PERVEZ MUSHARRAF (Urdu : پرویز مشرف Parvez Muśarraf;
born 11 August 1943) is a
Pakistani politician and a retired four-star
army general who was the tenth
President of Pakistan from 2001 until
tendering resignation, to avoid impeachment , in 2008.
British Raj , Musharraf was raised in Karachi
Istanbul , he went on to study math at the Forman Christian
Lahore and would later study at the Royal College of
Defence Studies in 1991. Musharraf entered the
Academy in 1961 and was commissioned in the
Pakistan Army in 1964 and
went on to play an active role in the Afghan civil war . Musharraf
saw action in the Indo-
Pakistani War of 1965 as a second lieutenant ,
by the 1980s, Musharraf was commanding an artillery brigade . In the
1990s, he was promoted to major general and assigned an infantry
division, and later commanded the
Special Services Group . Later he
served as deputy military secretary and the director general of
military operation .
Musharraf rose to national prominence when he was elevated to the
four-star general , appointed by then-Prime Minister Sharif in October
1998, making Musharraf the head of the armed forces. He led the Kargil
infiltration that brought
Pakistan to a full-fledged war in
1999. After months of contentious relations with Prime Minister
Sharif , Sharif unsuccessfully attempted to remove Musharraf from the
army's leadership. In retaliation, the army staged a coup d\'état in
1999 which allowed Musharraf to take-over
Pakistan and subsequently
placed Prime Minister Sharif under a strict house-arrest before moving
towards a trial against Sharif in Adiala Prison .
Musharraf became the head of the military government while remaining
the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs in 2001 and the Chief of the Army
Staff . Although, Musharraf relinquished the position of chairman of
joint chiefs in 2001, he remained the Army Chief until retiring from
the army in 2007. He became the
President of Pakistan on 20 June
2001, only to win a controversial referendum on May 1, 2002 which
awarded him five years of presidency. In October the same year, he
oversaw a general election in 2002, which saw the victory of the army
During his presidency, he advocated for a third way for varying
synthesis of conservatism and left wing ideas, he appointed Shaukat
Aziz in place of Sharif and directed polices against terrorism ,
becoming a key player in the American -led war on terror . Over the
next several years, Musharraf survived a number of assassination
attempts. He reinstated the constitution in 2002, though it was
heavily amended with the Legal Framework Order . He also saw a process
of social liberalism under his enlightened moderation program , while
also promoting economic liberalisation and banning trade unions . He
oversaw a rise of in overall gross domestic product at around 50%,
however domestic savings declined and saw a rapid rise in economic
inequality . More importantly, Musharraf has been accused of human
Shaukat Aziz departed as Prime Minister , and after approving the
suspension of the judicature branch in 2007, Musharraf's position was
dramatically weakened in early 2008. Tendering his resignation in a
threat to face potential impeachment movement led by the ruling
Pakistan People\'s Party in 2008, Musharraf moved to
self-imposed exile after returning to
Pakistan to participate in the
general elections held in 2013. While absent from Pakistan, Musharraf
engaged in legal battles after the country's high courts issued
warrants for him and Aziz for their alleged involvement in the
assassinations of Benazir and Bugti . Upon his return, Musharraf was
disqualified from taking part in the elections by High Court judges in
April 2013. On 31 March 2014, Musharraf was booked and charged with
high treason for implementing emergency rule and suspending the
constitution in 2007. His legacy is mixed; his era saw the emergence
of a more assertive middle class, but his disregard for civilian
institutions weakened the state of
* 1 Early life
* 2 Initial military career
* 2.1 Indo-
Pakistani conflicts (1965–1971)
* 2.2 Professorship and military assignments (1972–1990)
* 2.3 Command and staff appointments (1991–1995)
* 3 Four-star appointments (1998–2007)
* 3.1 Chief of army staff and Chairman Joint Chiefs
* 4 Chief Executive
* 4.1 1999 coup
* 4.2 First days
* 4.3 Sharif trial and exile
* 4.4 Constitutional changes
* 4.4.1 2002 general elections
* 5 Presidency
* 5.1 Support for the War on Terror
* 5.2 Relations with
* 5.3 Relations with
* 5.4 Nuclear scandals
* 5.5 Corruption issues
* 5.6 Domestic politics
* 5.7 Women\'s rights
* 5.8 Assassination attempts
* 6 Fall from the presidency
* 6.1 Suspension and reinstatement of the Chief Justice
* 6.2 Lal Masjid siege
* 6.3 Return of
Benazir Bhutto and
* 6.4 Resignation from the Military
* 6.5 2007 presidential elections
* 6.6 2007 state of emergency
* 6.7 2008 general elections
Impeachment movement and resignation
* 7.1 Academia and lectureship
* 7.2 Return to politics and formation of All
Pakistan Muslim League
* 7.3 Legal threats and actions
* 7.4 Views on
Pakistani police commandos
* 7.5 Views on the blasphemy laws in
* 8 Return to
* 8.1 Electoral disqualification
* 8.3 Court arrest orders
* 8.4 Murder cases investigations
* 9 Personal life
* 10 See also
* 11 Notes
* 12 External links
* 12.1 Official
* 12.2 Interviews and statements
* 12.3 Media coverage
Pervez Musharraf was born on 11 August 1943 to an Urdu-speaking
Delhi , British India. His family belonged to the Sayyid
nobility. He is the son of Syed and Zarin Musharraf. His father,
Syed Musharraf, graduated from the
Aligarh Muslim University in
Aligarh , and was a civil servant under the government of British
India . His mother Zarin, born in the early 1920s, graduated from
Lucknow University and worked as an academic.
Musharraf's first childhood home was called 'Neharwali Haveli',
literally 'house by the canal'.
Syed Ahmed Khan 's family lived next
door. Indicative of "the family's western education and social
prominence", the home's title deeds were written entirely in Urdu
except for his father's English signature.
PAKISTAN AND TURKEY
Musharraf and his family left for
Pakistan on one of the last safe
trains in August 1947, a few days before independence . His father
Pakistan Civil Services and began to work for the Pakistani
government ; later, his father joined the Foreign Ministry , taking up
an assignment in
Turkey . In his autobiography In the Line of Fire: A
Memoir , Musharraf elaborates on his first experience with death,
after falling off a mango tree.
Musharraf's family moved to Ankara in 1949, when his father became
part of a diplomatic deputation from
Pakistan to Turkey. He learned
to speak Turkish . He had a dog named Whiskey that gave him a
"lifelong love for dogs". He played sports in his youth. In 1956,
Turkey and returned to
Pakistan in 1957 where he attended
Saint Patrick\'s School in
Karachi and was accepted at the Forman
Christian College University in
Lahore . At Forman, Musharraf
declared his major in mathematics and performed extremely well in his
collegiate mathematics, but later developed an interest in economics .
INITIAL MILITARY CAREER
In 1961, at age of 18, Musharraf entered the prestigious Pakistan
Military Academy at
Kakul . During his college years at PMA and
initial joint military testings, Musharraf shared a room with PQ Mehdi
Abdul Aziz Mirza of Navy (both reached four-star
assignments and served with Musharraf later on) and after giving the
exams and entrance interviews, all three cadets went to watch a
world-acclaimed Urdu film, Savera (lit. Dawn), with his inter-services
and college friends, Musharraf recalls,
In the Line of Fire ,
published in 2006. With his friends, Musharraf passed the
standardise, physical, psychological, and officer-training exams, he
also took discussions involving the socioeconomics issues; all three
were interviewed by joint military officers who were designated as
Commandants. The next day, Musharraf along with PQ Mehdi and Mirza,
reported to PMA and they were selected for their respective training
in their arms of commission.
Finally in 1964, Musharraf graduated with a Bachelor\'s degree in his
class of 29th PMA Long Course together with
Ali Kuli Khan and his
Abdul Aziz Mirza . He was commissioned in the
artillery regiment as second lieutenant and posted near the
Pakistan border. During this time in the artillery regiment,
Musharraf maintained his close friendship and contact with Mirza
through letters and telephones even in difficult times when Mirza,
after joining the Navy
Special Service Group , was stationed in
Pakistan as a military advisor to East
Pakistan Army .
INDO-PAKISTANI CONFLICTS (1965–1971)
Further information: Indo-
Pakistani wars and conflicts
His first battlefield experience was with an artillery regiment in
the intense fighting for
Khemkaran sector in the
Second Kashmir War
Second Kashmir War .
He also participated in the
Sialkot war zones during the
conflict. During the war, Musharraf developed a reputation for
sticking to his post under shellfire. He received the Imtiazi Sanad
medal for gallantry.
Shortly after the end of the War of 1965, he was selected to join the
special force school by recommendation of his commanding officer in
Sialkot. After passing the rigorous exams and physically tough
training, he joined the elite
Special Service Group (SSG) and then
trained together with then-lieutenant
Shahid Karimullah (also a
four-star admiral) for the joint operations . He served in the SSG
from 1966–1972. He was promoted to army captain and to major
during this period. During the 1971 war with India, he was a company
commander of a SSG commando battalion . During the 1971 war, he was
scheduled to depart to East-
Pakistan to join the army-navy joint
military operations, but instead his deployment did not materialize
Indian Army advances towards Southern
PROFESSORSHIP AND MILITARY ASSIGNMENTS (1972–1990)
Musharraf was a lieutenant colonel in 1974; and a colonel in 1978.
As staff officer in the 1980s, he studied political science at NDU,
and then briefly tenured as assistant professor of war studies at the
Command and Staff College
Command and Staff College and then assistant professor of political
science also at the National Defense University . One of his
professors at NDU was general
Jehangir Karamat who served Musharraf's
guidance counselor and instructor who had significant influence on
Musharraf's philosophy and critical thinking. He did not play any
significant role in Pakistan's proxy war in the 1979–89 Soviet
Afghanistan . In 1987, he became a brigade commander of a
new brigade of the SSG near
Siachen Glacier . He was personally
chosen by then-President and Chief of Army Staff general Zia-ul-Haq
for this assignment due to Musharraf's wide experience in mountain and
arctic warfare . In September 1987, an assault was launched under the
command of Musharraf at
Bilafond La before being pushed back. In
1990–91, he studied at the
Royal College of Defense Studies (RCDS)
His course-mate included Major-generals B. S. Malik and Ashok Mehta
of the Indian Army, and
Ali Kuli Khan of
Pakistan Army. In his course
studies, Musharraf performed extremely well as compared to his
classmates, submitted his master's degree thesis, titled "Impact of
Arm Race in the Indo-
Pakistan subcontinent", and earned good remarks.
He submitted his thesis to Commandant General
Antony Walker who
regarded Musharraf as one of his finest students he had seen in his
entire career. At one point, Walker described Musharraf: "A capable,
articulate and extremely personable officer, who made a valuable
impact at RCDS. His country is fortunate to have the services of a man
of his undeniable quality." He graduated with a master's degree from
RCDS and returned to
Pakistan soon after. Upon returning in the
1980s, Musharraf took his interest in populous, emerging rock music
genre , and often listened to rock music after getting off from the
duty. The 1980s, regarded as birth of Pakistan's rock music genre,
Musharraf was reportedly into the popular Western fashion in the
1980s, which was very popular at the government and public circles, in
the country at that time. While in the Army, he earned the nickname
"Cowboy" for his westernized ways and his fashion interest in Western
COMMAND AND STAFF APPOINTMENTS (1991–1995)
Earlier in 1988–89, (as Brigadier) Musharraf proposed the Kargil
infiltration to Prime Minister
Benazir Bhutto but she rebuffed the
plan. In 1991–93, he secured a two-star promotion, elevating him to
the rank of major general and held a command of 40th Army Division as
its GOC , stationed in Okara Military District in Punjab Province .
Major-General Musharraf worked closely with the Chief of
Army Staff as Director-General of
Pakistan Army's Directorate General
for the Military Operations (DGMO). During this time, Musharraf
became close to engineering officer and director-general of ISI
Javed Nasir and had worked with him while directing
Bosnian war . His political philosophy was influenced
Benazir Bhutto who mentored him on various occasions, and
Musharraf generally closed to
Benazir Bhutto on military policy issues
on India. From 1993 to 1995, Musharraf repeatedly visited the United
States as part of the delegation of Benazir Bhutto. It was Maulana
Fazal-ur-Rehman who lobbied for his promotion to Benazir Bhutto, and
subsequently getting the Musharraf's promotion papers approved by
Benazir Bhutto, which eventually led to his appointment in Benazir
Bhutto's key staff. In 1993, Musharraf personally assisted Benazir
Bhutto to have a secret meeting in a
Pakistan Embassy at the
Washington, D.C. with officials from
Mossad and special envoy of
Yitzhak Rabin . It was during these times when
Musharraf build extremely cordial relationships with
Shaukat Aziz who,
at that time, was serving as the executive president of global
financial services of the
After the collapse of the fractious Afghan government, Musharraf
assisted General Babar and the
Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) in
devising a policy of supporting the newly formed
Taliban in the Afghan
civil war against the
Northern Alliance government. On policy issues,
Musharraf befriended senior justice of the Supreme Court of Pakistan
Rafiq Tarar (later president) and held common beliefs with the
His last military field operations posting was in the
of the Kashmir Province in 1995 when
Benazir Bhutto approved the
promotion of Musharraf to three-star rank,
Between 1995 and 1998,
Lieutenant-General Musharraf was the corps
commander (CC-I) of I Strike Corps stationed in Mangla, Mangla
Military District .
FOUR-STAR APPOINTMENTS (1998–2007)
CHIEF OF ARMY STAFF AND CHAIRMAN JOINT CHIEFS
Main article: Resignation of
Jehangir Karamat Musharraf in
four-star army uniform, PA , ca. 2007 .
Nawaz Sharif and general
Jehangir Karamat were
educated, and held common beliefs concerning national security,
problems arose with chairman of the joint chiefs and chief of army
staff General Karamat in October 1998. While addressing the officers
and cadets at the Naval War College , General Karamat stressed the
creation of National Security Council , which would be backed by a
"team of civil-military experts" for devising policies to seek
resolution ongoing problems relating the civil-military issues; also
recommended a "neutral but competent bureaucracy and administration of
at federal level and the establishment of Local governments in four
provinces . This proposal was met with hostility, and led to Nawaz
Sharif's dismissal of General Karamat. In turn, this reduced Nawaz's
mandate in public circles, and led to much criticism from Leader of
Benazir Bhutto .
There were three lieutenant-general officers potentially in line to
succeed General Karamat as four-star rank and chief of army staff.
Ali Kuli Khan , a graduate of PMA and RMA,
Sandhurst , was an extremely capable staff officer and well liked in
public circles, but was seen as close to the former chief of army
staff general (retired) Abdul Vaheed ; and was not promoted. Second
in line was lieutenant-general Khalid Nawaz Khan who was popularly
known for his ruthless leadership in the army; particularly for his
unforgiving attitude to his junior officers.
Khan was known for his opposition and anti-muhajir sentiment, and was
particularly hardline against the
Musharraf was in third-in line, and was well regarded by the general
public and the armed forces. He also had an excellent academic
standing from his college and university studies. Musharraf was
strongly favoured by the Prime Ministers colleagues: a straight
officer with democratic views.
Nisar Ali Khan and Shahbaz Sharif
recommended Musharraf and Prime Minister
Nawaz Sharif personally
promoted Musharraf to the rank of four-star general to replace
After the Kargil incident, Musharraf did not wish to be the Chairman
of the Joint Chiefs: Musharraf favoured the chief of naval staff
Admiral Bokhari to take on this role, and claimed that: "he did not
care" Prime minister Sharif was displeased by this suggestion, due to
the hostile nature of his relationship with the Admiral. Musharraf
further exacerbated his divide with
Nawaz Sharif after recommending
the forced retirement of senior officers close to the Prime minister,
Lieutenant-General Tariq Pervez (or TP), commander of XII
Corps , who was a brother-in-law of a high profile cabinet minister.
According to Musharraf, lieutenant-general TP was an ill-mannered,
foul-mouthed, ill-disciplined officer who caused a great deal of
dissent within the armed forces.
Nawaz Sharif announcement of the
promotion of General Musharraf to chairman joint chiefs caused an
escalation of the tensions with Admiral Bokhari: upon hearing the
news, he launched a strong protest against the Prime minister The next
morning, the Prime minister relieved Admiral Bokhari of his duties.
It was during his time as chairman of the joint chiefs that Musharraf
began to build friendly relations with the
United States Army
establishment, including General
Anthony Zinni ,
USMC , General Tommy
Franks , General
John Abizaid , and
General Colin Powell of the US
Army , all of whom were premier four-star generals in the military
history of the
United States .
Pakistan Army originally conceived the Kargil plan after the
Siachen conflict but the plan was rebuffed repeatedly by senior
civilian and military officials. Musharraf was a leading strategist
behind the Kargil Conflict. From March to May 1999, he ordered the
secret infiltration of Kashmiri forces in the
Kargil district . After
India discovered the infiltration, a fierce Indian offensive nearly
led to a full-scale war. However, Sharif withdrew support of the
insurgents in the border conflict in July because of heightened
international pressure. Sharif's decision antagonized the Pakistan
Army and rumors of a possible coup began emerging soon afterward.
Sharif and Musharraf dispute on who was responsible for the Kargil
conflict and Pakistan's withdrawal.
This strategic operation met with great hostility in the public
circles and wide scale disapproval in the media who roundly criticised
this operation. Musharraf had severe confrontation and became
involved in serious altercations with his senior officers, chief of
naval staff Admiral
Fasih Bokhari , chief of air staff, air chief
marshal PQ Mehdi and senior lieutenant-general
Ali Kuli Khan .
Admiral Bokhari ultimately demanded a full-fledged joint-service court
martial against General Musharraf, while on the other hand General
Kuli Khan lambasted the war as "a disaster bigger than the
Pakistan tragedy" , adding that the plan was "flawed in terms of
its conception, tactical planning and execution" that ended in
"sacrificing so many soldiers." Problems with his life long friend,
chief of air staff air chief marshal Pervez Mehdi also arose when air
chief refrained to participate or authorise any air strike to support
the elements of army operations in the Kargil region.
During the last meeting with the Prime minister, Musharraf faced a
grave criticism on results produced by Kargil infiltration by the
principle military intelligence (MI) director lieutenant-general
Jamshed Gulzar Kiani who maintained in the meeting: "(...) whatever
has been written there is against logic. If you catch your enemy by
the jugular vein he would react with full force.... If you cut enemy
supply lines, the only option for him will be to ensure supplies by
air... (sic).. at that situation the
Indian Army was unlikely to
confront and it had to come up to the occasion. It is against wisdom
that you dictate to the enemy to keep the war limited to a certain
Nawaz Sharif has maintained that the Operation was conducted without
his knowledge. However, details of the briefing he got from the
military before and after the Kargil operation have become public.
Before the operation, between January and March, Sharif was briefed
about the operation in three separate meetings. In January, the army
briefed him about the Indian troop movement along the LOC in Skardu on
29 January 1999, on 5 February at Kel, on 12 March at the GHQ and
finally on 17 May at the ISI headquarters. During the end of the June
DCC meeting, a tense Sharif turned to the army chief and said "you
should have told me earlier", Musharraf pulled out his notebook and
repeated the dates and contents of around seven briefings he had given
him since beginning of January.
Main article: 1999
Pakistani coup d\'état
Military officials from Musharraf's Joint Staff Headquarters (JS HQ)
met with regional corps commanders three times in late September in
anticipation of a possible coup. To quieten rumours of a fallout
between Musharraf and Sharif, Sharif officially certified Musharraf's
remaining two years of his term on 30 September. President Gen.
Pervez Musharraf speaks during a press conference at the
Force base in Chaklala Pakistan.
Musharraf had left for a weekend trip to take part in
Sri Lanka 's
Army 's 50th-anniversary celebrations. When
Pervez Musharraf was
returning from an official visit to Colombo his flight was denied
landing permissions to
Karachi International Airport after orders were
issued from the Prime Minister's office. Upon hearing the
Nawaz Sharif , replacing
Pervez Musharraf by Khwaja
Ziauddin , the third replacement of the top military commander of the
country in less than two years, local military commanders began to
mobilize troops towards
Islamabad from nearby
Rawalpindi . The
military placed Sharif under house arrest, but in a last-ditch effort
Sharif privately ordered
Karachi air traffic controllers to redirect
Musharraf's flight to
India . The plan failed after soldiers in
Karachi surrounded the airport control tower . At 2:50 am on 13
October, Musharraf addressed the nation with a recorded message.
Musharraf met with President
Rafiq Tarar on 13 October to deliberate
on legitimising the coup. On 15 October, Musharraf ended emerging
hopes of a quick transition to democracy after he declared a state of
emergency, suspended the Constitution, and assumed power as Chief
Executive. He also quickly purged the government of political
enemies, notably Ziauddin and national airline chief Shahid Khaqan
Abbassi . On 17 October, he gave his second national address and
established a seven-member military-civilian council to govern the
country. He named three retired military officers and a judge as
provincial administrators on 21 October. Ultimately, Musharraf
assumed executive powers but did not obtain the office of Prime
minister. The Prime minister secretariat (official residence of Prime
minister of Pakistan) was closed by the military police and the staff
was deposed by Musharraf immediately.
There were no organised protests within the country to the coup.
The coup was widely criticized by the international community.
Pakistan was suspended from the Commonwealth of Nations
. Sharif was put under house arrest and later exiled to Saudi Arabia
on his personal request and under a contract.
The senior military appointments in the inter-services were extremely
important and crucial for Musharraf to keep the legitimacy and the
support for his coup in the joint inter-services. Starting with the
PAF , Musharraf pressured President Tarar to appoint most-junior air
marshal to four-star rank , particularly someone with Musharraf had
experienced working during the inter-services operations . Once
Air-chief Marshal Pervez Kureshi was retired, the most junior air
marshal Muschaf Mir (who worked with Musharraf in 1996 to assist ISI
Taliban matters) was appointed to four-star rank as well as
elevated as Chief of Air Staff . There were two extremely important
military appointments made by Musharraf in the Navy . Although Admiral
Aziz Mirza (a lifelong friend of Musharraf, he shared a dorm with the
admiral in the 1960s and they graduated together from the academy) was
appointed by Prime minister Nawaz Sharif, Mirza remained extremely
supportive of Musharraf's coup and was also a close friend of
Musharraf since 1971 when both participated in a joint operation
Indian Army . After Mirza's retirement, Musharraf
Shahid Karimullah , with whom Musharraf was trained
together in special forces schools in the 1960s, to four-star rank
and chief of naval staff.
Musharraf's first foreign visit was to
Saudi Arabia on 26 October
where he met with King Fahd . After meeting senior Saudi royals, the
next day he went to
Medina and performed
Mecca . On 28
October, he went to
United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates before returning home.
By the end of October, Musharraf appointed many technocrats and
bureaucrats in his Cabinet, including former
Shaukat Aziz as Finance Minister and Abdul Sattar as Foreign Minister
. In early November, he released details of his assets to the
In late December 1999, Musharraf dealt with his first international
India accused Pakistan's involvement in the Indian
Airlines Flight 814 hijacking. Though
United States President Bill
Clinton pressured Musharraf to ban the alleged group behind the
Pakistani officials refused
because of fears of reprisal from political parties such as
In March 2000, Musharraf banned political rallies. In a television
interview given in 2001, Musharraf openly spoke about the negative
role of a few high-ranking officers in the
Pakistan Armed Forces in
state\'s affairs . Musharraf labelled many of his senior professors
at NDU as "pseudo-intellectuals", including the NDU 's notable
professors, General Aslam Beg and
Jehangir Karamat under whom
Musharraf studied and served well.
SHARIF TRIAL AND EXILE
The Military Police held former prime minister Sharif under house
arrest at a government guesthouse and opened his
Lahore home to the
public in late October 1999. He was formally indicted in November on
charges of hijacking, kidnapping, attempted murder, and treason for
preventing Musharraf's flight from landing at
Karachi airport on the
day of the coup. His trial began in early March 2000 in an
anti-terrorism court, which is designed for speedy trials. He
testified Musharraf began preparations of a coup after the Kargil
conflict. Sharif was placed in
Adiala Jail , infamous for hosting
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto's trial, and his leading defence lawyer, Iqbal
Raad, was shot dead in
Karachi in mid-March. Sharif's defense team
blamed the military for intentionally providing their lawyers with
inadequate protection. The court proceedings were widely accused of
being a show trial . Sources from
Pakistan claimed that Musharraf
and his military government's officers were in full mood to exercise
tough conditions on Sharif, and intended to send Navaz Sharif to
gallows to face similar fate as
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto in 1979. It was
the pressure on Musharraf exerted by
Saudi Arabia and the United
States to exile Sharif after it became authenticated that the court is
near to place her verdict on Navaz Sharif on his charges, and the
court will sentenced Sharif to death. Sharif signed an agreement with
Musharraf and his military government and his family was exiled to
Saudi Arabia in December 2000.
See also: Seventeenth Amendment to the Constitution of
Shortly after Musharraf's takeover, Musharraf issued Oath of Judges
Order No. 2000 , which required judges to take a fresh oath of office
swearing allegiance to the military. On 12 May 2000, the Supreme Court
asked Musharraf to hold national elections by 12 October 2002. The
Rafiq Tarar remained in office until his voluntary
resignation in June 2001. After his resignation, Musharraf formally
appointed himself as President on 20 June 2001. In August 2002, he
issued the Legal Framework Order No. 2002 , which added numerous
amendments to the Constitution .
2002 General Elections
Main articles: Government of Prime minister
Shaukat Aziz (2004-2007)
Pakistani general elections, 2002
Musharraf called for nationwide political elections in the country
after accepting the ruling of the Supreme Court of
Musharraf was the first military president to accept the rulings of
the Supreme Court and holding free and fair elections in 2002 in his
vision to return the democracy in the country. In October 2002,
Pakistan held general elections , which the pro-Musharraf
wide margins, although it had failed to gain absolute majority. The
PML-Q formed government with far-right religious parties coalition,
the MMA and the liberals
MQM ; the coalition legitimised Musharraf's
After elections, the
Zafarullah Khan Jamali
Zafarullah Khan Jamali for the
office of Prime minister, which Musharraf also approved. After first
session at the Parliament , Musharraf voluntarily transferred the
powers of chief executive to Prime minister of
Khan Jamali . Musharraf succeeded to pass the XVII amendment , which
grants powers to dissolve the parliament, with approval required from
the Supreme Court. Within two years, Jamali proved to be an
ineffective prime minister to forcefully implement his policies in the
country and mounted problems with elite business class of Pakistan.
Musharraf accepted the resignation of Jamali and asked his close
Chaudhry Shujaat Hussain to appoint a new prime minister in
place. Hussain nominated Finance minister
Shaukat Aziz , who had been
impressive due to his performance as finance minister in 1999.
Musharraf regarded Aziz as his right hand and preferable choice for
the office of Prime minister. With Aziz appointed as Prime minister,
Musharraf transferred all executive powers to Aziz as he trusted
Shaukat Aziz. Aziz proved to be extremely capable while running the
government and under Aziz's government economic growth reached to a
maximum level, which further stabilised Musharraf's presidency. Aziz
swiftly, quietly and more quickly undermined the elements seeking to
undermine Musharraf, which became a factor that Musharraf had trusted
Aziz. During 2004–07, Aziz approved many projects that did not
required permission of Musharraf.
In 2010, all constitutionals changes carried out by Musharraf and
Aziz's policies were reverted by the 18th Amendment, and put the
country back to its initial position and gave powers to Prime minister
to its actual constitutional status.
The President stood clapping his hands right next to us as we sang
Azadi and Jazba , and moved to the beat with us. It was such a relief
to "have a coolest leader" in the office...
— Junoon , 2001,
The presidency of
Pervez Musharraf helped bring the liberal forces to
the national level and into prominence, for the first time in the
Pakistan . He granted national amnesty to the political
workers of the liberal parties like
Muttahida Qaumi Movement and
Pakistan Muslim League (Q) , and supported
MQM in becoming a central
player in the government . Musharraf disbanded the cultural policies
of the previous Prime Minister
Nawaz Sharif , and quickly adopted
Benazir Bhutto 's cultural policies after disbanding Indian channels
in the country.
His cultural policies liberalized Pakistan's media , and he issued
many television licenses to the private-sector to open television
centers and media houses. The television dramas , film industry ,
theatre , music and literature activities, were personally encouraged
by Pervez Musharraf. Under his policies, the rock music bands gained
a lot appraisal in the country and many concerts in the country were
held each week. His cultural policies, the film, theatre, rock and
folk music, and television programmes were extremely devoted to and
promoted the national spirit of the country. In 2001, Musharraf got
on stage with the rock music band , Junoon , and sang national song
with the band.
On political fronts, Mushrraf faced fierce opposition from the
ultraconservative alliance, the MMA , led by clergyman Maulana Noorani
. In Pakistan, Maulana Noorani was remembered as a mystic religious
leader and had preached spiritual aspects of
Islam in all over the
world as part of the
World Islamic Mission . Although, the political
deadlock posed by Maulana Noorani was neutralized after Noorani 's
death, Mushrraf yet had to face the opposition from ARD led by Benazir
Bhutto of the PPP .
SUPPORT FOR THE WAR ON TERROR
Main article: Pakistan\'s role in the War on Terror
Musharraf allied with the
United States against the Afghan mujahideen
Afghanistan after the
September 11 attacks
September 11 attacks . The Afghan mujahideen
, al-Qaeda operatives, and other fundamentalist groups had been long
consolidated and endorsed by the U.S. -backed President General
Zia-ul-Haq , and the initial financial funding and consolidation was
also endorsed by the
United States against the
Soviet Union in the
A few months after the
September 11 attacks
September 11 attacks , Musharraf gave a speech
against extremism. He instituted prohibitions on foreign students'
access to studying
Islam within Pakistan, an effort that began as an
outright ban but was later reduced to restrictions on obtaining visas
. On 18 September 2005, Musharraf made a speech before a broad based
audience of Jewish leadership, sponsored by the American Jewish
Congress 's Council for World Jewry, in
New York City
New York City . In the speech,
he denounced Islamic ideology and opened the door to relationships
between his secular ideology and
Israel . He was widely criticised by
Middle Eastern leaders, but was met with some praise among Jewish
RELATIONS WITH INDIA
2001 Gujarat earthquake
2001 Gujarat earthquake , Musharraf expressed his
sympathies to Indian Prime Minister
Atal Bihari Vajpayee
Atal Bihari Vajpayee and sent a
plane load of relief supplies to India.
In the 2004, Musharraf began a series of talks with
India to resolve
Kashmir dispute .
RELATIONS WITH SAUDI ARABIA
In 2006, King Abdullah visited
Pakistan for the first time as King.
Musharraf honoured King Abdullah with the Nishan-e-
Musharraf received the King Abdul-Aziz Medallion in 2007.
Since September 2001 until his resignation in 2007 from the military,
his presidency suffered more highly controversial atomic scandals than
any other government in the history of the country. These scandals
badly affected his authoritative legitimacy in the country and in the
international community. In October 2001, Musharraf authorised a
sting operation led by FIA to arrest two physicists Sultan Bashiruddin
Chaudhry Abdul Majeed , due to their supposed connection
Taliban after they secretly visited
Taliban government led
Afghanistan in 2000. The local
Pakistani media widely circulated the
reports that "Mahmood had a meeting with
Osama bin Laden where Bin
Laden had shown the interests of building a radiological weapon ."
Later, it was revealed that neither scientist was able to build such
designs of the bomb and had lacked scientific knowledge of such
weapons. The credibility of these two scientists were put in great
doubts about their role in country's atomic bomb program. In December
2001, he authorized the security hearings of these two scientists and
were taken into the custody of the JAG Branch (JAG) where the security
hearings continued until early 2002.
Another widely controversial scandal during Musharraf's presidency
arose as a consequence of the disclosure of atomic proliferation by
Abdul Qadeer Khan . Earlier on 27 February 2001, Musharraf spoke
Abdul Qadeer Khan in a farewell state dinner in Islamabad.
Personally approving the appointment Science Advisor to the Government
to Abdul Qadeer Khan, also in 2001. In 2004, Musharraf relieved Qadeer
Khan from his post and initially denied knowledge of government 's and
the armed force\'s role in nuclear proliferation, despite Qadeer Khan
urging that Musharraf was the "Big Boss" of the proliferation ring.
Following this, Musharraf authorized a national security hearings of
Qadeer Khan, which continued until his resignation from the army in
2007. According to Zahid Malik, Musharraf and the military
establishment at that time, were exercised rough actions against
Qadeer Khan to prove the loyalty of
Pakistan to the
United States and
Western world . US president George W. Bush and his counterpart
Pervez Musharraf address the media in Cross Hall.
The investigations back fired on Musharraf and a wide scale public
opinion turned against him soon after. The massive and populist ARD
movement , containing the major political parties especially the
rivals PML and the PPP , used that issue politically to malign
Musharraf and to bring down his presidency alone.
At the public circles, the debriefings of
Abdul Qadeer Khan had
severely damaged Musharraf's own public image and his political
prestige in the country. Musharraf faced bitter domestic criticism
for singularly attempting to vilify Qadeer Khan, specifically from
Benazir Bhutto who issued harassing statements
towards Musharraf's role. In an interview to Daily Times , Benazir
Bhutto maintained that
Abdul Qadeer Khan was made "scapegoat " in this
nuclear proliferation scandal and she didn't "believe that such a big
scandal could have taken place under the nose of General Musharraf".
The long standing ally of Musharraf, the
MQM , gave bitter and a
public acrimonious criticism to Musharraf over his handling of Qadeer
Khan. The ARD movement and the political parties further politicized
this issue after tapping a public anger and mass demonstration all
over the country against Musharraf. The credibility of the United
States was also badly damaged over this issue; the United States
refrained itself from pressuring Musharraf to take further actions
against Qadeer Khan due to their strategic calculations. While Qadeer
Khan remained insanely popular in the country, on the other hand,
Musharraf could not sustained to this political pressure and his
presidency was further weakened after being harassed by Benazir Bhutto
over this issue. In a quick move, Musharraf quickly pardoned Qadeer
Khan in exchange for cooperation and issue confinement orders against
Khan that limited Khan's movement. Musharraf wasted no time to hand
over the case of
Abdul Qadeer Khan into the hands of Prime minister
Aziz who had been supportive towards Qadeer Khan and spoke highly of
him in public in 2007; personally, "thanking" Qadeer Khan, and
quoting: "The services of Dr. Qadeer Khan are unforgettable for the
On 4 July 2008, in an interview, Qadeer Khan laid the blame on
President Musharraf and later on
Benazir Bhutto for transferring the
technology, claiming that Musharraf was aware of all the deals and he
was the "Big Boss" for those deals.
Abdul Qadeer Khan said that,
"Musharraf gave centrifuges to North Korea in a 2000 shipment
supervised by the armed forces. The equipment was sent in a North
Korean plane loaded under the supervision of
officials." Nuclear weapons expert
David Albright of the ISIS agrees
that Qadeer Khan's activities were government-sanctioned. After
Musharraf's resignation, Qadeer Khan was finally released from house
arrest by the executive order of the Supreme Court of
Pakistan . After
Musharraf departed from the country, the successive Chairman of the
Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee General Tärik Majid terminated all
further debriefings of Abdul Qadeer Khan. A complicating factor is
that, few believed that Qadeer Khan acted alone and the affair risks
gravely damaging the Armed Forces, which oversaw and controlled the
nuclear weapons development and of which Musharraf was Chairman of the
Joint Chiefs of Staff, until his resignation from military service on
28 November 2007.
When Musharraf came to power in 1999, he promised that the corruption
in the government bureaucracy would be cleaned up. However, some
claimed that the level of corruption did not diminish throughout
In December 2003, Musharraf made a deal with MMA , a six-member
coalition of far-right Islamic parties, agreeing to leave the army by
31 December 2004. With that party's support, pro-Musharraf legislators
were able to muster the two-thirds supermajority required to pass the
Seventeenth Amendment , which retroactively legalised Musharraf's 1999
coup and many of his decrees. In late 2004, Musharraf went back on his
agreement with the MMA and pro-Musharraf legislators in the Parliament
passed a bill allowing Musharraf to keep both offices. Constitution
Article 63 clause (1) paragraph (d), read with proviso to Article 41
clause (7) paragraph (b), allows the President to hold dual office.
On 1 January 2004, Musharraf had won a confidence vote in the
Electoral College of
Pakistan , consisting of both houses of
Parliament and the four provincial assemblies. Musharraf received 658
out of 1170 votes, a 56% majority, but many opposition and Islamic
members of parliament walked out to protest the vote. As a result of
this vote, his term was extended to 2007.
Zafarullah Khan Jamali
Zafarullah Khan Jamali resigned on 26 June 2004, after
losing the support of the Musharraf's party,
PML(Q) . His resignation
was at least partially due to his public differences with the party
Chaudhry Shujaat Hussain . This was rumored to have happened
at Musharraf's command. Jamali had been appointed with the support of
Musharraf's and the pro-Musharraf PML(Q). Most
formerly belonged to the
Pakistan Muslim League party led by Sharif,
and most ministers of the cabinet were formerly senior members of
other parties, joining the
PML(Q) after the elections upon being
offered positions. Musharraf nominated
Shaukat Aziz , the minister for
finance and a former employee of
Citibank and head of Citibank
Private Banking as the new prime minister.
President Musharraf is greeted by President Bush in Washington
in September 2006.
The National Assembly voted in favour of the "Women\'s Protection
Bill " on 15 November 2006 and the Senate approved it on 23 November
2006. President General
Pervez Musharraf signed into law the "Women's
Protection Bill", on 1 December 2006. The bill places rape laws under
the penal code and allegedly does away with harsh conditions that
previously required victims to produce four male witnesses and exposed
the victims to prosecution for adultery, if they were unable to prove
the crime. However, the Women's Protection bill has been criticised
heavily by many for paying continued lip service and failing to
address the actual problem by its roots: repealing the Hudood
Ordinance. In this context, Musharraf has also been criticized by
women and human rights activists for not following up his words by
action. The Human Rights Commission of
Pakistan (HRCP) said that
Women's Protection Bill is a farcical attempt at making
Hudood Ordinances palatable" outlining the issues of the bill and the
continued impact on women.
His government increased reserved seats for women in assemblies, to
increase women's representation and make their presence more
effective. Compared with 1988 seats in the National Assembly were
increased from 20 to 60. In provincial assemblies 128 seats were
reserved for women. This situation has brought out increase
participation of women for 1988 and 2008 elections.
In March 2005, a couple of months after the rape of a Pakistani
physician, Dr. Shazia Khalid, working on a government gas plant in the
remote Balochistan province, Musharraf was criticised for pronouncing,
Captain Hammad, a fellow military man and the accused in the case,
innocent before the judicial inquiry was complete. Following the
rape, riots erupted in the local Bugti clan of the province, where the
rape took place. They saw a rape in their heartland as being a breach
of their code of honour and attacked the gas plant. In an
uncompromising response Musharraf sent tanks, helicopters and an extra
4,500 soldiers to guard the installation. If the tribesmen failed to
stop shooting, he warned on television, "they will not know what hit
them." Shazia was later forced and threatened by the government to
leave the country.
In an interview to
The Washington Post
The Washington Post in September 2005 Musharraf
Pakistani women, who were the victims of rape, treated rape
as a "moneymaking concern" and were only interested in the publicity
in order to make money and get a Canadian visa. He subsequently denied
making these comments, but
The Washington Post
The Washington Post made available an audio
recording of the interview, in which Musharraf could be heard making
the quoted remarks. Musharraf also denied Mukhtaran Mai, a Pakistani
rape victim, the right to travel abroad, until pressured by US State
Department. The remarks made by Musharraf sparked outrage and
protests both internationally and in
Pakistan by various groups i.e.
women groups, activists. In a rally, held close to the presidential
palace and Pakistan's parliament, hundreds of women demonstrated in
Pakistan demanding Musharraf apologise for the controversial remarks
about female rape victims.
In 2000 Kamran Atif, an alleged member of Harkat-ul Mujahideen
al-Alami , tried to assassinate Musharraf. Atif was sentenced to death
in 2006 by an Anti
Terrorism Court . On 14 December 2003, Musharraf
survived an assassination attempt when a powerful bomb went off
minutes after his highly guarded convoy crossed a bridge in Rawalpindi
. It was the third such attempt during his four-year rule. On 25
December 2003, two suicide bombers tried to assassinate Musharraf, but
their car bombs failed to kill him; 16 others died instead. Musharraf
escaped with only a cracked windshield on his car.
Amjad Farooqi was
an alleged mastermind behind these attempts, and was killed by
Pakistani forces in 2004 after an extensive manhunt.
On 6 July 2007, there was another attempted assassination, when an
unknown group fired a 7.62 submachine gun at Musharraf's plane as it
took off from a runway in
Rawalpindi . Security also recovered 2
anti-aircraft guns , from which no shots had been fired. On 17 July
Pakistani police detained 39 people in relation to the attempted
assassination of Musharraf. The suspects were detained at an
undisclosed location by a joint team of Punjab Police , the Federal
Investigation Agency and other
Pakistani intelligence agencies.
On 8 October 2007, a military helicopter escorting President
Musharraf, on his visit to the earthquake-affected areas on its second
anniversary , crashed near
Muzaffarabad , killing four people,
including a brigadier. The Puma helicopter crashed at Majohi near
Garhi Dupatta in
Azad Kashmir at 11:15 am due to technical fault.
Those killed included Brigadier Zahoor Ahmed, Naik Ajmal, Sepoy Rashid
and PTV cameraman Muhammad Farooq, while President's Media Advisor Maj
Gen (R) Rashid Qureshi sustained injuries. Twelve people were on board
FALL FROM THE PRESIDENCY
By August 2007, polls showed 64 percent of Pakistanis did not want
another Musharraf term. Controversies involving the atomic issues ,
Lal Masjid incident , unpopular operation in West , suspension of
famed Chief Justice , and widely circulated criticisms from rivals,
Benazir Bhutto and
Nawaz Sharif , had brutalized the personal image of
Musharraf in public and political circles. More importantly, with
Shaukat Aziz departing from the office of Prime Minister, Musharraf
could not have sustained his presidency any longer and dramatically
fell from the presidency within a matter of eight months, after
popular and mass public movements successfully called for his
impeachment for the actions taken during his presidency.
SUSPENSION AND REINSTATEMENT OF THE CHIEF JUSTICE
Suspension of Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry
On 9 March 2007, Musharraf suspended Chief Justice Iftikhar Muhammad
Chaudhry and pressed corruption charges against him. He replaced him
with ally Acting Chief Justice Javed Iqbal.
Musharraf's moves sparked protests among
Pakistani lawyers. On 12
March 2007, lawyers started a campaign called Judicial Activism across
Pakistan and began boycotting all court procedures in protest against
the suspension. In
Islamabad , as well as other cities such as Lahore
Karachi , and
Quetta hundreds of lawyers dressed in black suits
attended rallies, condemning the suspension as unconstitutional.
Slowly the expressions of support for the ousted Chief Justice
gathered momentum and by May, protesters and opposition parties took
out huge rallies against Musharraf and his tenure as army chief was
also challenged in the courts.
LAL MASJID SIEGE
Siege of Lal Masjid
Lal Masjid had a religious school for women and the Jamia Hafsa
madrassa, which was attached to the mosque. A male madrassa was only a
few minutes drive away. The mosque was often attended by prominent
politicians including prime ministers, army chiefs, and presidents.
In April 2007, the mosque administration started to encourage attacks
on local video shops, alleging that they were selling porn films, and
massage parlours, which were alleged to be used as brothels. These
attacks were often carried out by the mosque's female students. In
July 2007, a confrontation occurred when government authorities made a
decision to stop the student violence and send police officers to
arrest the responsible individuals and the madrassa administration.
This development led to a standoff between police forces and armed
students. Mosque leaders and students refused to surrender and kept
firing on police from inside the mosque building. Both sides suffered
RETURN OF BENAZIR BHUTTO AND NAWAZ SHARIF
Also on 8 August 2007,
Benazir Bhutto spoke about her secret meeting
with Musharraf on 27 July, in an interview on the Canadian
Broadcasting Corporation .
On 14 September 2007, Deputy Information Minister Tariq Azim stated
that Bhutto won't be deported, but must face corruption suits against
her. He clarified Sharif's and Bhutto's right to return to Pakistan.
Bhutto returned from eight years exile on 18 October. On 17 September
2007, Bhutto accused Musharraf's allies of pushing
Pakistan to crisis
by refusal to restore democracy and share power. Musharraf called for
a three-day mourning period after Bhutto's assassination on 27
Sharif returned to
Pakistan in September 2007, and was immediately
arrested and taken into custody at the airport. He was sent back to
Saudi Arabia. Saudi intelligence chief Muqrin bin Abdul-Aziz Al Saud
and Lebanese politician
Saad Hariri arrived separately in
8 September 2007, the former with a message from Saudi King Abdullah
and the latter after a meeting with
Nawaz Sharif in London. After
meeting President General
Pervez Musharraf for two-and-a-half hours
discussing Nawaz Sharif's possible return. On arrival in Saudi
Nawaz Sharif was received by Prince Muqrin bin Abdul-Aziz, the
Saudi intelligence chief, who had met Musharraf in
previous day. That meeting had been followed by a rare press
conference, at which he had warned that Sharif should not violate the
terms of King Abdullah's agreement of staying out of politics for 10
RESIGNATION FROM THE MILITARY
On 2 October 2007, Musharraf appointed
General Tariq Majid as
Chairman Joint Chiefs Committee and approved General
Ashfaq Kayani as
vice chief of the army starting 8 October. When Musharraf resigned
from military on 28 November 2007, Kayani became Chief of Army Staff .
2007 PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS
Pakistani presidential election, 2007
In a March 2007 interview, Musharraf said that he intended to stay in
office for another five years.
A nine-member panel of Supreme Court judges deliberated on six
petitions (including Jamaat-e-Islami 's, Pakistan's largest Islamic
group) for disqualification of Musharraf as presidential candidate.
Bhutto stated that her party may join other opposition groups,
On 28 September 2007, in a 6–3 vote, Judge
Rana Bhagwandas 's court
removed obstacles to Musharraf's election bid.
2007 STATE OF EMERGENCY
Pakistan state of emergency 2007
On 3 November 2007 Musharraf declared emergency rule across Pakistan.
He suspended the Constitution , imposed State of Emergency, and fired
the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court again. In
Islamabad , troops
entered the Supreme Court building, arrested the judges and kept them
under detention in their homes. Troops were deployed inside state-run
TV and radio stations, while independent channels went off air. Public
protests mounted against Musharraf.
2008 GENERAL ELECTIONS
Pakistani general election, 2008
General elections were held on 18 February 2008, in which the
Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) polled the highest votes and won the most
seats. On 23 March 2008, President Musharraf said an "era of
democracy" had begun in
Pakistan and that he had put the country "on
the track of development and progress". On 22 March, the PPP named
former parliament speaker Syed
Yousaf Raza Gillani as its candidate
for the country's next prime minister, to lead a coalition government
united against him.
IMPEACHMENT MOVEMENT AND RESIGNATION
Movement to impeach Pervez Musharraf
On 7 August 2008, the
Pakistan Peoples Party and the
League (N) agreed to force Musharraf to step down and begin his
Asif Ali Zardari and
Nawaz Sharif announced sending a
formal request or joint charge sheet that he step down, and impeach
him through parliamentary process upon refusal. Musharraf refused to
step down. A charge-sheet had been drafted, and was to be presented
to parliament. It included Mr Musharraf’s first seizure of power in
1999—at the expense of Nawaz Sharif, the PML(N)'s leader, whom Mr
Musharraf imprisoned and exiled—and his second last November, when
he declared an emergency as a means to get re-elected president. The
charge-sheet also listed some of Mr Musharraf's contributions to the
"war on terror."
Musharraf delayed his departure for the Beijing Olympics, by a day.
On 11 August, the government summoned the national assembly.
Pervez Musharraf led
Pakistan from 1999 to 2008.
On 18 August 2008, Musharraf announced his resignation. On the
following day, he defended his nine-year rule in an hour-long
televised speech. On 23 November 2008 he left for exile in London
where he arrived the following day.
ACADEMIA AND LECTURESHIP
After his resignation, Musharraf went to perform a holy pilgrimage to
Makkah . He then went on a speaking and lectureship tour through the
Middle East, Europe, and United States. Chicago-based Embark LLC was
one of the international public-relations firms trying to land
Musharraf as a highly paid keynote speaker. According to Embark
President David B. Wheeler, the speaking fee for Musharraf would be in
the $150,000–200,000 range for a day plus jet and other V.I.P.
arrangements on the ground. In 2011, he also lectured at the Carnegie
Endowment for International Peace on politics and racism where he also
authored and published a paper with George Perkvich.
RETURN TO POLITICS AND FORMATION OF ALL PAKISTAN MUSLIM LEAGUE
Since quitting politics in 2008, Musharraf has been in
24 November 2008 in self-imposed exile .
Musharraf launched his own political party, the All
League , in June 2010.
LEGAL THREATS AND ACTIONS
Pervez Musharraf speaking at the WEF .
The PML-N has tried to get
Pervez Musharraf to stand trial in an
article 6 trial for treason in relation to the emergency on 3 November
Prime Minister of Pakistan Yousaf Raza Gilani has said a
consensus resolution is required in national assembly for an article 6
Pervez Musharraf "I have no love lost for Musharraf ... if
parliament decides to try him, I will be with parliament. Article 6
cannot be applied to one individual ... those who supported him are
today in my cabinet and some of them have also joined the PML-N ...
the MMA, the
MQM and the
PML-Q supported him ... this is why I have
said that it is not doable," said the Prime Minister while informally
talking to editors and also replying to questions by journalists at an
Iftar-dinner he had hosted for them. Although the constitution of
Pakistan, Article 232 and Article 236, provides for emergencies, and
on 15 February 2008, the interim
Pakistan Supreme Court attempted to
validated the Proclamation of Emergency on 3 November 2007, the
Provisional Constitution Order No 1 of 2007 and the Oath of Office
(Judges) Order, 2007, after the Supreme Court judges were restored to
the bench, on 31 July 2009, they ruled that Musharraf had violated
the constitution when he declared emergency rule in 2007.
Saudi Arabia exerted its influence to attempt to prevent treason
charges, under Article 6 of the constitution, from being brought
against Musharraf, citing existing agreements between the states, as
well as pressuring Sharif directly. As it turned out, it was not
Sharif's decision to make.
Abbottabad's district and sessions judge in a missing person 's case
passed judgment asking the authorities to declare
Pervez Musharraf a
proclaimed offender. On 11 February 2011 the Anti
issued an arrest warrant for Musharraf and charged him with conspiracy
to commit murder of
Benazir Bhutto . On 8 March 2011, the Sindh High
Court registered treason charges against him.
VIEWS ON PAKISTANI POLICE COMMANDOS
Lahore attack on Sri Lankan players, Musharraf
criticized the police commandos' inability to kill any of the gunmen,
saying "If this was the elite force I would expect them to have shot
down those people who attacked them, the reaction, their training
should be on a level that if anyone shoots toward the company they are
guarding, in less than three seconds they should shoot the man down."
VIEWS ON THE BLASPHEMY LAWS IN PAKISTAN
Regarding the Blasphemy laws in
Pakistan , Musharraf said that
Pakistan is sensitive to religious issues and that the blasphemy law
RETURN TO PAKISTAN
Since the start of 2011, news had circulated that Musharraf would
Pakistan before the 2013 general election . He himself vowed
this in several interviews. On
Piers Morgan Tonight , Musharraf
announced his plans to return to
Pakistan on 23 March 2012 in order to
seek the Presidency in 2013. The
threatened to kill him should he return. On 3 April 2014, Musharraf
escaped the fourth assassination attempt, resulting in an injury of a
woman, according to
On 24 March 2013, after a four-year self-imposed exile, he returned
to Pakistan. He landed at
Jinnah International Airport
Jinnah International Airport , Karachi,
via a chartered Emirates flight with
Pakistani journalists and foreign
news correspondents at around 12:40 PM PST. Hundreds of his supporters
and workers of APML were at
Karachi airport to welcome him. He also
delivered a short public speech outside the airport lounge.
On 16 April 2013, an electoral tribunal in
Chitral declared Musharraf
disqualified from candidacy there, effectively quashing his political
ambitions (several other constituencies had previously rejected
Musharraf's nominations). A spokesperson for Musharraf's party said
the ruling was "biased" and they would appeal the decision.
While Musharraf had technically been on bail since his return to the
country, on 18 April 2013 The
Islamabad High Court ordered the arrest
of Musharraf on charges relating to the 2007 arrests of judges.
Musharraf escaped from court with the aid of his security personnel,
and went to his farm-house mansion. The following day Musharraf was
under house arrest but was later transferred to police headquarters
in Islamabad. Musharraf characterized his arrest as "politically
motivated" and his legal team has declared their intention to fight
the charges in the Supreme Court . Further to the charges of this
arrest, the Senate also passed a resolution petitioning that Musharraf
be charged with high treason in relation to the events of 2007.
COURT ARREST ORDERS
On Friday 26 April 2013 the court ordered house arrest for Musharraf
in connection with the death of Benazir Bhutto. On 20 May, a
Pakistani court granted bail to Musharraf. On 12 June 2014 Sindh High
Court allowed him to travel abroad.
MURDER CASES INVESTIGATIONS
On 25 June 2013, Musharraf was named as prime suspect in two separate
Benazir Bhutto 's assassination and second being Akbar
Bugti case by
Federal Investigation Agency for masterminding a
conspiracy to assassinations of
Benazir Bhutto and
Akbar Bugti .
On 20 August 2013, a
Pakistani court indicted Musharraf in the
assassination of Bhutto.
On 2 September 2013, a FIR was registered against Pervez Musharraf
for his role in the
Lal Masjid Operation 2007. The FIR was lodged
after the son of slain hard line cleric Abdul Rahid Ghazi (who was
killed during the operation) asked authorities to bring charges
On 18 March 2016, Musharraf's name was removed from the Exit Control
List and he was allowed to travel abroad, citing medical treatment. He
currently lives in
Dubai in self-imposed exile, but has vowed to
return to the country. Musharraf appears as a political analyst on
his weekly television show "Sab Se Pehle
Pakistan with President
Musharraf", hosted by
BOL News .
Musharraf is the second son of his parents and has two brothers –
Javed and Naved. Javed retired as a high-level official in
Pakistan's civil service. Naved is an anesthesiologist who has lived
Chicago since completing his residency training at Loyola
University Medical Center in 1979.
Musharraf married Sehba on 28 December 1968. Sehba is from
They have a daughter, Ayla, an architect married to film director Asim
Raza , and a son, Bilal.
Musharraf published his autobiography — In the Line of Fire: A
Memoir — in 2006.
* Government of
* Military of
* Politics of
* ^ "Musharraf declares assets worth Rs645m, leaves tax column
Express Tribune . April 3, 2013. Retrieved 2 August 2017.
* ^ "Musharraf\'s Mother Says She Pushed Him in the Army Because of
* ^ Dummett, Mark (18 August 2008). "Pakistan\'s Musharraf steps
down". Work and report completed by BBC correspondent for Pakistan
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* ^ Ayub, Imran (19 March 2016). "Musharraf meets well-wishers at
Dubai residence". Dawn. Retrieved 28 February 2017.
* ^ "Musharraf departs for
Dubai after travel ban lifted". The
Express Tribune. 18 March 2016. Retrieved 28 February 2017.
* ^ "
Pervez Musharraf launches career as TV analyst". Dawn. 27
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* ^ "Musharraf\'s daughter target for terrorists: Intelligence
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* ^ "General Pervez Musharraf". Office of the Press Secretary to
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