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PHARAOH (/ˈfeɪ.roʊ/ , /fɛr.oʊ/ or /fær.oʊ/ ) is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty (c. 3150 BCE) until the Roman Annexation of Egypt in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until circa 1200 BCE .

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 Regalia

* 2.1 Scepters and staves * 2.2 The Uraeus
Uraeus

* 3 Crowns and headdresses

* 3.1 Deshret
Deshret
* 3.2 Hedjet
Hedjet
* 3.3 Pschent * 3.4 Khat * 3.5 Nemes * 3.6 Atef * 3.7 Hemhem * 3.8 Khepresh * 3.9 Physical evidence

* 4 Titles

* 4.1 Nesu Bity name * 4.2 Horus
Horus
name * 4.3 Nebty name * 4.4 Golden Horus
Horus
* 4.5 Nomen and prenomen

* 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Bibliography * 8 External links

ETYMOLOGY

The word pharaoh ultimately derives from the Egyptian compound pr-ˤ3 "great house," written with the two biliteral hieroglyphs pr "house" and ˤ3 "column", here meaning "great" or "high". It was used only in larger phrases such as smr pr-ˤ3 "Courtier of the High House", with specific reference to the buildings of the court or palace. From the twelfth dynasty onward, the word appears in a wish formula "Great House, may it live, prosper, and be in health ", but again only with reference to the royal palace and not the person.

During the reign of Thutmose III
Thutmose III
(circa 1479–1425 BCE) in the New Kingdom , after the foreign rule of the Hyksos
Hyksos
during the Second Intermediate Period , pharaoh became the form of address for a person who was king.

The earliest instance where pr-ˤ3 is used specifically to address the ruler is in a letter to Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten), who reigned circa 1353–1336 BCE, which is addressed to "Pharaoh, all life, prosperity, and health ". During the eighteenth dynasty (16th to 14th centuries BCE) the title pharaoh was employed as a reverential designation of the ruler. About the late twenty-first dynasty (10th century BCE), however, instead of being used alone as before, it began to be added to the other titles before the ruler's name, and from the twenty-fifth dynasty (eighth to seventh centuries BCE) it was, at least in ordinary usage, the only epithet prefixed to the royal appellative .

From the nineteenth dynasty onward pr-ˤ3 on its own was used as regularly as hm.f, "Majesty". The term, therefore, evolved from a word specifically referring to a building to a respectful designation for the ruler, particularly by the twenty-second dynasty and twenty-third dynasty .

For instance, the first dated appearance of the title pharaoh being attached to a ruler's name occurs in Year 17 of Siamun on a fragment from the Karnak
Karnak
Priestly Annals. Here, an induction of an individual to the Amun priesthood is dated specifically to the reign of Pharaoh Siamun. This new practice was continued under his successor Psusennes II and the twenty-second dynasty kings. For instance, the Large Dakhla stela is specifically dated to Year 5 of king " Pharaoh
Pharaoh
Shoshenk, beloved of Amun", whom all Egyptologists concur was Shoshenq I
Shoshenq I
—the founder of the Twenty-second dynasty —including Alan Gardiner in his original 1933 publication of this stela. Shoshenq I
Shoshenq I
was the second successor of Siamun. Meanwhile, the old custom of referring to the sovereign simply as pr-ˤ3 continued in traditional Egyptian narratives.

By this time, the Late Egyptian word is reconstructed to have been pronounced * whence Herodotus derived the name of one of the Egyptian kings, Φερων. In the Old Testament
Old Testament
of the Bible
Bible
, the title also occurs as פרעה ; from that, Septuagint
Septuagint
φαραώ pharaō and then Late Latin
Late Latin
pharaō, both -n stem nouns. The Qur'an likewise spells it فرعون fir'awn with "n" (here, always referring to the one evil king in the Exodus story, by contrast to the good king Aziz in sura 12's Joseph story). Interestingly, the Arabic combines the original pharyngeal ayin sound from Egyptian, along with the -n ending from Greek.

English at first spelt it "Pharao", but the King James Bible
Bible
revived "Pharaoh" with "h" from the Hebrew. Meanwhile in Egypt itself, * evolved into Sahidic Coptic ⲡⲣ̅ⲣⲟ prro and then rro (by mistaking p- as the definite article prefix "the" from ancient Egyptian p3).

REGALIA

SCEPTERS AND STAVES

Beaded Scepter of Khasekhemwy
Khasekhemwy
(Museum of Fine Arts in Boston).

Scepters and staves were a general sign of authority in ancient Egypt . One of the earliest royal scepters was discovered in the tomb of Khasekhemwy
Khasekhemwy
in Abydos . Kings were also known to carry a staff, and Pharaoh
Pharaoh
Anedjib is shown on stone vessels carrying a so-called mks-staff. The scepter with the longest history seems to be the heqa-scepter, sometimes described as the shepherd's crook. The earliest examples of this piece of regalia dates to pre-dynastic times. A scepter was found in a tomb at Abydos that dates to the late Naqada period.

Another scepter associated with the king is the was-scepter . This is a long staff mounted with an animal head. The earliest known depictions of the was-scepter date to the first dynasty . The was-scepter is shown in the hands of both kings and deities.

The flail later was closely related to the heqa-scepter (the crook and flail ), but in early representations the king was also depicted solely with the flail, as shown in a late pre-dynastic knife handle which is now in the Metropolitan museum, and on the Narmer Macehead
Narmer Macehead
.

THE URAEUS

The earliest evidence known of the Uraeus
Uraeus
—a rearing cobra—is from the reign of Den from the first dynasty . The cobra supposedly protected the pharaoh by spitting fire at its enemies.

CROWNS AND HEADDRESSES

NARMER PALETTE

Narmer
Narmer
wearing the white crown Narmer
Narmer
wearing the red crown

DESHRET

The red crown of Lower Egypt, the Deshret
Deshret
crown, dates back to pre-dynastic times. A red crown has been found on a pottery shard from Naqada , and later, king Narmer
Narmer
is shown wearing the red crown on both the Narmer
Narmer
macehead and the Narmer
Narmer
palette .

HEDJET

The white crown of Upper Egypt, the Hedjet
Hedjet
crown, is shown on the Qustul incense burner which dates to the pre-dynastic period . Later, King Scorpion was depicted wearing the white crown, as was Narmer.

PSCHENT

This is the combination of the Deshret
Deshret
and Hedjet
Hedjet
crowns into a double crown, called the Pschent crown. It is first documented in the middle of the first dynasty . The earliest depiction may date to the reign of Djet , and is otherwise surely attested during the reign of Den.

KHAT

Den

The khat headdress consists of a kind of "kerchief" whose end is tied similarly to a ponytail . The earliest depictions of the khat headdress comes from the reign of Den, but is not found again until the reign of Djoser
Djoser
.

NEMES

The Nemes headdress dates from the time of Djoser. It is the most common type of crown that has been depicted throughout Pharaonic Egypt. Any other type of crown, apart from the Khat headdress, has been commonly depicted on top of the Nemes . The statue from his Serdab
Serdab
in Saqqara
Saqqara
shows the king wearing the nemes headdress. Statuette of Pepy I (ca. 2338-2298 B.C.E.) wearing a nemes headdress Brooklyn Museum
Brooklyn Museum

ATEF

Osiris is shown to wear the Atef crown, which is an elaborate Hedjet with feathers and disks. Depictions of Pharaohs wearing the Atef crown originate from the Old Kingdom.

HEMHEM

The Hemhem crown is usually depicted on top of Nemes , Pschent , or Deshret
Deshret
crowns. It is an ornate triple Atef with corkscrew sheep horns and usually two uraei. The usage (depiction) of this crown begins during the Early 18th dynasty of Egypt.

KHEPRESH

Also called the blue crown, the Khepresh crown has been depicted since the New Kingdom.

PHYSICAL EVIDENCE

Egyptologist Bob Brier has noted that despite its widespread depiction in royal portraits, no ancient Egyptian crown ever has been discovered. Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
's tomb, discovered largely intact, did contain such regalia as his crook and flail , but no crown was found, however, among the funerary equipment. Diadems have been discovered.

It is presumed that crowns would have been believed to have magical properties. Brier's speculation is that crowns were religious or state items, so a dead pharaoh likely could not retain a crown as a personal possession. The crowns may have been passed along to the successor.

TITLES

Main article: Ancient Egyptian royal titulary
Ancient Egyptian royal titulary

During the early dynastic period kings had as many as three titles. The Horus
Horus
name is the oldest and dates to the late pre-dynastic period. The Nesw Bity name was added during the first dynasty . The Nebty name was first introduced toward the end of the first dynasty . The Golden falcon (bik-nbw) name is not well understood. The prenomen and nomen were introduced later and are traditionally enclosed in a cartouche . By the Middle Kingdom , the official titulary of the ruler consisted of five names; Horus, nebty, golden Horus, nomen, and prenomen for some rulers, only one or two of them may be known.

NESU BITY NAME

The Nesu Bity name, also known as Prenomen , was one of the new developments from the reign of Den . The name would follow the glyphs for the "Sedge and the Bee". The title is usually translated as king of Upper and Lower Egypt. The nsw bity name may have been the birth name of the king. It was often the name by which kings were recorded in the later annals and king lists.

HORUS NAME

The Horus
Horus
name was adopted by the king, when taking the throne. The name was written within a square frame representing the palace, named a serekh . The earliest known example of a serekh dates to the reign of king Ka , before the first dynasty. The Horus
Horus
name of several early kings expresses a relationship with Horus
Horus
. Aha refers to "Horus the fighter", Djer
Djer
refers to " Horus
Horus
the strong", etc. Later kings express ideals of kingship in their Horus
Horus
names. Khasekhemwy
Khasekhemwy
refers to "Horus: the two powers are at peace", while Nebra refers to "Horus, Lord of the Sun".

NEBTY NAME

The earliest example of a nebty name comes from the reign of king Aha from the first dynasty . The title links the king with the goddesses of Upper and Lower Egypt
Lower Egypt
Nekhbet and Wadjet . The title is preceded by the vulture (Nekhbet) and the cobra (Wadjet) standing on a basket (the neb sign).

GOLDEN HORUS

The Golden Horus
Horus
or Golden Falcon name was preceded by a falcon on a gold or nbw sign. The title may have represented the divine status of the king. The Horus
Horus
associated with gold may be referring to the idea that the bodies of the deities were made of gold and the pyramids and obelisks are representations of (golden) sun -rays. The gold sign may also be a reference to Nubt, the city of Set. This would suggest that the iconography represents Horus
Horus
conquering Set.

NOMEN AND PRENOMEN

The prenomen and nomen were contained in a cartouche. The prenomen often followed the King of Upper and Lower Egypt
Lower Egypt
(nsw bity) or Lord of the Two Lands (nebtawy) title. The prenomen often incorporated the name of Re . The nomen often followed the title Son of Re (sa-ra) or the title Lord of Appearances (neb-kha). Nomen and prenomen of Ramesses III
Ramesses III

SEE ALSO

* Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt
portal * Monarchy portal

* List of pharaohs
List of pharaohs
* Coronation of the pharaoh * Great Royal Wife , the chief wife of a male pharaoh * Egyptian chronology
Egyptian chronology
* Pharaohs in the Bible
Bible
* Pharaoh
Pharaoh
, a historical novel written by Bolesław Prus

REFERENCES

* ^ Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, Eleventh Edition. Merriam-Webster, 2007. p. 928 * ^ A B Dictionary Reference : pharaoh * ^ Clayton, Peter A. Chronicle of the Pharaohs the Reign-by-reign Record of the Rulers and Dynasties of Ancient Egypt. London: Thames & Hudson, 2012. Print. * ^ A. Gardiner, Ancient Egyptian Grammar (3rd edn, 1957), 71–76. * ^ Redmount, Carol A. "Bitter Lives: Israel in and out of Egypt." p. 89–90. Michael D. Coogan, ed. The Oxford History of the Biblical World, Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
. 1998. * ^ Hieratic Papyrus from Kahun and Gurob, F. LL. Griffith, 38, 17. Although see also R. Mond and O. Myers (1940), Temples of Armant, pl. 93, 5, for an instance possibly dating from the reign of Thutmose III . * ^ "pharaoh" in Encyclopædia Britannica . Ultimate Reference Suite. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2008. * ^ J-M. Kruchten, Les annales des pretres de Karnak
Karnak
(OLA 32), 1989, pp.474–8. * ^ Alan Gardiner, "The Dakhleh Stela", Journal of Egyptian Archaeology , Vol. 19, No. 1/2 (May, 1933) pp. 193–200. * ^ Herodotus, Histories 2.111.1. See Anne Burton (1972). Diodorus Siculus, Book
Book
1: A Commentary. Brill. , commenting on ch. 59.1. * ^ Elazar Ari Lipinski: Pesach - A holiday of questions. About the Haggadah-Commentary Zevach Pesach of Rabbi Isaak Abarbanel (1437–1508). Explaining the meaning of the name Pharaoh. Published first in German in the official quarterly of the Organization of the Jewish Communities of Bavaria: Jüdisches Leben in Bayern. Mitteilungsblatt des Landesverbandes der Israelitischen Kultusgemeinden in Bayern. Pessach-Ausgabe = Nr. 109, 2009, ZDB-ID 2077457-6, S. 3–4. * ^ Walter C. Till: "Koptische Grammatik." VEB Verläg Enzyklopädie, Leipzig, 1961. p. 62. * ^ A B Wilkinson, Toby A.H. Early Dynastic Egypt. Routledge, 2001, p. 158. * ^ Wilkinson, Toby A.H. Early Dynastic Egypt. Routledge, 2001, p. 159. * ^ A B Wilkinson, Toby A.H. Early Dynastic Egypt. Routledge, 2001, p. 160. * ^ Wilkinson, Toby A.H. Early Dynastic Egypt. Routledge, 2001, p. 161. * ^ Wilkinson, Toby A.H. Early Dynastic Egypt. Routledge, 2001, p. 162. * ^ A B C D E F G H Wilkinson, Toby A.H. Early Dynastic Egypt. Routledge, 2001 ISBN 978-0-415-26011-4 * ^ Shaw, Garry J. The Pharaoh, Life at Court and on Campaign. Thames and Hudson, 2012, pp. 21, 77. * ^ Bob Brier, The Murder of Tutankhamen, 1998, p. 95. * ^ A B C Dodson, Aidan and Hilton, Dyan. The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. Thames padding:0.75em; background:#f9f9f9;"> Find more aboutPHARAOHat's sister projects

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