early life

* 2 Career

* 2.1 Early writing * 2.2 Flight to Canada and suicide attempt * 2.3 Paranormal experiences and mental health issues

* 3 Personal life * 4 Death

* 5 Style and works

* 5.1 Themes * 5.2 Pen names * 5.3 Selected works

* 5.4 Adaptations

* 5.4.1 Films * 5.4.2 Television * 5.4.3 Stage and radio * 5.4.4 Comics

* 5.5 Alternate formats

* 6 Influence and legacy

* 6.1 Film * 6.2 In fiction * 6.3 Music * 6.4 Theater * 6.5 Contemporary philosophy

* 7 Awards and honors * 8 Philip K. Dick Award * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 Further reading * 12 External links

EARLY LIFE

Philip Kindred Dick and his twin sister, Jane Charlotte Dick, were born six weeks prematurely on December 16, 1928, in Chicago , Illinois, to Dorothy (née Kindred; 1900–1978) and Joseph Edgar Dick (1899–1985), who worked for the United States Department of Agriculture . His paternal grandparents were Irish. The death of Jane six weeks later, on January 26, 1929, profoundly affected Philip's life, leading to the recurrent motif of the "phantom twin " in his books.

His family later moved to the San Francisco Bay Area . When Philip was five, his father was transferred to Reno, Nevada ; when Dorothy refused to move, she and Joseph divorced. Both parents fought for custody of Philip, which was awarded to the mother. Dorothy, determined to raise Philip alone, took a job in Washington, D.C., and moved there with her son. Philip was enrolled at John Eaton Elementary School (1936–38), completing the second through fourth grades. His lowest grade was a "C" in Written Composition, although a teacher remarked that he "shows interest and ability in story telling." He was educated in Quaker schools. In June 1938, Dorothy and Philip returned to California, and it was around this time that he became interested in science fiction. Dick stated that he read his first science fiction magazine, _Stirring Science Stories_ in 1940 at the age of twelve.

Dick attended Berkeley High School in Berkeley, California . He and fellow science fiction author Ursula K. Le Guin were members of the same graduating class (1947) but did not know each other at the time. After graduation, he briefly attended the University of California, Berkeley , (September 1949 to November 11, 1949) with an honorable dismissal granted January 1, 1950. Dick did not declare a major and took classes in history, psychology, philosophy, and zoology. Through his studies in philosophy, he believed that existence is based on internal human perception, which does not necessarily correspond to external reality; he described himself as "an acosmic panentheist ," believing in the universe only as an extension of God. After reading the works of Plato and pondering the possibilities of metaphysical realms, Dick came to the conclusion that, in a certain sense, the world is not entirely real and there is no way to confirm whether it is truly there. This question from his early studies persisted as a theme in many of his novels. Dick dropped out because of ongoing anxiety problems, according to his third wife Anne's memoir. She also says he disliked the mandatory ROTC training. At Berkeley, Dick befriended poet Robert Duncan and poet and linguist Jack Spicer , who gave Dick ideas for a Martian language. Dick claimed to have been host of a classical music program on KSMO Radio in 1947. From 1948 to 1952, Dick worked at Art Music Company, a record store on Telegraph Avenue .

CAREER

EARLY WRITING

_ Dick's novelette "The Defenders" was the cover story for the January 1953 issue of Galaxy Science Fiction _, illustrated by Ed Emshwiller _ Dick's short story "The World She Wanted" took the cover of the May 1953 issue of Science Fiction Quarterly _ _ Dick's novel The Cosmic Puppets _ originally appeared in the December 1956 issue of _ Satellite Science Fiction _ as "A Glass of Darkness"

Dick sold his first story in 1951, and from then on wrote full-time. During 1952 his first speculative fiction publications appeared in July and September numbers of _ Planet Stories _, edited by Jack O'Sullivan, and in _If _ and _The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction _ that fall. His debut novel was _ Solar Lottery _, published in 1955 as half of Ace Double #D-103 alongside _The Big Jump_ by Leigh Brackett . The 1950s were a difficult and impoverished time for Dick, who once lamented, "We couldn't even pay the late fees on a library book." He published almost exclusively within the science fiction genre, but dreamed of a career in mainstream fiction. During the 1950s he produced a series of non-genre, relatively conventional novels. In 1960 he wrote that he was willing to "take twenty to thirty years to succeed as a literary writer." The dream of mainstream success formally died in January 1963 when the Scott Meredith Literary Agency returned all of his unsold mainstream novels. Only one of these works, _ Confessions of a Crap Artist _, was published during Dick's lifetime.

In 1963, Dick won the Hugo Award for _ The Man in the High Castle _. Although he was hailed as a genius in the science fiction world, the mainstream literary world was unappreciative, and he could publish books only through low-paying science fiction publishers such as Ace . Even in his later years, he continued to have financial troubles. In the introduction to the 1980 short story collection _The Golden Man_, Dick wrote:

Several years ago, when I was ill, Heinlein offered his help, anything he could do, and we had never met; he would phone me to cheer me up and see how I was doing. He wanted to buy me an electric typewriter , God bless him—one of the few true gentlemen in this world. I don't agree with any ideas he puts forth in his writing, but that is neither here nor there. One time when I owed the IRS a lot of money and couldn't raise it, Heinlein loaned the money to me. I think a great deal of him and his wife; I dedicated a book to them in appreciation. Robert Heinlein is a fine-looking man, very impressive and very military in stance; you can tell he has a military background, even to the haircut. He knows I'm a flipped-out freak and still he helped me and my wife when we were in trouble. That is the best in humanity, there; that is who and what I love.

In 1972, Dick donated manuscripts , papers and other materials to the Special Collections Library at California State University, Fullerton where they are archived in the Philip K. Dick Science Fiction Collection in the Pollak Library. It was in Fullerton that Philip K. Dick befriended budding science-fiction writers K. W. Jeter , James Blaylock , and Tim Powers .

FLIGHT TO CANADA AND SUICIDE ATTEMPT

In 1971, Dick's marriage to Nancy Hackett broke down, and she moved out of their shared home. Dick descended into amphetamine abuse, eventually allowing a number of other drug users to move into the house with him. One day in November of that year, Dick returned to his home in San Rafael to discover that it had been burgled, with his safe blown open and personal papers missing. The police were unable to determine the culprit, and even suspected Dick of having done so himself. Shortly afterwards, he was invited to be guest of honor at the Vancouver Science Fiction Convention in February 1972. Within a day of arriving at the conference and giving his speech _The Android and the Human_, he informed people that he had fallen in love with a woman that he had met there, called Janis, and announced that he would be remaining in Vancouver. An attendee of the conference, Michael Walsh , movie critic for local newspaper _ The Province _, invited Dick to stay in his home, but asked him to leave two weeks later due to his erratic behavior. This was followed by Janis ending her and Dick's relationship and moving away. On March 23, 1972, Dick attempted to commit suicide by consuming an overdose of the sedative potassium bromide . Subsequently, after deciding to seek help, Dick became a participant in X-Kalay (a Canadian Synanon -type recovery program), and was well enough by April that he was able to return to California.

Dick returned to the events of these months while writing his 1977 novel _ A Scanner Darkly _, which contains fictionalized depictions of the burglary of his home, his time using amphetamines and living with addicts, and his experiences of X-Kalay (portrayed in the novel as "New-Path"). A factual account of Dick's recovery program participation was portrayed in his posthumously released book _The Dark Haired Girl _, a collection of letters and journals from the period.

PARANORMAL EXPERIENCES AND MENTAL HEALTH ISSUES

On February 20, 1974, while recovering from the effects of sodium pentothal administered for the extraction of an impacted wisdom tooth , Dick received a home delivery of Darvon from a young woman. When he opened the door, he was struck by the beauty of the dark-haired girl and was especially drawn to her golden necklace. He asked her about its curious fish-shaped design. "This is a sign used by the early Christians," she said, and then left. Dick called the symbol the "vesicle pisces". This name seems to have been based on his conflation of two related symbols, the Christian ichthys symbol (two intersecting arcs delineating a fish in profile) which the woman was wearing, and the vesica piscis .

Dick recounted that as the sun glinted off the gold pendant, the reflection caused the generation of a "pink beam" of light that mesmerized him. He came to believe the beam imparted wisdom and clairvoyance, and also believed it to be intelligent. On one occasion, Dick was startled by a separate recurrence of the pink beam. It imparted the information to him that his infant son was ill. The Dicks rushed the child to the hospital, where his suspicion was confirmed by professional diagnosis.

After the woman's departure, Dick began experiencing strange hallucinations. Although initially attributing them to side effects from medication, he considered this explanation implausible after weeks of continued hallucinations. "I experienced an invasion of my mind by a transcendentally rational mind, as if I had been insane all my life and suddenly I had become sane," Dick told Charles Platt .

Throughout February and March 1974, Dick experienced a series of hallucinations, which he referred to as "2-3-74", shorthand for February–March 1974. Aside from the "pink beam", Dick described the initial hallucinations as geometric patterns, and, occasionally, brief pictures of Jesus and ancient Rome . As the hallucinations increased in length and frequency, Dick claimed he began to live two parallel lives, one as himself, "Philip K. Dick", and one as "Thomas", a Christian persecuted by Romans in the first century AD. He referred to the "transcendentally rational mind" as "Zebra", "God" and " VALIS ". Dick wrote about the experiences, first in the semi-autobiographical novel _ Radio Free Albemuth _ and then in _VALIS_, _The Divine Invasion _ and the unfinished _ The Owl in Daylight _ (the VALIS trilogy ).

In 1974, Dick wrote a letter to the FBI , accusing a number of people, including University of California, San Diego professor Frederic Jameson , of being foreign agents of Warsaw Pact powers.

At one point Dick felt that he had been taken over by the spirit of the prophet Elijah . He believed that an episode in his novel _Flow My Tears, the Policeman Said _ was a detailed retelling of a biblical story from the Book of Acts , which he had never read. Dick documented and discussed his experiences and faith in a private journal he called his "exegesis", portions of which were later published as _ The Exegesis of Philip K. Dick _. The last novel Dick wrote was _ The Transmigration of Timothy Archer _; it was published shortly after his death in 1982.

PERSONAL LIFE

Dick was married five times:

* Jeanette Marlin (May to November 1948) * Kleo Apostolides (June 14, 1950 to 1959) * Anne Williams Rubinstein (April 1, 1959 to October 1965) * Nancy Hackett (July 6, 1966 to 1972) * Leslie (Tessa) Busby (April 18, 1973 to 1977)

Dick had three children, Laura Archer (February 25, 1960), Isolde Freya (now Isa Dick Hackett) (March 15, 1967), and Christopher Kenneth (July 25, 1973).

In 1955, he and his second wife, Kleo Apostolides, received a visit from the FBI , which they believed to be the result of Kleo's socialist views and left-wing activities . The couple briefly befriended one of the FBI agents.

Dick tried to stay out of the political scene because of high societal turmoil from the Vietnam War ; however, he did show some anti- Vietnam War and anti-governmental sentiments. In 1968, he joined the "Writers and Editors War Tax Protest", an anti-war pledge to pay no U.S. federal income tax , which resulted in the confiscation of his car by the IRS .

DEATH

On February 17, 1982, after completing an interview, Dick contacted his therapist, complaining of failing eyesight, and was advised to go to a hospital immediately; but he did not. The next day, he was found unconscious on the floor of his Santa Ana, California , home, having suffered a stroke . In the hospital, he suffered another stroke, after which his brain activity ceased . Five days later, on March 2, 1982, he was disconnected from life support and died. After his death, Dick's father, Joseph, took his son's ashes to Riverside Cemetery in Fort Morgan, Colorado , (section K, block 1, lot 56), where they were buried next to his twin sister Jane, whose tombstone had been inscribed with both their names when she died 53 years earlier.

STYLE AND WORKS

THEMES

Dick's third major theme is his fascination with war and his fear and hatred of it. One hardly sees critical mention of it, yet it is as integral to his body of work as oxygen is to water. —Steven Owen Godersky

Dick's stories typically focus on the fragile nature of what is real and the construction of personal identity . His stories often become surreal fantasies, as the main characters slowly discover that their everyday world is actually an illusion assembled by powerful external entities, such as the suspended animation in _Ubik_, vast political conspiracies or the vicissitudes of an unreliable narrator . "All of his work starts with the basic assumption that there cannot be one, single, objective reality", writes science fiction author Charles Platt . "Everything is a matter of perception. The ground is liable to shift under your feet. A protagonist may find himself living out another person's dream, or he may enter a drug-induced state that actually makes better sense than the real world, or he may cross into a different universe completely."

Alternate universes and simulacra are common plot devices , with fictional worlds inhabited by common, working people, rather than galactic elites. "There are no heroes in Dick's books", Ursula K. Le Guin wrote, "but there are heroics. One is reminded of Dickens : what counts is the honesty, constancy, kindness and patience of ordinary people." Dick made no secret that much of his thinking and work was heavily influenced by the writings of Carl Jung . The Jungian constructs and models that most concerned Dick seem to be the archetypes of the collective unconscious, group projection/hallucination, synchronicities, and personality theory. Many of Dick's protagonists overtly analyze reality and their perceptions in Jungian terms (see _Lies Inc. _). Dick's self-named _Exegesis _ also contained many notes on Jung in relation to theology and mysticism.

Dick identified one major theme of his work as the question, "What constitutes the authentic human being?" In works such as _Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? _, beings can appear totally human in every respect while lacking soul or compassion, while completely alien beings such as Glimmung in _ Galactic Pot-Healer _ may be more humane and complex than their human peers.

Mental illness was a constant interest of Dick's, and themes of mental illness permeate his work. The character Jack Bohlen in the 1964 novel _ Martian Time-Slip _ is an "ex-schizophrenic". The novel _ Clans of the Alphane Moon _ centers on an entire society made up of descendants of lunatic asylum inmates. In 1965 he wrote the essay titled " Schizophrenia and the Book of Changes".

Drug use (including religious , recreational , and abuse ) was also a theme in many of Dick's works, such as _ A Scanner Darkly _ and _The Three Stigmata of Palmer Eldritch _. Dick himself was a drug user for much of his life. According to a 1975 interview in _ Rolling Stone _, Dick wrote all of his books published before 1970 while on amphetamines . "_ A Scanner Darkly _ (1977) was the first complete novel I had written without speed", said Dick in the interview. He also experimented briefly with psychedelics , but wrote _The Three Stigmata of Palmer Eldritch _, which _Rolling Stone_ dubs "the classic LSD novel of all time", before he had ever tried them. Despite his heavy amphetamine use, however, Dick later said that doctors told him the amphetamines never actually affected him, that his liver had processed them before they reached his brain.

Summing up all these themes in _Understanding Philip K. Dick_, Eric Carl Link discussed eight themes or 'ideas and motifs': Epistemology and the Nature of Reality, Know Thyself, The Android and the Human, Entropy and Pot Healing, The Theodicy Problem, Warfare and Power Politics, The Evolved Human, and 'Technology, Media, Drugs and Madness'.

PEN NAMES

Dick had two professional stories published under the pen names Richard Phillipps and Jack Dowland. "Some Kinds of Life" was published in October 1953 in _ Fantastic Universe _ under byline Richard Phillipps, apparently because the magazine had a policy against publishing multiple stories by the same author in the same issue; " Planet for Transients" was published in the same issue under his own name.

The short story " Orpheus with Clay Feet " was published under the pen name Jack Dowland. The protagonist desires to be the muse for fictional author Jack Dowland, considered the greatest science fiction author of the 20th century. In the story, Dowland publishes a short story titled "Orpheus with Clay Feet" under the pen name Philip K. Dick.

The surname Dowland refers to Renaissance composer John Dowland , who is featured in several works. The title _Flow My Tears, the Policeman Said _ directly refers to Dowland's best-known composition, "Flow My Tears". In the novel _ The Divine Invasion _, the character Linda Fox, created specifically with Linda Ronstadt in mind, is an intergalactically famous singer whose entire body of work consists of recordings of John Dowland compositions.

SELECTED WORKS

For complete bibliography, see Philip K. Dick bibliography .

_ The Man in the High Castle _ (1962) is set in an alternate history in which the United States is ruled by the victorious Axis powers . It is the only Dick novel to win a Hugo Award . Most recently this has been adapted into a television series provided by Amazon and available through Amazon Prime video.

_ The Three Stigmata of Palmer Eldritch _ (1965) utilizes an array of science fiction concepts and features several layers of reality and unreality. It is also one of Dick's first works to explore religious themes. The novel takes place in the 21st century, when, under UN authority, mankind has colonized the Solar System 's every habitable planet and moon . Life is physically daunting and psychologically monotonous for most colonists, so the UN must draft people to go to the colonies. Most entertain themselves using "Perky Pat" dolls and accessories manufactured by Earth-based "P.P. Layouts". The company also secretly creates "Can-D", an illegal but widely available hallucinogenic drug allowing the user to "translate" into Perky Pat (if the drug user is a woman) or Pat's boyfriend, Walt (if the drug user is a man). This recreational use of Can-D allows colonists to experience a few minutes of an idealized life on Earth by participating in a collective hallucination.

_ Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? _ (1968) is the story of a bounty hunter policing the local android population. It occurs on a dying, poisoned Earth de-populated of almost all animals and all "successful" humans; the only remaining inhabitants of the planet are people with no prospects off-world. The 1968 novel is the literary source of the film _ Blade Runner _ (1982). It is both a conflation and an intensification of the pivotally Dickian question: What is real, what is fake? What crucial factor defines humanity as distinctly "alive", versus those merely alive only in their outward appearance?

_ Ubik _ (1969) employs extensive psychic telepathy and a suspended state after death in creating a state of eroding reality. A group of psychics is sent to investigate a rival organisation, but several of them are apparently killed by a saboteur's bomb. Much of the following novel flicks between a number of equally plausible realities; the "real" reality, a state of half-life and psychically manipulated realities. In 2005, _Time _ magazine listed it among the "All-TIME 100 Greatest Novels" published since 1923.

_ Flow My Tears, the Policeman Said _ (1974) concerns Jason Taverner, a television star living in a dystopian near-future police state . After being attacked by an angry ex-girlfriend, Taverner awakens in a dingy Los Angeles hotel room. He still has his money in his wallet, but his identification cards are missing. This is no minor inconvenience, as security checkpoints (manned by "pols" and "nats", the police and National Guard) are set up throughout the city to stop and arrest anyone without valid ID. Jason at first thinks that he was robbed, but soon discovers that his entire identity has been erased. There is no record of him in any official database, and even his closest associates do not recognize or remember him. For the first time in many years, Jason has no fame or reputation to rely on. He has only his innate charm and social graces to help him as he tries to find out what happened to his past while avoiding the attention of the pols. The novel was Dick's first published novel after years of silence, during which time his critical reputation had grown, and this novel was awarded the John W. Campbell Memorial Award for Best Science Fiction Novel . It is the only Philip K. Dick novel nominated for both a Hugo and a Nebula Award .

In an essay written two years before his death, Dick described how he learned from his Episcopalian priest that an important scene in _Flow My Tears, the Policeman Said _ – involving its other main character, the eponymous Police General Felix Buckman, was very similar to a scene in _ Acts of the Apostles _, a book of the Christian New Testament . Film director Richard Linklater discusses this novel in his film _ Waking Life _, which begins with a scene reminiscent of another Dick novel, _ Time Out of Joint _.

_ A Scanner Darkly _ (1977) is a bleak mixture of science fiction and police procedural novels; in its story, an undercover narcotics police detective begins to lose touch with reality after falling victim to the same permanently mind-altering drug, Substance D, he was enlisted to help fight. Substance D is instantly addictive, beginning with a pleasant euphoria which is quickly replaced with increasing confusion, hallucinations and eventually total psychosis. In this novel, as with all Dick novels, there is an underlying thread of paranoia and dissociation with multiple realities perceived simultaneously. It was adapted to film by Richard Linklater .

_ The Philip K. Dick Reader _ is an introduction to the variety of Dick's short fiction.

_ VALIS _ (1980) is perhaps Dick's most postmodern and autobiographical novel , examining his own unexplained experiences. It may also be his most academically studied work, and was adapted as an opera by Tod Machover . Later works like the VALIS trilogy were heavily autobiographical, many with "two-three-seventy-four" (2-3-74) references and influences. The word VALIS is the acronym for _Vast Active Living Intelligence System_. Later, Dick theorized that VALIS was both a "reality generator" and a means of extraterrestrial communication. A fourth VALIS manuscript, _Radio Free Albemuth_, although composed in 1976, was posthumously published in 1985. This work is described by the publisher (Arbor House) as "an introduction and key to his magnificent VALIS trilogy."

Regardless of the feeling that he was somehow experiencing a divine communication, Dick was never fully able to rationalize the events. For the rest of his life, he struggled to comprehend what was occurring, questioning his own sanity and perception of reality. He transcribed what thoughts he could into an eight-thousand-page, one-million-word journal dubbed the _Exegesis _. From 1974 until his death in 1982, Dick spent many nights writing in this journal. A recurring theme in _Exegesis_ is Dick's hypothesis that history had been stopped in the first century AD, and that "the Empire never ended". He saw Rome as the pinnacle of materialism and despotism , which, after forcing the Gnostics underground, had kept the population of Earth enslaved to worldly possessions. Dick believed that VALIS had communicated with him, and anonymous others, to induce the impeachment of U.S. President Richard Nixon , whom Dick believed to be the current Emperor of Rome incarnate.

In a 1968 essay titled "Self Portrait", collected in the 1995 book _The Shifting Realities of Philip K. Dick_, Dick reflects on his work and lists which books he feels "might escape World War Three": _Eye in the Sky _, _ The Man in the High Castle _, _ Martian Time-Slip _, _Dr. Bloodmoney, or How We Got Along After the Bomb _, _ The Zap Gun _, _The Penultimate Truth _, _ The Simulacra _, _The Three Stigmata of Palmer Eldritch _ (which he refers to as "the most vital of them all"), _Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? _, and _ Ubik _. In a 1976 interview, Dick cited _A Scanner Darkly_ as his best work, feeling that he "had finally written a true masterpiece, after 25 years of writing".

ADAPTATIONS

Main article: List of adaptations of works by Philip K. Dick

Films

A number of Dick's stories have been made into films. Dick himself wrote a screenplay for an intended film adaptation of _ Ubik _ in 1974, but the film was never made. Many film adaptations have not used Dick's original titles. When asked why this was, Dick's ex-wife Tessa said, "Actually, the books rarely carry Phil's original titles, as the editors usually wrote new titles after reading his manuscripts. Phil often commented that he couldn't write good titles. If he could, he would have been an advertising writer instead of a novelist." Films based on Dick's writing had accumulated a total revenue of over US $1 billion by 2009.

* _ Blade Runner _ (1982), based on Dick's 1968 novel _Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? _, directed by Ridley Scott and starring Harrison Ford . A screenplay had been in the works for years before Scott took the helm, with Dick being extremely critical of all versions. Dick was still apprehensive about how his story would be adapted for the film when the project was finally put into motion. Among other things, he refused to do a novelization of the film. But contrary to his initial reactions, when he was given an opportunity to see some of the special effects sequences of Los Angeles 2019, Dick was amazed that the environment was "exactly as how I'd imagined it!", though Ridley Scott has mentioned he had never even read the source material. Following the screening, Dick and Scott had a frank but cordial discussion of _Blade Runner's_ themes and characters, and although they had wildly differing views, Dick fully backed the film from then on, stating that his "life and creative work are justified and completed by _Blade Runner_." Dick died from a stroke less than four months before the release of the film. * _Total Recall _ (1990), based on the short story "We Can Remember It for You Wholesale ", directed by Paul Verhoeven and starring Arnold Schwarzenegger . The film includes such Dickian elements as the confusion of fantasy and reality, the progression towards more fantastic elements as the story progresses, machines talking back to humans, and the protagonist's doubts about his own identity. * _Confessions d\'un Barjo _ (1992), titled _Barjo_ in its English-language release, a French film based on the non-science-fiction novel _ Confessions of a Crap Artist _. Reflecting Dick's popularity and critical respect in France, a brief science fiction homage is slipped into the film in the form of a TV show. * _ Screamers _ (1995), based on the short story " Second Variety ", directed by Christian Duguay and starring Peter Weller . The location was altered from a war-devastated Earth to a distant planet. A sequel, titled _Screamers: The Hunting _, was released straight to DVD in 2009. * _ Minority Report _ (2002), based on the short story "The Minority Report ", directed by Steven Spielberg and starring Tom Cruise . The film translates many of Dick's themes, but changes major plot points and adds an action-adventure framework. * _Impostor _ (2002), based on the 1953 story "Impostor ," directed by Gary Fleder and starring Gary Sinise , Vincent D\'Onofrio and Madeleine Stowe . The story was also adapted in 1962 for the British television anthology series _Out of This World _. * _Paycheck _ (2003), directed by John Woo and starring Ben Affleck , based on Dick's short story of the same name . * _ A Scanner Darkly _ (2006), directed by Richard Linklater and starring Keanu Reeves , Winona Ryder , and Robert Downey Jr. , based on Dick's novel of the same name . The film was produced using the process of rotoscoping : it was first shot in live-action and then the live footage was animated over. * _Next _ (2007), directed by Lee Tamahori and starring Nicolas Cage , loosely based on the short story " The Golden Man ". * _ Radio Free Albemuth _ (2010), directed by John Alan Simon loosely based on the novel " Radio Free Albemuth ". * _ The Adjustment Bureau _ (2011), directed by George Nolfi and starring Matt Damon , loosely based on the short story "Adjustment Team ". * _Total Recall _ (2012), directed by Len Wiseman and starring Colin Farrell , second film adaptation of the short story "We Can Remember It for You Wholesale ".

Future films based on Dick's writing include an animated adaptation of _ The King of the Elves _ from Walt Disney Animation Studios , set to be released in the spring of 2016; and a film adaptation of _Ubik_ which, according to Dick's daughter, Isa Dick Hackett, is in advanced negotiation. Ubik is set to be made into a film by Michel Gondry . In 2014, however, writer/director Gondry told French outlet Telerama (via Jeux Actu), that he was no longer working on the project.

The _Terminator _ series prominently features the theme of humanoid assassination machines first portrayed in _Second Variety_. The Halcyon Company , known for developing the _Terminator _ franchise, acquired right of first refusal to film adaptations of the works of Philip K. Dick in 2007. In May 2009, they announced plans for an adaptation of _ Flow My Tears, the Policeman Said _.

Television

It was reported in 2010 that Ridley Scott would produce an adaptation of _ The Man in the High Castle _ for the BBC, in the form of a mini-series. A pilot episode was released on Amazon Prime in January 2015 and Season 1 was fully released in ten episodes of about 60 minutes each on 20 Nov 2015.

In late 2015, Fox aired _ The Minority Report _, a sequel adaptation to the 2002 film of the same name based on Dick's 1956 short story " The Minority Report ".

In May 2016, it was announced that a 10-part anthology series was in the works. Titled _ Philip K. Dick’s Electric Dreams _, the series will be distributed by Sony Pictures Television and will premiere on Channel 4 in the United Kingdom and Amazon Video in the United States . It will be written by executive producers Ronald D. Moore and Michael Dinner and will star Bryan Cranston , also an executive producer.

Stage And Radio

Four of Dick's works have been adapted for the stage.

One was the opera _VALIS_, composed and with libretto by Tod Machover , which premiered at the Pompidou Center in Paris on December 1, 1987, with a French libretto. It was subsequently revised and readapted into English, and was recorded and released on CD (Bridge Records BCD9007) in 1988.

Another was _ Flow My Tears, the Policeman Said _, adapted by Linda Hartinian and produced by the New York-based avant-garde company Mabou Mines . It premiered in Boston at the Boston Shakespeare Theatre (June 18–30, 1985) and was subsequently staged in New York and Chicago. Productions of _Flow My Tears, the Policeman Said_ were also staged by the Evidence Room in Los Angeles in 1999 and by the Fifth Column Theatre Company at the Oval House Theatre in London in the same year.

A play based on _ Radio Free Albemuth _ also had a brief run in the 1980s.

In November 2010, a production of _Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? _, adapted by Edward Einhorn , premiered at the 3LD Art and Technology Center in Manhattan.

A radio drama adaptation of Dick's short story "Mr. Spaceship" was aired by the Finnish Broadcasting Company (Yleisradio) in 1996 under the name _Menolippu Paratiisiin_. Radio dramatizations of Dick's short stories _Colony_ and _The Defenders_ were aired by NBC in 1956 as part of the series _ X Minus One _.

In January 2006 The Three Stigmata of Palmer Eldritch (English for Trzy stygmaty Palmera Eldritcha) theatre adaptation premiered in polish Stary Teatr in Cracov, interestingly with an extensive use of lights and laser choreography.

Comics

Marvel Comics adapted Dick's short story " The Electric Ant " as a limited series which was released in 2009. The comic was produced by writer David Mack (_Daredevil _) and artist Pascal Alixe (_Ultimate X-Men _), with covers provided by artist Paul Pope . "The Electric Ant " had earlier been loosely adapted by Frank Miller and Geof Darrow in their 3-issue mini-series _ Hard Boiled _ published by Dark Horse Comics in 1990-1992.

In 2009, BOOM! Studios started publishing a 24-issue miniseries comic book adaptation of _ Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? _ _Blade Runner _, the 1982 film adapted from _Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?_, had previously been adapted to comics as _A Marvel Comics Super Special: Blade Runner _.

In 2011, Dynamite Entertainment published a 4-issue miniseries "Total Recall," a sequel to the 1990 film _Total Recall _, inspired by Philip K. Dick's short story " We Can Remember It for You Wholesale ". In 1990, DC Comics published the official adaptation of the original film as a _DC Movie Special: Total Recall_.

ALTERNATE FORMATS

In response to a 1975 request from the National Library for the Blind for permission to make use of _ The Man in the High Castle _, Dick responded, "I also grant you a general permission to transcribe any of my former, present or future work, so indeed you can add my name to your 'general permission' list." A number of his books and stories are available in braille and other specialized formats through the NLS.

Wikisource has original text related to this article: PHILIP K. DICK

As of December 2012, thirteen of Philip K. Dick's early works in the public domain in the United States are available in ebook form from Project Gutenberg . As of April 4, 2012, Wikisource has one of Philip K. Dick's early works in the public domain in the United States available in ebook form which is not from Project Gutenberg.

INFLUENCE AND LEGACY

Lawrence Sutin 's 1989 biography of Dick, _Divine Invasions: A Life of Philip K. Dick_, is considered the standard biographical treatment of Dick's life.

In 1993, French writer Emmanuel Carrère published _Je suis vivant et vous êtes morts_ which was first translated and published in English in 2004 as _I Am Alive and You Are Dead: A Journey Into the Mind of Philip K. Dick_, which the author describes in his preface in this way:

The book you hold in your hands is a very peculiar book. I have tried to depict the life of Philip K. Dick from the inside, in other words, with the same freedom and empathy – indeed with the same truth – with which he depicted his own characters.

Critics of the book have complained about the lack of fact checking, sourcing, notes and index, "the usual evidence of deep research that gives a biography the solid stamp of authority." It can be considered a non-fiction novel about his life.

Dick has influenced many writers, including Jonathan Lethem , and Ursula K. Le Guin . The prominent literary critic Fredric Jameson proclaimed Dick the " Shakespeare of Science Fiction", and praised his work as "one of the most powerful expressions of the society of spectacle and pseudo-event". The author Roberto Bolaño also praised Dick, describing him as "Thoreau plus the death of the American dream". Dick has also influenced filmmakers, his work being compared to films such as the Wachowskis ' _ The Matrix _, David Cronenberg 's _ Videodrome _, _eXistenZ _, and _Spider _, Spike Jonze 's _Being John Malkovich _, _Adaptation _, Michel Gondry 's _Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind _, Alex Proyas 's _Dark City _, Peter Weir 's _ The Truman Show _, Andrew Niccol 's _ Gattaca _, _In Time _, Terry Gilliam 's _12 Monkeys _, Wes Craven 's _ A Nightmare on Elm Street _, David Lynch 's _Mulholland Drive _, Alejandro Amenábar 's _Open Your Eyes _, David Fincher 's _ Fight Club _, Cameron Crowe 's _ Vanilla Sky _, Darren Aronofsky 's _Pi _, Richard Kelly 's _Donnie Darko _ and _ Southland Tales _, Rian Johnson 's _Looper_ , Duncan Jones ' _ Source Code _, and Christopher Nolan 's _Memento _ and _ Inception _.

The Philip K. Dick Society was an organization dedicated to promoting the literary works of Dick and was led by Dick's longtime friend and music journalist Paul Williams . Williams also served as Dick's literary executor for several years after Dick's death and wrote one of the first biographies of Dick, entitled _Only Apparently Real: The World of Philip K. Dick_.

The Philip K. Dick estate owns and operates the production company Electric Shepherd Productions, which has produced the films _ Adjustment Bureau _ (2011) and the upcoming Walt Disney Company film _King of the Elves_, the TV series _ The Man in the High Castle _ and also a Marvel Comics 5-issue adaptation of _Electric Ant_.

Dick was recreated by his fans in the form of a simulacrum or remote-controlled android designed in his likeness. Such simulacra had been themes of many of Dick's works. The Philip K. Dick simulacrum was included on a discussion panel in a San Diego Comic Con presentation about the film adaptation of the novel, _A Scanner Darkly _. In February 2006, an America West Airlines employee misplaced the android's head, and it has not yet been found. In January 2011, it was announced that Hanson Robotics had built a replacement.

FILM

* BBC2 released in 1994 a biographical documentary as part of its _Arena _ arts series called _Philip K. Dick: A Day in the Afterlife_. * _The Gospel According to Philip K. Dick_ was a documentary film produced in 2001. * _ The Penultimate Truth About Philip K. Dick_ was another biographical documentary film produced in 2007. * The 1987 film _The Trouble with Dick_, in which Tom Villard plays a character named "Dick Kendred" (cf. Philip Kindred Dick), who is a science fiction author * The dialogue of Nikos Nikolaidis ' 1987 film _ Morning Patrol _ contains excerpts taken from published works authored by Philip K. Dick. * The Spanish feature film _ Próxima _ (2007) by Carlos Atanes , where the character _Felix Cadecq_ is based on Dick * A 2008 film titled _ Your Name Here _, by Matthew Wilder , features Bill Pullman as science fiction author William J. Frick, a character based on Dick * The 2010 science fiction film _ 15 Till Midnight _ cites Dick's influence with an "acknowledgment to the works of" credit. * Prophets of Science Fiction Philip K Dick. 2011 Documentary * In 2013, a Kickstarter campaign was set up for a short film called The Crystal Crypt, based on Dick's short story of the same name .

IN FICTION

* Michael Bishop 's _The Secret Ascension_ (1987; currently published as _ Philip K. Dick Is Dead, Alas_), which is set in an alternative universe where his non-genre work is published but his science fiction is banned by a totalitarian United States in thrall to a demonically possessed Richard Nixon . * The Faction Paradox novel _Of the City of the Saved..._ (2004) by Philip Purser-Hallard * the short story "The Transmigration of Philip K" (1984) by Michael Swanwick (to be found in the 1991 collection _Gravity\'s Angels _) * In Ursula K. Le Guin 's 1971 novel _ The Lathe of Heaven _, whose characters alter reality through their dreams. Two made-for-TV films based on the novel have been made: _ The Lathe of Heaven _ (1980) and _Lathe of Heaven _ (2002) * In Thomas M. Disch 's _The Word of God_ (2008) * The comics magazine Weirdo published "The Religious Experience of Philip K. Dick" by artist R. Crumb in 1986. Though this is not an adaptation of a specific book or story by Dick, it incorporates elements of Dick's experience which he related in short stories, novels, essays, and the _Exegesis _. The story parodies the form of a Chick tract , a type of evangelical comic, many of which relate the story of an epiphany leading to a conversion to fundamentalist Christianity . * In the _ Batman Beyond _ episode "Sentries of the Last Cosmos", the character Eldon Michaels claims a typewriter on his desk to have belonged to Philip K. Dick. * In the Japanese science fiction anime _ Psycho-Pass _, Dick's works are referred to as recommended reading material to help reflect on the current state of affairs of those characters world. * The 2016 video game _Californium _ was developed as a tribute to Philip K. Dick and his writings to coincide with an Arte 's documentary series. * The short film trilogy _Code 7_ written and directed by Nacho Vigalondo starts with the line " Philip K. Dick presents". The story also contains some other references to Philip K. Dick's body of work.

MUSIC

* "Flow My Tears" is the name of an instrumental by bassist Stuart Hamm , inspired by Dick's novel of the same name. The track is found on his album _ Radio Free Albemuth _, also named after a Dick novel. * "Flow My Tears, The Policeman Said" and other seminal Ph. K. Dick novels inspired the electronic music concept album "_The Dowland Shores of Philip K. Dick's Universe_" by Levente * "Flow My Tears the Spider Said" is the final song on They Were Wrong, So We Drowned , the second album by experimental Los Angeles punk-rock outfit Liars . * "Listen to the Sirens", the first song on Tubeway Army 's 1978 debut album has as its first line "flow my tears, the new police song". * American rapper and producer El-P is a noted fan of Dick and other science fiction, as many of Dick's themes, such as paranoia and questions about the nature of reality, feature in El-P's work. A song on the 2002 album _ Fantastic Damage _ is titled "T.O.J." and the chorus makes reference to the Dick work _ Time Out of Joint _. * English singer Hugh Cornwell included an instrumental called "Philip K. Ridiculous" on his 2008 album "Hooverdam". * The World/Inferno Friendship Society 's 2011 album _The Anarchy and the Ecstasy _ includes a song entitled "Canonize Philip K. Dick, OK". * Bloc Party 's 2012 album _Four _ contains several references to Dick's work, including a song entitled "V.A.L.I.S.". * German singer Pohlmann included a song called "Roy Batty (In Tribute to Philip K. Dick)" on his 2013 album _Nix ohne Grund_. * Sister , a Sonic Youth album, "was in part inspired by the life and works of science fiction writer Philip K. Dick." * "What You See" is a song by Faded Paper Figures that pays homage to the literary work of Dick. * Janelle Monáe 's song "Make the Bus" in her album _The ArchAndroid _ has the lyrics "You've got 'Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?' under your pillow" at the end of the first stanza. * Blind Guardian 's song "Time What is Time" from the 1992 album "Somewhere Far Beyond" is loosely based on the book "Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?".

THEATER

* The short play _Kindred Blood in Kensington Gore_ (1992) by Brian W. Aldiss * A 2005 play, _800 Words: the Transmigration of Philip K. Dick_ by Victoria Stewart, which re-imagines Dick's final days.

CONTEMPORARY PHILOSOPHY

Postmodernists such as Jean Baudrillard , Fredric Jameson , Laurence Rickels and Slavoj Žižek have commented on Dick's writing's foreshadowing of postmodernity. Jean Baudrillard offers this interpretation:

It is hyperreal. It is a universe of simulation, which is something altogether different. And this is so not because Dick speaks specifically of simulacra. SF has always done so, but it has always played upon the double, on artificial replication or imaginary duplication, whereas here the double has disappeared. There is no more double; one is always already in the other world, an other world which is not another, without mirrors or projection or utopias as means for reflection. The simulation is impassable, unsurpassable, checkmated, without exteriority. We can no longer move "through the mirror" to the other side, as we could during the golden age of transcendence.

For his anti-government skepticism, Philip K. Dick was afforded minor mention in _Mythmakers and Lawbreakers_, a collection of interviews about fiction by anarchist authors. Noting his early authorship of " The Last of the Masters ", an anarchist-themed novelette, author Margaret Killjoy expressed that while Dick never fully sided with anarchism , his opposition to government centralization and organized religion has influenced anarchist interpretations of gnosticism .

AWARDS AND HONORS

The Science Fiction Hall of Fame inducted Dick in 2005.

During his lifetime he received numerous annual literary awards and nominations for particular works.

* Hugo Awards

* Best Novel

* 1963 – WINNER: _ The Man in the High Castle _ * 1975 – nominee: _ Flow My Tears, the Policeman Said _

* Best Novelette

* 1968 – nominee: _Faith of Our Fathers _

* Nebula Awards

* Best Novel

* 1965 – nominee: _ Dr. Bloodmoney _ * 1965 – nominee: _ The Three Stigmata of Palmer Eldritch _ * 1968 – nominee: _ Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? _ * 1974 – nominee: _ Flow My Tears, the Policeman Said _ * 1982 – nominee: _ The Transmigration of Timothy Archer _

* John W. Campbell Memorial Award

* Best Novel

* 1975 – WINNER: _ Flow My Tears, the Policeman Said _

* British Science Fiction Association Award

* Best Novel

* 1978 – WINNER: _ A Scanner Darkly _

* Graoully d'Or (Festival de Metz, France)

* 1979 – WINNER: _ A Scanner Darkly _

* Kurd-Laßwitz-Preis

* 1985 – WINNER _ VALIS _

PHILIP K. DICK AWARD

Main article: Philip K. Dick Award

The Philip K. Dick Award is a science fiction award that annually recognizes the previous year's best SF paperback original published in the U.S. It is conferred at Norwescon , sponsored by the Philadelphia Science Fiction Society , and since 2005 supported by the Philip K. Dick Trust. Winning works are identified on their covers as _Best Original SF Paperback_. It is currently administered by David G. Hartwell and Gordon Van Gelder .

The award was inaugurated in 1983, the year after Dick's death. It was founded by Thomas Disch with assistance from David G. Hartwell, Paul S. Williams, and Charles N. Brown. Past administrators include Algis J. Budrys and David Alexander Smith.

SEE ALSO

* Book: Philip K. Dick

* Consensus reality * Cyberpunk * Paranoid fiction * Transcendental idealism

* Speculative fiction portal * Literature portal

REFERENCES

For secondary bibliography, see Philip K. Dick bibliography § Book-length critical studies .

* ^ Liukkonen, Petri. "Philip K. Dick". _Books and Writers_ (kirjasto.sci.fi). Finland: Kuusankoski Public Library. Archived from the original on April 25, 2007. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "1963 Award Winners & Nominees". _Worlds Without End_. Retrieved June 26, 2009. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ "1975 Award Winners & Nominees". _Worlds Without End_. Retrieved June 26, 2009. * ^ Behrens, Richard; Allen B. Ruch (March 21, 2003). "Philip K. Dick". _The Scriptorium_. The Modern Word. Retrieved April 14, 2008. * ^ Kimbell, Keith. "Ranked: Movies Based on Philip K. Dick Stories". Metacritic. Retrieved November 20, 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ Grossman, Lev (October 16, 2005). " Ubik – ALL-TIME 100 Novels". _Time _. Retrieved April 14, 2008. * ^ Stoffman, Judy "A milestone in literary heritage" _Toronto Star _ (February 10, 2007) * ^ Library of America Philip K. Dick: Four Novels of the 1960s * ^ Library of America H.P. Lovecraft: Tales * ^ Associated Press "Library of America to issue volume of Philip K. Dick" _ USA Today _ (November 28, 2006) * ^ _A_ _B_ Kucukalic, Lejla (2008). _Philip K. Dick: canonical writer of the digital age_. Taylor and Francis. p. 27. ISBN 0-415-96242-0 . * ^ Sutin, Lawrence (2003). "Philip K. Dick". _Author – Official Biography_. Philip K. Dick Trust. Archived from the original on April 10, 2008. Retrieved April 14, 2008. * ^ The Search for Philip K Dick by Anne R Dick, Tachyon Publications 2010 * ^ Vitale, Joe. "Interview with Philip K. Dick". _Philip K. Dick – Official Site_. Archived from the original on April 8, 2012. Retrieved 2012-05-06. * ^ _A_ _B_ Sutin p.3 * ^ _A_ _B_ Dick, Philip K. "An Interview With America's Most Brilliant Science-Fiction Writer" Interview by Joe Vitale. Interview With Philip K Dick. Print Interviews. Web. 22 Oct. 2011. * ^ Sutin, p. 53 * ^ _A_ _B_ Philip K. Dick at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database (ISFDB). Retrieved April 23, 2013. Select a title to see its linked publication history and general information. Select a particular edition (title) for more data at that level, such as a front cover image or linked contents. * ^ http://www.empireonline.com/movies/features/philip-k-dick-man-movies/ * ^ Butler, Andrew M. (24 May 2012). _The Pocket Essential Philip K. Dick_. Oldcastle Books. Retrieved 26 June 2015. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Cameron, R. Graeme (20 June 2014). "Mad Flight of a Manic Phoenix, or: Philip K. Dick in Vancouver (1972)". _Amazing Stories _. Retrieved 26 June 2015. * ^ Purser-Hallard, Philip (August 11, 2006). "The drugs did work" – via The Guardian. * ^ Admin, System (2012-03-30). "Philip K Dick and the Vesica Piscis « From Around The Web « Mindscape magazine". Mindscapemagazine.com. Retrieved 2013-11-12. * ^ "Prophets of Science Fiction: Philip K. Dick". The Science Channel. Aired Wednesday, November 17th, 2011. * ^ _A_ _B_ Platt, Charles (1980). _Dream Makers: The Uncommon People Who Write Science Fiction_. Berkley Publishing. ISBN 0-425-04668-0 . * ^ http://www.empireonline.com/movies/features/philip-k-dick-man-movies/ * ^ Dick, Philip K. 'The Selected Letters of Philip K. Dick: 1974', Underwood-Miller, 1991, p. 235 * ^ _A_ _B_ "The Religious Affiliation of Science Fiction Writer Philip K. Dick". _Famous Science Fiction Writers / Famous Episcopalians_. Adherents.com. July 25, 2005. Retrieved April 14, 2008. * ^ Sutin, pp. 83–84 * ^ "Writers and Editors War Tax Protest". _ New York Post _. January 30, 1968. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Carrère, Emmanuel (2004). _I Am Alive and You Are Dead: A Journey Into the Mind of Philp K. Dick_. New York: Metropolitan Books. ISBN 0-8050-5464-2 . * ^ Sutin, pg.289 * ^ "Find A Grave: Philip K. Dick". * ^ The Collected Stories Of Philip K. Dick, Volume 1, _The Short Happy Life of the Brown Oxford _, (1990), Citadel Twilight, p. xvi, ISBN 0-8065-1153-2 * ^ _A_ _B_ "Criticism and analysis". Gale Research. 1996. Archived from the original on March 7, 2007. Retrieved April 20, 2007. * ^ A Conversation With Philip K. Dick Archived May 11, 2012, at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Dick, Philip K. (1985). _I Hope I Shall Arrive Soon_. Doubleday . p. 2. ISBN 0-385-19567-2 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Sutin, npg * ^ _A_ _B_ Williams, Paul (November 6, 1975). "The Most Brilliant Sci-Fi Mind on Any Planet: Philip K. Dick" (PDF). _Rolling Stone_. Retrieved November 10, 2014. * ^ Link, Eric Carl (2010). _Understanding Philip K. Dick_. University of South Carolina Press . p. 48. ISBN 978-1-57003-855-6 . * ^ Link, Eric Carl (2010). _Understanding Philip K. Dick_. University of South Carolina Press. pp. 48–101. ISBN 978-1-57003-855-6 . * ^ Levack, Daniel (1981). _PKD: A Philip K. Dick Bibliography_, Underwood/Miller , pp. 116, 126 ISBN 0-934438-33-1 * ^ ^ Sammon, Paul M. (1996). Future Noir: the Making of Blade Runner. London: Orion Media. p. 49. ISBN 0-06-105314-7 . * ^ Dick, Philip K. (1997). _ Philip K. Dick Reader, The_. New York, NY: Citadel Press. ISBN 0-8065-1856-1 . * ^ Machover, Tod . "Valis CD". MIT Media Lab . Archived from the original on March 12, 2008. Retrieved April 14, 2008. * ^ Philip K. Dick, "Self Portrait", 1968, (_The Shifting Realities of Philip K. Dick_, 1995) * ^ AN INTERVIEW WITH PHILIP K. DICK Archived May 11, 2012, at the Wayback Machine . Daniel DePerez, September 10, 1976, Science Fiction Review, No. 19, Vol. 5, no. 3, August 1976 Archived May 11, 2012, at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Knight, Annie; John T. Cullen; the staff of Deep Outside SFFH (November 2002). "About Philip K. Dick: An interview with Tessa, Chris, and Ranea Dick". _Deep Outside SFFH_. Far Sector SFFH. Retrieved April 14, 2008. * ^ " Philip K. Dick Films". Philip K. Dick Trust. August 11, 2009. Archived from the original on August 22, 2010. Retrieved September 3, 2010. * ^ Kermode, Mark (July 15, 2000). _On the Edge of Bladerunner_ (TV documentary). UK: Channel 4. * ^ Dick, Philip K. "Letter to Jeff Walker regarding "Blade Runner"". Archived from the original on December 13, 2003. Retrieved 31 May 2016. * ^ Roberts, Randall. "calendarlive.com". calendarlive.com. Archived from the original on December 11, 2007. Retrieved November 12, 2013. * ^ " Ubik (2010) - Preview". Sci-Fi Movie Page. Retrieved 2013-11-12. * ^ Philip K. Dick\'s \'Flow My Tears, the Policeman Said\' Being Adapted Alex Billington, FirstShowing.net, May 12, 2009 * ^ Sweney, Mark (October 7, 2010). " Ridley Scott to return to work of sci-fi icon for BBC mini-series: Blade Runner director to executive produce four-part BBC1 adaptation of Philip K Dick\'s The Man in the High Castle". _The Observer_. * ^ "Amazon.com: The Man In The High Castle – Season 1: Alexa Davalos, Rupert Evans, Luke Kleintank, DJ Qualls, Joel De La Fuente, Cary Hiroyuki-Tagawa, Rufus Sewell, David Semel, Daniel Percival, Ken Olin, Michael Rymer, Bryan Spicer, Nelson Mccormick, Brad Anderson, Karyn Kusama, Michael Slovis, Frank Spotnitz, Thomas Schnauz, Evan Wright, Jace Richdale, Rob Williams, Emma Frost, Walon Green, Ridley Scott, David W. Zucker, Isa Dick Hackett, Christopher Tricarico, Stewart Mackinnon, Chrtistian Baute, Richard Heus, Dan Percival, Jordan Sheehan, Kalen Egan, Erin Smith, Philip K. Dick". * ^ Cynthia Littleton. "Amazon Grabs U.S. Rights to Bryan Cranston’s ‘Philip K. Dick’s Electric Dreams’ Anthology Series". _Variety_. * ^ Lodderhose, Diana (May 10, 2016). " Bryan Cranston to Star in Philip K. Dick Series From \'Outlander\'s\' Ron Moore". _variety.com_. Retrieved May 11, 2016. * ^ "evidEnce room – past productions". * ^ Foley, Kathleen (April 22, 1999). "\'Flow My Tears\' Has Hallucinatory Style". _ Los Angeles Times_. Retrieved May 28, 2012. * ^ "Archived NTK email newsletter from 11 June 1999". Ntk.net. Retrieved 2013-11-12. * ^ Zinoman, Jason (December 3, 2010). "A Test for Humanity in a Post-Apocalyptic World". _ The New York Times _. * ^ "The Defenders". _Project Gutenberg_. * ^ "Przedstawienie Trzy stygmaty Palmera Eldritcha". encyklopediateatru.pl. Retrieved 2016-10-10. * ^ "Trzy stygmaty Palmera Eldritcha – Stary Teatr". krakow.wyborcza.pl. Retrieved 2016-10-10. * ^ "MARVEL BRINGS PHILIP K DICK’S ELECTRIC ANT TO LIFE IN NEW SERIES". philipkdick.com. July 24, 2008. Archived from the original on August 12, 2012. * ^ SDCC 08: PHILIP K. DICK COMES TO MARVEL www.ign.com * ^ Philip K. Dick Press Release – BOOM! ANNOUNCES DO ANDROIDS DREAM OF ELECTRIC SHEEP? Archived September 20, 2012, at the Wayback Machine . * ^ TOTAL RECALL #1 (OF 4) www.dynamite.com * ^ Total Recall #1 www.comicvine.com * ^ The Selected Letters of Philip K. Dick, 1975–1976. Novato, California : Underwood-Miller, 1993 (Trade edition) ISBN 0-88733-111-4 p. 240 * ^ "Home Page of the National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped (NLS)". Loc.gov. 2013-10-28. Retrieved 2013-11-12. * ^ O'Hagen, Sean (June 12, 2005). "What a clever Dick". _The Observer_. UK. Retrieved April 15, 2008. * ^ Taylor, Charles (June 20, 2004). "Just Imagine Philip K. Dick". _ The New York Times _. Retrieved April 15, 2008. * ^ Berry, Michael (July 4, 2004). "The dead no longer lie in grave silence". _San Francisco Chronicle_. Retrieved April 15, 2008. * ^ Middlehurst, Charlotte. " Jonathan Lethem to Appear in Shanghai, _Time Out Shanghai _ (September 26, 2011) * ^ The SF Site Featured Review: The Lathe of Heaven, SF Site * ^ Fredric Jameson, _Archaeologies of the Future: The Desire Called Utopia and Other Science Fictions_, London and New York: Verso, 2005, p. 345; p. 347. * ^ Biography and Memoir Reviews. "Between Parentheses by Roberto Bolaño: review". Telegraph. Retrieved 2013-11-12. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ "Scriptorium – Philip K. Dick". Themodernword.com. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ How Hollywood woke up to a dark genius, The Daily Telegraph Archived November 11, 2014, at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Sal Cinquemani (September 25, 2004). "Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind". _Slant Magazine_. * ^ Peter Bradshaw. "Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind". _the Guardian_. * ^ "SDCC TRAILER: Timberlake and Seyfried on the run in IN TIME". Retrieved July 22, 2011. * ^ _A_ _B_ On Writers and Writing; It\'s Philip Dick\'s World, We Only Live in It, _ The New York Times _ * ^ " Alejandro Amenábar Fernando Cantos". Retrieved January 9, 2011. * ^ Philip K. Dick\'s Future Is Now, Washington Post * ^ Donnie Darko, Salon.com Archived July 3, 2009, at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Richard Kelly’s Revelations: Defending Southland Tales., Cinema Scope Archived September 10, 2011, at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Bryan Bishop (August 30, 2012). "Noir to near-future: \'Looper\' director Rian Johnson talks sci-fi, Twitter, and the fate of film". _The Verge_. Vox Media. * ^ Frank Rose (December 1, 2003). "The Second Coming of Philip K. Dick". _WIRED_. * ^ Could Inception trigger a new wave of sci-fi cinema?, Den of Geek * ^ "Boom! to Collect ‘Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?’". publishersweekly.com. July 7, 2015. Retrieved November 28, 2015. * ^ "Amazon\'s \'Man in the High Castle\' TV series has made Philip K. Dick\'s original book a bestseller". businessinsider.com. November 20, 2015. Retrieved November 28, 2015. * ^ "Dee Rees To Adapt Philip K. Dick’s ‘Martian Time-Slip’". deadline.com. October 17, 2013. Retrieved November 28, 2015. * ^ "About The Philip K. Dick Android Project: A Note from Laura and Isa" (Press release). Philip K. Dick Trust. June 24, 2005. Archived from the original on August 12, 2012. Retrieved April 14, 2008. * ^ _ Nova ScienceNow _, "Next Big Thing" * ^ "PKD Android". * ^ Waxman, Sharon (June 24, 2006). "A Strange Loss of Face, More Than Embarrassing". _ The New York Times _. Retrieved April 14, 2008. * ^ Lamar, Cyriaque (January 12, 2011). "The Lost Robotic Head of Philip K Dick Has Been Rebuilt". _io9 _. Retrieved January 12, 2011. * ^ timotheyido (April 9, 1994). ""Arena" Philip K Dick: A Day in the Afterlife (TV Episode 1994)". _IMDb_. * ^ _The Gospel According to Philip K. Dick_ on IMDb * ^ _ The Penultimate Truth About Philip K. Dick_ on IMDb * ^ _The Trouble With Dick_ on IMDb * ^ http://dictionnaire.sensagent.leparisien.fr/Proxima/en-en/ * ^ Koehler, Robert (July 7, 2008). "Review: ‘Your Name Here’". _Variety _. Retrieved April 3, 2014. * ^ Fischer, Martha (August 8, 2006). "Another Dick Biopic!". _ Moviefone _. Retrieved April 3, 2014. * ^ Buchanan, Jason. " Your Name Here (2008)". _ AllMovie _. Retrieved April 2, 2014. * ^ Kemp, Cal (June 17, 2008). "CineVegas X: Matthew Wilder Interview – \'Your Name Here\'". _Collider_. Retrieved April 2, 2014. * ^ IMDB "Full credits" * ^ ""Prophets of Science Fiction" Philip K. Dick (TV Episode 2011)". _IMDb_. November 23, 2011. * ^ "The Crystal Crypt". Kickstarter.com. Retrieved 2013-11-12. * ^ Disch, Thomas M. _The Word of God_. San Francisco:Tachyon, 2008 * ^ Kraw, Cassandra (13 November 2015). "Californium: A game about the many (sur)realities of Philip K. Dick". _ Ars Technica _. Retrieved 12 May 2016. * ^ http://www.imdb.com/title/tt5579182/ * ^ " Stuart Hamm "Radio Free Albemuth" – In Review – Guitar Nine". * ^ "The Dowland Shores of Philip K. Dick\'s Universe". _CD and digital download album release_. * ^ "Interviews". _Pitchfork_. * ^ " Hugh Cornwell – Interview". _www.pennyblackmusic.co.uk_. * ^ Foege, Alec (1994). _Confusion Is Next: The Sonic Youth Story_. St. Martin's Griffin. p. 163. * ^ "Core Member Profile Victoria Stewart". The Playwrights' Center. May 20, 2008. Archived from the original on May 20, 2008. Retrieved March 4, 2010. * ^ Myriam Díaz-Diocaretz, Stefan Herbrechter (2006). _The Matrix in theory_. Rodopi. p. 136. ISBN 978-90-420-1639-2 . * ^ Baudrillard, Jean. "\'Simulacra and Science Fiction\'". Science Fiction Studies. Retrieved May 26, 2007.