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The PETRONAS TOWERS, also known as the PETRONAS TWIN TOWERS (Malay : Menara Petronas, or Menara Berkembar Petronas), are twin skyscrapers in Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
, Malaysia. According to the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat ( CTBUH
CTBUH
)'s official definition and ranking, they were the tallest buildings in the world from 1998 to 2004 and remain the tallest twin towers in the world. The buildings are a landmark of Kuala Lumpur, along with nearby Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
Tower .

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Notable events

* 2 Comparison with other towers * 3 Anchor tenants

* 4 Features

* 4.1 Suria KLCC * 4.2 KLCC Park * 4.3 Skybridge
Skybridge
* 4.4 Lift system * 4.5 Service building * 4.6 Ticketing system

* 5 In popular culture * 6 Photo gallery * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links

HISTORY

The towers were designed by Argentine architect Cesar Pelli
Cesar Pelli
. They chose a distinctive postmodern style to create a 21st-century icon for Kuala Lumpur. Planning on the Petronas
Petronas
Towers started on 1 January 1992 and included rigorous tests and simulations of wind and structural loads on the design. Seven years of construction followed at the former site of the original Selangor Turf Club , beginning on 1 March 1993 with excavation, which involved moving 500 truckloads of earth every night to dig down 30 metres (98 ft) below the surface.

The construction of the superstructure commenced on 1 April 1994. Interiors with furniture were completed on 1 January 1996, the spires of Tower 1 and Tower 2 were completed on 1 March 1996, and the first batch of Petronas
Petronas
personnel moved into the building on 1 January 1997. The building was officially opened by the Prime Minister of Malaysia 's Tun Dr. Mahathir bin Mohamad on 1 August 1999. The twin towers were built on the site of Kuala Lumpur's race track. Test boreholes found that the original construction site effectively sat on the edge of a cliff. One half of the site was decayed limestone while the other half was soft rock. The entire site was moved 61 metres (200 ft) to allow the buildings to sit entirely on the soft rock. Because of the depth of the bedrock , the buildings were built on the world's deepest foundations. 104 concrete piles, ranging from 60 to 114 metres (197 to 374 ft) deep, were bored into the ground. The concrete raft foundation, comprising 13,200 cubic metres (470,000 cu ft) of concrete was continuously poured through a period of 54 hours for each tower. The raft is 4.6 metres (15 ft) thick, weighs 32,500 tonnes (35,800 tons) and held the world record for the largest concrete pour until 2007. The foundations were completed within 12 months by Bachy Soletanche and required massive amounts of concrete. The Petronas Towers' structural system is a tube in tube design , invented by Fazlur Rahman Khan
Fazlur Rahman Khan
. Applying a tube-structure for extreme tall buildings is a common phenomenon.

The 88-floor towers are constructed largely of reinforced concrete, with a steel and glass facade designed to resemble motifs found in Islamic art
Islamic art
, a reflection of Malaysia's Muslim
Muslim
religion. Another Islamic influence on the design is that the cross section of the towers is based on a Rub el Hizb , albeit with circular sectors added to meet office space requirements.

As a result of the Malaysian government specifying that the buildings be completed in six years, two construction consortiums were hired to meet the deadline, one for each tower. Tower 1, the west tower (right in the top-right photograph) was built by a Japanese consortium led by the Hazama Corporation
Hazama Corporation
(JA Jones Construction Co. , MMC Engineering Services Sdn Bhd, Ho Hup Construction Co. Bhd and Mitsubishi Corp ) while Tower 2, the east tower (left in the top-right photograph) was built by a South Korean consortium led by the Samsung C&T Corporation (Kukdong Engineering & Construction and Syarikat Jasatera Sdn Bhd). Ekovest Berhad, with Tan Sri Datuk Lim Kang Hoo at its helm also played an integral role in the construction as well as final fit outs of the towers and the shopping mall below the towers (Suria KLCC). Early into construction a batch of concrete failed a routine strength test causing construction to come to a complete halt. All the completed floors were tested but it was found that only one had used a bad batch and it was demolished. As a result of the concrete failure, each new batch was tested before being poured. The halt in construction had cost US$700,000 per day and led to three separate concrete plants being set up on the site to ensure that if one produced a bad batch, the other two could continue to supply concrete. The sky bridge contract was completed by Kukdong Engineering however, it makes the building twice as heavy on its foundation as a comparable steel building. Supported by 23-by-23 metre concrete cores and an outer ring of widely spaced super columns, the towers use a sophisticated structural system that accommodates its slender profile and provides 560,000 square metres of column-free office space. Below the twin towers is Suria KLCC , a shopping mall, and Dewan Filharmonik Petronas
Petronas
, the home of the Malaysian Philharmonic Orchestra .

NOTABLE EVENTS

The Petronas
Petronas
Towers from their bases.

* Night View of Petronas
Petronas
Twin Tower On 15 April 1999, Felix Baumgartner set the world record for BASE jumping
BASE jumping
(since broken) by jumping off a window cleaning crane on the Petronas
Petronas
Towers. * Thousands of people were evacuated on 12 September 2001 after a bomb threat the day after the September 11 attacks
September 11 attacks
destroyed the World Trade Center towers in New York City. Bomb Disposal squads found no bomb in the Petronas
Petronas
towers but they evacuated everyone. Workers and shoppers were allowed to return three hours later, around noon. No one was hurt during the evacuation. * On the evening of 4 November 2005, a fire broke out in the cinema complex of the Suria KLCC shopping centre below the Petronas
Petronas
Towers, triggering panic among patrons. There were no reports of injuries. The buildings were largely empty, except the shopping mall, Suria KLCC, because of the late hour; the only people involved were moviegoers and some diners in restaurants. * On the morning of 1 September 2009, French urban climber Alain "Spiderman" Robert , using only his bare hands and feet and with no safety devices, scaled to the top of Tower Two in just under 2 hours after two previous efforts had ended in arrest. In his first attempt on 20 March 1997, police arrested him at the 60th floor, 28 floors away from the "summit". The second attempt on 20 March 2007, exactly 10 years later, was also stopped on the same floor, though on the other tower.

COMPARISON WITH OTHER TOWERS

In accordance with CTBUH, the pinnacles contributed to the overall height of the towers, thus surpassing Willis Tower
Willis Tower
. Development of the Tower 1 Level 43 floor plan from a Rub el Hizb symbol. The skybridge appears askew because the axes of symmetry of the towers diverge by about 15°.

The Petronas
Petronas
Towers were the tallest buildings in the world for six years, until Taipei 101
Taipei 101
was completed in 2004. The height of the towers is measured to the top of their structural components such as spires, but do not include antennas. Spires are considered actual integral parts of the architectural design of buildings, to which changes would substantially change the appearance and design of the building, whereas antennas may be added or removed without such consequences. The Petronas
Petronas
Towers still remain the tallest twin buildings in the world. The Petronas
Petronas
Towers and the Kuala Lumpur Tower dominate the skyline of Kuala Lumpur's Central Business District. Petronas
Petronas
Towers compared with other tallest buildings in Asia.

Willis Tower
Willis Tower
(formerly Sears Tower) and the World Trade Center towers were each constructed with 110 occupied floors – 22 more than the 88 floors of the Petronas
Petronas
Towers. Willis Tower's tallest antenna is 75.41 m (247.4 ft) taller than those of the Petronas
Petronas
Towers, however, in accordance with CTBUH
CTBUH
regulations and guidelines, the antennas of Willis Tower
Willis Tower
were not counted as part of its architectural features. The spires on the Petronas
Petronas
Towers are included in the height since they are not antenna masts. Therefore, the Petronas
Petronas
Towers exceed the official height of Willis Tower
Willis Tower
by 9.8 m (32 ft) even though the roof of Petronas
Petronas
Towers at 378.6 metres (1,242 ft) is 63.4 m (208 ft) lower than the roof of Willis Tower
Willis Tower
at 442.1 metres (1,450 ft).

The Petronas
Petronas
Towers feature a diamond-faceted facade consisting of 83,500 square metres (899,000 sq ft) of stainless steel extrusions. In addition, a 33,000-panel curtain wall cladding system resides within the towers. While the stainless steel element of the towers entices the illustrious sun, highlighting the magnificent towers, they are composed of 55,000 square metres (590,000 sq ft) of 20.38-millimetre (0.802 in) laminated glass to reduce heat by reflecting harmful UV rays.

On the top of each tower is a pinnacle standing 73.5 metres (241 ft) tall. The pinnacles were more than just the finishing touches to the height of the towers, each taking over 19 weeks to construct and both being assembled outside the country. One was constructed in Japan and the other in Korea. Each pinnacle is composed of 50 unique parts making up the main components: the spire, mast ball and ring ball. Together these parts weigh 176 tons. While the pinnacles may seem to be an aesthetic feature of the towers to enhance their presence and height, they also play function to aircraft warning lights and are an essential element to the overall Islamic minaret design that the towers embody.

The interiors of the towers highlight the Malaysian cultural inspiration to the design through traditional aspects such as fabric and carvings typical of the culture, specifically evident in the foyer of the entrance halls in the towers.

The construction of the Petronas
Petronas
Towers turned out to be a multinational effort. The structural design engineers worked out of New York City, while the wind-tunnel consultants and elevator design engineers were from Canada. To meet local safety construction codes, the towers had to be able to withstand 65 miles per hour (105 km/h) winds. To assure this requirement would be fulfilled, the engineers tested the towers twice within a wind tunnel, first by computer simulation and second by building an actual model of the towers. A unique typographical font was created for the KLCC precinct signage by the Australian design firm, Emery Vincent, who also designed the building's architectural graphics and way-finding maps. The design team was led by Gary Emery and included Alvin Chan, Gini Lee, Linda Popovic and Marius Vogl.

ANCHOR TENANTS

Tower One is fully occupied by Petronas
Petronas
and a number of its subsidiaries and associate companies, while the office spaces in Tower Two are mostly available for lease to other companies. A number of companies have offices in Tower Two, including Huawei Technologies
Huawei Technologies
, AVEVA, Al Jazeera English
Al Jazeera English
, Carigali Hess, Bloomberg , Boeing
Boeing
, IBM
IBM
, Khazanah Nasional Berhad , McKinsey "> Inside View of Suria KLCC Shopping Centre

FEATURES

SURIA KLCC

Main article: Suria KLCC Inside the Suria KLCC Entrance of Suria KLCC

Suria KLCC is a 140,000 m2 (1,500,000 sq ft) upmarket retail center at the feet of the Petronas
Petronas
Towers. It features mostly foreign luxury goods and high-street labels. Its attractions include an art gallery, a philharmonic theatre, an underwater aquarium and also a Science center. Suria KLCC is one of the largest shopping malls in Malaysia.

KLCC PARK

Main article: KLCC Park KLCC Park

Spanning 17 acres (6.9 ha) below the building is the KLCC Park with jogging and walking paths, a fountain with incorporated light show, wading pools, and a children's playground.

SKYBRIDGE

A skybridge connects the two towers An inside view of the skybridge View to the northwest from the Petronas
Petronas
Towers skybridge, including the shadow of Tower 1 and the skybridge, and the Public Bank Berhad building One of the Petronas
Petronas
Towers spires Inside View of Festival Time at Petronas
Petronas
Twin Tower

The towers feature a double decker skybridge connecting the two towers on the 41st and 42nd floors, which is the highest 2-story bridge in the world. It is not attached to the main structure, but is instead designed to slide in and out of the towers to prevent it from breaking, as the towers sway several feet in towards and away from each other during high winds. It also provides some structural support to the towers in these occasions. The bridge is 170 m (558 ft) above the ground and 58.4 m (192 ft) long, weighing 750 tons. The same floor is also known as the podium, since visitors going to higher levels have to change elevators here. The skybridge is open to all visitors, but tickets are limited to about 1000 people per day, and must be obtained on a first-come, first-served basis. Initially, the visit was free but in 2010, the tickets started being sold by Petronas. Visitors can choose to opt for package one which is just a visit to the skybridge or go for package two to go to the skybridge and all the way to level 86. Visitors are only allowed on the 41st floor as the 42nd floor can only be used by the tenants of the building.

The skybridge also acts as a safety device, so that in the event of a fire or other emergency in one tower, tenants can evacuate by crossing the skybridge to the other tower. The total evacuation triggered by a bomb hoax on 12 September 2001 (the day after the September 11 attacks destroyed the twin towers of the World Trade Center in New York City) showed that the bridge would not be useful if both towers need to be emptied simultaneously, as the capacity of the staircases was insufficient for such an event. Plans thus call for the lifts to be used if both towers need to be evacuated, and a successful drill following the revised plan was conducted in 2005.

There is a two hinged arch that supports the skybridge with arch legs, each 51 metres (167 ft) long, that are bolted to level 29 of each of the towers. After being constructed on the ground, the skybridge was lifted into place on the towers over a period of three days in July 1995. Instead of being directly connected to the towers, the skybridge can shift or slide in and out of them to counterbalance any effect from the wind. Residing on the 41st and 42nd floors, the skybridge connects a conference room, an executive dining room and a prayer room.

LIFT SYSTEM

The main bank of Otis Lifts is located in the centre of each tower. All main lifts are double-decker with the lower deck of the lift taking passengers to even-numbered floors and upper deck to odd-numbered floors. To reach an odd-numbered floor from ground level, passengers must take an escalator to the upper deck of the lift.

There are 29 double-deck passenger elevators, but there are different sets that service certain floors of the towers, specifically two sets of six of these double-deck passenger elevators to floors 1–23 and 1–37 respectively. Another set of 5 passenger lifts transport passengers to the 41st and 42nd floors where they can switch lifts to reach the upper zones of the buildings, each double-deck passenger lift with the capacity of 52 passengers or, 26 passengers per deck. There are also 6 heavy-duty elevators for utility.

From the ground floor, there are three groups of lifts. The "short haul" group of 6 lifts take passengers to floors between level 2/3 and level 16/17. The "mid haul" group of six lifts take passengers to floors between level 18/19 and level 37/38. There is also a set of shuttle lifts that take passengers directly to levels 41/42. To get to levels above 41/42, passengers must take the shuttle lifts, then change to lifts to the upper floors. These connecting lifts are directly above the lifts that serve levels 2 to 38. The pattern now repeats with the upper levels, one set serving levels 43/44 to 57/58 and one set serving levels 59/60 to levels 73/74.

Apart from this main bank of lifts, there are a series of "connecting" lifts to take people between the groups. Unlike the main lifts, these are not the double-decker type. Two lifts are provided to take people from levels 37/38 to levels 41/42 (levels 39 and 40 are not accessible as office space). This spares someone in the lower half of the building from having to go back to the ground floor to go to the upper half of the building.

The lifts contain a number of safety features. It is possible to evacuate people from a lift stuck between floors by manually driving one of the adjacent lifts next to it and opening a panel in the wall. It is then possible for people in the stuck lift to walk between lift cars. During an evacuation of the buildings, only the shuttle lift is allowed to be used, as there are only doors at levels G/1 and levels 41/42; therefore should there be a fire in the lower half of the building, this enclosed shaft would remain unaffected. Firefighter lifts are also provided in case of emergency.

The lift operating chart of the Petronas
Petronas
Towers

* PL7A-PL7C (Tower 1) & PL8A-PL8C (Tower 2)(Parking & Podium Passenger Lift): P5-P1, C, G, 1, 2, 2M, 3-5 (PL7A & PL8A non-stop at level 2M) * SL6 (Tower 1) & SL7 (Tower 2)(Parking & Podium Service Lift): P5-P1, 1, 2, 2M, 3-5 (SL7 non-stop at level 2M) * PL14 (Tower 1) & PL15 (Tower 2)(Concert Passenger Lift): G, 2, 2M, 3, 4 * A1-A6 (Tower 1) & A7-A12 (Tower 2)(Bank A Passenger Lift): G/1, 8-23 * B1-B6 (Tower 1) & B7-B12 (Tower 2)(Bank B Passenger Lift): G/1, 23-37 * CF1-CF2 (Tower 1) & CF3-CF4 (Tower 2)(Conference Shuttle Lift): 36, 37, 40-43 * C1-C6 (Tower 1) & C7-C12 (Tower 2)(Bank C Passenger Lift): 41/42, 44-61 * D1-D3 (Tower 1) & D4-D6 (Tower 2)(Bank D Passenger Lift): 41/42, 61, 69-83 * E1-E3 (Tower 1) & E4-E6 (Tower 2)(Bank E Passenger Lift): 41/42, 61-73 * TE1-TE2 (Tower 1) & TE3-TE4 (Tower 2)(Upper Level Passenger Lift): 83, 85, 86 * SH1-SH5 (Tower 1) & SH6-SH10 (Tower 2)(Shuttle Lift): G/1, 41/42 * S1-S2 (Tower 1) & S4-S5 (Tower 2) (Service Lift): P1, C, G, 2-6, 8-38, 40-84 * S3 (Tower 1) & S6(Tower 2) (Lower Level Service Lift): P1, C, G, 2-6, 8-37 * F1-F2 (Tower 1) & F3-F4 (Tower 2) (Fireman Service Lift): P1, C, CM, G, 1-6, 8-38, 40-84, 84M1, 84M2, 85, 86 (F1 ">

KLCC Petronas
Petronas
Towers *

The Petronas
Petronas
Twin Towers in Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
(Malaysia) *

At night from 29th floor of Traders Hotel *

The Petronas
Petronas
Towers in Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
at night *

Another view of The Petronas
Petronas
Towers at night *

Looking up from the base at night with a large Malaysian flag *

Petronas
Petronas
Towers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Malaysia
at sunset *

Petronas
Petronas
towers, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Malaysia
(looking up) *

Night Twinkling image of the Petronas
Petronas
Towers in Kuala Lumpur, Taken from behind *

Petronas
Petronas
Towers, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Malaysia

SEE ALSO

* Malaysia
Malaysia
portal * Architecture portal

* Menara Telekom
Menara Telekom
* List of skyscrapers
List of skyscrapers
* List of tallest buildings in Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
* List of tallest buildings and structures in the world
List of tallest buildings and structures in the world
* List of tallest freestanding structures in the world
List of tallest freestanding structures in the world
* Skyscraper Index * List of tallest buildings in Malaysia
Malaysia
* KL118

REFERENCES

* ^ A B C D E F G " Petronas
Petronas
Towers – The Skyscraper
Skyscraper
Center". Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. * ^ Petronas
Petronas
Towers at Emporis
Emporis
* ^ Petronas
Petronas
Towers at Glass Steel and Stone * ^ " Petronas
Petronas
Towers". SkyscraperPage
SkyscraperPage
. * ^ Petronas
Petronas
Towers at Structurae
Structurae
* ^ Sebestyén, Gyula (1998). Construction: Craft to Industry. London: Taylor & Francis. p. 205. ISBN 978-0-419-20920-1 . * ^ Žaknić, Ivan; Smith, Matthew; Rice, Doleres B. (1998). 100 of the World's Tallest Buildings. Mulgrave, Victoria: Images Publishing. p. 208. ISBN 978-1-875498-32-1 . CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link ) * ^ A B C National Geographic Channel International / Caroline Anstey (2005), Megastructures: Petronas
Petronas
Twin Towers * ^ Baker, Clyde N., Jr.; Drumwright, Elliott; Joseph, Leonard; Azam, Tarique (November 1996). "The Taller the Deeper". Civil Engineering. ASCE. 66 (11): 3A–6A. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link ) * ^ Admin. (18 March 2010). "Detailed Structural Analysis". The Petronas
Petronas
Towers. Retrieved 11 January 2011. * ^ http://www.ctbuh.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=rlKQFdZyhwg%3D&tabid=1108&language=en-GB * ^ "Structures in the New Millennium". * ^ http://www.support.tue.nl/archief/studiereizen/studiereis2007/pudong_swf_en.htm * ^ Wee, C. J. Wan-Ling, April Stonghold, James Parpan Almeda (2002). Local cultures and the "new Asia": the state, culture, and capitalism in Southeast Asia. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 193. * ^ Moskal, Greg (2004). Modern Buildings: Identifying Bilateral and Rotational Symmetry. New York: Rosen Classroom. p. 28. ISBN 0-8239-8989-5 . * ^ Wells, Matthew (2005). Skyscrapers: structure and design. Laurence King Publishing. p. 170. * ^ "Information Malaysia." (2005). Berita Publ. Sdn. Bhd. * ^ Taranath, Bungale S. (2004). Wind and earthquake resistant buildings: structural analysis and design. CRC Press. p. 748. * ^ Crerar, Simon (15 October 2012). "Planes, caves and skyscrapers among fearless skydiver Felix Baumgartner\'s fabulous feats". heraldsun.com.au. Herald Sun. Retrieved 21 October 2012. * ^ " Petronas
Petronas
Towers (451 Meters), Malaysia". felixbaumgartner.com. Felix Baumgartner. Retrieved 21 October 2012. * ^ Sean Yoong (12 September 2001). "World\'s tallest towers, IBM building in Malaysia
Malaysia
evacuated after threats". The Avalanche Journal. Retrieved 11 January 2011. * ^ "Fire Forces Evacuation at Malaysia
Malaysia
Towers". CBS News. 4 November 2005. Retrieved 11 January 2011. * ^ staff writers (1 September 2009). "\'Spiderman\' scales Malaysia
Malaysia
tower". BBC News. Retrieved 11 January 2011. * ^ St (20 March 2007). "\'Spiderman\' has another go at Twin Tower". The Star. Retrieved 11 January 2011. * ^ Galal Abada, "2004 On Site Review Report: Petronas
Petronas
Office Towers, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia" * ^ Lee, C. Y.; Binder, Georges (2008). Taipei 101. Mulgrave, Victoria: Images Publishing. p. 7. ISBN 978-1-86470-248-4 . * ^ Palmer, Alison Lee (2008). Historical Dictionary of Architecture. from personal experience these towers are a stunning pic of engineering and are an absolute wonder the thought is staggering. Scarecrow Press. p. 209. * ^ Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat
Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat
preamble to High Rise Database: other measurements of height" * ^ "Height: The History of Measuring Tall Buildings". Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. Retrieved 1 May 2012. * ^ A B C D E "The PETRONAS Twin Towers Official Website". PETRONAS Twin Towers. Retrieved 29 March 2012. * ^ A B C Wheeler, Mark (May 1996). "The World\'s Tallest Building". Popular Mechanics . Retrieved 29 March 2012. * ^ Emery, Garry (2002) "Outside Inside Out: Inside Outside in" Images Publishing, ISBN 1876907304 , 9781876907303 * ^ Sheela Chandran (25 August 2005). "Documentary on the Petronas Twin Towers". The Star (Malaysia). Retrieved 2 December 2010. * ^ de Ledesma, Charles; Lewis, Mark; Savage, Pauline (2003). Rough guide to Malaysia, Singapore London; Delphi: Rough Guides. p. 132. ISBN 1-84353-094-5 . CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link ) * ^ Frankham, Steve (2008). Malaysia
Malaysia
and Singapore. Bath: Footprint Travel Guides. p. 68. ISBN 978-1-906098-11-7 . * ^ Moskal, Greg (2004). Modern Buildings: Identifying Bilateral and Rotational Symmetry.i Rosen Classroom. p. 26. * ^ Chang, Fu-Kuo (2005). Structural health monitoring, 2005: advancements and challenges for implementation. Lancaster, PA: DEStech Publications. p. 270. ISBN 1-932078-51-7 . * ^ "The Petronas
Petronas
Towers Skybridge". The Petronas
Petronas
Towers. 25 October 2010. Retrieved 2 December 2010. * ^ Rowthorn, Chris; Cohen, Muhammad; Williams, China (2008). Lonely Planet Borneo. Lonely Planet. p. 71. * ^ Wood, A.; Chow, W. K.; McGrail, D. (2005). "The Skybridge
Skybridge
as an Evacuation Option for Tall Buildings for Highrise Cities in the Far East". Journal of Applied Fire Science. 13 (2): 113–124. doi :10.2190/1417-hh0k-1w74-170r . * ^ World\'s Tallest Towers in Malaysia
Malaysia
Evacuated After Threats. People\'s Daily . 12 September 2001. * ^ A B "