PHARAOH (/ˈfeɪ.roʊ/ , /fɛr.oʊ/ or /fær.oʊ/ ) is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty (c. 3150 BCE) until the Roman Annexation of Egypt in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until circa 1200 BCE .
* 1 Etymology
* 2 Regalia
* 2.1 Scepters and staves
* 2.2 The
* 3 Crowns and headdresses
* 4 Titles
* 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Bibliography * 8 External links
The word pharaoh ultimately derives from the Egyptian compound pr-ˤ3 "great house," written with the two biliteral hieroglyphs pr "house" and ˤ3 "column", here meaning "great" or "high". It was used only in larger phrases such as smr pr-ˤ3 "Courtier of the High House", with specific reference to the buildings of the court or palace. From the twelfth dynasty onward, the word appears in a wish formula "Great House, may it live, prosper, and be in health ", but again only with reference to the royal palace and not the person.
During the reign of Thutmose III (circa 1479–1425 BCE) in the New Kingdom , after the foreign rule of the Hyksos during the Second Intermediate Period , pharaoh became the form of address for a person who was king.
The earliest instance where pr-ˤ3 is used specifically to address the ruler is in a letter to Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten), who reigned circa 1353–1336 BCE, which is addressed to "Pharaoh, all life, prosperity, and health ". During the eighteenth dynasty (16th to 14th centuries BCE) the title pharaoh was employed as a reverential designation of the ruler. About the late twenty-first dynasty (10th century BCE), however, instead of being used alone as before, it began to be added to the other titles before the ruler's name, and from the twenty-fifth dynasty (eighth to seventh centuries BCE) it was, at least in ordinary usage, the only epithet prefixed to the royal appellative .
From the nineteenth dynasty onward pr-ˤ3 on its own was used as regularly as hm.f, "Majesty". The term, therefore, evolved from a word specifically referring to a building to a respectful designation for the ruler, particularly by the twenty-second dynasty and twenty-third dynasty .
For instance, the first dated appearance of the title pharaoh being
attached to a ruler's name occurs in Year 17 of
Siamun on a fragment
By this time, the Late Egyptian word is reconstructed to have been
pronounced * whence Herodotus derived the name of one of the Egyptian
kings, Φερων. In the
Old Testament of the
English at first spelt it "Pharao", but the King James
SCEPTERS AND STAVES
Scepters and staves were a general sign of authority in ancient Egypt
. One of the earliest royal scepters was discovered in the tomb of
Another scepter associated with the king is the was-scepter . This is a long staff mounted with an animal head. The earliest known depictions of the was-scepter date to the first dynasty . The was-scepter is shown in the hands of both kings and deities.
The flail later was closely related to the heqa-scepter (the crook and flail ), but in early representations the king was also depicted solely with the flail, as shown in a late pre-dynastic knife handle which is now in the Metropolitan museum, and on the Narmer Macehead .
The earliest evidence known of the
CROWNS AND HEADDRESSES
The red crown of Lower Egypt, the
The white crown of Upper Egypt, the
Hedjet crown, is shown on the
Qustul incense burner which dates to the pre-dynastic period . Later,
This is the combination of the
The khat headdress consists of a kind of "kerchief" whose end is tied
similarly to a ponytail . The earliest depictions of the khat
headdress comes from the reign of Den, but is not found again until
the reign of
Nemes headdress dates from the time of Djoser. It is the most
common type of crown that has been depicted throughout Pharaonic
Egypt. Any other type of crown, apart from the Khat headdress, has
been commonly depicted on top of the
Nemes . The statue from his
The Hemhem crown is usually depicted on top of
Pschent , or
Also called the blue crown, the Khepresh crown has been depicted since the New Kingdom.
Bob Brier has noted that despite its widespread
depiction in royal portraits, no ancient Egyptian crown ever has been
It is presumed that crowns would have been believed to have magical properties. Brier's speculation is that crowns were religious or state items, so a dead pharaoh likely could not retain a crown as a personal possession. The crowns may have been passed along to the successor.
Main article: Ancient Egyptian royal titulary
During the early dynastic period kings had as many as three titles. The Horus name is the oldest and dates to the late pre-dynastic period. The Nesw Bity name was added during the first dynasty . The Nebty name was first introduced toward the end of the first dynasty . The Golden falcon (bik-nbw) name is not well understood. The prenomen and nomen were introduced later and are traditionally enclosed in a cartouche . By the Middle Kingdom , the official titulary of the ruler consisted of five names; Horus, nebty, golden Horus, nomen, and prenomen for some rulers, only one or two of them may be known.
NESU BITY NAME
The Nesu Bity name, also known as Prenomen , was one of the new developments from the reign of Den . The name would follow the glyphs for the "Sedge and the Bee". The title is usually translated as king of Upper and Lower Egypt. The nsw bity name may have been the birth name of the king. It was often the name by which kings were recorded in the later annals and king lists.
Horus name was adopted by the king, when taking the throne. The
name was written within a square frame representing the palace, named
a serekh . The earliest known example of a serekh dates to the reign
of king Ka , before the first dynasty. The
Horus name of several
early kings expresses a relationship with
Horus . Aha refers to "Horus
The earliest example of a nebty name comes from the reign of king Aha
from the first dynasty . The title links the king with the goddesses
of Upper and
The Golden Horus or Golden Falcon name was preceded by a falcon on a gold or nbw sign. The title may have represented the divine status of the king. The Horus associated with gold may be referring to the idea that the bodies of the deities were made of gold and the pyramids and obelisks are representations of (golden) sun -rays. The gold sign may also be a reference to Nubt, the city of Set. This would suggest that the iconography represents Horus conquering Set.
NOMEN AND PRENOMEN
The prenomen and nomen were contained in a cartouche. The prenomen
often followed the King of Upper and
* Ancient Egypt portal * Monarchy portal
List of pharaohs
* ^ Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, Eleventh Edition.
Merriam-Webster, 2007. p. 928
* ^ A B Dictionary Reference : pharaoh
* ^ Clayton, Peter A. Chronicle of the Pharaohs the Reign-by-reign
Record of the Rulers and Dynasties of Ancient Egypt. London: Thames &
Hudson, 2012. Print.
* ^ A. Gardiner, Ancient Egyptian Grammar (3rd edn, 1957), 71–76.
* ^ Redmount, Carol A. "Bitter Lives: Israel in and out of Egypt."
p. 89–90. Michael D. Coogan, ed. The Oxford History of the Biblical
Oxford University Press