Phenomenology (philosophy)
   HOME

TheInfoList



OR:

Phenomenology (from
Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece, a country in Southern Europe: *Greeks, an ethnic group. *Greek language, a branch of the Indo-European language family. **Proto-Greek language, the assumed last common ancestor ...
φαινόμενον, ''phainómenon'' "that which appears" and λόγος, ''lógos'' "study") is the
philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the systematized study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about existence, reason, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, mind, and Philosophy of language, language. Such quest ...
study of the structures of
experience Experience refers to Consciousness, conscious events in general, more specifically to perceptions, or to the practical knowledge and familiarity that is produced by these conscious processes. Understood as a conscious event in the widest sense, ex ...
and
consciousness Consciousness, at its simplest, is sentience and awareness of internal and external existence. However, the lack of definitions has led to millennia of analyses, explanations and debates by philosophers, theologians, linguisticians, and scient ...
. As a
philosophical movement A philosophical movement refers to the phenomenon defined by a group of philosophers who share an origin or style of thought. Their ideas may develop substantially from a process of learning and communication within the group, rather than from out ...
it was founded in the early years of the 20th century by
Edmund Husserl , thesis1_title = Beiträge zur Variationsrechnung (Contributions to the Calculus of Variations) , thesis1_url = https://fedora.phaidra.univie.ac.at/fedora/get/o:58535/bdef:Book/view , thesis1_year = 1883 , thesis2_title ...
and was later expanded upon by a circle of his followers at the universities of Göttingen and
Munich Munich ( ; german: München ; bar, Minga ) is the capital and most populous city of the States of Germany, German state of Bavaria. With a population of 1,558,395 inhabitants as of 31 July 2020, it is the List of cities in Germany by popu ...
in
Germany Germany,, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central Europe. It is the second most populous country in Europe after Russia, and the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is situated between ...
. It then spread to
France France (), officially the French Republic ( ), is a country primarily located in Western Europe. It also comprises of Overseas France, overseas regions and territories in the Americas and the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic, Pacific Ocean, Pac ...
, the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...
, and elsewhere, often in contexts far removed from Husserl's early work. Phenomenology is not a unified movement; rather, the works of different authors share a '
family resemblance Family resemblance (german: Familienähnlichkeit, link=no) is a philosophical idea made popular by Ludwig Wittgenstein, with the best known exposition given in his posthumously published book ''Philosophical Investigations'' (1953). It argues tha ...
' but with many significant differences. Gabriella Farina states:
A unique and final definition of phenomenology is dangerous and perhaps even paradoxical as it lacks a thematic focus. In fact, it is not a doctrine, nor a philosophical school, but rather a style of thought, a method, an open and ever-renewed experience having different results, and this may disorient anyone wishing to define the meaning of phenomenology.
Phenomenology, in Husserl's conception, is primarily concerned with the systematic reflection on and study of the structures of consciousness and the phenomena that appear in acts of consciousness. Phenomenology can be clearly differentiated from the Cartesian method of analysis which sees the world as objects, sets of objects, and objects acting and reacting upon one another. Husserl's conception of phenomenology has been criticized and developed not only by him but also by students and colleagues such as Edith Stein,
Max Scheler Max Ferdinand Scheler (; 22 August 1874 – 19 May 1928) was a German philosopher known for his work in Phenomenology (philosophy), phenomenology, ethics, and philosophical anthropology. Considered in his lifetime one of the most prominent Germa ...
, Roman Ingarden, and Dietrich von Hildebrand, by existentialists such as Nicolai Hartmann, Gabriel Marcel, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, and
Jean-Paul Sartre Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (, ; ; 21 June 1905 – 15 April 1980) was one of the key figures in the philosophy of existentialist, existentialism (and Phenomenology (philosophy), phenomenology), a French playwright, novelist, screenwriter ...
, by hermeneutic philosophers such as
Martin Heidegger Martin Heidegger (; ; 26 September 188926 May 1976) was a German philosopher who is best known for contributions to Phenomenology (philosophy), phenomenology, hermeneutics, and existentialism. He is among the most important and influential phi ...
,
Hans-Georg Gadamer Hans-Georg Gadamer (; ; February 11, 1900 – March 13, 2002) was a Germans, German philosopher of the Continental philosophy, continental tradition, best known for his 1960 ''magnum opus'', ''Truth and Method'' (''Wahrheit und Methode''), o ...
, and Paul Ricoeur, by later French philosophers such as Jean-Luc Marion, Michel Henry, Emmanuel Levinas, and
Jacques Derrida Jacques Derrida (; ; born Jackie Élie Derrida; See also . 15 July 1930 – 9 October 2004) was an Algerian-born French philosopher. He developed the philosophy of deconstruction, which he utilized in numerous texts, and which was developed th ...
, by sociologists such as Alfred Schütz and
Eric Voegelin Eric Voegelin (born Erich Hermann Wilhelm Vögelin, ; 1901–1985) was a German-American political philosopher. He was born in Cologne, and educated in political science at the University of Vienna, where he became an associate professor of poli ...
, by Christian philosophers, such as Dallas Willard, and by American activist and scholar Angela Davis.


Overview

In its most basic form, phenomenology attempts to create conditions for the objective study of topics usually regarded as subjective: consciousness and the content of conscious experiences such as judgements,
perceptions Perception () is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sense, sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information or environment. All perception involves signals that go through the nervous ...
, and
emotions Emotions are mental states brought on by neurophysiology, neurophysiological changes, variously associated with thoughts, feelings, behavioral responses, and a degree of pleasure or suffering, displeasure. There is currently no scientific ...
. Although phenomenology seeks to be scientific, it does not attempt to study consciousness from the perspective of clinical psychology or neurology. Instead, it seeks through systematic reflection to determine the essential properties and structures of experience. There are several assumptions behind phenomenology that help explain its foundations: #Phenomenologists reject the concept of objective research. They prefer grouping assumptions through a process called phenomenological epoché. #They believe that analyzing daily human behavior can provide one with a greater understanding of nature. #They assert that persons should be explored. This is because persons can be understood through the unique ways they reflect the society they live in. #Phenomenologists prefer to gather "capta", or conscious experience, rather than traditional data. #They consider phenomenology to be oriented toward discovery, and therefore they research using methods that are far less restrictive than in other sciences. Husserl derived many important concepts central to phenomenology from the works and lectures of his teachers, the philosophers and psychologists
Franz Brentano Franz Clemens Honoratus Hermann Josef Brentano (; ; 16 January 1838 – 17 March 1917) was an influential Germans, German philosopher, psychologist, and former Catholic priest (withdrawn in 1873 due to the definition of papal infallibility in mat ...
and Carl Stumpf. An important element of phenomenology that Husserl borrowed from Brentano is
intentionality ''Intentionality'' is the power of minds to be about something: to represent or to stand for things, properties and states of affairs. Intentionality is primarily ascribed to mental states, like perceptions, beliefs or desires, which is why it ha ...
(often described as "aboutness"), the notion that consciousness is always consciousness ''of'' something. The object of consciousness is called the ''intentional object'', and this object is constituted for consciousness in many different ways, through, for instance,
perception Perception () is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information or environment. All perception involves signals that go through the nervous syste ...
,
memory Memory is the faculty of the mind by which data or information is Encoding (memory), encoded, stored, and retrieved when needed. It is the retention of information over time for the purpose of influencing future action. If Foresight (psycholo ...
, retention and protention, signification, etc. Throughout these different intentionalities, though they have different structures and different ways of being "about" the object, an object is still constituted as the identical object; consciousness is directed at the same intentional object in direct perception as it is in the immediately-following retention of this object and the eventual remembering of it. Though many of the phenomenological methods involve various reductions, phenomenology is, in essence, anti- reductionistic; the reductions are mere tools to better understand and describe the workings of consciousness, not to reduce any phenomenon to these descriptions. In other words, when a reference is made to a thing's ''essence'' or ''idea'', or when the constitution of an identical coherent thing is specified by describing what one "really" sees as being only these sides and aspects, these surfaces, it does not mean that the thing is only and exclusively what is described here: the ultimate goal of these reductions is to understand ''how'' these different aspects are constituted into the actual thing as experienced by the person experiencing it. Phenomenology is a direct reaction to the psychologism and
physicalism In philosophy, physicalism is the metaphysical thesis that "everything is physics, physical", that there is "nothing over and above" the physical, or that everything supervenience, supervenes on the physical. Physicalism is a form of ontological mo ...
of Husserl's time. Although previously employed by
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (; ; 27 August 1770 – 14 November 1831) was a German philosopher. He is one of the most important figures in German idealism and one of the founding figures of 19th century philosophy, modern Western philosophy. ...
in his '' Phenomenology of Spirit'', it was Husserl's adoption of this term (c. 1900) that propelled it into becoming the designation of a philosophical school. As a philosophical perspective, phenomenology is its method, though the specific meaning of the term varies according to how it is conceived by a given philosopher. As envisioned by Husserl, phenomenology is a method of philosophical inquiry that rejects the rationalist bias that has dominated Western thought since
Plato Plato ( ; grc-gre, wikt:Πλάτων, Πλάτων ; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a Greeks, Greek philosopher born in Athens during the Classical Greece, Classical period in Ancient Greece. He founded the Platonist school of thou ...
in favor of a method of reflective attentiveness that discloses the individual's "lived experience." Loosely rooted in an epistemological device, with Sceptic roots, called epoché, Husserl's method entails the suspension of judgment while relying on the intuitive grasp of knowledge, free of presuppositions and intellectualizing. Sometimes depicted as the "science of experience," the phenomenological method is rooted in intentionality, i.e. Husserl's theory of consciousness (developed from Brentano). Intentionality represents an alternative to the representational theory of consciousness, which holds that reality cannot be grasped directly because it is available only through perceptions of reality that are representations of it in the mind. Husserl countered that consciousness is not "in" the mind; rather, consciousness is conscious of something other than itself (the intentional object), whether the object is a substance or a figment of
imagination Imagination is the production or simulation of novel objects, sensations, and ideas in the mind without any immediate input of the senses. Stefan Szczelkun characterises it as the forming of experiences in one's mind, which can be re-creations o ...
(i.e., the real processes associated with and underlying the figment). Hence the phenomenological method relies on the description of phenomena as they are given to consciousness, in their immediacy. According to Maurice Natanson (1973, p. 63), "The radicality of the phenomenological method is both continuous and discontinuous with philosophy's general effort to subject experience to fundamental, critical scrutiny: to take nothing for granted and to show the warranty for what we claim to know." In practice, it entails an unusual combination of discipline and detachment to ''
bracket A bracket is either of two tall fore- or back-facing punctuation marks commonly used to isolate a segment of text or data from its surroundings. Typically deployed in symmetric pairs, an individual bracket may be identified as a 'left' or 'r ...
'' theoretical explanations and second-hand information while determining one's "naïve" experience of the matter. (To "bracket" in this sense means to provisionally suspend or set aside some idea as a way to facilitate the inquiry by focusing only on its most significant components.) The phenomenological method serves to momentarily erase the world of speculation by returning the subject to his or her primordial experience of the matter, whether the object of inquiry is a feeling, an idea, or a perception. According to Husserl the suspension of belief in what we ordinarily take for granted or infer by conjecture diminishes the power of what we customarily embrace as objective reality. According to Rüdiger Safranski (1998, 72), " usserl's and his followers'great ambition was to disregard anything that had until then been thought or said about consciousness or the world hileon the lookout for a new way of letting the things hey investigatedapproach them, without covering them up with what they already knew."
Martin Heidegger Martin Heidegger (; ; 26 September 188926 May 1976) was a German philosopher who is best known for contributions to Phenomenology (philosophy), phenomenology, hermeneutics, and existentialism. He is among the most important and influential phi ...
modified Husserl's conception of phenomenology because of what Heidegger perceived as Husserl's subjectivist tendencies. Whereas Husserl conceived humans as having been constituted by states of consciousness, Heidegger countered that consciousness is peripheral to the primacy of one's existence (i.e., the mode of being of Dasein), which cannot be reduced to one's consciousness of it. From this angle, one's state of mind is an "effect" rather than a determinant of existence, including those aspects of existence of which one is not conscious. By shifting the center of gravity from consciousness (psychology) to existence (ontology), Heidegger altered the subsequent direction of phenomenology. As one consequence of Heidegger's modification of Husserl's conception, phenomenology became increasingly relevant to
psychoanalysis PsychoanalysisFrom Greek: + . is a set of theories and therapeutic techniques"What is psychoanalysis? Of course, one is supposed to answer that it is many things — a theory, a research method, a therapy, a body of knowledge. In what might ...
. Whereas Husserl gave priority to a depiction of consciousness that was fundamentally alien to the psychoanalytic conception of the unconscious, Heidegger offered a way to conceptualize experience that could accommodate those aspects of one's existence that lie on the periphery of sentient awareness.


Etymology

Phenomenology has at least three main meanings in
philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the systematized study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about existence, reason, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, mind, and Philosophy of language, language. Such quest ...
history: one in the writings of G. W. F. Hegel, another in the writings of Edmund Husserl in 1920, and thirdly, succeeding Husserl's work, in the writings of his former research assistant
Martin Heidegger Martin Heidegger (; ; 26 September 188926 May 1976) was a German philosopher who is best known for contributions to Phenomenology (philosophy), phenomenology, hermeneutics, and existentialism. He is among the most important and influential phi ...
in 1927. *For G. W. F. Hegel, phenomenology is a philosophical (''philosophischen'') and scientific (''wissenschaftliche'') study of phenomena (what presents itself to us in conscious experience) as a means to finally grasp the absolute, logical, ontological and metaphysical Spirit (Absolute Spirit) that is essential to phenomena. This has been called dialectical phenomenology (see '' Hegelian dialectic''). *For Edmund Husserl, phenomenology is "the reflective study of the
essence Essence ( la, essentia) is a polysemic term, used in philosophy and theology as a designation for the property (philosophy), property or set of properties that make an entity or substance theory, substance what it fundamentally is, and which it ...
of consciousness as experienced from the first-person point of view." Phenomenology takes the intuitive experience of phenomena (whatever presents itself in phenomenological reflexion) as its starting point and tries to extract from it the essential features of experiences and the essence of what we experience. When generalized to the essential features of any possible experience, this has been called transcendental phenomenology (see '' Varieties''). Husserl's view was based on aspects of the work of
Franz Brentano Franz Clemens Honoratus Hermann Josef Brentano (; ; 16 January 1838 – 17 March 1917) was an influential Germans, German philosopher, psychologist, and former Catholic priest (withdrawn in 1873 due to the definition of papal infallibility in mat ...
and was developed further by philosophers such as Maurice Merleau-Ponty,
Max Scheler Max Ferdinand Scheler (; 22 August 1874 – 19 May 1928) was a German philosopher known for his work in Phenomenology (philosophy), phenomenology, ethics, and philosophical anthropology. Considered in his lifetime one of the most prominent Germa ...
, Edith Stein, Dietrich von Hildebrand and Emmanuel Levinas. Although the term "phenomenology" was used occasionally in the
history of philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the systematized study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about existence, reason, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, mind, and Philosophy of language, language. Such quest ...
before Husserl, modern use ties it more explicitly to his particular method. Following is a list of important thinkers, in rough chronological order, who used the term "phenomenology" in a variety of ways, with brief comments on their contributions: * Friedrich Christoph Oetinger (1702–1782), German pietist, for the study of the "divine system of relations" *
Johann Heinrich Lambert Johann Heinrich Lambert (, ''Jean-Henri Lambert'' in French language, French; 26 or 28 August 1728 – 25 September 1777) was a polymath from the Republic of Mulhouse, generally referred to as either Switzerland, Swiss or France, French, who made i ...
(1728–1777),
mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics in their work, typically to solve mathematical problems. Mathematicians are concerned with numbers, data, quantity, mathematical structure, structure, space, Mathematica ...
,
physicist A physicist is a scientist who specializes in the field of physics, which encompasses the interactions of matter and energy at all length and time scales in the physical universe. Physicists generally are interested in the root or ultimate caus ...
and
philosopher A philosopher is a person who practices or investigates philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the systematized study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about existence, reason, knowledge, values, mind, and language. Suc ...
, known for the theory of appearances underlying empirical knowledge. *
Immanuel Kant Immanuel Kant (, , ; 22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German Philosophy, philosopher and one of the central Age of Enlightenment, Enlightenment thinkers. Born in Königsberg, Kant's comprehensive and systematic works in epistemolo ...
(1724–1804), in the '' Critique of Pure Reason'', distinguished between objects as phenomena, which are objects as shaped and grasped by human sensibility and understanding, and objects as ''things-in-themselves'' or
noumena In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the systematized study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about existence, reason, knowledge, values, mind, and language. Such questions are often posed as problems to be studie ...
, which do not appear to us in space and time and about which we can make no legitimate judgments. * G. W. F. Hegel (1770–1831) challenged Kant's doctrine of the unknowable thing-in-itself, and declared that by knowing phenomena more fully we can gradually arrive at a consciousness of the absolute and spiritual truth of Divinity, most notably in his '' Phenomenology of Spirit'', published in 1807. * Carl Stumpf (1848–1936), student of Brentano and mentor to Husserl, used "phenomenology" to refer to an ontology of sensory contents. *
Edmund Husserl , thesis1_title = Beiträge zur Variationsrechnung (Contributions to the Calculus of Variations) , thesis1_url = https://fedora.phaidra.univie.ac.at/fedora/get/o:58535/bdef:Book/view , thesis1_year = 1883 , thesis2_title ...
(1859–1938) established phenomenology at first as a kind of " descriptive psychology" and later as a transcendental and eidetic science of consciousness. He is considered to be the founder of contemporary phenomenology. *
Max Scheler Max Ferdinand Scheler (; 22 August 1874 – 19 May 1928) was a German philosopher known for his work in Phenomenology (philosophy), phenomenology, ethics, and philosophical anthropology. Considered in his lifetime one of the most prominent Germa ...
(1874–1928) developed further the phenomenological method of Edmund Husserl and extended it to include also a reduction of the
scientific method The scientific method is an Empirical evidence, empirical method for acquiring knowledge that has characterized the development of science since at least the 17th century (with notable practitioners in previous centuries; see the article hist ...
. He influenced the thinking of
Pope John Paul II Pope John Paul II ( la, Ioannes Paulus II; it, Giovanni Paolo II; pl, Jan Paweł II; born Karol Józef Wojtyła ; 18 May 19202 April 2005) was the head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 until his ...
, Dietrich von Hildebrand, and Edith Stein. *
Martin Heidegger Martin Heidegger (; ; 26 September 188926 May 1976) was a German philosopher who is best known for contributions to Phenomenology (philosophy), phenomenology, hermeneutics, and existentialism. He is among the most important and influential phi ...
(1889–1976) criticized Husserl's theory of phenomenology and attempted to develop a theory of
ontology In metaphysics Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy that studies the fundamental nature of reality, the first principles of being, identity and change, space and time, causality, necessity, and possibility. It includes questions about ...
that led him to his original theory of Dasein, the non-dualistic human being. * Alfred Schütz (1899–1959) developed a phenomenology of the social world on the basis of everyday experience that has influenced major sociologists such as Harold Garfinkel, Peter Berger, and Thomas Luckmann. *
Francisco Varela Francisco Javier Varela García (September 7, 1946 – May 28, 2001) was a Chilean biologist, philosophy, philosopher, cybernetician, and neuroscientist who, together with his mentor Humberto Maturana, is best known for introducing the concept o ...
(1946–2001), Chilean philosopher and biologist. Developed the basis for experimental phenomenology and neurophenomenology. Later usage is mostly based on or (critically) related to Husserl's introduction and use of the term. This branch of philosophy differs from others in that it tends to be more "descriptive" than " prescriptive".


Varieties

The ''Encyclopedia of Phenomenology'' (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997) features separate articles on the following seven types of phenomenology:Phenomenology – Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
# Transcendental constitutive phenomenology studies how objects are constituted in transcendental consciousness, setting aside questions of any relation to the natural world. # Naturalistic constitutive phenomenology (see naturalism) studies how consciousness constitutes things in the world of nature, assuming with the natural attitude that consciousness is part of nature. # Existential phenomenology studies concrete human existence, including our experience of free choice and/or action in concrete situations. # Generative historicist phenomenology (see
historicism Historicism is an approach to Explanation, explaining the existence of Phenomenon, phenomena, especially social and cultural practices (including ideas and beliefs), by studying their history, that is, by studying the process by which they came abo ...
) studies how meaning—as found in our experience—is generated in historical processes of collective experience over time. # Genetic phenomenology studies the emergence/genesis of meanings of things within one's own stream of experience. # Hermeneutical phenomenology (also hermeneutic phenomenology or post-phenomenology/postphenomenologyKatinka Waelbers, ''Doing Good with Technologies: Taking Responsibility for the Social Role of Emerging Technologies'', Springer, 2011, p. 77. elsewhere; see
hermeneutics Hermeneutics () is the theory and methodology of interpretation, especially the interpretation of Biblical hermeneutics, biblical texts, wisdom literature, and Philosophy, philosophical texts. Hermeneutics is more than interpretative principles ...
) studies interpretive structures of experience. This approach was introduced in
Martin Heidegger Martin Heidegger (; ; 26 September 188926 May 1976) was a German philosopher who is best known for contributions to Phenomenology (philosophy), phenomenology, hermeneutics, and existentialism. He is among the most important and influential phi ...
's early work. # Realistic phenomenology (also realist phenomenology elsewhere) studies the structure of consciousness and intentionality as "it occurs in a real world that is largely external to consciousness and not somehow brought into being by consciousness." The contrast between "constitutive phenomenology" (german: konstitutive Phänomenologie, lang; also static phenomenology (') or descriptive phenomenology (')) and "genetic phenomenology" ('; also phenomenology of genesis (')) is due to Husserl. Modern scholarship also recognizes the existence of the following varieties: late Heidegger's transcendental hermeneutic phenomenology (see transcendental philosophy and '' a priori''), Maurice Merleau-Ponty's embodied phenomenology (see
embodied cognition Embodied cognition is the theory that many features of cognition, whether human or otherwise, are shaped by aspects of an organism's entire body. Sensory and motor systems are seen as fundamentally integrated with cognitive processing. The cognit ...
), Michel Henry's material phenomenology (also based on embodied cognition), Alva Noë's analytic phenomenology (see
analytic philosophy Analytic philosophy is a Academic discipline, branch and Philosophical tradition, tradition of philosophy using philosophical analysis, analysis, popular in the Western world and particularly the Anglosphere, which began around the turn of the 2 ...
), J. L. Austin's linguistic phenomenology (see ordinary language philosophy), and Paul Crowther's post-analytic phenomenology (see postanalytic philosophy).


Concepts


Intentionality

Intentionality refers to the notion that consciousness is always the consciousness ''of'' something. The word itself should not be confused with the "ordinary" use of the word intentional, but should rather be taken as playing on the etymological roots of the word. Originally, intention referred to a "stretching out" ("in tension," from Latin ''intendere''), and in this context it refers to consciousness "stretching out" towards its object. However, one should be careful with this image: there is not some consciousness first that, subsequently, stretches out to its object; rather, consciousness ''occurs as'' the simultaneity of a conscious act and its object. Intentionality is often summed up as " aboutness." Whether this ''something'' that consciousness is about is in direct perception or in fantasy is inconsequential to the concept of intentionality itself; whatever consciousness is directed at, ''that'' is what consciousness is conscious of. This means that the object of consciousness doesn't ''have'' to be a ''physical'' object apprehended in
perception Perception () is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information or environment. All perception involves signals that go through the nervous syste ...
: it can just as well be a fantasy or a memory. Consequently, these "structures" of consciousness, i.e., perception, memory, fantasy, etc., are called ''intentionalities''. The term "intentionality" originated with the Scholastics in the medieval period and was resurrected by Brentano who in turn influenced Husserl's conception of phenomenology, who refined the term and made it the cornerstone of his theory of consciousness. The meaning of the term is complex and depends entirely on how it is conceived by a given philosopher. The term should not be confused with "intention" or the psychoanalytic conception of unconscious "motive" or "gain".


Intuition

Intuition Intuition is the ability to acquire knowledge Knowledge can be defined as Descriptive knowledge, awareness of facts or as Procedural knowledge, practical skills, and may also refer to Knowledge by acquaintance, familiarity with objects o ...
in phenomenology refers to cases where the intentional object is directly present to the intentionality at play; if the intention is "filled" by the direct apprehension of the object, you have an intuited object. Having a cup of coffee in front of you, for instance, seeing it, feeling it, or even imagining it – these are all filled intentions, and the object is then ''intuited''. The same goes for the apprehension of mathematical formulae or a number. If you do not have the object as referred to directly, the object is not intuited, but still intended, but then ''emptily''. Examples of empty intentions can be signitive intentions – intentions that only ''imply'' or ''refer to'' their objects.


Evidence

In everyday language, we use the word
evidence Evidence for a proposition is what supports this proposition. It is usually understood as an indication that the supported proposition is true. What role evidence plays and how it is conceived varies from field to field. In epistemology, evid ...
to signify a special sort of relation between a state of affairs and a proposition: State A is evidence for the proposition "A is true." In phenomenology, however, the concept of evidence is meant to signify the "subjective achievement of truth." This is not an attempt to reduce the objective sort of evidence to subjective "opinion," but rather an attempt to describe the structure of having something present in intuition with the addition of having it present as ''intelligible'': "Evidence is the successful presentation of an intelligible object, the successful presentation of something whose truth becomes manifest in the evidencing itself."


Noesis and noema

Noesis and noema started in ancient/
Classical Greek philosophy Ancient Greek philosophy arose in the 6th century BC, marking the end of the Greek Dark Ages. Greek philosophy continued throughout the Hellenistic period and Ancient Roman philosophy, the period in which Greece and most Greek-inhabited lands were ...
such as Socratic- Platonic dialogues and continued in neoclassical focus such as in
German Idealism German idealism was a philosophical movement that emerged in Germany in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. It developed out of the work of Immanuel Kant in the 1780s and 1790s, and was closely linked both with Romanticism and the revolutionary ...
. In Husserl's phenomenology, which is quite common, this pair of terms, derived from the Greek ''
nous ''Nous'', or Greek νοῦς (, ), sometimes equated to intellect or intelligence, is a concept from classical philosophy for the Faculty (division), faculty of the human mind necessary for understanding what is truth, true or reality, real. A ...
'' (mind) (all three transliterated) designate respectively the real content, noesis, and the ideal content,
noema The word noema (plural: ''noemata'') derives from the Ancient Greek, Greek word νόημα meaning "mental object". The philosopher Edmund Husserl used ''noema'' as a technical term in phenomenology (philosophy), phenomenology to stand for the ob ...
, of an intentional act (an act of consciousness). The noesis is the part of the act that gives it a particular sense or character (as in judging or perceiving something, loving or hating it, accepting or rejecting it, and so on). This is real in the sense that it is actually part of what takes place in the consciousness (or psyche) of the subject of the act. The noesis is always correlated with a noema; for Husserl, the full noema is a complex ideal structure comprising at least a noematic sense and a noematic core. The correct interpretation of what Husserl meant by the noema has long been controversial, but the noematic sense is generally understood as the ideal meaning of the act and the noematic core as the act's referent or object ''as it is meant in the act''. One element of controversy is whether this noematic object is the same as the actual object of the act (assuming it exists) or is some kind of ideal object.


Empathy and intersubjectivity

In phenomenology,
empathy Empathy is the capacity to understand or feel what another person is experiencing from within their frame of reference, that is, the capacity to place oneself in another's position. Definitions of empathy encompass a broad range of social, cog ...
refers to the experience of one's own body ''as'' another. While we often identify others with their physical bodies, this type of phenomenology requires that we focus on the
subjectivity Subjectivity in a Philosophy, philosophical context has to do with a lack of objective reality. Subjectivity has been given various and ambiguous definitions by differing sources as it is not often the focal point of philosophical discourse.Byko ...
of the other, as well as our intersubjective engagement with them. In Husserl's original account, this was done by a sort of apperception built on the experiences of your own lived-body. The lived body is your own body as experienced by yourself, ''as'' yourself. Your own body manifests itself to you mainly as your possibilities of acting in the world. It is what lets you reach out and grab something, for instance, but it also, and more importantly, allows for the possibility of changing your point of view. This helps you differentiate one thing from another by the experience of moving around it, seeing new aspects of it (often referred to as making the absent present and the present absent), and still retaining the notion that this is the same thing that you saw other aspects of just a moment ago (it is identical). Your body is also experienced as a duality, both as object (you can touch your own hand) and as your own subjectivity (you experience being touched). The experience of your own body as your own subjectivity is then applied to the experience of another's body, which, through apperception, is constituted as another subjectivity. You can thus recognise the Other's intentions, emotions, etc. This experience of empathy is important in the phenomenological account of
intersubjectivity In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the systematized study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about existence, reason, knowledge, values, mind, and language. Such questions are often posed as problems to be studied or ...
. In phenomenology, intersubjectivity constitutes objectivity (i.e., what you experience as objective is experienced as being intersubjectively available – available to all other subjects. This does not imply that objectivity is reduced to subjectivity nor does it imply a relativist position, cf. for instance intersubjective verifiability). In the experience of intersubjectivity, one also experiences oneself as being a subject among other subjects, and one experiences oneself as existing objectively ''for'' these Others; one experiences oneself as the noema of Others' noeses, or as a subject in another's empathic experience. As such, one experiences oneself as objectively existing subjectivity. Intersubjectivity is also a part in the constitution of one's lifeworld, especially as "homeworld."


Lifeworld

The lifeworld (German: ''Lebenswelt'') is the "world" each one of us ''lives'' in. One could call it the "background" or "horizon" of all experience, and it is that on which each object stands out as itself (as different) and with the meaning it can only hold for us. The lifeworld is both personal and intersubjective (it is then called a "homeworld"), and, as such, it does not enclose each one of us in a solus ipse.


Husserl's ''Logical Investigations'' (1900/1901)

In the first edition of the '' Logical Investigations'', still under the influence of Brentano, Husserl describes his position as " descriptive psychology." Husserl analyzes the intentional structures of mental acts and how they are directed at both real and ideal objects. The first volume of the ''Logical Investigations'', the ''Prolegomena to Pure Logic'', begins with a devastating critique of psychologism, i.e., the attempt to subsume the ''a priori'' validity of the laws of logic under psychology. Husserl establishes a separate field for research in logic, philosophy, and phenomenology, independently from the empirical sciences. "Pre-reflective self-consciousness" is Shaun Gallagher and Dan Zahavi's term for Husserl's (1900/1901) idea that
self-consciousness Self-consciousness is a heightened sense of awareness of oneself. It is not to be confused with consciousness in the sense of qualia. Historically, "self-consciousness" was synonymous with "self-awareness", referring to a state of awareness that o ...
always involves a self-appearance or self-manifestation (german: Für-sich-selbst-erscheinens) prior to self-reflection, and his idea that the fact that "an appropriate train of sensations or images is experienced, and is in this sense conscious, does not and cannot mean that this is the object of an act of consciousness, in the sense that a perception, a presentation or a judgment is directed upon it" (see also Fichte's original insight).


Husserl's ''Ideas'' (1913)

In 1913, some years after the publication of the ''Logical Investigations'', Husserl published '' Ideas: General Introduction to Pure Phenomenology'', a work which introduced some key elaborations that led him to the distinction between the act of consciousness ('' noesis'') and the phenomena at which it is directed (the ''
noema The word noema (plural: ''noemata'') derives from the Ancient Greek, Greek word νόημα meaning "mental object". The philosopher Edmund Husserl used ''noema'' as a technical term in phenomenology (philosophy), phenomenology to stand for the ob ...
ta''). * "noetic" refers to the intentional act of consciousness (believing, willing, etc.) * "noematic" refers to the object or content (noema), which appears in the noetic acts (the believed, wanted, hated, and loved, etc.). What we observe is not the object as it is in itself, but how and inasmuch it is given in the intentional acts. Knowledge of
essence Essence ( la, essentia) is a polysemic term, used in philosophy and theology as a designation for the property (philosophy), property or set of properties that make an entity or substance theory, substance what it fundamentally is, and which it ...
s would only be possible by " bracketing" all assumptions about the existence of an external world and the inessential (subjective) aspects of how the object is concretely given to us. This procedure Husserl called epoché. Husserl concentrated more on the ideal, essential structures of consciousness. As he wanted to exclude any hypothesis on the existence of external objects, he introduced the method of phenomenological reduction to eliminate them. What was left over was the pure transcendental ego, as opposed to the concrete empirical ego. Transcendental phenomenology is the study of the essential structures that are left in pure consciousness: this amounts in practice to the study of the noemata and the relations among them. Transcendental phenomenologists include Oskar Becker, Aron Gurwitsch, and Alfred Schütz. The philosopher
Theodor Adorno Theodor is a masculine given name. It is a German form of Theodore (name), Theodore. It is also a variant of Teodor. List of people with the given name Theodor * Theodor Adorno, (1903–1969), German philosopher * Theodor Aman, Romanian painter * ...
criticised Husserl's concept of phenomenological epistemology in his metacritique ''Against Epistemology'', which is anti-foundationalist in its stance


Realism

After Husserl's publication of the ''Ideas'' in 1913, many phenomenologists took a critical stance towards his new theories. Especially the members of the Munich group distanced themselves from his new transcendental phenomenology and preferred the earlier realist phenomenology of the first edition of the ''Logical Investigations''. Realist phenomenologists include Edith Stein, Adolf Reinach, Alexander Pfänder, ,
Max Scheler Max Ferdinand Scheler (; 22 August 1874 – 19 May 1928) was a German philosopher known for his work in Phenomenology (philosophy), phenomenology, ethics, and philosophical anthropology. Considered in his lifetime one of the most prominent Germa ...
, Roman Ingarden, Nicolai Hartmann, and Dietrich von Hildebrand.


Existentialism

Existential phenomenology differs from transcendental phenomenology by its rejection of the transcendental ego. Merleau-Ponty objects to the ego's transcendence of the world, which for Husserl leaves the world spread out and completely transparent before the conscious. Heidegger thinks of a conscious being as always already in the world. Transcendence is maintained in existential phenomenology to the extent that the method of phenomenology must take a presuppositionless starting point – transcending claims about the world arising from, for example, natural or scientific attitudes or theories of the
ontological In metaphysics, ontology is the philosophy, philosophical study of being, as well as related concepts such as existence, Becoming (philosophy), becoming, and reality. Ontology addresses questions like how entities are grouped into Category ...
nature of the world. While Husserl thought of philosophy as a scientific discipline that had to be founded on a phenomenology understood as
epistemology Epistemology (; ), or the theory of knowledge, is the branch of philosophy concerned with knowledge. Epistemology is considered a major subfield of philosophy, along with other major subfields such as ethics, logic, and metaphysics. Epis ...
,
Martin Heidegger Martin Heidegger (; ; 26 September 188926 May 1976) was a German philosopher who is best known for contributions to Phenomenology (philosophy), phenomenology, hermeneutics, and existentialism. He is among the most important and influential phi ...
held a radically different view. Heidegger himself states their differences this way: According to Heidegger, philosophy was not at all a scientific discipline, but more fundamental than science itself. According to him science is only one way of knowing the world with no special access to truth. Furthermore, the scientific mindset itself is built on a much more "primordial" foundation of practical, everyday knowledge. Husserl was skeptical of this approach, which he regarded as quasi-mystical, and it contributed to the divergence in their thinking. Instead of taking phenomenology as ''prima philosophia'' or a foundational discipline, Heidegger took it as a metaphysical ontology: "''being is the proper and sole theme of philosophy''... this means that philosophy is not a science of beings but of being." Yet to confuse phenomenology and ontology is an obvious error. Phenomena are not the foundation or Ground of Being. Neither are they appearances, for, as Heidegger argues in '' Being and Time'', an appearance is "that which shows itself in something else," while a phenomenon is "that which shows itself in itself." While for Husserl, in the epoché, being appeared only as a correlate of consciousness, for Heidegger being is the starting point. While for Husserl we would have to abstract from all concrete determinations of our empirical ego, to be able to turn to the field of pure consciousness, Heidegger claims that "the possibilities and destinies of philosophy are bound up with man's existence, and thus with temporality and with historicality." However, ontological being and existential being are different categories, so Heidegger's conflation of these categories is, according to Husserl's view, the root of Heidegger's error. Husserl charged Heidegger with raising the question of ontology but failing to answer it, instead switching the topic to the Dasein, the only being for whom Being is an issue. That is neither ontology nor phenomenology, according to Husserl, but merely abstract anthropology. To clarify, perhaps, by abstract anthropology, as a non-existentialist searching for essences, Husserl rejected the existentialism implicit in Heidegger's distinction between beings qua existents as things in reality and their Being as it unfolds in Dasein's own reflections on its being-in-the-world, wherein being becomes present to us, that is, is unconcealed. Existential phenomenologists include:
Martin Heidegger Martin Heidegger (; ; 26 September 188926 May 1976) was a German philosopher who is best known for contributions to Phenomenology (philosophy), phenomenology, hermeneutics, and existentialism. He is among the most important and influential phi ...
(1889–1976),
Hannah Arendt Hannah Arendt (, , ; 14 October 1906 – 4 December 1975) was a political philosopher, author, and Holocaust survivor. She is widely considered to be one of the most influential political theorists of the 20th century. Arendt was born ...
(1906–1975),
Karl Jaspers Karl Theodor Jaspers (, ; 23 February 1883 – 26 February 1969) was a German-Swiss psychiatrist and philosopher A philosopher is a person who practices or investigates philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the systematized study of ...
(1883–1969), Emmanuel Levinas (1906–1995), Gabriel Marcel (1889–1973),
Jean-Paul Sartre Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (, ; ; 21 June 1905 – 15 April 1980) was one of the key figures in the philosophy of existentialist, existentialism (and Phenomenology (philosophy), phenomenology), a French playwright, novelist, screenwriter ...
(1905–1980), Paul Ricoeur (1913–2005) and Maurice Merleau-Ponty (1908–1961).


Eastern thought

Some researchers in phenomenology (in particular in reference to Heidegger's legacy) see possibilities of establishing dialogues with traditions of thought outside of the so-called
Western philosophy Western philosophy encompasses the philosophy, philosophical thought and work of the Western world. Historically, the term refers to the philosophical thinking of Western culture, beginning with the ancient Greek philosophy of the Pre-Socratic p ...
, particularly with respect to East-Asian thinking, and despite perceived differences between "Eastern" and "Western". Furthermore, it has been claimed that a number of elements within phenomenology (mainly Heidegger's thought) have some resonance with Eastern philosophical ideas, particularly with
Zen Buddhism Zen ( zh, t=禪, p=Chán; ja, text=:ja:禅, 禅, translit=zen; ko, text=선, translit=Seon; vi, text=Thiền) is a East Asian Buddhism, school of Mahayana, Mahayana Buddhism that originated in China during the Tang dynasty, known as the Ch ...
and
Taoism Taoism (, ) or Daoism () refers to either a school of Philosophy, philosophical thought (道家; ''daojia'') or to a religion (道教; ''daojiao''), both of which share ideas and concepts of China, Chinese origin and emphasize living in harmo ...
. According to Tomonobu Imamichi, the concept of ''Dasein'' was inspired – although Heidegger remained silent on this – by Okakura Kakuzo's concept of ''das-in-der-Welt-sein'' (being in the world) expressed in '' The Book of Tea'' to describe Zhuangzi's philosophy, which Imamichi's teacher had offered to Heidegger in 1919, after having studied with him the year before. Tomonobu Imamichi, ''In Search of Wisdom. One Philosopher's Journey'', Tokyo, International House of Japan, 2004 (quoted by Anne Fagot-Largeau during he
lesson
at the Collège de France on 7 December 2006).
There are also recent signs of the reception of phenomenology (and Heidegger's thought in particular) within scholarly circles focused on studying the impetus of
metaphysics Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy that studies the fundamental nature of reality, the first principles of being, identity and change, space and time, causality, necessity, and possibility. It includes questions about the nature of conscio ...
in the
history of ideas Intellectual history (also the history of ideas) is the study of the history of human thought and of intellectuals, people who conceptualize, discuss, write about, and concern themselves with ideas. The investigative premise of intellectual histor ...
in
Islam Islam (; ar, ۘالِإسلَام, , ) is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion centred primarily around the Quran, a religious text considered by Muslims to be the direct word of God in Islam, God (or ''Allah'') as it was revealed to Muh ...
and
Early Islamic philosophy Early Islamic philosophy or classical Islamic philosophy is a period of intense philosophical development beginning in the 2nd century AH of the Islamic calendar (early 9th century Common Era, CE) and lasting until the 6th century AH (late 12th ...
such as in the works of the Lebanese philosopher
Nader El-Bizri Nader El-Bizri ( ar, نادر البزري, ''nādir al-bizrĩ'') is the Dean of the College of Arts, Humanities, and Social Sciences at the University of Sharjah. He served before as a tenured longstanding full Professor of philosophy and civ ...
; perhaps this is tangentially due to the indirect influence of the tradition of the French Orientalist and phenomenologist Henri Corbin, and later accentuated through El-Bizri's dialogues with the Polish phenomenologist Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka. In addition, the work of Jim Ruddy in the field of comparative philosophy, combined the concept of "transcendental ego" in Husserl's phenomenology with the concept of the primacy of self-consciousness in the work of Sankaracharya. In the course of this work, Ruddy uncovered a wholly new eidetic phenomenological science, which he called "convergent phenomenology." This new phenomenology takes over where Husserl left off, and deals with the constitution of relation-like, rather than merely thing-like, or "intentional" objectivity.


Phenomenology as empirical science

The phenomenological analysis of objects is notably different from traditional science. However, several frameworks do phenomenology with an empirical orientation or aim to unite it with the natural sciences or with cognitive science. For a classical critical point of view,
Daniel Dennett Daniel Clement Dennett III (born March 28, 1942) is an American philosopher, writer, and Cognitive science, cognitive scientist whose research centers on the philosophy of mind, philosophy of science, and philosophy of biology, particularly as t ...
argues for the wholesale uselessness of phenomenology considering ''phenomena'' as
qualia In philosophy of mind, qualia ( or ; singular form: quale) are defined as individual instances of Subjectivity, subjective, consciousness, conscious experience. The term ''qualia'' derives from the Latin neuter plural form (''qualia'') of the Lati ...
, which cannot be the object of scientific research or do not exist in the first place. Liliana Albertazzi counters such arguments by pointing out that empirical research on phenomena has been successfully carried out employing modern methodology. Human experience can be investigated by
surveying Surveying or land surveying is the technique, profession, art, and science of determining the land, terrestrial Two-dimensional space#In geometry, two-dimensional or Three-dimensional space#In Euclidean geometry, three-dimensional positions of ...
, and with brain scanning techniques. For example, ample research on color perception suggests that people with normal color vision see colors similarly and not each in their own way. Thus, it is possible to universalize phenomena of subjective experience on an empirical scientific basis. Notwithstanding, the scope of phenomenology is gravely restricted by bracketing. Phenomenology's aim is to study experience itself avoiding any
evolutionary Evolution is change in the heritable Heredity, also called inheritance or biological inheritance, is the passing on of Phenotypic trait, traits from parents to their offspring; either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproductio ...
or causal explanations thereof. Husserl himself spoke strongly against the naturalization of phenomenology to fight the reduction of consciousness to
psychology Psychology is the science, scientific study of mind and behavior. Psychology includes the study of consciousness, conscious and Unconscious mind, unconscious phenomena, including feelings and thoughts. It is an academic discipline of immens ...
. In the early twenty-first century, phenomenology became a trend in cognitive science and
philosophy of mind Philosophy of mind is a branch of philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the systematized study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about existence, reason, knowledge, values, mind, and language. Such questions are often ...
. Some approaches to the naturalization of phenomenology reduce consciousness to the physical-neuronal level and are therefore not universally acknowledged as representing phenomenology. These include the frameworks of neuro-phenomenology, embodied constructivism, and the cognitive neuroscience of phenomenology. Other likewise controversial approaches aim to explain life-world experience on a
sociological Sociology is a social science Social science is one of the branches of science, devoted to the study of society, societies and the Social relation, relationships among individuals within those societies. The term was formerly used to r ...
or
anthropological Anthropology is the Science, scientific study of Human, humanity, concerned with human behavior, human biology, cultures, society, societies, and linguistics, in both the present and past, including Homo, past human species. Social anthropolog ...
basis despite phenomenology being mostly considered descriptive rather than explanatory.


Approaches to technology

James Moor has argued that computers show up policy vacuums that require new thinking and the establishment of new policies. Others have argued that the resources provided by classical ethical theory such as
utilitarianism In ethical philosophy, utilitarianism is a family of Normative ethics, normative ethical theories that prescribe actions that maximize happiness and well-being for all affected individuals. Although different varieties of utilitarianism admit ...
,
consequentialism In ethical philosophy, consequentialism is a class of normative ethics, normative, Teleology, teleological ethical theories that holds that the wikt:consequence, consequences of one's Action (philosophy), conduct are the ultimate basis for judgm ...
and deontological ethics is more than enough to deal with all the ethical issues emerging from our design and use of
information technology Information technology (IT) is the use of computers to create, process, store, retrieve, and exchange all kinds of Data (computing), data . and information. IT forms part of information and communications technology (ICT). An information te ...
. For the phenomenologist the 'impact view' of
technology Technology is the application of knowledge to reach practical goals in a specifiable and Reproducibility, reproducible way. The word ''technology'' may also mean the product of such an endeavor. The use of technology is widely prevalent in me ...
as well as the constructivist view of the technology/society relationships is valid but not adequate (Heidegger 1977, Borgmann 1985, Winograd and Flores 1987, Ihde 1990, Dreyfus 1992, 2001). They argue that these accounts of technology, and the
technology Technology is the application of knowledge to reach practical goals in a specifiable and Reproducibility, reproducible way. The word ''technology'' may also mean the product of such an endeavor. The use of technology is widely prevalent in me ...
/
society A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same spatial or social territory, typically subject to the same political Politics (from , ) is the set of activitie ...
relationship, posit
technology Technology is the application of knowledge to reach practical goals in a specifiable and Reproducibility, reproducible way. The word ''technology'' may also mean the product of such an endeavor. The use of technology is widely prevalent in me ...
and society as if speaking about the one does not immediately and already draw upon the other for its ongoing sense or meaning. For the phenomenologist,
society A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same spatial or social territory, typically subject to the same political Politics (from , ) is the set of activitie ...
and
technology Technology is the application of knowledge to reach practical goals in a specifiable and Reproducibility, reproducible way. The word ''technology'' may also mean the product of such an endeavor. The use of technology is widely prevalent in me ...
co-constitute each other; they are each other's ongoing condition, or possibility for being what they are. For them technology is not just the artifact. Rather, the artifact already emerges from a prior 'technological' attitude towards the world (Heidegger 1977).


Heidegger's

For Heidegger the essence of technology is the way of being of modern humans—a way of conducting themselves towards the world—that sees the world as something to be ordered and shaped in line with projects, intentions and desires—a 'will to power' that manifests itself as a 'will to technology'.Introna, L. (2005) Disclosing the Digital Face: The ethics of facial recognition systems, Ethics and Information Technology, 7(2) Heidegger claims that there were other times in human history, a pre-modern time, where humans did not orient themselves towards the world in a technological way—simply as resources for our purposes. However, according to Heidegger this 'pre-technological' age (or mood) is one where humans' relation with the world and artifacts, their way of being disposed, was poetic and aesthetic rather than technological (enframing). There are many who disagree with Heidegger's account of the modern technological attitude as the 'enframing' of the world. For example, Andrew Feenberg argues that Heidegger's account of modern technology is not borne out in contemporary everyday encounters with
technology Technology is the application of knowledge to reach practical goals in a specifiable and Reproducibility, reproducible way. The word ''technology'' may also mean the product of such an endeavor. The use of technology is widely prevalent in me ...
. Christian Fuchs has written on the anti-Semitism rooted in Heidegger's view of technology.Fuchs, Christian (2015) "Martin Heidegger's Anti-Semitism: Philosophy of Technology and the Media in the Light of the Black Notebooks." Triple-C Vol 13, No 1. Accessed 4 May 2017.


Dreyfus'

In critiquing the artificial intelligence (AI) programme, Hubert Dreyfus (1992) argues that the way skill development has become understood in the past has been wrong. He argues, this is the model that the early artificial intelligence community uncritically adopted. In opposition to this view, he argues, with Heidegger, that what we observe when we learn a new skill in everyday practice is in fact the opposite. We most often start with explicit rules or preformulated approaches and then move to a multiplicity of particular cases, as we become an expert. His argument draws directly on Heidegger's account in "Being and Time" of humans as beings that are always already situated in-the-world. As humans 'in-the-world', we are already experts at going about everyday life, at dealing with the subtleties of every particular situation; that is why everyday life seems so obvious. Thus, the intricate expertise of everyday activity is forgotten and taken for granted by AI as an assumed starting point. What Dreyfus highlighted in his critique of AI was the fact that technology (AI algorithms) does not make sense by itself. It is the assumed, and forgotten, horizon of everyday practice that makes technological devices and solutions show up as meaningful. If we are to understand technology we need to 'return' to the horizon of meaning that made it show up as the artifacts we need, want and desire. We need to consider how these technologies reveal (or disclose) us.


See also

*
Antipositivism In social science, antipositivism (also interpretivism, negativism or antinaturalism) is a theoretical stance that proposes that the social realm cannot be studied with the scientific method, methods of investigation utilized within the natural ...
* British Society for Phenomenology *
Deconstruction The term deconstruction refers to approaches to understanding the relationship between Text (literary theory), text and Meaning (linguistics), meaning. It was introduced by the philosopher Jacques Derrida, who defined it as a turn away from Pl ...
* Definitions of philosophy * Ecophenomenology *
Empiricism In philosophy, empiricism is an Epistemology, epistemological theory that holds that knowledge or justification comes only or primarily from Empirical evidence, sensory experience. It is one of several views within epistemology, along with ra ...
*
Existentialism Existentialism ( ) is a form of philosophy, philosophical inquiry that explores the problem of human existence and centers on human thinking, feeling, and acting. Existentialist thinkers frequently explore issues related to the meaning of life, ...
* Geneva School * Gestalt therapy *
Hermeneutics Hermeneutics () is the theory and methodology of interpretation, especially the interpretation of Biblical hermeneutics, biblical texts, wisdom literature, and Philosophy, philosophical texts. Hermeneutics is more than interpretative principles ...
* Heterophenomenology *
Ideasthesia Ideasthesia (alternative spelling ideaesthesia) is a neuropsychological phenomenon in which activations of concepts (inducers) evoke perception-like sensory experiences (concurrents). The name comes from the Ancient Greek Ancient Greek ...
* Integrated information theory * List of phenomenologists * Neurophenomenology *
Observation Observation is the active acquisition of information from a primary source. In living beings, observation employs the senses. In science, observation can also involve the perception and recording of data (information), data via the use of scienti ...
* Phenomenography * Phenomenological sociology * Phenomenological Thomism * Phenomenology (architecture) * Phenomenology of religion *
Phenomenology (psychology) Phenomenology within psychology, or phenomenological psychology, is the psychological study of subjective experience. It is an approach to psychological subject matter that attempts to explain experiences from the point of view of the subject via ...
*
Philosophical anthropology Philosophical anthropology, sometimes called anthropological philosophy, is a discipline dealing with questions of metaphysics Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy that studies the fundamental nature of reality, the first principles of ...
* Poststructuralism *
Psychodrama Psychodrama is an action method, often used as a psychotherapy, in which clients use spontaneous Adaptation (arts), dramatization, role playing, and dramatic self-presentation to investigate and gain insight into their lives. Developed by Jac ...
*
Qualia In philosophy of mind, qualia ( or ; singular form: quale) are defined as individual instances of Subjectivity, subjective, consciousness, conscious experience. The term ''qualia'' derives from the Latin neuter plural form (''qualia'') of the Lati ...
*
Social constructionism Social constructionism is a theory in sociology, social ontology, and communication theory which proposes that certain ideas about reality, physical reality arise from collaborative consensus, instead of pure observation of said reality. The ...
* Society for Phenomenology and Existential Philosophy *
Structuralism In sociology Sociology is a social science that focuses on society, human social behavior, patterns of Interpersonal ties, social relationships, social interaction, and aspects of culture associated with everyday life. It uses various meth ...
* Structuration theory * Technoethics * World Phenomenology Institute


References


Further reading

* Algis Mickunas, ''From Zen to Phenomenology''. (Hauppauge: Nova 2018) * ''A Companion to Phenomenology and Existentialism''. Edited by Hubert L. Dreyfus and Mark A. Wrathall. (Oxford: Blackwell, 2009) *''Handbook of Phenomenological Aesthetics''. Edited by Hans Rainer Sepp and Lester Embree. (Series: Contributions To Phenomenology, Vol. 59) Springer, Dordrecht / Heidelberg / London / New York 2010. *Th
IAP LIBRARY
offers very fine sources for Phenomenology. *Th
London Philosophy Study Guide
offers many suggestions on what to read, depending on the student's familiarity with the subject

* Dermot Moran, ''Introduction to Phenomenology'' (Oxford: Routledge, 2000) – Charting phenomenology from Brentano, through Husserl and Heidegger, to Gadamer, Arendt, Levinas, Sartre, Merleau-Ponty and Derrida. * Robert Sokolowski, "Introduction to Phenomenology (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2000) – An excellent non-historical introduction to phenomenology. * Herbert Spiegelberg, "The Phenomenological Movement: A Historical Introduction," 3rd ed. (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1983). The most comprehensive source on the development of the phenomenological movement. * David Stewart and Algis Mickunas, "Exploring Phenomenology: A Guide to the Field and its Literature" (Athens: Ohio University Press 1990) * Michael Hammond, Jane Howarth, and Russell Kent, "Understanding Phenomenology" (Oxford: Blackwell 1995) * Christopher Macann, ''Four Phenomenological Philosophers: Husserl, Heidegger, Sartre, Merleau-Ponty'' (New York: Routledge: 1993) * Jan Patočka, "Qu'est-ce que la phénoménologie?", In: ''Qu'est-ce que la phénoménologie?'', ed. and trans. E. Abrams (Grenoble: J. Millon 1988), pp. 263–302. An answer to the question, What is phenomenology?, from a student of both Husserl and Heidegger and one of the most important phenomenologists of the latter half of the twentieth century. * William A. Luijpen and Henry J. Koren, "A First Introduction to Existential Phenomenology" (Pittsburgh: Duquesne University Press 1969) * Richard M. Zaner, "The Way of Phenomenology" (Indianapolis: Pegasus 1970) * Hans Köchler, ''Die Subjekt-Objekt-Dialektik in der transzendentalen Phänomenologie. Das Seinsproblem zwischen Idealismus und Realismus''. (Meisenheim a. G.: Anton Hain, 1974) (German) * Hans Köchler, ''Phenomenological Realism: Selected Essays'' (Frankfurt a. M./Bern: Peter Lang, 1986) * Mark Jarzombek, ''The Psychologizing of Modernity'' (Cambridge University Press, 2000). *Seidner, Stanley S. (1989). "Köhler's Dilemma", In ''Issues of Language Assessment''. vol 3. Ed., Stanley S.Seidner. Springfield, Il.: State Board of Education. pp. 5–6. * Pierre Thévenaz, "What is Phenomenology?" (Chicago: Quadrangle Books 1962) * ed. James M. Edie, "An Invitation to Phenomenology" (Chicago: Quadrangle Books 1965) – A collection of seminal phenomenological essays. * ed. R. O. Elveton, "The Phenomenology of Husserl: Selected Critical Readings" (Seattle: Noesis Press 2000) – Key essays about Husserl's phenomenology. * ed. Laura Doyle, ''Bodies of Resistance: New Phenomenologies of Politics, Agency, and Culture''. Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University Press, 2001. * eds. Richard Zaner and Don Ihde, "Phenomenology and Existentialism" (New York: Putnam 1973) – Contains many key essays in existential phenomenology. * Robert Magliola, ''Phenomenology and Literature'' (Purdue University Press, 1977; 1978) systematically describes, in Part One, the influence of Husserl, Heidegger, and the French Existentialists on the Geneva School and other forms of what becomes known as "phenomenological literary criticism"; and in Part Two describes phenomenological literary theory in Roman Ingarden and Mikel Dufrenne. * Albert Borgmann and his work in philosophy of technology. * eds. Natalie Depraz,
Francisco Varela Francisco Javier Varela García (September 7, 1946 – May 28, 2001) was a Chilean biologist, philosophy, philosopher, cybernetician, and neuroscientist who, together with his mentor Humberto Maturana, is best known for introducing the concept o ...
, Pierre Vermersch, ''On Becoming Aware: A Pragmatics of Experiencing'' (Amsterdam: John Benjamins 2003) – searches for the sources and the means for a disciplined practical approach to exploring human experience. * Don Ihde, "Experimental Phenomenology: An Introduction" (Albany, NY: SUNY Press) * Sara Ahmed, "Queer Phenomenology: Orientations, Objects, Others" (Durham: Duke University Press 2006) *
Michael Jackson Michael Joseph Jackson (August 29, 1958 – June 25, 2009) was an American singer, songwriter, dancer, and philanthropist. Dubbed the "Honorific nicknames in popular music, King of Pop", he is regarded as Cultural impact of Michael Jackson, ...
, ''Existential Anthropology'' * * Shaun Gallagher and Dan Zahavi, ''The Phenomenological Mind''. London: Routledge, 2007. * Jean-François Lyotard
''Phenomenology''
SUNY Press, 1991. * Steinbock, A. J. (1995). ''Home and Beyond, Generative Phenomenology After Husserl.'' Northwestern University Studies in Phenomenology and Existential Philosophy.
Online
* Suzi Adams, "Towards a Post-Phenomenology of Life: Castoriadis' ''Naturphilosophie''", Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy, Vol 4, No 1–2 (2008).
Online
* Espen Dahl, ''Phenomenology and the Holy: Religious experience after Husserl'' (London, SCM Press, 2010). * Arkadiusz Chrudzimski and Wolfgang Huemer (eds.), ''Phenomenology and Analysis: Essays on Central European Philosophy'', Ontos Verlag, 2004. * D. W. Smith and A. L. Thomasson (eds.), ''Phenomenology and the Philosophy of Mind'', New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.


Journals




Janus Head: Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature, Continental Philosophy, Phenomenological Psychology, and the Arts

Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology




(online-newsletter)
Studia Phaenomenologica

Indo-Pacific Journal of Phenomenology

The Roman Ingarden Philosophical Research Centre

Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences

Continental Philosophy Review

Human Studies

Husserl Studies

Phenomenology & Practice



Phainomena


Book series


Edmund Husserl: Gesammelte Werke

Edmund Husserl: Collected Works

Edmund Husserl: Dokumente

Edmund Husserl: Materialien

Analecta Husserliana

Phaenomenologica

Contributions to Phenomenology

Studies in German Idealism


External links




About Edmund Husserl

Phenomenology – Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Cognitive Phenomenology – Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Phenomenology – Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Organization of Phenomenology Organizations

Romanian Society for Phenomenology

Phenomenology Online

Dialectical Phenomenology

The New Phenomenology

Springer's academic Phenomenology program

Phenomenology and First Philosophy

Meta: Research in Hermeneutics, Phenomenology, and Practical Philosophy



Phenomenology Research Center

Open Commons of Phenomenology
{{Authority control 20th-century philosophy 21st-century philosophy Concepts in social philosophy Concepts in the philosophy of mind Consciousness Consciousness studies Continental philosophy Criticism of rationalism Edmund Husserl History of philosophy Intellectual history Philosophical methodology Philosophical movements Philosophy of mind Qualia Social philosophy Theory of mind