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Pforzheim
Pforzheim
(German pronunciation: [ˈpfɔʁtshaɪ̯m] ( listen)) is a city of nearly 120,000 inhabitants in the federal state of Baden-Württemberg, in the southwest of Germany. It is known for its jewelry and watch-making industry, and as such has gained the nickname "Goldstadt" ("Golden City"). With an area of 97.8 km2 (38 sq mi), it is situated between the cities of Stuttgart
Stuttgart
and Karlsruhe
Karlsruhe
at the confluence of three rivers (Enz, Nagold
Nagold
and Würm). It marks the frontier between Baden
Baden
and Württemberg, being located on Baden territory. From 1535 to 1565, it was the home to the Margraves of Baden-Pforzheim. The City of Pforzheim
Pforzheim
does not belong to any administrative district (Kreis), although it hosts the administrative offices of the Enz district that surrounds the town. During World War II, Pforzheim
Pforzheim
was bombed by the Allies a number of times. The largest raid, and one of the most devastating area bombardments of World War II, was carried out by the Royal Air Force (RAF) on the evening of 23 February 1945. Nearly one third of the town's population, 17,600 people, were killed in the air raid, and about 83% of the town's buildings were destroyed. The Allies believed that precision instruments were being produced here for use in the German war effort and that the town was a transport centre for the movement of German troops. The story of the bombardment is dramatically recounted in the history by Giles Milton, entitled Wolfram: The Boy Who Went To War (2011). In the twenty years following the end of the war, Pforzheim
Pforzheim
was gradually rebuilt. The town reflects the architecture of the postwar period and has some landmark buildings of the 1950s.

Contents

1 Geography

1.1 Neighbouring communities 1.2 City wards 1.3 Twin towns – Sister cities 1.4 Views of Pforzheim

2 History

2.1 1700s 2.2 1800s 2.3 1900s

2.3.1 World War II 2.3.2 Post-World War II

2.4 2000s 2.5 Administrative unions 2.6 Population growth 2.7 Religions

3 Politics

3.1 City council 3.2 City administration 3.3 (Lord) Mayors 3.4 The coat of arms

4 Economy and infrastructure

4.1 Traffic 4.2 Major local enterprises 4.3 Media 4.4 Courts of Justice 4.5 Authorities 4.6 Educational institutions

5 Culture and places of interest

5.1 Theatre 5.2 Orchestras 5.3 Museums 5.4 Cultural institutions 5.5 Notable examples of architecture 5.6 Other sites of interest 5.7 Regularly scheduled events

6 Personalities

6.1 Honorary citizens

7 Famous citizens born in Pforzheim

7.1 Until 1850 7.2 1851-1900 7.3 1901-1959 7.4 1951 - present

8 Miscellaneous topics 9 Notes 10 References 11 Notes 12 External links

Geography[edit] Pforzheim
Pforzheim
is located at the northern rim of the eastern part of the Black Forest
Black Forest
(Schwarzwald) and the rim of the hilly country of the Kraichgau, in an open valley at the confluences of the rivers Würm and Nagold
Nagold
and the rivers Nagold
Nagold
and Enz. Due to its location, this city is also called the "three-valleys town" (Drei-Täler Stadt) or the "Gateway to the Black Forest" (Pforte zum Schwarzwald / Porta Hercynia). Pforzheim
Pforzheim
and its surrounding area belongs to the "Densely Populated Area Karlsruhe/Pforzheim". Pforzheim
Pforzheim
has the functions of a regional center (Mittelzentrum) for the towns and municipalities Birkenfeld (Enz), Eisingen, Engelsbrand, Friolzheim, Heimsheim, Ispringen, Kämpfelbach, Keltern, Kieselbronn, Königsbach-Stein, Mönsheim, Neuenbürg, Neuhausen, Neulingen, Niefern-Öschelbronn, Ölbronn-Dürrn, Remchingen, Straubenhardt, Tiefenbronn, Wiernsheim, Wimsheim
Wimsheim
and Wurmberg.[1] Neighbouring communities[edit] The following towns and communities share borderlines with the City of Pforzheim. Below they are mentioned in clockwise order, beginning to the north of the city. Except for Unterreichenbach, which belongs to the district of Calw, all of them are included in the Enz
Enz
district. Ispringen, Neulingen, Kieselbronn, Niefern-Öschelbronn, Wurmberg, Wimsheim, Friolzheim, Tiefenbronn, Neuhausen (Enz), Unterreichenbach, Engelsbrand, Birkenfeld (Enz), Keltern
Keltern
and Kämpfelbach[2] City wards[edit] The city of Pforzheim
Pforzheim
consists of 16 city wards. The communities Büchenbronn, Eutingen an der Enz, Hohenwart, Huchenfeld and Würm, which by way of the latest regional administrative reform during the 1970s were incorporated into Pforzheim's administration, are represented by independent community councils and community administrations according to § 8 and following paragraphs of the main city-ordinance of Pforzheim. In important matters concerning any of these communities the opinions of the respective community councils must be taken into consideration. However, final decisions on the matter will be made by the Pforzheim
Pforzheim
city council.

City center (Innenstadt) Northern ward (Nordstadt) Eastern ward (Oststadt) Southeastern ward (Südoststadt) Southwestern ward (Südweststadt) Western ward (Weststadt) Arlinger Brötzingen Buckenberg and Hagenschiess; including Altgefaell, Haidach and Wald-Siedlung Büchenbronn including Sonnenberg Sonnenhof Dillweißenstein Eutingen an der Enz
Enz
including Mäuerach Hohenwart Huchenfeld Würm[3]

Twin towns – Sister cities[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany Pforzheim
Pforzheim
is twinned with:

Gernika-Lumo
Gernika-Lumo
in Spain
Spain
(since 1989) Saint-Maur-des-Fosses
Saint-Maur-des-Fosses
in France
France
(since 1989) Vicenza
Vicenza
in Italy
Italy
(since 1991) Osijek
Osijek
in Croatia
Croatia
(since 1994)

Irkutsk
Irkutsk
in Russia
Russia
(since 1999) Nevşehir
Nevşehir
in Turkey
Turkey
(since 2000) Częstochowa
Częstochowa
in Poland
Poland
(since 2000) Győr-Moson-Sopron
Győr-Moson-Sopron
in Hungary
Hungary
(since 2001)[4]

Views of Pforzheim[edit]

Schlosskirche St. Michael.

The New City Hall and Waisenhaus square.

Enz
Enz
river at Rossbrücke.

Statue of Johannes Reuchlin.

Monument commemorating the timber floating profession in medieval Pforzheim.

History[edit] It was settled by the Romans
Romans
earlier than were the current centers of Stuttgart
Stuttgart
and Karlsruhe. These colonists constructed a ford through the river, shortly past the confluence of the three rivers, for their military highway. Due to this strategic location, Pforzheim
Pforzheim
later became a center for the timber-rafting trade, which transported timber from the Black Forest
Black Forest
via the rivers Wuerm, Nagold, Enz
Enz
and down the Neckar
Neckar
and Rhine
Rhine
to, among other markets, the Netherlands for use in shipbuilding. There timbers were also used to construct the foundations for Amsterdam, which was built in a swamp. Since 90: A settlement was established by Roman citizens at the Enz River near the modern Altstädter Brücke (old town bridge). Archeological surveys have unearthed several artifacts of that period which are kept and displayed in the Kappelhof Museum. The settlement was located where the Roman military road connecting the military camp Argentoratum
Argentoratum
(nowadays Strasbourg
Strasbourg
in France) and the military camp at Cannstatt
Cannstatt
(now a suburb of Stuttgart) at the Upper Germanic Limes border line of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
crossed the Enz
Enz
river. This place was known as Portus (meaning "river crossing, harbor"), which is believed to be the origin of the first part of the city's name "Pforzheim". A Roman milestone (the so-called 'Leugenstein') from the year 245 was excavated in modern times at present-day Friolzheim; it is marked with the exact distance to 'Portus' and is the first documented evidence of the settlement.[5][6] 259/260: The Roman settlement 'Portus' was destroyed completely, as the Frank and Alemanni
Alemanni
tribes overran the Upper Germanic Limes
Upper Germanic Limes
border line of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and conquered the Roman administered area west of the Rhine
Rhine
River. From then on, over an extended period of time, historical records about the settlement were not available.[7] 6th/7th century: Graves from this period indicate that the settlement had been continued.[8] 1067: The settlement was mentioned as "Phorzheim" for the first time, in a document by Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor. Visits to Pforzheim
Pforzheim
by Heinrich IV in 1067 and 1074 are documented.[9][10] Before 1080: The "old town" of Pforzheim
Pforzheim
was awarded market rights (Marktrecht). At that time Pforzheim
Pforzheim
belonged to the estate of Hirsau Monastery, according to monastery documents.[11] From 1150: Establishment of the "new town" west of the "old town" at the foot of the Schlossberg (palais hill) under Margrave
Margrave
Hermann V.[12] 1200: The town charter of the "new town" was mentioned for the first time in a document. The "old town" continued to exist as a legally independent entity.[13] 1220: The Margraves of Baden
Baden
selected Pforzheim
Pforzheim
as their residence. This resulted in the "new town" becoming prominent. 1240: A mayor of Pforzheim
Pforzheim
was mentioned in a document for the first time.[14] 13th/14th century: Pforzheim
Pforzheim
enjoyed its first period of flourishing. A group of influential patricians emerged. They developed the financial markets of those days. The town drew its income from the wood trade, timber rafting, the tannery trade, textile manufacturing, and other crafts. Documents mention mayor, judge, council and citizens. The town walls surrounding the new town were completed about 1290. During this era, three Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
orders established their convents in town (the Franciscan
Franciscan
order established their domicile within the town wall at present-day Barfuesserkirche (the choir of which remains), the Dominican sisters order established their domicile outside the walls of the old town near Auer Bridge, and the Prediger cloister was located east of the Schlossberg, probably inside the town walls). Outside the town wall and across the Enz
Enz
river, the suburb Flösser Quarters (the home of the timber-floating trade) was established. Next to the western town wall, the suburb of Brötzingen gradually developed. The Margraves of Baden
Baden
considered Pforzheim
Pforzheim
as their most important power base up to the first half of the 14th century. Under Margrave
Margrave
Bernard I (Bernhard I), Pforzheim
Pforzheim
became one of the administrative centers of the margraviate.[15][16][17][18] 1322: Holy Ghost Hospital was founded at Tränk Street (present-day Deimling Street).[19] 15th century: Various fraternities, also known as guilds, among people working in the same trade were established: The fraternity of tailors in 1410, the fraternity of bakers on 14 May 1422, the fraternity of the weavers in 1469, the fraternity of the wine-growers in 1491, the fraternity of the skippers and timber raftsmen in 1501, and the fraternity of the carters in 1512. Members of the same fraternity assisted each other in various ways, for example with funerals and in cases of sickness. In a sense, the fraternities were early forms of health and life insurance.[20] 8–9 August 1418: Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor
Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor
visits Margrave Bernard I (Bernhard I) in Pforzheim. On this occasion the mint of the Margraves of Baden
Baden
in Pforzheim
Pforzheim
was mentioned. Mint master was Jakob Broeglin between 1414–1431. The emperor appointed the master of the Pforzheim
Pforzheim
mint, Jakob Bröglin, and Bois von der Winterbach for five years as Royal Mint Masters of the mints of Frankfurt
Frankfurt
and Nördlingen. The Margrave
Margrave
was appointed as their patron.[21][22] 1447: The wedding of Margrave
Margrave
Charles I (Karl I) of Baden
Baden
with Katharina
Katharina
of Austria, the sister of Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor (Friedrich III), was celebrated in Pforzheim
Pforzheim
with great pomp (including tournaments and dances).[23][24][25][26]

Reuchlin-Gymnasium
Reuchlin-Gymnasium
(Reuchlin-Highschool) today near the water tower

1455: Johannes Reuchlin, the great German humanist, was born in Pforzheim
Pforzheim
on 29 January (he died in Stuttgart
Stuttgart
on 30 June 1522). He attended the Latin School section of the monastery school run by the Dominican order
Dominican order
of Pforzheim
Pforzheim
in the late 1460s. Later, partly due to Reuchlin's efforts, the Latin School of Pforzheim
Pforzheim
developed into one of the most prominent schools in southwestern Germany, named Reuchlin-Gymnasium. The school's teachers and pupils played an outstanding role in the dissemination of the ideas of humanism and the protestant reformation movement. The most famous pupils included Reuchlin himself, Reuchlin's nephew Philipp Melanchthon, and Simon Grynaeus.[27][28][29] 1460: Margrave
Margrave
Charles I established a kind of monastery (Kollegialstift) at the site of Schlosskirche St. Michael, turning the church into a collegiate church. There were also plans to establish a university in Pforzheim, but this plan had to be abandoned because Margrave
Margrave
Charles I lost the Battle of Seckenheim.[30][31][32] 1463: Margrave
Margrave
Charles I was forced to transfer the palace and the town of Pforzheim
Pforzheim
as a fiefdom to the Elector Palatine after losing the Battle of Seckenheim. He then began to build a new palace in modern Baden-Baden. Christoph I, Margrave
Margrave
of Baden- Baden
Baden
finally moved the residence of the margraves to Baden-Baden. This gradually ended the first period of Pforzheim's flourishment. The rich merchants gradually left the town, which declined to the status of a country town of mostly small traders. [33][34][35][36] 1486: The Weavers Ordinance (Wollweberordnung) for the towns Pforzheim und Ettlingen
Ettlingen
was approved by Christoph I, Margrave
Margrave
of Baden-Baden. This was a contract concerning the town privileges of Pforzheim. This regulation of the weaving trade did not allow the formation of a regular guild (Zunft).[37][38] 1491: A contract between Christoph I, Margrave
Margrave
of Baden- Baden
Baden
and the citizens of Pforzheim
Pforzheim
was concluded, granting the town of Pforzheim several privileges concerning taxes and business.[39][40] 1496: Foundation of the first printer's shop by Thomas Anshelm. During the first half of the 16th century Pforzheim's printers contributed significantly to the establishment of this (in those days) new medium.[41] 1501: Christoph I, Margrave
Margrave
of Baden- Baden
Baden
enacted the "Ordinance on the timber rafting profession in Pforzheim". The single timber logs that were floated from the deeper Black Forest
Black Forest
areas down the Enz, Nagold
Nagold
and Wuerm rivers were bound together in the Au area to form larger timber rafts. Those rafts were then floated down the lower Enz, Neckar
Neckar
and Rhine
Rhine
rivers. The timber rafting stations of Weissenstein, Dillstein and Pforzheim
Pforzheim
were well known in the profession.[42] 1501 was also the year for which an outbreak of the plague (probably the bubonic plague) is recorded in the Swabian chronicle Annalium Suevicorum by Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen
Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen
professor Martin Grusius, published 1596. It is not known how many of Pforzheim's citizens died in that year, but there are reports of 500 deceased in the close-by city of Calw
Calw
and about 4000 in Stuttgart, which accounted for approximately one quarter to one half of the populations of those towns. Outbreaks of the disease were reported for many places in southwestern Germany, Bohemia, the Alsace
Alsace
region in nowadays France, Switzerland, and Italy. Common graves with massive numbers of human bones at the cemetery of St. Michael Church and the cemetery on the estate of the Dominican order
Dominican order
near nowadays Waisenhausplatz found during the last century may indicate that hundreds of citizens became the victims of the plague. There are indications that a fraternity for taking care of the sick and removing the bodies of the deceased from houses was formed in 1501, whose members later on stayed together and became known as the choral society Singergesellschaft, which is still active today as the Loebliche Singergesellschaft of 1501. (They are probably one of the oldest clubs in Europe).[43] 1520s: The ideas of the protestant religious movement advanced by Martin Luther
Martin Luther
spread rapidly in Pforzheim. Its most prominent promoters were Johannes Schwebel, a preacher at Holy Ghost church (Heiliggeistkirche), and Johannes Unger, the principal of the Dominican Latin school.[44] 1535–1565: Due to the heritage division of the clan of the Margraves of Baden, Margrave
Margrave
Ernst of Baden
Baden
made Pforzheim
Pforzheim
the residential town of his family line. He decided to use the Schlosskirche St. Michael as the entombment site for his family line.[45] 1549: A large fire caused severe damage to the town. 1556: After the conclusion of the Peace of Augsburg
Peace of Augsburg
in 1555, Margrave Karl II introduced Lutherism (protestantism) as the state religion in the district Baden-Durlach, which included Pforzheim. The (Catholic) monasteries were gradually shut down.[46] 1565: Margrave
Margrave
Karl II chose Durlach
Durlach
as the new residential town. Pforzheim
Pforzheim
stayed one of the administrative centers of Baden.[47] 1618: At the beginning of the Thirty Years' War, the number of inhabitants of Pforzheim
Pforzheim
is estimated to have been between 2500 and 3000. This was the largest town among all towns in Baden, even though at that time it had already declined somewhat.

A view of Pforzheim
Pforzheim
in the early 17th century. It shows all significant landmarks including the city wall, the rivers Enz
Enz
and Nagold, the three monastery churches and the Margrave's residence on Schlossberg hill.

1645: Toward the end of the Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War
the "old town" was burned down by Bavarian (i.e. Catholic) troops. It was rebuilt, but without the former fortifications, which gave it the status of a village-like settlement. It soon vanished from historical records. The "new town" had survived.[48] 1688–1697: The "War of the Palatinian Succession" (also called the Nine Years War) caused tremendous destruction in Southwestern Germany. The French "sun king" Louis XIV's efforts to expand the territory of France
France
up to the Upper Rhine
Rhine
river and to put the Elector Palatine under pressure to severe its ties with the League of Augsburg
League of Augsburg
included the Brûlez le Palatinat!
Brûlez le Palatinat!
tactics of destroying major towns on both sides of the Rhine
Rhine
river. These tactics seem to have been mainly the idea of the French war minister, François Michel le Tellier, Marquis de Louvois. Pforzheim
Pforzheim
was occupied by French troops on 10 October 1688. Commanding officer is said to have been Joseph de Montclar. The town was forced to accommodate a large number of soldiers and had to pay a large amount of "contributions" to the French. When the army unit was about to depart early in the morning of 21 January 1689 (obviously because an army of the Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
had been approaching), they set many major buildings on fire, including the palais, the city hall, and vicarages. About 70 houses (i.e. one quarter of all houses) and part of the town's fortifications were reportedly destroyed. Between 2 and 4 August, the French army under the general command of Marshal Jacques Henri de Durfort de Duras
Jacques Henri de Durfort de Duras
again crossed the Rhine river and began the destruction of major towns in Baden. On 10 August 1689, a French army unit under the command of General Ezéchiel du Mas, Comte de Mélac appeared in front of Pforzheims town gates, but this time the town refused to surrender. In response, the French army began shelling the town with cannons from the Rod hill located southwest of the town, and the several hundred soldiers of the German imperial command, who were defending the town, were forced to surrender. After a short period of looting, the French troops set the inner town area on fire on 15 August, which made that area uninhabitable for several weeks. Then the French moved on. During the following two years, French troops stayed away from Pforzheim, but the economic situation of the town was miserable. In addition to this, the reconstruction of the town and the repairs of the fortifications under the supervision of Johann Matthaeus Faulhaber, the chief construction officer of the Margraviate Baden, required a lot of efforts. The accommodation of an imperial garrison under the command of (then) colonel Count Palffy
Palffy
also was a heavy burden. In 1691, Louvois instructed his marshals to destroy those towns which were to serve as winter quarters for imperial troops, explicitly including Pforzheim, and then continue to Wuerttemberg for further destructions. After the French troops had crossed the Rhine
Rhine
river under the command of Marshal Guy Aldonce de Durfort de Lorges
Guy Aldonce de Durfort de Lorges
at Philippsburg
Philippsburg
on 3 August 1691, they assaulted the Margraves' residential town of Durlach
Durlach
and 1,200 cavalry men, 300 dragoons and 1,200 infantry men advanced toward Pforzheim
Pforzheim
where they arrived in the morning on 9 August and surrounded the town. When the approximately 200 imperial soldiers under the command of Captain Zickwolf and other men in the town refused to surrender, the siege began. After shelling the town during the day and the following night, the resistance of the town broke down and on 10 August in the morning the French forced the town gates open, occupied and looted it (although with little success, as there was not much left to be taken away). On 12 August, the French moved on, this time refraining from setting houses on fire. The fortification had again been damaged, though (the White Tower, the Auer Bridge Gate, the Upper Mill and the Nonnen Mill were burnt down). The French also stole all church bells, except for one minor one. On 20 September 1692, again crossed the Rhine
Rhine
river under the general command of Marshal Guy Aldonce de Durfort de Lorges, and advanced toward Durlach
Durlach
and Pforzheim. On 24 September, 2,000 cavalry soldiers and 1,200 infantry and artillery troops under the command of Marshal Noël Bouton de Chamilly, moved to Pforzheim, where the town and 600 soldiers of the imperial German army in town surrendered without any military engagements. The rest of the French army arrived on 27 September under the command of Marshal de Lorges. On the same day, the French army moved on to Oetisheim near Mühlacker
Mühlacker
and attacked an imperial army unit of 4,000 cavalry men under the command of Duke Frederick Charles of Württemberg-Winnental
Frederick Charles of Württemberg-Winnental
in their camp. As they were taken by surprise, they withdrew hastily and lost several hundred men, either killed or captured by the French. (The Duke himself was among the French prisoners.) On 28 September, the French army returned to Pforzheim
Pforzheim
and established a camp. It was reported that the entire Enz
Enz
valley between the village of Eutingen east of Pforzheim
Pforzheim
and the village of Birkenfeld west of Pforzheim
Pforzheim
was occupied by the 30,000 French soldiers' camps. From their base in Pforzheim, French army units obviously under the leadership of Marshal de Chamilly advanced along the river valleys of Nagold
Nagold
and Würm
Würm
and looted and destroyed the villages and towns of Huchenfeld, Calw, Hirsau, Liebenzell
Liebenzell
and Zavelstein. They also destroyed Liebeneck castle about 10 kilometres from Pforzheim
Pforzheim
towering above the Würm
Würm
valley, where part of the Pforzheim
Pforzheim
town archives were hidden. The archive was burned. Another part of the town archive as well as documents of Baden administrative office had been brought to Calw, where they went up in flames, too. When the French troops left after about one week of occupation, they again looted Pforzheim
Pforzheim
and put it on fire. This time, all houses which had survived the two previous fires, were destroyed. In the Au suburb, only three houses survived. The Au bridge was heavily damaged. Only four houses survived in the Broetzingen suburb. The town church of St. Stephen and a large part of the Dominican monastery complex were also destroyed. The Castle Church (Schlosskirche) of St. Michael was heavily damaged, and the family tombs of the Margraves of Baden
Baden
in the church were desecrated by the soldiers. The last remaining church bell and the churches' clockworks were stolen as well. The town wall was damaged again, including the town gates. After the week-long presence of 30,000 soldiers in a town of only a few thousand citizens, all food was gone, including the seeds saved for next spring's sowing season. Every tree and grapevine on the valley slopes had been used up as firewood. The French army reached their camp in Philippsburg
Philippsburg
on 5 October 1692.[49] 1700s[edit] 1718: Inauguration of the "institution for orphans, the mad, the sick, for discipline and work" in a building of the former Dominican order Convent
Convent
by the Enz
Enz
river. Fifty years later this institution was to become the incubator of Pforzheim's jewellery and watchmaking industries.[50] 1715–1730: During this period, there was a prolonged dispute between Pforzheim's citizens and the Margrave
Margrave
of Baden
Baden
concerning the privileges granted to the town in 1491, which the Margrave
Margrave
considered obsolete and therefore demanded significantly higher tax payments from Pforzheim
Pforzheim
citizens. The issue was taken all the way to the Imperial Court of Justice, where the town's motion was defeated.[51][52] 1767: Establishment of a watch and jewellery factory in the orphanage. This led to Pforzheim's jewellery industries. Watchmaking was given up later on.[53] 1800s[edit] 1805–06: A typhus epidemic in Pforzheim
Pforzheim
caused many deaths, disrupting the town's economy.[54] 1809: The Administrative District Pforzheim
Pforzheim
of Baden
Baden
was split into a Municipal District Administration Pforzheim
Pforzheim
and two Rural Districts. 1813: The two Rural Districts were combined to form the Rural District Administration Pforzheim. 1819: Municipal District Pforzheim
Pforzheim
and Rural District Pforzheim
Pforzheim
are merged to form the Higher District Administration Pforzheim. 1836: Ferdinand Öchsle in Pforzheim
Pforzheim
invented a device for measuring the sugar content in freshly pressed grape juice for assessing the future quality of wine (Mostwaage). It is still in use in the winery business. 1861–62: Pforzheim
Pforzheim
was connected to the German railway
German railway
network with the completion of a section of the Karlsruhe– Mühlacker
Mühlacker
line between Wilferdingen
Wilferdingen
and Pforzheim.[55] 1863: The railway section between Pforzheim
Pforzheim
and Mühlacker
Mühlacker
was completed, thus establishing railway traffic between the capital of Baden, Karlsruhe, and the capital of Württemberg, Stuttgart.[56] 1864: The Higher District Administration Pforzheim
Pforzheim
was made the Regional Administration Pforzheim. 1868: The Enz
Enz
Valley Railway between Pforzheim
Pforzheim
and Wildbad
Wildbad
was completed.[57] 1869: Establishment of the first workers' union in Pforzheim, the " Pforzheim
Pforzheim
Gold(-metal) Craftsmen's Union".[58] 1874: The section of the Nagold
Nagold
Valley Railway between Pforzheim
Pforzheim
and Calw
Calw
was completed.[59] 1877: Inauguration of the Arts and Crafts School (Kunstgewerbeschule; now incorporated into Hochschule (University) Pforzheim).[60] 1888: Bertha Benz
Bertha Benz
and her two sons arrived in Pforzheim
Pforzheim
on the first "long-distance" drive in the history of the automobile in a car manufactured by her husband Carl Benz
Carl Benz
in order to visit relatives. She had started her drive in Mannheim, which is located about 106 kilometres (66 miles) from Pforzheim. The very first gasoline-powered automobile with an internal combustion engine of the inventor had hit the roads only two years earlier after a patent for this new technology had been granted to Karl Benz on 29 January 1886. She bought the gasoline necessary for her trip back home in a "pharmacy" in Pforzheim. During the trip, Bertha Benz
Bertha Benz
had to make repairs with a hairpin to open a blocked fuel line, and after returning home, suggested to her husband that another gear be provided in his automobile for climbing hills.[61] To commemorate this first long-distance journey by automobile, the Bertha Benz
Bertha Benz
Memorial Route was officially approved as a route of industrial heritage of mankind in 2008. Now everybody can follow the 194 km (121 miles) of signposted route from Mannheim
Mannheim
via Heidelberg
Heidelberg
to Pforzheim
Pforzheim
and back. 1893: Inauguration of the Pforzheim
Pforzheim
Synagogue.[62] The company Wellendorff, a family-owned jewellery producing until now, is founded by Ernst Alexander Wellendorff. The enterprise sells many kinds of jewelry at the highest level worldwide.[2] 1900s[edit] From 1900: Revival of the Pforzheim
Pforzheim
watchmaking industry.[63] 1905: The western borough Brötzingen was incorporated into the administration Pforzheim 1906: The 1. FC Pforzheim
Pforzheim
Football (soccer) Club was defeated by VfB Leipzig
Leipzig
with a score of 1–2 in the final game of the German soccer championship.[64] 1914–1918: Pforzheim
Pforzheim
was not a battlefield in World War I, but 1600 men from Pforzheim
Pforzheim
lost their lives as soldiers on the battlefields.[65] 1920s: The Pforzheim
Pforzheim
watchmaking industry thrived due to the new popularity of wrist-watches.[66] 1927: Pforzheim-born (1877) Professor
Professor
of Munich University
Munich University
Heinrich Otto Wieland received the Nobel prize
Nobel prize
in chemistry. From 1933: Along with the installation of the Nazi
Nazi
government in Germany
Germany
the local subsidiaries of all political parties, groups and organizations other than the NSDAP
NSDAP
were gradually disbanded in town. Public life as well as individual affairs were increasingly affected by Nazi
Nazi
influences. Persecution of Jewish fellow citizens occurred in Pforzheim, too, with boycotts of Jewish shops and companies.[67] 1938: Establishment of the municipal Jewellery
Jewellery
Museum. 1938: On 9 November, the so-called Kristallnacht, the Pforzheim Synagogue
Synagogue
(see WWW-site) of the Jewish community was so badly damaged by Nazi
Nazi
activists that it had to be demolished later on. 1939: Regional Administration Pforzheim
Pforzheim
(Bezirksamt) was converted to the Rural District Pforzheim
Pforzheim
(Landkreis) with Pforzheim
Pforzheim
city as its administrative site. However, the town itself became a district-less administrative body. 1940: Deportation
Deportation
of Jewish citizens of Pforzheim
Pforzheim
to the concentration camp in Gurs
Gurs
(France). Only 55 of the 195 deported persons escaped from the holocaust.[68] World War II[edit]

Main article: Bombing of Pforzheim
Pforzheim
in World War II

1944: Many factories were converted to produce weaponry such as anti-aircraft shells, fuzes for bombs, and allegedly even parts for the V1 and V2 rockets. 1945: On 23 February, Pforzheim
Pforzheim
was bombed in one of the most devastating area bombardments of World War II. It was carried out by the Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
(RAF) on the evening of 23 February 1945.[69] About one quarter of the town's population, over 17,000 people, was killed in the air raid,[70] and about 83% of the town's buildings were destroyed.[71] The mission order to bomb Pforzheim
Pforzheim
issued by RAF Bomber Command states as the intention of the raid on Pforzheim
Pforzheim
"to destroy built up area and associated industries and rail facilities".[72] The bombardment was carried out as part of the British carpet bombing campaign. The town was put on the target list for bombardments in November 1944 because it was thought by the Allies to be producing precision instruments for use in the German war effort and as transport centre[73] for the movement of German troops.[74] There were also several minor raids in 1944 and 1945.[75] After the main attack, about 30,000 people had to be fed by makeshift public kitchens because their housing had been destroyed. Almost 90% of the buildings in the core city area had been destroyed. Many Pforzheim
Pforzheim
citizens were buried in mass graves at Pforzheim's main cemetery because they could not be identified. There are also many graves of complete families. Among the dead were several hundred foreigners who had been in Pforzheim
Pforzheim
as forced labor workers. The inner-city districts were severely depopulated. According to the State Statistics Bureau (Statistisches Landesamt), in the Market Square area (Marktplatzviertel) in 1939 there were 4,112 registered inhabitants, in 1945 none (0). In the Old Town area (Altstadtviertel) in 1939 there were 5,109 inhabitants, in 1945 only 2 persons were still living there. In the Leopold Square area, in 1939 there were 4,416 inhabitants, in 1945 only 13.[76][77][78] The German Army Report of 24 February 1945 devoted only two lines to reporting the bombardment: "In the early evening hours of February 23, a forceful British attack was directed at Pforzheim." RAF Bomber Command later assessed the bombing raid as the one with "probably the greatest proportion (of destroyed built-up area) (of any target) in one raid during the war".[79] In early April as the Allied forces and notably the French Army advanced toward Pforzheim, the local German military commander gave orders to destroy the electric power generating plant and those gas and water supply lines that were still working, but citizens succeeded in persuading the staff sergeant in charge of the operation to refrain from this absurd endeavor in the face of the imminent and inevitable surrender of the German military. Likewise, orders were issued for the destruction of those bridges that had remained unscathed (some of the bridges had been destroyed by air strikes even before and after 23 February), and this could not be prevented. Only the Iron (Railway) Bridge in Weißenstein ward was saved by stout-hearted citizens who, during an unguarded moment, pulled off the fuze wiring from the explosive devices, which had already been installed, and dropped it into Nagold
Nagold
river. Soon after that on 8 April, French troops (an armored vehicle unit) moved into Pforzheim
Pforzheim
from the northwest and were able to occupy the area north of Enz
Enz
river, but the area south of the Enz
Enz
river was defended by a German infantry unit using artillery. Fighting was especially fierce in Broetzingen. The French army units (including an Algerian and Moroccan unit) suffered heavy losses; among the dead was the commander of the army unit, Capitaine Dorance. The advance of the French army came to a halt temporarily, but with the support of fighterbomber aircraft and due to the bad condition of the defenders (which included many old men and young boys who had been drafted into the Volkssturm) the French troops finally succeeded and on 18 April took possession of the vast rubble field which once was the proud residential town of the Baden
Baden
Margraves.[80][81][82] The three months of French occupation were reportedly marked by hostile attitudes on both the French army side and the Pforzheim population side; incidents of rape and looting, mainly by Moroccan soldiers, were also reported. Au Bridge (Auerbruecke) and Wuerm Bridge received makeshift repairs by the French military. The US Army, which replaced the French troops on 8 July 1945, helped repair Goethe Bridge, Benckiser Bridge, Old Town Bridge (Altstädterbrücke) and Horse Bridge (Roßbrücke) in 1945 and the following year. The relationship between the population and the US military was reportedly more relaxed than had been the case with the French army.[83][84] Post-World War II[edit] 1945–1965: Pforzheim
Pforzheim
was gradually rebuilt, giving Pforzheim
Pforzheim
a quite modern look. In September 1951 the Northern Town Bridge (Nordstadtbrücke) was inaugurated (the ceremony was attended by then Federal President Prof. Dr. Theodor Heuss). Jahn Bridge followed in December 1951, Werder Bridge in May 1952, the rebuilt Goethe Bridge in October 1952, and the rebuilt Old Town Bridge was inaugurated in 1954. 1955: On the occasion of the 500th birthday anniversary of Johannes Reuchlin, the city of Pforzheim
Pforzheim
established the Reuchlin Prize and awarded it for the first time in the presence of then President of the Federal Republic of Germany
Germany
(West-Germany), Prof. Dr. Theodor Heuss.[85] 1961: Inauguration of the culture center "Reuchlinhaus", which from then on housed the Jewellery
Jewellery
Museum, the Arts and Crafts Association, the City Library, the Homeland Museum (Heimatmuseum), and the City Archives.[86] 1968: On 10 July shortly before 22:00, Pforzheim
Pforzheim
and its surrounding areas were hit by a rare tornado. It had strength F4 on the Fujita scale. Two persons died and more than 200 were injured, and 1750 buildings were damaged. Across the town between Buechenbronn ward and the village of Wurmberg
Wurmberg
the storm caused severe damage to forest areas (i.e. most trees fell to the ground). During the first night and the following days the soldiers of the French 3rd Husar Regiment and the US Army Unit, which were still stationed at the Buckenberg Barracks, helped clear the streets of a lot of fallen trees (especially in the Buckenberg/Haidach area). It took about four weeks to carry out the most necessary repairs on buildings. The overhead electric contact wires for the electric trolley buses then still operating in town and the streetcar transport system to the village of Ittersbach
Ittersbach
were never repaired; those transport systems were retired.[87] 1971–1975: The townships of Würm, Hohenwart, Buechenbronn, Huchenfeld and Eutingen were incorporated into the city administration.[88] 1973: Inauguration of the new Pforzheim
Pforzheim
City Hall.[89] 1973 As part of the reform of administrative districts, the rural district of Pforzheim
Pforzheim
was incorporated into the newly established Enz rural district, which has its administration in Pforzheim. But the city of Pforzheim
Pforzheim
itself remains a district-less city. In addition, Pforzheim
Pforzheim
became the administrative center of the newly formed Northern Black Forest
Black Forest
Region. 1975 On 1 January, the population exceeded 100.000 and Pforzheim gained the status of a "large city" (Grossstadt). 1979: Inauguration of the Pforzheim
Pforzheim
City Museum.[90] 1983: Inauguration of the "Technical Museum of the Jewellery
Jewellery
and Watchmaking Industry" and the "Citizens Museum".[91] 1987: Inauguration of the City Convention Center.[92] 1987/1990: Inauguration of the City Theater at the Waisenhausplatz.[93] 1989: Sister City agreement with the City of Gernika, Spain.[94] 1990: Sister City agreement with the City of Saint-Maur-des-Fosses, France.[95] 1991: Sister City agreement with the City of Vicenza, Italy.[96] 1992: State Gardening Expo in Pforzheim. Enzauenpark was created and part of the Enz
Enz
river was re-naturalized.[97] 1994: Inauguration of the cultural institution "Kulturhaus Osterfeld".[98] 1994: Merger of the Pforzheim
Pforzheim
Business School and the Pforzheim
Pforzheim
School of Design to form the Pforzheim University of Applied Sciences in Design, Technology and Business.[99] 1995: Inauguration of the Archeological Site Kappelhof. 2000s[edit] 2000: Inauguration of the Pforzheim
Pforzheim
Gallery.[100] 2002: In November, during excavation works for a new shopping center right in the center of the city, a power shovel hit a 250 kg (551 lb) bomb which had not gone off during the bombardment of 1945. On a Sunday, about 5000 citizens had to temporarily leave their homes as a precautionary measure while specialists were defusing and disposing of the (so far) last of a large number of unexploded explosive devices found in Pforzheim's grounds since 1945. 2006; The Timex Group
Timex Group
introduced a line of high-end watches engineered in Pforzheim
Pforzheim
over a five-year period, to six sigma standards.[3] The technology used miniaturization with digital sensors and microprocessors driving independent motors and dial hands — to enable a range of specialized complications atypical to non-digital, analog watches[4] — an array of functions that would either be impossible or highly impractical in a mechanical movement.[5] See also History of Baden. Administrative unions[edit] Formerly independent communities and districts which were incorporated into the City of Pforzheim.

Year Community Increase in km²

1 January 1905 Broetzingen 13.01

1 January 1913 Dillweissenstein 4.612

1 April 1924 Parts of Haidach district 0.76

1 October 1929 Parts of Hagenschiess district 16.23

1 September 1971 Würm 8.22

1 April 1972 Hohenwart 4.92

1 January 1974 Büchenbronn 11.14

1 January 1975 Huchenfeld 9.47

20 September 1975 Eutingen an der Enz 8.45

[101] Population growth[edit] The table below shows the number of inhabitants for the past 500 years. Until 1789 the numbers represent estimates, after that they represent census results (¹) or official recordings by the Statistics Offices or the city administration.

Year Population figures

1500 c. 800

1689 c. 1,000

1789 4,311

1810 5,572

1830 6,284

1855 10,711

1849 12,377

1 December 1871¹ 19,803

1 December 1890¹ 29,988

1 December 1900¹ 43,373

1 December 1910¹ 69,082

16 June 1925¹ 78,859

16 June 1933¹ 79,816

17 May 1939¹ 79,011

1946 46,752

13 September 1950¹ 54,143

6 June 1961¹ 82,524

27 May 1970¹ 90,338

30 June 1975 108,635

30 June 1980 106,500

30 June 1985 104,100

27 May 1987¹ 106,530

31 December 1990 112,944

30 June 1997 118,300

31 December 2000 117,156

30 June 2003 115,777

¹ Result of census[102]

Pforzheim's population growth 1500–2003.

Pforzheim's population growth 1500–1810.

The population growth diagrams show that the largest growth rates were recorded between about 1830 and 1925, which was the period following the political reorganisation of Europe agreed upon at the Vienna Congress of 1815 after the violent period that was so much dominated by Napoleon Bonaparte
Napoleon Bonaparte
of France. This high population growth period coincided with the period of intensive industrialisation of Germany. Population growth weakened due to the effects of World War I and World War II. The population declined sharply due to the destruction on 23 February 1945, and increased sharply in the post-World War II era due to high economic growth levels in West- Germany
Germany
and the rapid rebuilding efforts in Pforzheim. Earlier setbacks were recorded during the Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War
period in the 17th century. Religions[edit] After margrave Karl II of Baden
Baden
in 1556 installed the Protestant Reformation in the Margraviate of Baden, of which Pforzheim
Pforzheim
was the capital in those days, Pforzheim
Pforzheim
continued to be a Protestant
Protestant
town for several centuries. The congregations in Pforzheim
Pforzheim
were affiliated with the deanery (Dekanat) of Pforzheim
Pforzheim
of the Protestant
Protestant
National Church of Baden, unless they were members of one of the independent churches (Freikirche). Since the 19th century at the latest Catholics
Catholics
settled in Pforzheim again. They are affiliated with the deanery of Pforzheim
Pforzheim
which belongs to Archdiocese of Freiburg. Other denominations and religious sects in Pforzheim
Pforzheim
are:

Israelite Congregation Islamic Congregation Adventist Congregation Jehovah's Witnesses Baptist Church Salvation Army Methodist Church Church of Christ, Scientist[103]

Politics[edit] City council[edit] The city council of Pforzheim
Pforzheim
consists of the Lord Mayor
Lord Mayor
as its president and 40 elected (part-time) councillors. It is democratically elected by the citizens for a period of five years. The last election was on 25 May 2014. The city council is the main representative body of the city and determines the goals and frameworks for all local political activities. It makes decisions about all important issues regarding the public life and administration of the city and directs and monitors the work of the city administration. It forms expert committees in order to deal with specialized issues.[104] City administration[edit] The city administration is led by the Lord Mayor
Lord Mayor
(presently Gert Hager) and three Mayors (presently Alexander Uhlig, Roger Heidt and Monika Mueller).[6] The administration consists of four departments (Dezernat) which are in charge of the following areas: Department I: Personnel, finances, business development, general administration. (Managed by Gerd Hager.) Department II: Construction and planning, environment. (Managed by Alexander Uhlig.) Department III: Education, culture, social affairs, sports. (Managed by Monika Mueller.) Department IV: Security and public order, health, energy and water supply, local transportation and traffic. (Managed by Roger Heidt.)[105] (Lord) Mayors[edit] At an early stage, the town administration was led by the mayor (Schultheiss) who used to be appointed by the lord (owner) of the town. Later on, there was a council with a mayor leading it, who since 1849 holds the title "Lord Mayor". The terms of office of the mayors until 1750 are unknown. Only the names of the mayors are mentioned in historical documents.

1750–1758: Ernst Matthaeus Kummer 1758–1770: W.C. Steinhaeuser 1770–1775: Weiss 1775–1783: Kissling 1783–1795: Guenzel 1795–1798: Geiger 1798–1815: Jakob Friedrich Dreher 1815–1830: Christoph Friedrich Krenkel 1830–1837: Wilhelm Lenz 1837–1848: Rudolf Deimling 1848–1849: Christian Crecelius 1849–1862: Karl Zirenner 1862–1875: Kaspar Schmidt 1875–1884: Karl Gross 1885–1889: Emil Kraatz 1889–1919: Ferdinand Habermehl 1920–1933: Erwin Guendert 1933: Dr. Emil Goelser 1933: Dr. Hans Gottlob 1933–1941: Hermann Kuerz 1941–1942: Karl Mohrenstein 1942–1945: Ludwig Seibel 1945: Albert Hermann 1945: Wilhelm Becker 1945–1947: Friedrich Adolf Katz 1947–1966: Dr. Johann Peter Brandenburg, FDP/DVP 1966–1985: Dr. Willi Weigelt, SPD 1985–2001: Dr. Joachim Becker, SPD 2001–2009: Christel Augenstein, FDP/DVP 2009–present: Gert Hager, SPD

[106] The coat of arms[edit] The coat of arms of Pforzheim
Pforzheim
city shows in the left-hand half of a shield an inclined bar in red color on a golden background, and the right-hand half is divided into four fields in the colors red, silver, blue and gold. The city flag is white-blue. The inclined bar can be traced back to the 13th century as the symbol of the lords (owners) of Pforzheim, which later on also became the National Coat of Arms of Baden, but its meaning is unknown. Since 1489 the coat of arms in its entire form can be verified, but its meaning is not known, either. Current coloring has been used only since 1853; in earlier times the coloring was different.[107][108] Economy and infrastructure[edit] Pforzheim
Pforzheim
is one of the regional centers (Oberzentrum) in Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg
and has one of the highest densities of industrial activity in the state. Pforzheim
Pforzheim
is historically an important jewelry and watch-making centre in Germany. Due to this reason, Pforzheim
Pforzheim
is nicknamed as Golden City. Jewelry and watch-making industry is first set up by Jean François Autran after receiving an edict from then overlord Margrave
Margrave
Karl Friedrich von Baden.[7] This enterprise is later joined by other commercial enterprises and helped Pforzheim
Pforzheim
to become an important manufacturing city. Pforzheim
Pforzheim
accounts for just under 70 percent of the total sales of the German jewelry and silverware industry and around 80 percent of all the pieces of jewelry exported by Germany come from Pforzheim. However, a smaller fraction of the economy nowadays is dedicated to producing the traditional products of watches and jewellery. Only 11,000 people are employed in the jewelry and watch-making industries.[7] Two thirds of all employment positions are made available in the areas of metal processing, dental industry electronics and electro-technology. The mail order companies (Bader, Klingel, Wenz) with their sales volumes in the order of millions of Euros occupies a leading position in Germany. Tourism
Tourism
is gaining importance. In this respect the city benefits from its favorable Three-Valleys location at the gateway to the Black Forest, and related to this, from the starting points of a large number of hiking, cycling and waterway routes. The European long-distance trail E1 passes through Pforzheim. It is also the starting point of the Black Forest Hiking Routes Westweg, Mittelweg
Mittelweg
and Ostweg.[109] Traffic[edit] The Federal Freeway A8 (Perl–Bad Reichenhall) runs by just to the north of the city. The city can be accessed via four freeway exits. The Interstate Road B10 (Lebach–Augsburg) and B294 (Gundelfingen–Bretten) run through the city. The B463 Interstate Road running toward Nagold
Nagold
has its starting point here. Pforzheim Hauptbahnhof
Pforzheim Hauptbahnhof
(central station) is located on the Karlsruhe– Mühlacker
Mühlacker
line, connecting to Stuttgart. In addition there are two railway lines into the Black Forest: the Enz
Enz
Valley Railway to Bad Wildbad
Wildbad
and the Nagold
Nagold
Valley Railway to Nagold. Pforzheim
Pforzheim
is connected to the Karlsruhe
Karlsruhe
Light Rail network. Other public transportation services in the city area are provided by buses of the Pforzheim
Pforzheim
Municipal Transport, subsidiary of Veolia Transport Company (SVP) and several other transportation companies. They all offer unified fares within the framework of the Pforzheim-Enzkreis Verkehrsverbund. Between 1931 and 1968 a light rail connection existed between Ittersbach
Ittersbach
and Pforzheim, operated by Pforzheim
Pforzheim
Municipal Transportation Company (SVP). Before that (since 1899) the railroad belonged to the BLEAG ( Baden
Baden
Local Railway Inc., Badische-Lokaleisenbahn-Aktiengesellschaft). The only remaining light rail service "S 5" connecting Pforzheim
Pforzheim
to Bietigheim-Bissingen, Karlsruhe
Karlsruhe
and Wörth am Rhein
Wörth am Rhein
is operated by Albtal-Verkehrs-Gesellschaft
Albtal-Verkehrs-Gesellschaft
(Albtal Transportation Company), which since 2002 also operates the Enz
Enz
Valley Light Rail route to Bad Wildbad.[110] Major local enterprises[edit]

Wellendorff
Wellendorff
Gold-Creationen GmbH & Co. KG, worldwide selling, family-owned jewellery since 1893 Victor Mayer
Victor Mayer
GmbH & Co. KG, Workmaster of Fabergé Amazon, logistics centre DUROWE, watch movement manufacturer Schmid Machine Tools Klingel Mail Order Company Bader Mail Order Company Wenz Mail Order Company Witzenmann GmbH (Specialized Metal Goods) Mapal WWS Thales (Electronics) Allgemeine Gold- und Silberscheideanstalt (metal processing) Sparkasse Pforzheim
Pforzheim
Calw
Calw
(Local financial services company) Bernhard Forster GmbH (Forestadent) (Orthodontic Products Manufacturer)

Media[edit] The daily newspapers Pforzheimer Zeitung, (independent) and the Pforzheimer Kurier, which is a regional edition of Badische Neueste Nachrichten (BNN) with main editorial offices in Karlsruhe, are published in Pforzheim.[111] Courts of Justice[edit] Pforzheim
Pforzheim
is the site of a Local Court of Justice which belongs to the District Court and Higher District Court Precinct of Karlsruhe. It is also the domicile of a Local Labor Court.[112] Authorities[edit] Pforzheim
Pforzheim
is the domicile of the following public authorities and public incorporated bodies:

Pforzheim
Pforzheim
Employment Exchange (a federal government agency; Arbeitsagentur Pforzheim). Pforzheim
Pforzheim
Internal Revenue Agency (a state agency; Finanzamt Pforzheim) Northern Black Forest
Black Forest
Chamber of Commerce (a public incorporated body; IHK Nordschwarzwald). The precinct of the chamber is the Northern Black Forest
Black Forest
Region. Northern Black Forest
Black Forest
Regional Association (a public incorporated body; Regionalverband Nordschwarzwald).[113]

Educational institutions[edit]

Pforzheim University of Applied Sciences (Hochschule Pforzheim
Pforzheim
– Hochschule fuer Gestaltung, Technik und Wirtschaft) enrolls about 5400 students. It was formed in 1992 by way of merging the former Pforzheim School of Design (Fachhochschule fuer Gestaltung) and Pforzheim Business School (Fachhochschule fuer Wirtschaft) and additionally establishing the Faculty of Engineering. The Pforzheim
Pforzheim
School of Design had its roots in the Ducal Academy of Arts and Crafts and Technical School for the Metal Processing Industry, established 1877. The Pforzheim
Pforzheim
Business School was the successor institution of the National Business College, which was established in 1963. The campuses of the Faculty of Design and the Faculties of Economics and Engineering are located at separate sites in the city area. The Pforzheim University of Applied Sciences fosters international exchange. Among other relationships, it is affiliated with the NIEBES Association and has close academic ties to Osijek
Osijek
University of Croatia
Croatia
and academic exchange programs with many institutions abroad, among them Auburn University, the University of Wyoming, Brigham Young University and the Illinois Institute of Technology, in Chicago, of the United States of America. The Goldsmith and Watchmaking Vocational School is the one of the two schools of its kind in Europe. It is attended by many students from abroad. The general qualification for university admission (Abitur) can be obtained through an education at the Reuchlin-Highschool, the Kepler-Highschool, the Hebel-Highschool, the Theodor-Heuss-Highschool, the Hilda-Highschool, the Schiller-Highschool, the Fritz-Erler-Highschool (economics-oriented highschool), the Heinrich-Wieland-Highschool (technology-oriented highschool), the Johanna-Wittum-Highschool (home economics-oriented highschool), as well as the Waldorfschule. Pforzheim
Pforzheim
also has many schools providing the mandatory general elementary and secondary education (Grundschule, Realschule) as well an institution which is dedicated to further education of grown-ups (Volkshochschule). There are also several state-run vocational schools leading to professional diplomas in the crafts and trades.[114][115]

Culture and places of interest[edit] Theatre[edit]

Municipal Theatre of Pforzheim
Pforzheim
(opera, operetta, musical, drama)

Orchestras[edit]

Pforzheim Chamber Orchestra – This orchestra was founded by Friedrich Tilegant in 1950. It participated in the world premiere of a work of Boris Blacher and has a good reputation beyond the region. Symphony Orchestra of the City of Pforzheim

Museums[edit]

Archeological Site Kappelhof – Roman and medieval excavation objects Civic Museum Eutingen Museum on the German Democratic Republic (former east Germany) The Center of Fellow-Countrymen Associations (Landsmannschaften; especially those from eastern Europe) The Pforzheim
Pforzheim
Minerals Museum The Pforzheim
Pforzheim
Gallery (paintings) Reuchlinhaus The Pforzheim
Pforzheim
Jewellery
Jewellery
Museum in the Reuchlinhaus The Pforzheim
Pforzheim
City Museum Pforzheim
Pforzheim
(on city history) The Technical Museum of the Jewellery
Jewellery
and Watchmaking Industry of Pforzheim Weissenstein Station – On Railway History in the area of Pforzheim Roman Estate in the Kanzlerwald (the excavated remains of an estate built by Roman settlers) The Product Exhibition of Pforzheim
Pforzheim
(jewellery) Companies (Industriehaus) The Exhibition of Precious Stones by Widow Mrs. Schuett

Cultural institutions[edit]

The House of Culture Osterfeld (a sociocultural center: theater, music, dance, cabaret, musical, arts, exhibitions etc.) Kupferdaechle (The Copper Roof Teenage Culture Center) The Puppet Theater of Raphael Muerle / The Marionette Stage Mottenkaefig The Communal Cinema of Pforzheim CongressCenter Pforzheim
Pforzheim
(CCP) City Library

Notable examples of architecture[edit]

Pre-war

The Archive Building (Archivbau) The House of Industry (Industriehaus) The Arch Bridge at Dillweißenstein The ruins of Liebeneck Castle District office tower (Bezirksamtsturm) Leitgastturm Seehaus (formerly a hunting villa of the Margrave; now a popular destination for Sunday afternoon walks away from the city) The Old Grapes Press of Brötzingen Hachel Tower The Copper Hammer (Kupferhammer; a traditional water-powered sledge hammer which was used for metal forming)

Post-war

The Main Railway Station The former main post office and Brötzingen post office Reuchlinhaus Goldener Adler Building at Leopoldplatz former Public Health Authority building (Gesundheitsamt) at Blumenhof District Court Building The Old and New City Hall Stadtbau Building (Architect: Luigi Snozzi) Sparkasse Tower Churches:

The Palais and Monastery
Monastery
Church St. Michael (Schloss- und Stiftskirche); it is the city's landmark. The Old Town Church St. Martin (Altstadtkirche; Protestant) Resurrection Church (Auferstehungskirche; Protestant)

Resurrection Church (Auferstehungskirche)

The Bare Feet Church (Barfüsserkirche; Catholic) Christ Church of Brötzingen (Protestant) The Protestant
Protestant
City Church (Stadtkirche) Sacred Heart Church (Herz-Jesu-Kirche; Catholic) St. Matthew Church (Matthäuskirche; Protestant). This church was designed by architect Eiermann and is a precursory structure of the famous New Berlin
Berlin
Memorial Church (Gedächtniskirche) St. Francis Church (Catholic)

Other Temples

The Islamic Mosque The notable New Synagogue
Synagogue
(1890) was lost n Kristallnacht[8]

Other sites of interest[edit]

The Alpengarten Pforzheim, closed since 2006 The Main Cemetery (Hauptfriedhof) Wallberg. The debris from the destroyed town (23 February 1945) was dumped onto this hill. The Wallberg-Monument on the top is meant to remind people of the city's history; it was erected in 2005 on the occasion of the 60th anniversary of the bombing raid. The Game Animals Zoo (Wildpark Pforzheim) Brötzingen Valley Stadium. This is the classical soccer stadium of the 1. FC Pforzheim
Pforzheim
soccer club of 1896, which was inaugurated in 1913. It accommodated a record number of "15.000 to 20.000" spectators on the occasion of the match between South Germany
Germany
against Central Hungary
Hungary
in 1920. In the post-Second-World-War era it accommodated 12.000 spectators at the cup matches 1. FC Pforzheim
Pforzheim
– 1. FC Nürnberg (score 2–1 after extra time; 1961) and 1. FCP – Werder Bremen
Bremen
(score 1–1 after extension; 1988). The soccer club (simply called the "club"), which during its history supplied the first national team captain and a total of eleven first league players, had to file for bankruptcy in February 2004 and for the first time in history is playing in the fifth league, i.e. the Soccer Association's Northern Baden
Baden
League, during the 2004–05 season. In 1906, the club lost the final of the German Football Championship against VfB Leipzig 1–2 in Nuremberg. The Weststadtpark in the borough Maihälden, an extensive park area

Regularly scheduled events[edit]

February: Carnival Procession (Faschingsumzug) in Dillweissenstein May: International Pentecost Tournament of the VfR Pforzheim June: "Pforzemer Mess" (a fun fair) July: Pforzheim
Pforzheim
Goldsmith's Market (Goldschmiedemarkt), last held in 2005. July: "Lust auf Schmuck" (a jewellery market taking up where Goldschmiedemarkt left off, with change of venue and change of focus). July: "Gruschtelmarkt" (a flea market) July: International Pforzheim
Pforzheim
Music & Theater Festival July: "Marktplatzfest" (market place festival, every 2 years; this is one of the largest free-of-charge open air festivals in Southwestern Germany) August: "Öchsle-Fest" (a festival celebrating local wines) September: "Brötzingen Saturday" November: Pre-Christmas Handicraft Market (Weihnachtsbastelmarkt) November/December: Christmas Market (Weihnachtsmarkt) in the inner city area[116]

Personalities[edit] Honorary citizens[edit] (a small selection)

1939 Alfons Kern, historian 1965 Dr. Johann Peter Brandenburg, German politician (FDP/DVP), Member of State Parliament, Lord Mayor
Lord Mayor
of Pforzheim 1985 Dr. Willi Weigelt, German politician (SPD), Lord Mayor
Lord Mayor
of Pforzheim 1991 Richard Ziegler, painter 1998 Rolf Schweizer, church music director

Famous citizens born in Pforzheim[edit] Until 1850[edit]

Bertha Benz
Bertha Benz
(1872-1873)

Johannes Reuchlin, (1455-1522) humanist and philosopher Nikolaus Gerbel, (1485-1560) humanist and jurist Philipp Jakob Becker, (1763-?) painter Christopher Bechtler, (1782-1843) gold smith and mechanician Karl Heinrich Baumgaertner, (1798-1886) pathologist Christian Friedrich Wilhelm Roller, (1802-1878) psychiatrist Bertha Benz, née Ringer, (1849-1944) wife of Karl Benz

1851-1900[edit]

Victor Mayer
Victor Mayer
(1857-1946), entrepreneur Guillermo Kahlo, (1871-1941); father of Frida Kahlo Heinrich Otto Wieland, (1877-1957); Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
laureate in chemistry 1927 Erich Rothacker, (1888-1965), philosopher and sociologist Fritz Todt, (1891-1942); engineer and head of Organisation Todt Julius Moser (1882-1970), entrepreneur Erich Rothacker (1888-1965), philosopher and sociologist Robert Faas (1889-1914), football goalkeeper Emil Georg Bührle
Emil Georg Bührle
(1890-1956), Swiss industrialist Marius Hiller (1892-1964), footballer Hans Ferdinand Mayer (1895-1980), physicist and electrical engineer Rudolf Goldschmidt (1896-1976), District Administrator, Vice-President of the Government Hellmut Maneval (1898-1967), soccer player Karl Abt, (1899-1985); painter

1901-1959[edit]

Adolf Rosenberger, (1900-1967), race car driver and merchant Carl Mayer (1902-1974), American religious sociologist Theodor Burkhardt (1905-1958), footballer Fritz Dietrich (1905-1945), musicologist and composer Hans Henninger (1905-1937), stage and film actor Leah Horowitz (1933-1956), Israeli Olympic hurdler Laura Perls (1905-1990), psychoanalyst Herbert Witzenmann (1905-1988), writer and researcher Wolfgang Preisendanz (1920-2007), Germanist and literary scholar Hans Blickensdörfer (1923-1997), sports journalist and writer Fritz Rau (1930-2013), concert manager Manfred Mohr; (born 1938), artist and one of the pioneers of computer-generated graphic art (living in New York since 1981) Werner Tochtermann, (born 1934), chemist and university lecturer Jochen Hasenmayer, (born 1941), cave diver Joachim Becker (born 1942), politician (SPD), mayor of Pforzheim 1985-2001 Wolfgang Heinz (criminologist), (born 1942), criminologist and legal scientist Dieter Kosslick, (born 1948), director of the Berlinale
Berlinale
Film Festival

1951 - present[edit]

Peter Bofinger, (born 1954), member of the Advisory Board on the Assessment of Macroeconomic Trends in the Federal Republic of Germany Gunter Seeger, (born 1949), Michelin starred chef, currently in New York City as chef of Gunter Seeger NY. Owned Pfozheim's first michelin-starred restaurant in 1977, the Hoheneck. Tomas Maier; (born 1957), fashion designer, currently Creative Director of Italian luxury label Bottega Veneta Jürgen Elsässer, (born 1957), German journalist and political activist Stefan Mappus, (born 1966), economist and politician (CDU), Minister president of Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg
2010-2011 Oliver Forster (born 1968), sports commentator and moderator Jan Kopp
Jan Kopp
(born 1971), composer, musicologist and publicist Florian Ross (born 1972), composer, jazz pianist and bandleader Philipp Mohr
Philipp Mohr
(born 1972), German-American architect and designer Marcello Craca (born 1974), German-Italian tennis player Logan McCree
Logan McCree
(born 1977 Philipp Tanzer), Inernational DJ and adult-film actor in gay pornography Nicola Thost
Nicola Thost
(born May 3, 1977) is a German snowboarder and Olympic champion. She won a gold medal at the 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano.

Miscellaneous topics[edit]

The Freemasons
Freemasons
Lodge "Reuchlin" is located in Pforzheim. The internationally successful rock band Fool's Garden
Fool's Garden
("Lemon Tree") has its origins in Pforzheim.[117]

Notes[edit]

^ "Gemeinden in Deutschland nach Fläche, Bevölkerung und Postleitzahl am 30.09.2016". Statistisches Bundesamt
Statistisches Bundesamt
(in German). 2016.  ^ Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung: „Ein zehnmal gespaltenes Haar in Gold“ (german, A ten times split hair in gold) (accessed last 19 February 2012) ^ Paul Hubbard (7 April 2007). "Timex TX Watches". The Watch Report. Archived from the original on 17 May 2007. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ "Timex: Start in ein neues Zeitalter". Goettgen.de.  ^ Arial Adams (9 August 2009). "TX 400 Series Perpetual Weekly Calendar Ref. T3C301 Watch Review". ABTW.  ^ "Stadt Pforzheim
Pforzheim
Dezernate". Pforzheim.de. 1 June 2008. Retrieved 12 March 2013.  ^ a b Baden-Württemberg. Where ideas work. (17 June 2006). "Baden-Württemberg. Where ideas work. - Pforzheim, Goldstadt Deutschlands". Bw-invest.de. Retrieved 6 May 2009.  ^ "Die Synagoge in Pforzheim
Pforzheim
( Stadtkreis
Stadtkreis
Pforzheim)". Alemannia-judaica.de. Retrieved 6 May 2009. 

References[edit]

Kurze Chronik der Stadt Pforzheim
Pforzheim
– Brief history on the official Web Site of the City of Pforzheim; in German Klaus Kortüm: PORTUS – Pforzheim. Untersuchungen zur Archäologie und Geschichte in römischer Zeit, Sigmaringen, Germany; (1995); (=Quellen und Studien zur Geschichte der Stadt Pforzheim
Pforzheim
3); in German. Hans-Peter Becht (Hg): Pforzheim
Pforzheim
im Mittelalter, Pforzheimer Geschichtsblätter, Band 6, Thorbecke, Sigmaringen, Germany; ISBN 3-7995-6044-0; (1983); in German. Hans-Peter Becht (Hg): Pforzheim
Pforzheim
in der frühen Neuzeit, Pforzheimer Geschichtsblätter, Band 7, Thorbecke, Sigmaringen, Germany; ISBN 3-7995-6045-9; (1989); in German. Die Pest: Das grosse Sterben um 1500, Web page by LOEBLICHE SINGERGESELLSCHAFT VON 1501 PFORZHEIM, 2005; in German. Christian Groh: Pforzheim
Pforzheim
und Baden
Baden
zur Zeit Johannes Reuchlin. Die Auswirkungen markgraeflicher Regierung auf die Stadt. Web page by LOEBLICHE SINGERGESELLSCHAFT VON 1501 PFORZHEIM, 2005; in German. Thomas Frei: Pforzheim
Pforzheim
im 16. Jahrhundert. Web page by LOEBLICHE SINGERGESELLSCHAFT VON 1501 PFORZHEIM, 2005; in German. Pforzheim_im_Weltkrieg: Pforzheimer Zeitung of 26 June 2004, No.145, p. 26; in German.] Folge4:"23.Februar1945" Pforzheimer Zeitung of 4 February 2005, No.28, p. 22; in German.] Folge9:"23.Februar1945" Pforzheimer Zeitung of 10 February 2005, No.33, p. 18; in German.] Folge10:"23.Februar1945" Pforzheimer Zeitung of 11 February 2005, No.34, p. 20; in German.] Folge15:"23.Februar1945" Pforzheimer Zeitung of 17 February 2005, No.39, p. 18; in German.] Folge22:"23.Februar1945" Pforzheimer Zeitung of 25 February 2005, No.46, p. 24; in German.] Folge25:"23.Februar1945" Pforzheimer Zeitung of 4 March 2005, No.52, p. 20; in German.] Folge28:"23.Februar1945" Pforzheimer Zeitung of 31 March 2005, No.73, p. 20; in German.] Folge29:"23.Februar1945" Pforzheimer Zeitung of 8 April 2005, No.80, p. 24; in German.] Map of destroyed town area Web page of the City of Pforzheim: City Council; in German Web page of the City of Pforzheim: City Administration; in German Pforzheim: German language.

Notes[edit]

^ References Brief history on the official Web site of the City of Pforzheim. ^ References Hans-Peter Becht: Pforzheim
Pforzheim
im Mittelalter, p. 41. ^ References Hans-Peter Becht: Pforzheim
Pforzheim
im Mittelalter, chapters " Pforzheim
Pforzheim
im Mittelalter", pp. 39–62, and "Commercium et Connubium", pp. 63–76. ^ References In: Die Pest: Das grosse Sterben um 1500. ^ References Hans-Peter Becht: Pforzheim
Pforzheim
im Mittelalter, chapter " Pforzheim
Pforzheim
in muenzgeschichtlicher Sicht". p. 172. ^ References Klaus Kortuem: PORTUS – Pforzheim. ^ References Hans-Peter Becht: Pforzheim
Pforzheim
im Mittelalter, p. 223. ^ References Hans-Peter Becht: Pforzheim
Pforzheim
in der fruehen Neuzeit, chapter "Melanchthons Pforzheimer Schulzeit", pp. 9–50. ^ References Hans-Peter Becht: Pforzheim
Pforzheim
im Mittelalter, chapter "St. Michael in Pforzheim", pp. 107–50. ^ References Hans-Peter Becht: Pforzheim
Pforzheim
im Mittelalter, p. 117. ^ References Hans-Peter Becht: Pforzheim
Pforzheim
in der fruehen Neuzeit, chapter "Der Pforzheimer Privilegienstreit (1716–1730)", pp. 117, 118. ^ References Christian Groh: Pforzheim
Pforzheim
und Baden
Baden
zur Zeit Johannes Reuchlin. ^ References Thomas Frei: Pforzheim
Pforzheim
im 16. Jahrhindert. ^ References Hans-Peter Becht: Pforzheim
Pforzheim
im Mittelalter, p. 45. ^ References Hans-Peter Becht: Pforzheim
Pforzheim
in der fruehen Neuzeit, chapter " Pforzheim
Pforzheim
im Pfaelzischen Krieg 1688–1697", pp. 81–116. ^ References Hans-Peter Becht: Pforzheim
Pforzheim
in der fruehen Neuzeit, chapter "Der Pforzheimer Privilegienstreit (1716–1730)", pp. 117–160. ^ References Pforzheimer Zeitung, 26 June 2004, No.145, p. 26, headline "Ein lokales Geschichtswerk". ^ The number of dead 17,600 is taken from References Groh. ^ References 83% from RAF Web Site: Campaign Diary February 1945, ^ The 30,000 people fed by makeshift kitchens is reported in References Pforzheimer Zeitung of 25 February 2005. ^ The number of foreign workers killed in the bombings is reported in References Pforzheimer Zeitung of 10 February 2005. ^ These figures are similar to References Groh, but must be from another source which is not recorded. ^ References The German army report is taken from References Pforzheimer Zeitung of 23 February 2005, under headline "Sofortmeldung nach dem Angriff". Its original in German reads: "In den fruehen Abendstunden richtete sich ein schwerer britischer Angriff gegen Pforzheim". ^ References Pforzheimer Zeitung of 31 March 2005. ^ References Pforzheimer Zeitung of 8 April 2005. ^ References Pforzheimer Zeitung of 4 March 2005. ^ A more detailed discussion on the reasons for the main air raid is given in the discussion section of this page. (Talk: Pforzheim
Pforzheim
Draft of text: On the reason for the Pforzheim
Pforzheim
bombardment.) ^ Pforzheim
Pforzheim
is situated in a valley and also spread out across the adjacent hill slopes. On the northern slope there is a level, narrow plateau that is about 100 meters wide and about 2 kilometers in length. The railway facilities, including the main station and what used to be the freight loading facilities, are located on this plateau. This is the only level space that can possibly be used for railway facilities there. If the RAF would have been only aiming at destroying the railway facilities, a few aircraft would have sufficed to finish this job in a short time. There was no need to bomb an area that was wider than one kilometer (0.6 miles) and had a length of more than three kilometers (1.9 miles) using more than 360 Lancasters, as was the case in the big raid on 23 February. The existence and size of the plateau on the northern slope can be verified by examining any topographic map featuring the Pforzheim
Pforzheim
city area, and the map showing the destroyed city area. (refer to References Map of destroyed town area). And besides that, the area bombardment obviously was not even effective in destroying the railway facilities, because less than one month after the big raid in mid-March the railway facilities were bombed again several times by the USAF, this time focussing mainly on the suspected military target, not civilian estates (refer to References Pforzheimer Zeitung of 4 March 2005). ^ References Web page of the City of Pforzheim: City Council; in German. ^ References Web page of the City of Pforzheim: City Administration; in German. ^ References Hans-Peter Becht: Pforzheim
Pforzheim
im Mittelalter, chapter "Wappen und Siegel der Stadt Pforzheim". pp. 221–238. ^ The core of this section was translated from the corresponding section of the article about Pforzheim
Pforzheim
in the References German language, as of May 2005.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pforzheim.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Pforzheim.

Homepage of the city administration Texts on Wikisource:

"Pforzheim". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920.  "Pforzheim". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911.  "Pforzheim". The Nuttall Encyclopædia. 1907.  "Pforzheim". New International Encyclopedia. 1905.  "Pforzheim". The American Cyclopædia. 1879. 

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