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Pharaoh
Pharaoh
(/ˈfeɪ.roʊ/, /fɛr.oʊ/[1][2] or /fær.oʊ/;[2] Coptic: ⲡⲣ̅ⲣⲟ Prro) is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty (c. 3150 BCE) until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in 30 BCE,[3] although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until circa 1200 BCE. In the early dynasty, ancient Egyptian kings used to have up to three titles, the Horus, the Nesu Bety, and the Nebty name. The Golden Horus
Horus
and Nomen and prenomen titles were later added. In Egyptian society, religion was central to everyday life. One of the roles of the pharaoh was as an intermediary between the gods and the people. The pharaoh thus deputised for the gods; his role was both as civil and religious administrator. He owned all of the land in Egypt, enacted laws, collected taxes, and defended Egypt from invaders as the commander-in-chief of the army.[4] Religiously, the pharaoh officiated over religious ceremonies and chose the sites of new temples. He was responsible for maintaining Maat, or balance and justice, and part of this included going to war when necessary to defend the country or attacking others when it was believed that this would contribute to Maat, such as to obtain resources.[5] During the early days prior to the unity of the lower and upper kingdoms of ancient Egypt, a Deshret, the red crown, was a representation the Kingdom of lower Egypt; while the Hadjet, a white crown, was worn by the kings of the kingdom of upper Egypt. After the unification of both kingdoms into one united Egypt, the Pschent, the combination of both the red and white crowns was the official crown of kings. With time new headdresses were introduced during different dynasties like Khat, Nemes, Atef, Hemhem, and Kepresh. At times, it was depicted that a combination of these headdresses or crowns would be worn together.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Regalia

2.1 Scepters and staves 2.2 The Uraeus

3 Crowns and headdresses

3.1 Deshret 3.2 Hedjet 3.3 Pschent 3.4 Khat 3.5 Nemes 3.6 Atef 3.7 Hemhem 3.8 Khepresh 3.9 Physical evidence

4 Titles

4.1 Nesu Bity name 4.2 Horus
Horus
name 4.3 Nebty name 4.4 Golden Horus 4.5 Nomen and prenomen

5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 Bibliography 9 External links

Etymology[edit] The word pharaoh ultimately derives from the Egyptian compound pr-ˤ3 "great house," written with the two biliteral hieroglyphs pr "house" and ˤ3 "column", here meaning "great" or "high". It was used only in larger phrases such as smr pr-ˤ3 "Courtier of the High House", with specific reference to the buildings of the court or palace.[6] From the twelfth dynasty onward, the word appears in a wish formula "Great House, may it live, prosper, and be in health", but again only with reference to the royal palace and not the person. During the reign of Thutmose III
Thutmose III
(circa 1479–1425 BCE) in the New Kingdom, after the foreign rule of the Hyksos
Hyksos
during the Second Intermediate Period, pharaoh became the form of address for a person who was king.[7] The earliest instance where pr-ˤ3 is used specifically to address the ruler is in a letter to Amenhotep IV
Amenhotep IV
(Akhenaten), who reigned circa 1353–1336 BCE, which is addressed to "Pharaoh, all life, prosperity, and health".[8] During the eighteenth dynasty (16th to 14th centuries BCE) the title pharaoh was employed as a reverential designation of the ruler. About the late twenty-first dynasty (10th century BCE), however, instead of being used alone as before, it began to be added to the other titles before the ruler's name, and from the twenty-fifth dynasty (eighth to seventh centuries BCE) it was, at least in ordinary usage, the only epithet prefixed to the royal appellative.[9] From the nineteenth dynasty onward pr-ˤ3 on its own was used as regularly as ḥm, "Majesty".[10][note 1] The term, therefore, evolved from a word specifically referring to a building to a respectful designation for the ruler, particularly by the twenty-second dynasty and twenty-third dynasty.[citation needed] For instance, the first dated appearance of the title pharaoh being attached to a ruler's name occurs in Year 17 of Siamun
Siamun
on a fragment from the Karnak
Karnak
Priestly Annals. Here, an induction of an individual to the Amun priesthood is dated specifically to the reign of Pharaoh Siamun.[11] This new practice was continued under his successor Psusennes II
Psusennes II
and the twenty-second dynasty kings. For instance, the Large Dakhla stela is specifically dated to Year 5 of king "Pharaoh Shoshenk, beloved of Amun", whom all Egyptologists concur was Shoshenq I—the founder of the Twenty-second dynasty—including Alan Gardiner in his original 1933 publication of this stela.[12] Shoshenq I
Shoshenq I
was the second successor of Siamun. Meanwhile, the old custom of referring to the sovereign simply as pr-ˤ3 continued in traditional Egyptian narratives.[citation needed] By this time, the Late Egyptian word is reconstructed to have been pronounced *[par-ʕoʔ] whence Herodotus derived the name of one of the Egyptian kings, Φερων.[13] In the Old Testament
Old Testament
of the Bible, the title also occurs as פרעה [par‘ōh];[14] from that, Septuagint
Septuagint
φαραώ pharaō and then Late Latin
Late Latin
pharaō, both -n stem nouns. The Qur'an likewise spells it فرعون fir'awn with "n" (here, always referring to the one evil king in the Exodus story, by contrast to the good king Aziz in sura 12's Joseph story). Interestingly, the Arabic combines the original pharyngeal ayin sound from Egyptian, along with the -n ending from Greek. English at first spelled it "Pharao", but the King James Bible
Bible
revived "Pharaoh" with "h" from the Hebrew. Meanwhile in Egypt itself, *[par-ʕoʔ] evolved into Sahidic Coptic ⲡⲣ̅ⲣⲟ prro and then rro (by mistaking p- as the definite article prefix "the" from ancient Egyptian p3).[15] Other notable epithets, nsw is translated to "king", ity for "monarch or sovereign", nb for "lord".[10][note 2] and heqa for "ruler". Regalia[edit] Scepters and staves[edit]

Beaded Scepter
Scepter
of Khasekhemwy
Khasekhemwy
(Museum of Fine Arts in Boston).

Scepters and staves were a general sign of authority in ancient Egypt.[16] One of the earliest royal scepters was discovered in the tomb of Khasekhemwy
Khasekhemwy
in Abydos.[16] Kings were also known to carry a staff, and Pharaoh
Pharaoh
Anedjib
Anedjib
is shown on stone vessels carrying a so-called mks-staff.[17] The scepter with the longest history seems to be the heqa-scepter, sometimes described as the shepherd's crook.[18] The earliest examples of this piece of regalia dates to pre-dynastic times. A scepter was found in a tomb at Abydos that dates to the late Naqada
Naqada
period. Another scepter associated with the king is the was-scepter.[18] This is a long staff mounted with an animal head. The earliest known depictions of the was-scepter date to the first dynasty. The was-scepter is shown in the hands of both kings and deities. The flail later was closely related to the heqa-scepter (the crook and flail), but in early representations the king was also depicted solely with the flail, as shown in a late pre-dynastic knife handle which is now in the Metropolitan museum, and on the Narmer
Narmer
Macehead.[19] The Uraeus[edit] The earliest evidence known of the Uraeus—a rearing cobra—is from the reign of Den from the first dynasty. The cobra supposedly protected the pharaoh by spitting fire at its enemies.[20] Crowns and headdresses[edit] Main article: Crowns of Egypt

Narmer
Narmer
Palette

Narmer
Narmer
wearing the white crown

Narmer
Narmer
wearing the red crown

Deshret[edit] The red crown of Lower Egypt, the Deshret
Deshret
crown, dates back to pre-dynastic times and symbolised chief ruler. A red crown has been found on a pottery shard from Naqada, and later, king Narmer
Narmer
is shown wearing the red crown on both the Narmer
Narmer
macehead and the Narmer palette. Hedjet[edit] The white crown of Upper Egypt, the Hedjet
Hedjet
crown, was worn in the Predynastic Period by King Scorpion, and, later, by Narmer. Pschent[edit] This is the combination of the Deshret
Deshret
and Hedjet
Hedjet
crowns into a double crown, called the Pschent
Pschent
crown. It is first documented in the middle of the first dynasty. The earliest depiction may date to the reign of Djet, and is otherwise surely attested during the reign of Den.[21] Khat[edit]

Den

The khat headdress consists of a kind of "kerchief" whose end is tied similarly to a ponytail. The earliest depictions of the khat headdress comes from the reign of Den, but is not found again until the reign of Djoser. Nemes[edit] The Nemes
Nemes
headdress dates from the time of Djoser. It is the most common type of crown that has been depicted throughout Pharaonic Egypt. Any other type of crown, apart from the Khat headdress, has been commonly depicted on top of the Nemes. The statue from his Serdab in Saqqara
Saqqara
shows the king wearing the nemes headdress.[21]

Statuette of Pepy I (ca. 2338-2298 B.C.E.) wearing a nemes headdress Brooklyn Museum

Atef[edit] Osiris is shown to wear the Atef
Atef
crown, which is an elaborate Hedjet with feathers and disks. Depictions of Pharaohs wearing the Atef
Atef
crown originate from the Old Kingdom. Hemhem[edit] The Hemhem crown is usually depicted on top of Nemes, Pschent, or Deshret
Deshret
crowns. It is an ornate triple Atef
Atef
with corkscrew sheep horns and usually two uraei. The usage (depiction) of this crown begins during the Early 18th dynasty of Egypt. Khepresh[edit] Also called the blue crown, the Khepresh
Khepresh
crown has been depicted since the New Kingdom. Physical evidence[edit] Egyptologist Bob Brier has noted that despite their widespread depiction in royal portraits, no ancient Egyptian crown has ever been discovered. Tutankhamun's tomb, discovered largely intact, did contain such regalia as his crook and flail, but no crown was found, however, among the funerary equipment. Diadems have been discovered.[22] It is presumed that crowns would have been believed to have magical properties. Brier's speculation is that crowns were religious or state items, so a dead pharaoh likely could not retain a crown as a personal possession. The crowns may have been passed along to the successor.[23] Titles[edit] Main article: Ancient Egyptian royal titulary During the early dynastic period kings had three titles. The Horus name is the oldest and dates to the late pre-dynastic period. The Nesu Bity name was added during the first dynasty. The Nebty name was first introduced toward the end of the first dynasty.[21] The Golden falcon (bik-nbw) name is not well understood. The prenomen and nomen were introduced later and are traditionally enclosed in a cartouche.[24] By the Middle Kingdom, the official titulary of the ruler consisted of five names; Horus, nebty, golden Horus, nomen, and prenomen[25] for some rulers, only one or two of them may be known. Nesu Bity name[edit] The Nesu Bity name, also known as Prenomen, was one of the new developments from the reign of Den. The name would follow the glyphs for the "Sedge and the Bee". The title is usually translated as king of Upper and Lower Egypt. The nsw bity name may have been the birth name of the king. It was often the name by which kings were recorded in the later annals and king lists.[21] Horus
Horus
name[edit] The Horus
Horus
name was adopted by the king, when taking the throne. The name was written within a square frame representing the palace, named a serekh. The earliest known example of a serekh dates to the reign of king Ka, before the first dynasty.[26] The Horus
Horus
name of several early kings expresses a relationship with Horus. Aha refers to " Horus
Horus
the fighter", Djer
Djer
refers to " Horus
Horus
the strong", etc. Later kings express ideals of kingship in their Horus
Horus
names. Khasekhemwy
Khasekhemwy
refers to "Horus: the two powers are at peace", while Nebra refers to "Horus, Lord of the Sun".[21] Nebty name[edit] The earliest example of a nebty name comes from the reign of king Aha from the first dynasty. The title links the king with the goddesses of Upper and Lower Egypt
Lower Egypt
Nekhbet
Nekhbet
and Wadjet.[21][24] The title is preceded by the vulture (Nekhbet) and the cobra (Wadjet) standing on a basket (the neb sign).[21] Golden Horus[edit] The Golden Horus
Horus
or Golden Falcon name was preceded by a falcon on a gold or nbw sign. The title may have represented the divine status of the king. The Horus
Horus
associated with gold may be referring to the idea that the bodies of the deities were made of gold and the pyramids and obelisks are representations of (golden) sun-rays. The gold sign may also be a reference to Nubt, the city of Set. This would suggest that the iconography represents Horus
Horus
conquering Set.[21] Nomen and prenomen[edit] The prenomen and nomen were contained in a cartouche. The prenomen often followed the King of Upper and Lower Egypt
Lower Egypt
(nsw bity) or Lord of the Two Lands (nebtawy) title. The prenomen often incorporated the name of Re. The nomen often followed the title Son of Re (sa-ra) or the title Lord of Appearances (neb-kha).[24]

Nomen and prenomen of Ramesses III

See also[edit]

Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt
portal Monarchy portal

List of pharaohs Coronation of the pharaoh Great Royal Wife, the chief wife of a male pharaoh Egyptian chronology Pharaohs in the Bible

Notes[edit]

^ The Bible
Bible
refers to Egypt as the "Land of Ham" ^ nb.f means "his lord", the monarchs were introduced with (.f) for his, (.k) for your.[10]

References[edit]

^ Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, Eleventh Edition. Merriam-Webster, 2007. p. 928 ^ a b Dictionary Reference: pharaoh ^ Clayton, Peter A. Chronicle of the Pharaohs the Reign-by-reign Record of the Rulers and Dynasties of Ancient Egypt. London: Thames & Hudson, 2012. Print. ^ "Pharaoh". AncientEgypt.co.uk. The British Museum. 1999. Retrieved 20 December 2017.  ^ Mark, Joshua (2 September 2009). " Pharaoh
Pharaoh
- Ancient History Encyclopedia". ancient.eu. Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited. Retrieved 20 December 2017.  ^ A. Gardiner, Ancient Egyptian Grammar (3rd edn, 1957), 71–76. ^ Redmount, Carol A. "Bitter Lives: Israel in and out of Egypt." p. 89–90. Michael D. Coogan, ed. The Oxford History of the Biblical World, Oxford University Press. 1998. ^ Hieratic Papyrus from Kahun and Gurob, F. LL. Griffith, 38, 17. Although see also R. Mond and O. Myers (1940), Temples of Armant, pl. 93, 5, for an instance possibly dating from the reign of Thutmose III. ^ "pharaoh" in Encyclopædia Britannica. Ultimate Reference Suite. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2008. ^ a b c Denise M. Doxey (1998). Egyptian Non-Royal Epithets in the Middle Kingdom: A Social and Historical Analysis. BRILL. p. 151. ISBN 9789004110779.  ^ J-M. Kruchten, Les annales des pretres de Karnak
Karnak
(OLA 32), 1989, pp.474–8. ^ Alan Gardiner, "The Dakhleh Stela", Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 19, No. 1/2 (May, 1933) pp. 193–200. ^ Herodotus, Histories 2.111.1. See Anne Burton (1972). Diodorus Siculus, Book
Book
1: A Commentary. Brill. , commenting on ch. 59.1. ^ Elazar Ari Lipinski: Pesach - A holiday of questions. About the Haggadah-Commentary Zevach Pesach of Rabbi Isaak Abarbanel (1437–1508). Explaining the meaning of the name Pharaoh. Published first in German in the official quarterly of the Organization of the Jewish Communities of Bavaria: Jüdisches Leben in Bayern. Mitteilungsblatt des Landesverbandes der Israelitischen Kultusgemeinden in Bayern. Pessach-Ausgabe = Nr. 109, 2009, ZDB-ID 2077457-6, S. 3–4. ^ Walter C. Till: "Koptische Grammatik." VEB Verläg Enzyklopädie, Leipzig, 1961. p. 62. ^ a b Wilkinson, Toby A.H. Early Dynastic Egypt. Routledge, 2001, p. 158. ^ Wilkinson, Toby A.H. Early Dynastic Egypt. Routledge, 2001, p. 159. ^ a b Wilkinson, Toby A.H. Early Dynastic Egypt. Routledge, 2001, p. 160. ^ Wilkinson, Toby A.H. Early Dynastic Egypt. Routledge, 2001, p. 161. ^ Wilkinson, Toby A.H. Early Dynastic Egypt. Routledge, 2001, p. 162. ^ a b c d e f g h Wilkinson, Toby A.H. Early Dynastic Egypt. Routledge, 2001 ISBN 978-0-415-26011-4 ^ Shaw, Garry J. The Pharaoh, Life at Court and on Campaign. Thames and Hudson, 2012, pp. 21, 77. ^ Bob Brier, The Murder of Tutankhamen, 1998, p. 95. ^ a b c Dodson, Aidan and Hilton, Dyan. The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson. 2004. ISBN 0-500-05128-3 ^ Ian Shaw, The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, Oxford University Press 2000, p. 477 ^ Toby A. H. Wilkinson, Early Dynastic Egypt, Routledge 1999, pp. 57f.

Bibliography[edit]

Shaw, Garry J. The Pharaoh, Life at Court and on Campaign, Thames and Hudson, 2012. Sir Alan Gardiner Egyptian Grammar: Being an Introduction to the Study of Hieroglyphs, Third Edition, Revised. London: Oxford University Press, 1964. Excursus A, pp. 71–76. Jan Assmann, "Der Mythos des Gottkönigs im Alten Ägypten," in Christine Schmitz und Anja Bettenworth (hg.), Menschen - Heros - Gott: Weltentwürfe und Lebensmodelle im Mythos der Vormoderne (Stuttgart, Franz Steiner Verlag, 2009), pp. 11–26.

External links[edit]

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Pharaohs

Protodynastic to First Intermediate Period  (<3150–2040 BC)

Period

Dynasty

Pharaohs  (male female ) uncertain

Protodynastic (pre-3150 BC)

Lower

Hsekiu Khayu Tiu Thesh Neheb Wazner Mekh Double Falcon

Upper

Scorpion I Crocodile Iry-Hor Ka Scorpion II Narmer
Narmer
/ Menes

Early Dynastic (3150–2686 BC)

I

Narmer
Narmer
/ Menes Hor-Aha Djer Djet Merneith
Merneith
Den Anedjib Semerkhet Qa'a Sneferka Horus
Horus
Bird

II

Hotepsekhemwy Nebra/Raneb Nynetjer Ba Nubnefer Horus
Horus
Sa Weneg-Nebty Wadjenes Senedj Seth-Peribsen Sekhemib-Perenmaat Neferkara I Neferkasokar Hudjefa I Khasekhemwy

Old Kingdom (2686–2181 BC)

III

Nebka Djoser Sekhemkhet Sanakht Khaba Qahedjet Huni

IV

Snefru Khufu Djedefre Khafre Bikheris Menkaure Shepseskaf Thamphthis

V

Userkaf Sahure Neferirkare
Neferirkare
Kakai Neferefre Shepseskare Nyuserre Ini Menkauhor Kaiu Djedkare Isesi Unas

VI

Teti Userkare Pepi I Merenre Nemtyemsaf I Pepi II Merenre Nemtyemsaf II Netjerkare Siptah

1st Intermediate (2181–2040 BC)

VIII

Menkare Neferkare II Neferkare III Neby Djedkare Shemai Neferkare IV Khendu Merenhor Neferkamin Nikare Neferkare V Tereru Neferkahor Neferkare VI Pepiseneb Neferkamin
Neferkamin
Anu Qakare Iby Neferkaure Neferkauhor Neferirkare Wadjkare Khuiqer Khui

IX

Meryibre Khety Neferkare VII Nebkaure Khety Setut

X

Meryhathor Neferkare VIII Wahkare Khety Merykare

Middle Kingdom and Second Intermediate Period
Second Intermediate Period
 (2040–1550 BC)

Period

Dynasty

Pharaohs  (male female ) uncertain

Middle Kingdom (2040–1802 BC)

XI

Mentuhotep I Intef I Intef II Intef III Mentuhotep II Mentuhotep III Mentuhotep IV

Nubia

Segerseni Qakare Ini Iyibkhentre

XII

Amenemhat I Senusret I Amenemhat II Senusret II Senusret III Amenemhat III Amenemhat IV Sobekneferu
Sobekneferu

2nd Intermediate (1802–1550 BC)

XIII

Sekhemrekhutawy Sobekhotep Sonbef Nerikare Sekhemkare
Sekhemkare
Amenemhat V Ameny Qemau Hotepibre Iufni Ameny Antef Amenemhet VI Semenkare Nebnuni Sehetepibre Sewadjkare Nedjemibre Khaankhre Sobekhotep Renseneb Hor Sekhemrekhutawy Khabaw Djedkheperew Sebkay Sedjefakare Wegaf Khendjer Imyremeshaw Sehetepkare Intef Seth Meribre Sobekhotep III Neferhotep I Sihathor Sobekhotep IV Merhotepre Sobekhotep Khahotepre Sobekhotep Wahibre Ibiau Merneferre Ay Merhotepre Ini Sankhenre Sewadjtu Mersekhemre Ined Sewadjkare Hori Merkawre Sobekhotep Mershepsesre Ini II Sewahenre Senebmiu Merkheperre Merkare Sewadjare Mentuhotep Seheqenre Sankhptahi

XIV

Yakbim Sekhaenre Ya'ammu Nubwoserre Qareh Khawoserre 'Ammu Ahotepre Maaibre Sheshi Nehesy Khakherewre Nebefawre Sehebre Merdjefare Sewadjkare III Nebdjefare Webenre Nebsenre Sekheperenre Djedkherewre Bebnum 'Apepi Nuya Wazad Sheneh Shenshek Khamure Yakareb Yaqub-Har

XV

Semqen 'Aper-'Anati Sakir-Har Khyan Apepi Khamudi

XVI

Djehuti Sobekhotep VIII Neferhotep III Mentuhotepi Nebiryraw I Nebiriau II Semenre Bebiankh Sekhemre Shedwast Dedumose I Dedumose II Montuemsaf Merankhre Mentuhotep Senusret IV Pepi III

Abydos

Senebkay Wepwawetemsaf Pantjeny Snaaib

XVII

Rahotep Nebmaatre Sobekemsaf I Sobekemsaf II Sekhemre-Wepmaat Intef Nubkheperre Intef Sekhemre-Heruhirmaat Intef Senakhtenre Ahmose Seqenenre Tao Kamose

New Kingdom
New Kingdom
and Third Intermediate Period  (1550–664 BC)

Period

Dynasty

Pharaohs  (male female ) uncertain

New Kingdom (1550–1070 BC)

XVIII

Ahmose I Amenhotep I Thutmose I Thutmose II Thutmose III Hatshepsut
Hatshepsut
Amenhotep II Thutmose IV Amenhotep III Akhenaten Smenkhkare Neferneferuaten
Neferneferuaten
Tutankhamun Ay Horemheb

XIX

Ramesses I Seti I Ramesses II Merneptah Amenmesses Seti II Siptah Twosret
Twosret

XX

Setnakhte Ramesses III Ramesses IV Ramesses V Ramesses VI Ramesses VII Ramesses VIII Ramesses IX Ramesses X Ramesses XI

3rd Intermediate (1069–664 BC)

XXI

Smendes Amenemnisu Psusennes I Amenemope Osorkon the Elder Siamun Psusennes II

XXII

Shoshenq I Osorkon I Shoshenq II Takelot I Osorkon II Shoshenq III Shoshenq IV Pami Shoshenq V Osorkon IV

XXIII

Harsiese A Takelot II Pedubast I Shoshenq VI Osorkon III Takelot III Rudamun Menkheperre Ini

XXIV

Tefnakht Bakenranef

XXV

Piye Shebitku Shabaka Taharqa Tanutamun

Late Period and Hellenistic Period  (664–30 BC)

Period

Dynasty

Pharaohs  (male female ) uncertain

Late (664–332 BC)

XXVI

Necho I Psamtik I Necho II Psamtik II Wahibre Ahmose II Psamtik III

XXVII

Cambyses II Petubastis III Darius I Xerxes Artaxerxes I Darius II

XXVIII

Amyrtaeus

XXIX

Nepherites I Hakor Psammuthes Nepherites II

XXX

Nectanebo I Teos Nectanebo II

XXXI

Artaxerxes III Khabash Arses Darius III

Hellenistic (332–30 BC)

Argead

Alexander the Great Philip III Arrhidaeus Alexander IV

Ptolemaic

Ptolemy I Soter Ptolemy II Philadelphus Ptolemy III Euergetes Ptolemy IV Philopator Ptolemy V Epiphanes Ptolemy VI Philometor Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator Ptolemy VIII Euergetes Ptolemy IX Soter Ptolemy X Alexander I Ptolemy XI Alexander II Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos Berenice IV Cleopatra
Cleopatra
Ptolemy XV Caesarion

Dynastic genealogies

1st 4th 11th 12th 18th 19th 20th 21st to 23rd 25th 26th 27th 30th 31st Ptolemaic

List of pharaohs

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Ancient Egyptian titulary

Royal titulary

Great Royal Wife Khenemetneferhedjet Pharaoh

Religious titulary

Divine Adoratrice of Amun God's Wife God's Wife
God's Wife
of Amun High Priests of Amun High Priest of Osiris High Priest of Ptah High Priest of Ra Lector priest Servant in the Place of Truth Two Ladies

Courtly and administrative titulary

Fan-bearer on the Right Side of the King Haty-a High steward Iry-pat Khekeret-nisut Nomarch Overseer of the treasuries Overseer of Upper Egypt Treasurer Viceroy of Kush Vizier

Book An

.