Phi Chi (ΦΧ) is one of the oldest and largest international medical fraternities of its kind in the world. Phi Chi evolved from the merging of two professional medical fraternities bearing the same name. Phi Chi Society (Phi Chi East) was founded on March 31, 1889, at the University of Vermont, Burlington, Vt. Phi Chi Medical Fraternity (Phi Chi South) was founded on October 26, 1894, at the Louisville Medical College, Louisville, Ky. These two organizations did not know that they shared a similar name when they were founded. On March 5, 1905, in Burlington, Vt., Phi Chi Society and Phi Chi Medical Fraternity, Inc., were consolidated taking the name Phi Chi Medical Fraternity, Inc.

Phi Chi has grown to become a co-ed, international, professional medical fraternity with chapters in 5 countries.

A Short History

Phi Chi Society of the East

The Eastern Fraternity was founded by Caleb Wakefield Clark on March 31, 1889, who called to his support Frederick Luther Osgood, Isaac Newton Fox and Alfred Judson Young, all of the class of 1889. According to a letter from Dr. Clark shortly before his death, “Phi Chi was not formed for purely social reasons and indeed, my aim and desire to bring about such an organization was primarily to get together and discuss thing medical and thus get more out of our college course. The new fraternity was to be established to give all possible aid in the dissemination of knowledge and information along medical lines and to broaden and uplift the minds of all; as I keenly felt the need of a society through which we could work and cooperate.”

In 1895, members from the University of Vermont met in Baltimore, Md and created the Beta Chapter in the Baltimore Medical College. In 1900, Gamma was chartered in the Maine Medical College under similar circumstances. In 1902 and 1903, Beta organized Delta and Theta in Baltimore. On February 26, 1904, Alpha Chapter called a convention of Phi Chi Society Chapters (A, B, Γ, Δ, Θ) to meet in Burlington, Vt. June 5, 1904, is the first convention of the Grand Chapter.

Phi Chi Medical Fraternity of the South

“October 26, 1894, at four o’clock, p.m., there assembled in the office of Doctor Clinton Kelly” of the faculty of the Louisville Medical College, “A. Harris Kelly, Samuel T. McClung, G. Fowler Border, Joseph N. Powers, George E. Gavin, Charles W. Hibbitt, and Linn L. Kennedy (all of whom became members of Alpha of the Southern Fraternity; now Alpha Alpha) for the purpose of organizing a fraternity.”

The growth of Phi Chi is a great monument to the spirit that urged the original group to unite and form a medical fraternity in a city where little was known of such societies. The first members of the Southern Fraternity consisted of the previously mentioned as well as Carey A. Gray and Walker B. Gossett.

On November 5, 1894, a committee was appointed to draft a constitution and not until November 17, was the first officers elected: Presiding Senior, McClung; Presiding Junior, Gossett; Secretary, Kennedy, and Powers, Treasurer (Judge Advocate and the minor officers had not been provided for). Wedding, Chapman and Shacklett were elected to membership and included with Gossett and Gray in the charter listing of members. The First Regular Meeting was held on Saturday, December 8, 1894. On December 29, 1894, D.A. Garrison, O. K. Harris, E. Rea Norris and A.P. Campbell were to complete the charter members.

Beta and Gamma chapters are installed in December 1896.

On February 26, 1897, the first Grand Chapter Convention of Southern Phi Chi Chapters (A, B, Γ, Δ) is called; this date later becomes Founder’s Day.

In 1898 Phi Chi expands out of the Louisville, KY.

The first volume of The Phi Chi Quarterly, the name of the official fraternal publication, is published on April 1, 1904 (the name is changed to The Phi Chi Chronicles in 1989).

Phi Chi Medical Fraternity

On March 5, 1905, Phi Chi Medical Fraternity (Southern Phi Chi) and Phi Chi Society (Eastern Phi Chi) are joined in Baltimore, MD, making Phi Chi the largest medical fraternity in America. Chapter names which conflicted during the joining were resolved by allowing the older chapter to retain its single name and the second chapter to have its name duplicated (Alpha, University of Vermont, 1889; Alpha Alpha, Louisville Medical College, 1894).

On July 1, 1910, the first history of Phi Chi is published. In 1915 the first Phi Chi Directory is published with 37 active chapter (some chapters had been consolidated) and 6,790 initiated members.

1922 saw the merger of Pi Mu Honor Society and Phi Chi as well as the chartering of Beta Mu Chapter at McGill University, Phi Chi’s first Canadian Chapter, on May 15.

December 1925, 24th Grand Chapter Convention is held in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. There are 54 chapters and 12,169 members.

In 1927, the Student Loan Fund was created which was run by the Welfare Association after its creation in 1947, to provide emergency loans for members in need.

On February 21, 1948, Phi Alpha Gamma and Phi Chi merge.

In 1949, the Phi Chi Welfare Association is incorporated. On August 20, Irvin Abell, the first Grand Presiding Senior of Phi Chi, dies.

Eden J. Carey, MD, Memorial Award in Anatomy plaques are created in May 1950.

February 26, 1960, Omega Chapter of Phi Chi is chartered at National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico City, the first chapter south of the border. The Michael J. Carey, MD, Senior Service Award is first presented.

May 21, 1962, ΥΒ Chapter of Phi Chi is chartered at University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR.

At the XL Grand Chapter Convention in 1973, women medical students are allowed membership.

September 1989, AA and AB Alumni Chapters are chartered.

Sigma Chi Mu Chapter is chartered on October 19, 2001, at American University of the Caribbean, St. Maarten, Netherlands Antilles, making it the first Caribbean chapter.

August 4, 2002, Sigma Tau Chi Chapter of St. Christopher College of Medicine in Luton, England is chartered making it the first European chapter of Phi Chi.

Current Chapters

Alpha (Southern), Louisville, KY, 1895

USA Chapters

Phi Chi Usfsp- University of South Florida St. Petersburg October 2016(first chapter)

Alpha Beta - University of Tennessee; Chartered- April 4, 1914

Upsilon Nu - University of Nebraska; Chartered- November 7, 1916

Epsilon Kappa - University of Washington; Chartered- February 26, 1948

Zeta - University of Texas Medical Branch; Chartered- April 29, 1903 (By Phi Chi South)

Chi - Jefferson Medical College; Chartered- December 9, 1903 (By Phi Chi South)

Kappa Chi - University of Minnesota; Chartered- May 22, 1920

Chi Upsilon - Creighton; Chartered- January 15, 1916

Omicron - New Orleans; Chartered- December 21, 1905 (By Phi Chi South)

Psi - University of Michigan; Chartered- December 16, 1905 (By Phi Chi South)

Sigma Kappa – Medical University of South Carolina; Chartered- June 2, 1927

International Chapters

Alpha Tau- Saint James School of Medicine, Arnos Vale, St. Vincent and the Grenadines; Chartered- June 18, 2016

Iota Mu- St. George's University, Grenada, West Indies; Chartered- April 20, 2007

Mu Alpha - Medical University of the Americas; Charlestown, Nevis, West Indies; Chartered- November 4, 2011

Mu Delta - Avalon University School of Medicine; Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles; Chartered- May 16, 2014

Nu Sigma - Dalhousie University Faculty of Medicine; Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada; Chartered- December 15, 1928

Sigma Chi Mu - American University of the Caribbean; St. Maarten, Netherlands Antilles; Chartered- October 19, 2001

Sigma Omega - St. Martinus University Faculty of Medicine; Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles; Chartered- November 16, 2013

Chapter Order

Phi Chi East was founded in 1889. Phi Chi South was formed in 1894. When the two fraternities combined in 1905, it was decided that when the name of any two chapters conflicted, the chapter with precedence would retain the single letter and the chapter following shall duplicate its name, such as Alpha (1889), University of Vermont, and Alpha of Louisville (1894), which became Alpha Alpha.

Notable Members

Name Original chapter Notability References
Irvin Abell AA 1897 -President American Medical Association 1938

-President American College of Surgeons
-President Southeastern Surgical Association
-President Kentucky State Medical Association
-Named by President Roosevelt as Chairman of the national committee to co-operate with the Defense Commission on Public Health in 1940

Thomas Aceto Jr. X 1954 -Chair of Pediatrics at St. Louis University

-Pediatrician-In-Chief at SSM Cardinal Glennon Children's Medical Center
-Developed the Pediatric Research Institute

Thomas Dale Alford ΛΡ 1939 -86th and 87th US Congress Representative for Arkansas

-Keynote speaker for the US as the 51st Inter-Parliamentary Conference in Brasilia, Brasil, Appointed by John F. Kennedy

Edward Annis EX 1938 -117th President American Medical Association 1963

-President World Medical Association 1963
-Appeared at Madison Square Gardens 1962 opposing the King Anderson Bill
-Director of the Chamber of Commerce of the United States 1969-1975
-One of 2 US physicians honored to be included in "Caring Physicians of the World" 2005
-Debated and spoke with President John F. Kennedy, and Senators Hubert Humphrey, Patrick V. McNamara, William Proxmire, Jacob K. Javits, and Albert Gore, Sr.

John Robin Blair ΘΗ 1908 -President American Medical Association

-President of Churchill Medical Society

David M. Bosworth A 1921 -Bosworth fracture named in his honor

-Awarded membership of Japanese Orthopaedic Association
-Only foreign recipient of the Second Order of the Sacred Treasure 1968

T. Drysdale Buchanan ΦΑ 1897
Founder of Alpha of Phi Alpha Gamma
-First President of American Board of Anesthesiology and awarded Certificate #1 [8][9]
Eben Carey ΠΔΦ 1923 -Dean Marquette University Medical School 1933-1947

-Dean of Students Marquette University School of Medicine 1921-1928

Joseph Cowell Ψ 1871
Member of Phi Alpha Gamma
-President of Michigan State Board of Registration in Medicine 1903-1905 [11]
Stanton Fischer YP 1956 -Senior Aviation Medical Examiner for US Department of Transportation

-Johnson Space Center- consultant for astronaut selection program

Richard L. Hammonds Σ 1960 -Health Advisor to President Jimmy Carter

-Board of Councilors- The Carter Center

Paul Williamson Howle ΘΗ 1898
Member of Pi Mu Honor Society
-President of Rishmond Surgical Society [15]
Louis Jermain EX 1921 -First Dean Marquette University School of Medicine [16]
Hiram W. Kostmayer O 1909 -1942-1945 Dean Tulane School of Medicine

-1949 Honorary Doctor of Laws, Tulane
-Dean Post-graduate School of Medicine 1933-37, Tulane

Clifford C. Leek 1900
Δ Chapter of Phi Alpha Gamma
-President of Mower County Medical Society [18]
John McDonald O 1955 -First Chancellor of the Louisiana State University Medical School, Shreveport, LA

-1965-2000 Chancellor of New Orleans Medical Center
-Founding member of the American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics
-Founding member of the American Society of Transplant Surgeons
-President of the American Society of Transplant Surgeons
-2002 55th Recipient of the Roswell Park Medal

Stuart McGuire ΘΗ 1891
Beta of Pi Mu Honor Society
-1905-1914 President of the University College of Medicine

-1914-1925 President of Medical College of Virginia
-Distinguished Service Medal- WWI
-French Medaille d'Honneur- WWI
-Author of Principle of Surgery Published 1908

Spurgeon H. Neel Jr. AB 1942 -Major General US Army

-One of the most decorated medical officers
-President Aerospace Medical Association
-First Army graduate of USAF School of Aviation Medicine
-First aviation medical officer to receive flying status
-Deputy Surgeon General 1969-1973
-First Commanding General of the U.S. Army Health Services Command

Kenneth Dew Orr P 1940 -Major General US Army

-Honorary Doctoral Degree at Baylor University
-Distinguished Service Medal
-Legion of Merit with 2 Oak Leaf Clusters
-United Nations Service Medal

Thomas S. Parrott Σ 1964 -Emory's first pediatric urology fellow

-Teacher of the Year- Emory more times than any other faculty member

I.S. (Isidor Schwaner) Ravdin M 1918 -1956 retired as a Major General in the Medical Corps, the first person on non-active military service appointed Major General

-Senior Civilian Consultant to the Surgeon General and United States Army
-Member of the Armed Forces Medical Policy Council, Department of Defense, Health and Medical and was involved with the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology
-Legion of Merit and the First Oak Leaf Cluster to the Legion of Merit
-Brought to the White House to treat President Eisenhower participating in Eisenhower's emergency operation for ileitis
-American College of Surgeons Board of Governors, Chairman of the Board of Regents, and President 1960-1961
-American Cancer Society President 1962-1963
-1957 Philadelphia Award Recipient

Jacob E. Reisch YI 1928 -President 1954 American Medical Writers Association [27]
J. James Rohack Z 1981 -President AMA 2009-2010

-Bush School of Government & Public Service Advisory Board

Joseph Ross Π 1954 -Established Vanderbilt's Emergency Medicine Department

-Established Lifeflight Air Ambulance Program, Vanderbilt

Edward Carrington Stanard Taliaferro ΘΗ 1898
Member of Pi Mu Honor Society
-President of the Staff of St. Vincent's Hospital

-President of Norfolk County Medical Society
-President of Scabord Medical Society
-President of Virginia State Medical Society 1921-1922

J. Roy Theroit O 1930 -Performed The First Successful Cardiovascular Resuscitation In Southern California

-One of the Attending Physicians To Gov. Huey P. Long After His Assassination
-Received The Croix De Guerre By French Gen. Charles De Gaulle

Donald Tresidder ΣΥ 1927 -President Stanford University 1943-1948

-Established Stanford Research Institute
-Tresidder Peak in Yosemite National Park is named for him

A. Murat Willis ΘΗ 1904
Member of Pi Mu Honor Society
-President and founder of Johnston-Willis Hospital, Virginia

-President of the Richmond Academy of Medicine

Churchill F.Worrell ΒΔ 1917 -Member American Siberian Expedition [34]
Jonathan V. Wright Ψ 1969 -First to use DHEA in private practice

-Pioneer of Natural Hormone Replacement
-Honorary Doctorate Degree Naturopathic Medicine from Bastyr University

Elvin G. Zook M 1963 -Southern Illinois University School of Medicine- President, 1978-81 [37]
Thomas Alford
Eben Carey
Major General Spurgeon H. Neel Jr.
Major General I.S. Ravdin
Donald Tresidder


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External links

See also