A pest is a plant or animal detrimental to humans or human concerns including crops, livestock, and forestry. The term is also used of organisms that cause a nuisance, such as in the home. An older usage is of a deadly epidemic disease, specifically plague. In its broadest sense, a pest is a competitor of humanity.
1 Concept 2 By taxon
2.1 Vertebrate pests
2.1.1 Birds 2.1.2 Amphibians 2.1.3 Mammals
2.2.1 Insects and arachnids
184.108.40.206 Agricultural and domestic arthropods 220.127.116.11 Tree and forest pests 18.104.22.168 Ectoparasites
2.3 Plant diseases 2.4 Weeds
3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External links
Concept A pest is any living organism, whether animal, plant or fungus, which is invasive or troublesome to plants or animals, human or human concerns, livestock, or human structures. It is a loose concept, as an organism can be a pest in one setting but beneficial, domesticated or acceptable in another.
Pests often occur in high densities, making the damage they do even more detrimental. Termite
Animals are called pests when they cause damage to agriculture by
feeding on crops or parasitising livestock, such as codling moth on
apples, or boll weevil on cotton. An animal could also be a pest when
it causes damage to a wild ecosystem or carries germs within human
habitats. Examples of these include those organisms which vector human
disease, such as rats and fleas which carry the plague disease,
mosquitoes which vector malaria, and ticks which carry Lyme disease.
A species can be a pest in one setting but beneficial or domesticated
in another (for example, European rabbits introduced to Australia
caused ecological damage beyond the scale they inflicted in their
natural habitat). Many weeds are also seen as useful under certain
conditions, for instance
Pigeons and seagulls eat human food and carry disease
Many birds, such as crows, eat crops
Canada goose; widely regarded as pests in the United States (see
Canada goose#Relationship with humans), and in New Zealand (see Canada
geese in New Zealand).
Woodpeckers peck at rooftops and also nest in them. They cause
structural damage to houses.
The common myna was declared by
IUCN Species Survival Commission
Bullfrogs cause problems to the ecosystems. Cane toads have had serious negative effects on many ecosystems to which they have been introduced, especially in Australia. The toad's skin is toxic, killing many wild and domestic animals that attempt to eat it.
Mice, rats, and other small rodents damage crops and stored produce
Rabbits decimate native plant populations in Australia, where they are
an introduced species.
Foxes, opossums, raccoons, and bears eat waste
Beavers destroy trees
Gophers, groundhogs, and moles destroy lawns
Feral cats and feral dogs eat human food and carry disease
Caterpillars cause crop damage
Termites cause structural damage
Examples of agricultural and horticultural insect pests include:
aphids and other Hemipteran pests, thrips, Lepidopteran, Dipteran, and Coleopteran larvae, spider mites, locusts and crickets.
Ants, cockroaches, flies and wasps Termites, woodworm and wood ants cause structural damage Bookworms, silverfish, carpet beetles and clothes moths cause non-structural damage
Tree and forest pests Further information: Forest integrated pest management and Christmas tree pests and weeds
Gypsy moths attack hardwood trees (see Gypsy moths in the United States)
Root-knot nematode Soybean cyst nematode Potato cyst nematode
Further information: Plant disease, Lists of plant diseases, and Plant
Invasive plant species
Home stored product entomology
List of common household pests
List of parasites of humans
Nuisance wildlife management
^ Merriam-Webster dictionary, accessed 22 August 2012.
^ "Pest vermin". Britannica. Retrieved 24 August 2016.
^ FAO Corporate Document Repository: Guidelines for Phytosanitary
Certificates. Retrieved 1 August 2012
^ a b c d e f g h i j k Speiser B. (2002). "Chapter 219.
Molluscicides". 506–508. doi:10.1201/NOE0824706326.ch219 PDF In:
Pimentel D. (ed.) (2002). Encyclopedia of Pest Management.
^ Lowe S., Browne M., Boudjelas S. and de Poorter M. (2000). 100 of
the World’s Worst Invasive Alien Species. A selection from the
Global Invasive Species Database. The Invasive Species Specialist
Group (ISSG), a specialist group of the Species Survival Commission
(SSC) of the World Conservation Union (IUCN), Auckland.
^ "ABC Wildwatch". Abc.net.au. Retrieved 2012-08-07.
^ Greenhall, Arthur M. 1961. Bats in Agriculture. A Ministry of
Burch, John B.. 1960. Some snails and slugs of quarantine significance to the United States. U.S. Dept. Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service 82(1): 73 pp Hockings, F.D, 2014,"Pests, Diseases and Beneficials", CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne, ISBN 9781486300211
Media related to Pest insects at Wikimedia Commons Media related to Weeds (plants) at Wikimedia Commons Pests travel guide from Wikivoyage UF/IFAS Pest Alert Web site - arthropods, nematodes and plant diseases affecting humans, livestock/pets, agricultural and ornamental plants.
v t e
Insects in culture
Aspects of insects in culture
In the arts
Insects in art
Beetlewing John Hampson
Insects in film Insects in literature Insects in music
List of insect-inspired songs
Insects on stamps
Fishing bait Fly fishing Artificial fly Fly tying Maggot Mayfly Mealworm
Maggot Spanish fly
Bee Butterfly Cicada Dragonfly Praying mantis Scarab
Entomophagy (as food)
Ant Cicada Cricket Grasshopper Termite
Bamboo worm Darkling beetle Mealworm Mopani worm Rhinoceros beetle Silkworm Waxworm Witchetty grub
Encarsia formosa Ichneumon wasp Ladybird
Beetles Flies Lepidoptera
Chitin Kermes Sericulture
Aphid Boll weevil Colorado potato beetle Cottony cushion scale Japanese beetle Locust Phylloxera Western corn rootworm
Botfly Horn fly Horse-fly Screwworm fly Tsetse fly Warble fly
Deathwatch beetle Furniture beetle House longhorn beetle Termite Woodworm
Home-stored product entomology Clothes moth Cockroach Housefly
Living things in culture
Arthropods Birds Fish Fungi Mammals Microbes Molluscs Reptiles Plants
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