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The politics of the Republic
Republic
of Peru
Peru
takes place in a framework of a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic,[1][2] whereby the President of Peru
Peru
is both head of state and head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the President and the Government. Legislative power
Legislative power
is vested in both the Government
Government
and the Congress. The Judiciary
Judiciary
is independent of the executive and the legislature. The Economist Intelligence Unit has rated Peru
Peru
as "flawed democracy" in 2016.[3]

Contents

1 Democratic reform 2 Executive branch 3 Legislative branch 4 Political parties and elections 5 Judicial branch 6 Administrative divisions 7 Political pressure groups and leaders 8 Non-governmental organizations 9 International organization participation 10 See also 11 References 12 External links

Democratic reform[edit]

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The Republic
Republic
of Peru
Peru
is in a state of ongoing democratization. Led by President Pedro Pablo Kuczynski, the new government is expected to be transparent and accountable.[4] Previously a rubberstamp body, Peru's unicameral Congress is emerging as a strong counterbalance to the once-dominant executive branch, with increased oversight and investigative powers. The executive branch and Congress are attempting to reform the judicial branch, antiquated and rife with corruption. During the government of Fujimori the 1979 Constitution was changed after the Fujimori's self-coup where the president dissolved the Congress and established the new 1993 Constitution. One of the changes to the 1979 Constitution was the possibility of the president's immediate reelection (112 article) which made possible the reelection of Fujimori in the next years. After the Fujimori era and Fujimori's resign, the transition government of Valentín Paniagua
Valentín Paniagua
changed the article 112 and called new elections in 2001 where Alejandro Toledo was elected. After that, Peru
Peru
has had all presidents democratically elected. Executive branch[edit]

Government
Government
Palace of Peru.

Main office holders

Office Name Party Since

President Martín Vizcarra Independent 23 March 2018

First Vice President Mercedes Aráoz Peruvians for Change 23 March 2018

Second Vice President Vacant

23 March 2018

Prime Minister César Villanueva Independent 2 April 2018

Under the current constitution, the President is the head of state and government; he or she is elected for a five-year term and may not immediately be re-elected.[5] All citizens above the age of eighteen are entitled and in fact compelled to vote. The first and second vice presidents also are popularly elected but have no constitutional functions unless the president is unable to discharge his duties. The President appoints the Prime Minister (Primer Ministro) and the Council of Ministers (Consejo de Ministros, or Cabinet), which is individually and collectively responsible both to the president and the legislature.[1][2] All presidential decree laws or draft bills sent to Congress must be approved by the Council of Ministers. Legislative branch[edit]

Congress of the Republic
Republic
of Peru.

The legislative branch consists of a unicameral Congress (Congreso) of 130 members. elected for a five-year term by proportional representation In addition to passing laws, Congress ratifies treaties, authorizes government loans, and approves the government budget. The president has the power to block legislation with which the executive branch does not agree. Political parties and elections[edit] For other political parties, see List of political parties in Peru. An overview on elections and election results is included in Elections in Peru.

e • d Summary of the 10 April and 5 June 2011 Peruvian presidential election result

Candidates – Parties 1st round 2nd round

Votes % Votes %

Ollanta Humala
Ollanta Humala
Peru
Peru
Wins (Gana Perú) 4,643,064 31.699 7,937,704 51.449

Keiko Fujimori
Keiko Fujimori
– Force 2011 (Fuerza 2011) 3,449,595 23.551 7,490,647 48.551

Pedro Pablo Kuczynski
Pedro Pablo Kuczynski
Alliance for the Great Change
Alliance for the Great Change
(Alianza por el Gran Cambio) 2,711,450 18.512  

Alejandro Toledo
Alejandro Toledo
– Possible Peru
Peru
(Perú Posible) 2,289,561 15.631

Luis Castañeda
Luis Castañeda
– National Solidarity (Solidaridad Nacional) 1,440,143 9.832

José Ñique de la Puente – Fonavist Party (Partido Fonavista del Perú) 37,011 0.253

Ricardo Noriega – National Awakening Party (Partido Despertar Nacional) 21,574 0.147

Rafael Belaúnde Aubry – Forward Party (Partido Político Adelante) 17,301 0.118

Juliana Reymer – National Force Party (Partido Fuerza Nacional) 16,831 0.115

Humberto Pinazo – Justice, Technology, Ecology (Justicia, Tecnología, Ecología) 11,275 0.077

Total valid (turnout %) 14,074,682 100.000 15,428,351 100.000

Blank votes 1,406,998 8.855 116,335 0.706

Invalid votes 416,026 2.620 921,711 5.598

Source: National Office of Electoral Processes
National Office of Electoral Processes
(ONPE), National Office of Electoral Processes (ONPE)

e • d Summary of the 10 April 2011 election results for members of the Congress of the Republic
Republic
of Peru
Peru
and Peruvian members of the Andean Parliament

Parties Congress Andean Parliament

Votes % (Valid) Seats Votes % (Valid) Seats

Peru
Peru
Wins (Gana Perú) dominated by Peruvian Nationalist Party
Peruvian Nationalist Party
(Partido Nacionalista Peruano)

including Socialist Party (Partido Socialista) and others

3,245,003 25.274 47 2,740,106 27.022 2

Force 2011 (Fuerza 2011)

including National Renewal (Renovación Nacional)

2,948,781 22.967 37 2,353,660 23.211 1

Electoral Alliance Possible Peru
Peru
(Alianza Electoral Perú Posible)

Possible Peru
Peru
(Perú Posible) Popular Action (Acción Popular) We Are Peru
Peru
(Somos Perú)

1,904,180 14.831 21 1,498,783 14.780 1

Alliance for the Great Change
Alliance for the Great Change
(Alianza por el Gran Cambio)

Christian People's Party (Partido Popular Cristiano) Alliance for Progress (Alianza para el Progreso) Humanist Party (Partido Humanista) National Restoration (Restauración Nacional)

1,851,080 14.417 12 1,413,783 13.942 1

National Solidarity Alliance (Alianza Solidaridad Nacional)

National Solidarity (Solidaridad Nacional) Change 90 (Cambio 90) Union for Peru
Peru
(Unión por el Perú) Always Together
Always Together
(Siempre Unidos)

1,311,766 10.217 9 954,618 9.414 0

American Popular Revolutionary Alliance
American Popular Revolutionary Alliance
(Partido Aprista Peruano) 825,030 6.426 4 638,675 6.298 0

Radical Change (Cambio Radical) 347,475 2.706 0 195,441 1.927 0

Fonavist Party (Fonavistas des Perú) 170,052 1.324 0 158,877 1.567 0

Decentralist Party Social Force (Partido Decentralista Fuerza Social) 108,200 0.843 0 65,265 0.644 0

Forward Party (Partido Político Adelante) 42,276 0.329 0 36,193 0.357 0

National Force Party (Partido Fuerza Nacional) 37,633 0.293 0 35,014 0.345 0

National Awakening Party (Partido Despertar Nacional) 30,190 0.235 0 — — —

Justice, Technology, Ecology (Justicia, Tecnologia, Ecologia) 17,478 0.136 0 49,869 0.492 0

Valid votes 12,839,144 100.000 130 10,140,284 100.000 5

Blank votes

4,352,212 26.056

Invalid votes

2,210,919 13.236

Source: National Office of Electoral Processes
National Office of Electoral Processes
- on Congressional Election - on Andean Parliament
Andean Parliament
Election

Judicial branch[edit]

Supreme Court of Justice of Peru.

The judicial branch of government is headed by a 16-member Supreme Court seated in Lima. The National Council of the Judiciary
Judiciary
appoints judges to this court. The Constitutional Court (Tribunal Constitucional) interprets the constitution on matters of individual rights. Superior courts in regional capitals review appeals from decisions by lower courts. Courts of first instance are located in provincial capitals and are divided into civil, penal, and special chambers. The judiciary has created several temporary specialized courts in an attempt to reduce the large backlog of cases pending final court action. Peru's legal system is based on civil law system. Peru
Peru
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction. In 1996 a human rights ombudsman's office (defensor del pueblo) was created to address human rights issues. Administrative divisions[edit] Peru's territory, according to the Regionalization Law which was passed on 18 November 2002, is divided into 25 regions (regiones). These regions are subdivided into provinces, which are composed of districts. There are a total of 180 provinces and 1747 districts in Peru. Lima Province
Lima Province
is not part of any political region.

Amazonas Ancash Apurímac Arequipa Ayacucho Cajamarca Callao Cusco Huancavelica Huánuco Ica Junín La Libertad Lambayeque Lima
Lima
Provincias Loreto Madre de Dios Moquegua Pasco Piura Puno San Martín Tacna Tumbes Ucayali

Political pressure groups and leaders[edit] Leftist guerrilla groups include Shining Path
Shining Path
Abimael Guzmán (imprisoned), Gabriel Macario (top leader at-large); Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement or MRTA Victor Polay (imprisoned), Hugo Avellaneda Valdez (top leader at-large). Both Shining Path
Shining Path
& MRTA are considered terrorist organizations. Non-governmental organizations[edit]

This section may require cleanup to meet's quality standards. The specific problem is: It is not clear which NGOs are being discussed, or how broadly this description applies to NGOs in general. Please help improve this section if you can. (August 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

In the early 1970s and 1980s many grass-roots organizations emerged in Peru. They were concerned with problems of local people and poverty reduction. After 2000 they played an important role in the decentralisation process. Their hope was that power would be divided clearly between national and local governments and the latter would be able to address social justice and the concerns of local people better than the national government could. Some NGO-members even became part of local governments. There is debate extent to which this engagement in politics contributes to the attainment of their original goals.[6] International organization participation[edit] Peru
Peru
or Peruvian organizations participate in the following international organizations:

Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
(APEC) Andean Community of Nations
Andean Community of Nations
(CAN) Food and Agriculture Organization
Food and Agriculture Organization
(FAO) Group of Fifteen (G-15) Group of Twenty-Four (G-24) Group of 77
Group of 77
(G-77) Inter-American Development Bank
Inter-American Development Bank
(IADB) International Atomic Energy Agency
International Atomic Energy Agency
(IAEA) International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
(IBRD, part of the World Bank Group) International Civil Aviation Organization
International Civil Aviation Organization
(ICAO) International Criminal Court
International Criminal Court
(ICC) International Chamber of Commerce
International Chamber of Commerce
(ICC) International Confederation of Free Trade Unions
International Confederation of Free Trade Unions
(ICFTU) International Red Cross International Development Association
International Development Association
(IDA) International Fund for Agricultural Development
International Fund for Agricultural Development
(IFAD) International Finance Corporation
International Finance Corporation
(IFC) International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRCS) International Hydrographic Organization
International Hydrographic Organization
(IHO) International Labour Organization
International Labour Organization
(ILO) International Monetary Fund, (IMF) International Maritime Organization
International Maritime Organization
(IMO) Interpol IOC International Organization for Migration
International Organization for Migration
(IOM) International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO) (correspondent) International Telecommunication Union
International Telecommunication Union
(ITU) Latin American Economic System
Latin American Economic System
(LAES) Latin American Integration Association
Latin American Integration Association
(LAIA) United Nations
United Nations
Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic
Republic
of the Congo (MONUC) Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
(NAM) OAS Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (OPANAL) Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons
Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons
(OPCW) Permanent Court of Arbitration
Permanent Court of Arbitration
(PCA) Rio Group
Rio Group
(RG) Union of South American Nations(Unasul-Unasur) United Nations United Nations
United Nations
Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) United Nations
United Nations
Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) UNHRC United Nations
United Nations
Human Rights Council (UNHRC) United Nations
United Nations
Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) United Nations
United Nations
Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE) United Nations
United Nations
Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) Universal Postal Union
Universal Postal Union
(UPU) World Confederation of Labour
World Confederation of Labour
(WCL) World Customs Organization
World Customs Organization
(WCO) World Federation of Trade Unions
World Federation of Trade Unions
(WFTU) World Health Organization
World Health Organization
(WHO) World Intellectual Property Organization
World Intellectual Property Organization
(WIPO) World Meteorological Organization
World Meteorological Organization
(WMO) World Tourism Organization
World Tourism Organization
(WToO) World Trade Organization
World Trade Organization
(WTrO)

See also[edit]

Government
Government
of Peru

References[edit]

^ a b Shugart, Matthew Søberg (September 2005). "Semi-Presidential Systems: Dual Executive and Mixed Authority Patterns" (PDF). Graduate School of International Relations and Pacific Studies. United States: University of California, San Diego. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 August 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2017.  ^ a b Shugart, Matthew Søberg (December 2005). "Semi-Presidential Systems: Dual Executive And Mixed Authority Patterns" (PDF). French Politics. Palgrave Macmillan
Palgrave Macmillan
UK. 3 (3): 323–351. doi:10.1057/palgrave.fp.8200087 . ISSN 1476-3427. OCLC 6895745903. Retrieved 31 August 2017. Only in Latin America have all new democracies retained a pure presidential form, except for Peru
Peru
(president-parliamentary) and Bolivia (assembly-independent).  ^ solutions, EIU digital. "Democracy Index 2016 - The Economist Intelligence Unit". www.eiu.com. Retrieved 2017-11-30.  ^ http://www.miamiherald.com/opinion/op-ed/article85244532.html ^ Constitución Política del Perú, Article No. 112. ^ Monika Huber, Wolfgang Kaiser (February 2013). "Mixed Feelings". dandc.eu. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Politics of Peru.

Congress of Peru Prime minister of Peru Presidency of Peru Supreme Court of Peru Center for Reproductive Rights Report (PDF format) Council on Foreign Relations: Peru's Elections Local governments in Peru Peru's 2006 Elections Peru's 2006 Elections

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