Pertussis (also known as whooping cough or 100-day cough) is a highly
contagious bacterial disease. Initially, symptoms are usually
similar to those of the common cold with a runny nose, fever, and mild
cough. This is then followed by weeks of severe coughing fits.
Following a fit of coughing, a high-pitched whoop sound or gasp may
occur as the person breathes in. The coughing may last for 10 or
more weeks, hence the phrase "100-day cough". A person may cough so
hard that they vomit, break ribs, or become very tired from the
effort. Children less than one year old may have little or no
cough and instead have periods where they do not breathe. The time
between infection and the onset of symptoms is usually seven to ten
days. Disease may occur in those who have been vaccinated, but
symptoms are typically milder.
Pertussis is caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis. It is an
airborne disease which spreads easily through the coughs and sneezes
of an infected person. People are infectious to others from the
start of symptoms until about three weeks into the coughing fits.
Those treated with antibiotics are no longer infectious after five
days. Diagnosis is by collecting a sample from the back of the nose
and throat. This sample can then be tested by either culture or by
polymerase chain reaction.
Prevention is mainly by vaccination with the pertussis vaccine.
Initial immunization is recommended between six and eight weeks of
age, with four doses to be given in the first two years of life.
The vaccine becomes less effective over time, with additional doses
often recommended for older children and adults.
be used to prevent the disease in those who have been exposed and are
at risk of severe disease. In those with the disease, antibiotics
are useful if started within three weeks of the initial symptoms, but
otherwise have little effect in most people. In children less than
one year old and among those who are pregnant, they are recommended
within six weeks of symptom onset.
Antibiotics used include
erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, or
trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Evidence to support interventions,
other than antibiotics, for the cough is poor. Many children less
than a year of age require hospitalization.
An estimated 16.3 million people worldwide were infected in
2015. Most cases occur in the developing world, and people of all
ages may be affected. In 2015, it resulted in 58,700 deaths –
down from 138,000 deaths in 1990. Nearly 0.5% of infected
children less than one year of age die. Outbreaks of the disease
were first described in the 16th century. The bacterium that
causes the infection was discovered in 1906. The pertussis vaccine
became available in the 1940s.
1 Signs and symptoms
1.1 Incubation period
2.1 Spread from other animals
8.1 US outbreaks
11 External links
Signs and symptoms
A boy with pertussis
The classic symptoms of pertussis are a paroxysmal cough, inspiratory
whoop, and fainting, or vomiting after coughing. The cough from
pertussis has been documented to cause subconjunctival hemorrhages,
rib fractures, urinary incontinence, hernias, and vertebral artery
dissection. Violent coughing can cause the pleura to rupture,
leading to a pneumothorax.
Vomiting after a coughing spell or an
inspiratory whooping sound on coughing, almost doubles the likelihood
that the illness is pertussis. The absence of a paroxysmal cough or
posttussive emesis, though, makes it almost half as likely.
The illness usually starts with mild respiratory symptoms include mild
coughing, sneezing, or a runny nose. This is known as the catarrhal
stage. After one to two weeks, the coughing classically develops into
uncontrollable fits, each with five to ten forceful coughs, followed
by a high-pitched "whoop" sound in younger children, or a gasping
sound in older children, as the person tries to inhale (paroxysmal
Coughing fits can occur on their own or can be triggered by yawning,
stretching, laughing, eating, or yelling; they usually occur in
groups, with multiple episodes on an hourly basis throughout the day.
This stage usually lasts two to eight weeks, or sometimes longer. A
gradual transition then occurs to the convalescent stage, which
usually lasts one to four weeks. This stage is marked by a decrease in
paroxysms of coughing, both in frequency and severity, and a cessation
of vomiting. A tendency to produce the "whooping" sound after coughing
may remain for a considerable period after the disease itself has
The time between exposure and the development of symptoms is on
average 7–14 days (range 6–20 days), rarely as long as 42
Pertussis is caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis. It is an
airborne disease that spreads easily through the coughs and sneezes of
an infected person.
Spread from other animals
Uncertainties have existed of B. pertussis and whooping cough as a
zoonotic disease since around 1910 but in the 1930s, knowledge
was gained that the bacteria lost their virulent power when repeatedly
spread on agar media. This explained the difficulties to reproduce
results from different studies as the pre-inoculating handlings of the
bacteria were not standardized among scientists.
Today it is established that at least some primate species are highly
susceptible to B. pertussis and develop clinical whooping cough in
high incidence when exposed to low inoculation doses. The
bacteria may be present in wild animal populations, but this is not
confirmed by laboratory diagnosis, although whooping cough is known
among wild gorillas. Several zoos also have a long-standing custom
of vaccinating their primates against whooping cough.
It acts primarily via its pertussis toxin but also via invasion of
tissues and alveolar macrophages. B. pertussis attaches to the cilia
of respiratory epithelial cells, where it produces cilia-paralyzing
toxins, and causes inflammation of the respiratory tract, thereby
interfering with the "mucociliary escalator" by which pulmonary
secretions (i.e., mucus) are cleared.
Gram stain of Bordetella pertussis
A physician's overall impression is most effective in initially making
the diagnosis. Single factors are much less useful.
Methods used in laboratory diagnosis include culturing of
nasopharyngeal swabs on a nutrient medium (Bordet-Gengou medium),
polymerase chain reaction (PCR), direct fluorescent antibody (DFA),
and serological methods (e.g. complement fixation test). The
bacteria can be recovered from the person only during the first three
weeks of illness, rendering culturing and DFA useless after this
period, although PCR may have some limited usefulness for an
additional three weeks.
Serology may be used for adults and adolescents who have already been
infected for several weeks to determine whether antibody against
pertussis toxin or another virulence factor of B. pertussis is present
at high levels in the blood of the person. By this stage, they
have been contagious for some weeks and may have spread the infection
to many people. Because of this, adults, who are not in great danger
from pertussis, are increasingly being encouraged to be vaccinated.
A similar, milder disease is caused by B. parapertussis.
The primary method of prevention for pertussis is vaccination.
Evidence is insufficient to determine the effectiveness of antibiotics
in those who have been exposed, but are without symptoms.
Preventive antibiotics, however, are still frequently used in those
who have been exposed and are at high risk of severe disease (such as
Pertussis vaccines are effective at preventing illness and are
recommended for routine use by the World Health Organization and
the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The vaccine saved
an estimated half a million lives in 2002.
The multicomponent acellular pertussis vaccine is 71–85% effective,
with greater effectiveness for more severe strains. Despite
widespread vaccination, however, pertussis has persisted in vaccinated
populations and is today "one of the most common vaccine-preventable
diseases in Western countries". The 21st-century resurgences in
pertussis infections are attributed to a combination of waning
immunity and bacterial mutations that elude vaccines.
Immunization does not confer lifelong immunity; a 2011 CDC study
indicated that protection may only last three to six years. This
covers childhood, which is the time of greatest exposure and greatest
risk of death from pertussis.
An effect of widespread immunization on society has been the shift of
reported infections from children aged 1–9 years to infants,
adolescents, and adults, with adolescents and adults acting as
reservoirs for B. pertussis and infecting infants with fewer than
three doses of vaccine.
Infection induces incomplete natural immunity that wanes over
time. A 2005 study said estimates of the duration of
infection-acquired immunity range from 7 to 20 years and the different
results could be the result of differences in levels of circulating B.
pertussis, surveillance systems, and case definitions used. The study
said protective immunity after vaccination wanes after 4–12
Vaccination exemption laws appear to increase
Both WHO and the CDC found that the acellular pertussis vaccines were
effective at prevention of the disease, but had a limited impact on
infection and transmission, meaning that vaccinated people could act
as asymptomatic reservoirs of infection.
The antibiotics erythromycin, clarithromycin, or azithromycin are
typically the recommended treatment. Newer macrolides are
frequently recommended due to lower rates of side effects.
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) may be used in those with
allergies to first-line agents or in infants who have a risk of
pyloric stenosis from macrolides.
A reasonable guideline is to treat people age >1 year within 3
weeks of cough onset and infants age <1 year and pregnant women
within 6 weeks of cough onset. If the person is diagnosed late,
antibiotics will not alter the course of the illness, and even without
antibiotics, they should no longer be spreading pertussis.
Antibiotics when used early decrease the duration of infectiousness,
and thus prevent spread. Short-term antibiotics (azithromycin for
3–5 days) are as effective as long-term treatment (erythromycin
10–14 days) in eliminating B. pertussis with fewer and less severe
People with pertussis are infectious from the beginning of the
catarrhal stage (a runny nose, sneezing, low-grade fever, symptoms of
the common cold) through the third week after the onset of paroxysms
(multiple, rapid coughs) or until 5 days after the start of effective
Effective treatments of the cough associated with this condition have
not been developed.
Disability-adjusted life year
Disability-adjusted life year for pertussis per
100,000 inhabitants as of 2004.
Less than 50
More than 550
Common complications include pneumonia, bronchitis, encephalopathy,
earache, and seizures. Most healthy older children and adults fully
recover, but those with comorbid conditions have a higher risk of
morbidity and mortality.
Infection in newborns is particularly severe.
Pertussis is fatal in an
estimated 1.6% of hospitalized US infants under one year of age.
First-year infants are also more likely to develop complications, such
as: pneumonia (20%), encephalopathy (0.3%), seizures (1%), failure to
thrive, and death (1%)—perhaps due to the ability of the
bacterium to suppress the immune system.
Pertussis can cause
severe paroxysm-induced cerebral hypoxia, and 50% of infants admitted
to hospital suffer apneas. Reported fatalities from pertussis in
infants increased substantially from 1990 to 2010.
Whooping cough deaths per million persons in 2012
Worldwide, whooping cough affects around 16 million people yearly.
One estimate for 2013 stated it resulted in about 61,000 deaths –
down from 138,000 deaths in 1990. Another estimated 195,000 child
deaths yearly from the disease worldwide. This is despite
generally high coverage with the DTP and
one of the leading causes of vaccine-preventable deaths worldwide.
About 90% of all cases occur in developing countries.
Before vaccines, an average of 178,171 cases was reported in the U.S.,
with peaks reported every two to five years; more than 93% of reported
cases occurred in children under 10 years of age. The actual incidence
was likely much higher. After vaccinations were introduced in the
1940s, pertussis incidence fell dramatically to approximately 1,000 by
1976. Incidence rates have increased since 1980. In 2015, rates in the
United States were 20,762 people.
Pertussis is the only vaccine-preventable disease that is associated
with increasing deaths in the U.S. The number of deaths increased from
four in 1996 to 17 in 2001, almost all of which were infants under one
year. In Canada, the number of pertussis infections has varied
between 2,000 and 10,000 reported cases each year over the last ten
years, and it is the most common vaccine-preventable illness in
Australia reported an average of 10,000 cases a year, and the
number of cases had increased. In the U.S. pertussis in adults has
increased significantly since about 2004.
An epidemiologist tests blood samples for pertussis during a 2010
In 2010 ten infants in California died, and health authorities
declared an epidemic encompassing 9,120 cases. They found that
doctors had failed to correctly diagnose the infants' condition during
several visits. Statistical analysis identified significant
overlap in communities with a cluster of nonmedical child exemptions
and cases. The number of exemptions varied widely among communities,
but tended to be highly clustered. In some schools, more than
three-fourths of parents filed for vaccination exemptions. The data
suggest vaccine refusal based on nonmedical reasons and personal
belief exacerbated the outbreak. Other factors included reduced
duration of the current vaccine and that most vaccinated adults and
older children had not received a booster shot.
In April and May 2012 pertussis was declared to be at epidemic levels
in Washington, with 3,308 cases. In December 2012 Vermont
declared an epidemic of 522 cases. Wisconsin had the highest
incidence rate, with 3,877 cases, although it did not make an official
B. pertussis was discovered in 1906 by
Jules Bordet and Octave Gengou,
who also developed the first serology and vaccine. Efforts to develop
an inactivated whole-cell vaccine began soon after B. pertussis was
cultured that year. In the 1920s,
Louis W. Sauer developed a weak
vaccine for whooping cough at Evanston Hospital (Evanston, IL). In
1925 Danish physician Thorvald Madsen was the first to test a
whole-cell vaccine on a wide scale. Madsen used the vaccine to
control outbreaks in the
Faroe Islands in the North Sea.
In 1932 an outbreak of whooping cough hit Atlanta, Georgia, prompting
Leila Denmark to begin her study of the disease. Over the
next six years her work was published in the Journal of the American
Medical Association, and in partnership with
Emory University and Eli
Lilly & Company, she developed the first pertussis vaccine. In
1942 American scientists Grace Eldering, Loney Gordon, and Pearl
Kendrick combined the whole-cell pertussis vaccine with diphtheria and
tetanus toxoids to generate the first DTP combination vaccine. To
minimize the frequent side effects caused by the pertussis component,
Japanese scientist Yuji Sato developed an acellular vaccine consisting
of purified haemagglutinins (HAs: filamentous strep throat and
leukocytosis-promoting-factor HA), which are secreted by B. pertussis.
Sato's acellular pertussis vaccine was used in Japan starting in
1981. Later versions of the acellular vaccine in other countries
consisted of additional defined components of B. pertussis and were
often part of the
DTaP combination vaccine.
During the 1970s and 1980s, a controversy erupted related to the
question of whether the whole-cell pertussis component caused
permanent brain injury in rare cases, called pertussis vaccine
encephalopathy. Despite this allegation, doctors recommended the
vaccine due to the overwhelming public health benefit, because the
claimed rate was very low (one case per 310,000 immunizations, or
about 50 cases out of the 15 million immunizations each year in the
United States), and the risk of death from the disease was high
(pertussis killed thousands of Americans each year before the vaccine
was introduced). No studies showed a causal connection, and later
studies showed no connection of any type between the DPT vaccine and
permanent brain injury. The alleged vaccine-induced brain damage
proved to be an unrelated condition, infantile epilepsy. In 1990,
Journal of the American Medical Association
Journal of the American Medical Association called the connection
a "myth" and "nonsense".
However, before that point, criticism of the studies showing no
connection and a few well-publicized anecdotal reports of permanent
disability that were blamed on the DPT vaccine gave rise to 1970s
anti-DPT movements. Negative publicity and fear-mongering caused
the immunization rate to fall in several countries, including the UK,
Sweden, and Japan. A dramatic increase in the incidence of pertussis
In the United States, low profit margins and an increase in
vaccine-related lawsuits led many manufacturers to stop producing the
DPT vaccine by the early 1980s. In 1982, the television
documentary DPT: Vaccine Roulette depicted the lives of children whose
severe disabilities were incorrectly blamed on the DPT vaccine by
reporter Lea Thompson. The ensuing negative publicity led to many
lawsuits against vaccine manufacturers. By 1985, vaccine
manufacturers had difficulty obtaining liability insurance. The price
of DPT vaccine skyrocketed, leading providers to curtail purchases,
limiting availability. Only one manufacturer remained in the US by the
end of 1985. To correct the situation, Congress in 1986 passed the
National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act (NCVIA), which established a
federal no-fault system to compensate victims of injury caused by
mandated vaccines. The majority of claims that have been filed
through the NCVIA have been related to injuries allegedly caused by
the whole-cell DPT vaccine.
The concerns about side effects led Sato to introduce an even safer
acellular vaccine for Japan in 1981 that was approved in the US in
1992 for use in the combination
DTaP vaccine. The acellular vaccine
has a rate of adverse events similar to that of a Td vaccine (a
tetanus-diphtheria vaccine containing no pertussis vaccine).
^ a b c d e f g h i j "
Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Signs &
Symptoms". May 22, 2014. Archived from the original on 7 February
2015. Retrieved 12 February 2015.
^ a b c "
Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Complications". cdc.gov. August
28, 2013. Archived from the original on 9 February 2015. Retrieved 12
^ a b "
Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Fast Facts". cdc.gov. February 13,
2014. Archived from the original on 7 February 2015. Retrieved 12
^ a b c d "
Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Causes & Transmission".
cdc.gov. September 4, 2014. Archived from the original on 14 February
2015. Retrieved 12 February 2015.
^ a b c "
Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Specimen Collection". cdc.gov.
August 28, 2013. Archived from the original on 8 February 2015.
Retrieved 13 February 2015.
^ a b c d e f g h Heininger U (February 2010). "Update on pertussis in
children". Expert Rev Anti-infect Ther. 8 (2): 163–73.
doi:10.1586/eri.09.124. PMID 20109046.
^ a b c d e f "
Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Treatment". cdc.gov. August
28, 2013. Archived from the original on 11 February 2015. Retrieved 13
^ a b GBD 2015 Disease and Injury Incidence and Prevalence,
Collaborators. (8 October 2016). "Global, regional, and national
incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310
diseases and injuries, 1990-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global
Burden of Disease Study 2015". Lancet. 388 (10053): 1545–1602.
doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31678-6. PMC 5055577 .
^ a b GBD 2015 Mortality and Causes of Death, Collaborators. (8
October 2016). "Global, regional, and national life expectancy,
all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of
death, 1980-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of
Disease Study 2015". Lancet. 388 (10053): 1459–1544.
doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(16)31012-1. PMC 5388903 .
^ Carbonetti NH (June 2007). "Immunomodulation in the pathogenesis of
Bordetella pertussis infection and disease". Curr Opin Pharmacol. 7
(3): 272–8. doi:10.1016/j.coph.2006.12.004.
^ a b c d Atkinson, William (May 2012).
Pertussis Epidemiology and
Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases (12th ed.). Public Health
Foundation. pp. 215–230. ISBN 9780983263135. Archived from
the original on 2017-07-29.
^ "Pertussis". WHO. Archived from the original on 5 June 2015.
Retrieved 23 March 2016.
^ "Revised guidance on the choice of pertussis vaccines: July 2014"
(PDF). Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 89 (30): 337–40. Jul 2014.
PMID 25072068. Archived (PDF) from the original on
Pertussis vaccines: WHO position paper". Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 85
(40): 385–400. Oct 1, 2010. PMID 20939150.
Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Prevention". cdc.gov. October 10, 2014.
Archived from the original on 8 February 2015. Retrieved 13 February
^ a b c Wang, K; Bettiol, S; Thompson, MJ; Roberts, NW; Perera, R;
Heneghan, CJ; Harnden, A (22 September 2014). "Symptomatic treatment
of the cough in whooping cough". Cochrane Database of Systematic
Reviews. 9: CD003257. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003257.pub5.
^ a b GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death, Collaborators (17
December 2014). "Global, regional, and national age-sex specific
all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death,
1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease
Study 2013". Lancet. 385 (9963): 117–71.
doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61682-2. PMC 4340604 .
^ a b c d Cornia PB, Hersh AL, Lipsky BA, Newman TB, Gonzales R
(August 2010). "Does this coughing adolescent or adult patient have
pertussis?". JAMA. 304 (8): 890–6. doi:10.1001/jama.2010.1181.
^ Heymann, David L. (ed): Pertussis; in Control of Communicable
Diseases Manual. p. 457. American Public Health Association,
Washington DC, 2008, ISBN 978-0-87553-189-2
Pertussis (whooping cough) Archived 2013-07-22 at the Wayback
Machine., New York State Department of Health, Updated: January 2012,
retrieved 8 June 2013.
^ Inaba I (1912). "Über den Bordet-Gengouschen Keuchhustenbacillus
Übertragungsversuches des Keuchenhustens auf Tiere". Z Kinderheilkd.
4: 252–264. doi:10.1007/bf02088879.
^ Bachamn W, Burghard E (1925). "Der Nachweis der Bordet-Gengouschen
Bacillen und ihre aetiologische Bedeutung für den Keuchenhusten". Z
Kinderheilkd. 39: 465–483.
^ Shibley, GS; Hoelscher, H (1934). "Studies on whooping cough. I.
Type-specific (S) and dissociation (R) forms of haemophilus
pertussis". J Exp Med. 60 (4): 403–418. doi:10.1084/jem.60.4.403.
PMC 2132401 . PMID 19870311.
^ Gustavsson OE, Röken BO, Serrander R (1990). "An Epizootic of
Cough among Chimpanzees in a Zoo". Folia Primatol. 55:
^ Warfel JM, Merkel TJ (Oct 2014). "The baboon model of pertussis:
effective use and lessons for pertussis vaccines". Expert Rev
Vaccines. 13 (10): 1241–52. doi:10.1586/14760584.2014.946016.
^ Butynski TM et al. (eds.): Mammals of Africa vol. II: Primates, p.
51. Bloomsbury Publishing, London, 2013. ISBN 978-1-4081-2252-5
^ Loomis MR (1985). "Immunoprofylaxis in infant great apes". In Graham
CE; Bowen JA. Clinical Management of Infant Great Apes. Monographs in
Primatology. 5. New York: Liss. pp. 107–112.
^ a b Ebell, MH; Marchello, C; Callahan, M (2017). "Clinical Diagnosis
Pertussis Infection: A Systematic Review". J Am Board
Fam Med. 30 (3): 308–319. doi:10.3122/jabfm.2017.03.160330.
^ Pedro-Pons, Agustín (1968). Patología y Clínica Médicas (in
Spanish). 6 (3rd ed.). Barcelona: Salvat. p. 615.
^ "Pertussis". Euro Diagnostica. Euro Diagnostica AB. Archived from
the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 29 February 2016.
^ Finger H, von Koenig CH (1996). Baron S, et al., eds.
Bordetella–Clinical Manifestations. In: Barron's Medical
Microbiology (4th ed.). Univ of Texas Medical Branch.
ISBN 0-9631172-1-1. Archived from the original on
Vaccination CDC". www.cdc.gov.
Archived from the original on 26 May 2017. Retrieved 27 May
^ a b Altunaiji S, Kukuruzovic R, Curtis N, Massie J (2007-07-18).
Antibiotics for whooping cough (pertussis)". Cochrane Database of
Systematic Reviews (3): CD004404. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004404.pub3.
^ a b Zhang, L; Prietsch, SO; Axelsson, I; Halperin, SA (Sep 17,
Acellular vaccines for preventing whooping cough in children".
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 9: CD001478.
doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001478.pub6. PMID 25228233.
^ a b "Annex 6 whole cell pertussis" (PDF). World Health Organization.
Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 March 2012. Retrieved 5 June
^ "Pertussis: Summary of Vaccine Recommendations". Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011.
Retrieved 5 June 2011.
^ a b Mooi; et al. (Feb 2013). "
Pertussis resurgence: waning immunity
and pathogen adaptation—two sides of the same coin". Epidemiol
Infect. Oxford University Press. 142: 1–10.
doi:10.1017/S0950268813000071. Archived from the original on
^ van der Ark; et al. (Sep 2012). "Resurgence of pertussis calls for
re-evaluation of pertussis animal models". Expert Rev Vaccines. 11
(9): 1121–1137. doi:10.1586/erv.12.83. PMID 23151168.
^ Versteegh FG, Schellekens JF, Fleer A, Roord JJ (2005). "Pertussis:
a concise historical review including diagnosis, incidence, clinical
manifestations and the role of treatment and vaccination in
management". Rev Med Microbiol. 16 (3): 79–89.
^ Mattoo, Seema; Cherry, James D. (2005-04-01). "Molecular
Pathogenesis, Epidemiology, and Clinical Manifestations of Respiratory
Infections Due to
Bordetella pertussis and Other Bordetella
Subspecies". Clin Microbiol Rev. 18 (2): 326–382.
doi:10.1128/CMR.18.2.326-382.2005. ISSN 0893-8512.
PMC 1082800 . PMID 15831828.
^ Disease Control Priorities Project. (2006). Vaccine-Preventable
Diseases (Table 20.1, page 390 "Archived copy" (PDF).
Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-02-05. Retrieved
2007-02-24. ). International Bank for Reconstruction and
Development, World Bank. Washington DC (www.worldbank.org).
^ Wendelboe AM, Van Rie A, Salmaso S, Englund JA (2005). "Duration of
immunity against pertussis after natural infection or vaccination".
Pediatr Infect Dis J. 24 (5 Suppl): S58–61.
doi:10.1097/01.inf.0000160914.59160.41. PMID 15876927. Archived
from the original on 2014-02-02.
^ "States with higher pertussis rates may be related to nonmedical
exemptions from school vaccinations". Healio. 19 January 2014.
Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 27 January
^ Yang YT, Debold V (2014). "A longitudinal analysis of the effect of
nonmedical exemption law and vaccine uptake on vaccine-targeted
disease rates". Am J Public Health. 104 (2): 371–7.
doi:10.2105/AJPH.2013.301538. PMID 24328666.
^ Srugo, Isaac; Benilevi, Daniel; Madeb, Ralph; Shapiro, Sara; Shohat,
Tamy; Somekh, Eli; Rimmar, Yossi; Gershtein, Vladimir; Gershtein,
Rosa; Marva, Esther; Lahat, Nitza (October 2000). "
in Fully Vaccinated Children in Day-Care Centers, Israel". Archived
from the original on 2016-04-02.
Pertussis Vaccines:WHO Position Paper" (PDF). August 2015. Archived
(PDF) from the original on 2016-03-04.
^ Altunaiji, S; Kukuruzovic, R; Curtis, N; Massie, J (Jul 18, 2007).
Antibiotics for whooping cough (pertussis)". Cochrane Database of
Systematic Reviews (3): CD004404. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004404.pub3.
^ Wang, K; Bettiol, S; Thompson, MJ; Roberts, NW; Perera, R; Heneghan,
CJ; Harnden, A (Sep 22, 2014). "Symptomatic treatment of the cough in
whooping cough". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 9: CD003257.
doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003257.pub5. PMID 25243777.
^ a b c "Pertussis: Complications". Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention. Archived from the original on 14 August 2012. Retrieved 24
^ Carbonetti, Nicholas H (March 2010). "
Pertussis toxin and adenylate
cyclase toxin: key virulence factors of
Bordetella pertussis and cell
biology tools". Future Microbiol. 5 (3): 455–469.
doi:10.2217/fmb.09.133. PMC 2851156 . PMID 20210554.
^ Guinto-Ocampo H, McNeil BK, Aronoff SC (April 27, 2010). "Pertussis:
Follow-up". Emedicine. WebMD. Archived from the original on August 14,
2010. Retrieved September 29, 2010.
Cough Cases in Other Countries CDC".
www.cdc.gov. Archived from the original on 2016-03-01. Retrieved
^ a b "
Pertussis in Other Countries". Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention (CDC). Archived from the original on 12 May 2013. Retrieved
27 May 2013.
Cough Surveillance Cases by Year CDC".
www.cdc.gov. Archived from the original on 10 April 2017. Retrieved 10
^ Gregory DS (2006). "Pertussis: a disease affecting all ages". Am Fam
Physician. 74 (3): 420–6. PMID 16913160. Archived from the
original on 2008-05-16.
Cough – Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, Diagnosis – -
C-Health Archived 2011-06-22 at the Wayback Machine.
^ Lavelle P (January 20, 2009). "A bad year for whooping cough".
Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on
October 26, 2009.
^ Kate Murphy. "Enduring and Painful,
Pertussis Leaps Back" Archived
2013-05-24 at the Wayback Machine.. The New York Times. 22 February
^ Miriam Falco (October 20, 2010). "Ten infants dead in California
whooping cough outbreak". CNN. Archived from the original on October
21, 2010. Retrieved 2010-10-21. Whooping cough, also known as
pertussis, has claimed the 10th victim in California, in what health
officials are calling the worst outbreak in 60 years.
Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Outbreaks". Centers for Disease Control
and Prevention. January 11, 2011. Archived from the original on July
^ Rong-Gong Lin II (September 7, 2010). "Diagnoses lagged in baby
deaths". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on September
10, 2010. Retrieved 2010-09-08.
^ Shute, Nancy (30 September 2013). "Vaccine Refusuals Fueled
Cough Epidemic". NPR. Archived from the original
on 5 October 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2013.
^ Atwell JE, Van Otterloo J, Zipprich J, Winter K, Harriman K, Salmon
DA, Halsey NA, Omer SB (2013). "Nonmedical vaccine exemptions and
pertussis in California, 2010". Pediatrics. 132 (4): 624–30.
doi:10.1542/peds.2013-0878. PMID 24082000.
^ Donna Gordon Blankinship (May 10, 2012). "Whooping cough epidemic
declared in Wash. state". Associated Press, Seattle Times. Archived
from the original on 13 May 2012. Retrieved 14 May 2012.
Washington State Department of Health
Washington State Department of Health (April 2012). "Whooping cough
cases reach epidemic levels in much of Washington" (PDF). Washington
State Department of Health. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20
January 2015. Retrieved 14 May 2012.
^ a b Karen Herzog (Aug 17, 2012). "Wisconsin has highest rate of
whooping cough". the Journal Sentinel. Archived from the original on
19 August 2012. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
^ Johnson, T. (December 13, 2012). "Whooping cough epidemic declared
in Vermont". Burlington Free Press. Retrieved 14 December 2012.
^ Baker JP, Katz SL (2004). "Childhood vaccine development: an
overview". Pediatr Res. 55 (2): 347–56.
doi:10.1203/01.PDR.0000106317.36875.6A. PMID 14630981.
^ "Changing the Face of Medicine Dr. Leila Alice Daughtry Denmark".
www.nlm.nih.gov. Archived from the original on 2015-03-21. Retrieved
^ Bannink, Jill. "Finding aid for the Michigan women and the whooping
cough vaccine collection[s]" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original
^ Sato Y, Kimura M, Fukumi H (1984). "Development of a pertussis
component vaccine in Japan". Lancet. 1 (8369): 122–6.
doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(84)90061-8. PMID 6140441.
^ a b Huber, Peter (July 8, 1991). "Junk Science in the Courtroom".
Forbes. p. 68. Archived from the original on October 25,
^ Cherry, James D. (March 2007). "Historical Perspective on Pertussis
and Use of Vaccines to Prevent It: 100 years of pertussis (the cough
of 100 days)". Microbe Magazine. Archived from the original on
^ Cherry JD (1990). "'
Pertussis vaccine encephalopathy': it is time to
recognize it as the myth that it is". J Am Med Assoc. 263 (12):
1679–80. doi:10.1001/jama.263.12.1679. PMID 2308206.
^ Geier D, Geier M (2002). "The true story of pertussis vaccination: a
sordid legacy?". J Hist Med Allied Sci. 57 (3): 249–84.
doi:10.1093/jhmas/57.3.249. PMID 12211972.
^ Gangarosa EJ, Galazka AM, Wolfe CR, Phillips LM, Gangarosa RE,
Miller E, Chen RT (1998). "Impact of anti-vaccine movements on
pertussis control: the untold story". Lancet. 351 (9099): 356–61.
doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(97)04334-1. PMID 9652634.
^ Rachel K. Sobel (22 May 2011). "At last: Ignorance inoculation".
Philadelphia Inquirer. Archived from the original on 4 June
^ Evans G (2006). "Update on vaccine liability in the United States:
presentation at the National Vaccine Program Office Workshop on
strengthening the supply of routinely recommended vaccines in the
United States, 12 February 2002". Clin Infect Dis. 42 Suppl 3:
S130–7. doi:10.1086/499592. PMID 16447135.
^ Smith MH (1988). "National Childhood Vaccine Injury Compensation
Act". Pediatrics. 82 (2): 264–9. PMID 3399300.
^ Pichichero ME, Rennels MB, Edwards KM, Blatter MM, Marshall GS,
Bologa M, Wang E, Mills E (June 2005). "Combined tetanus, diphtheria,
and 5-component pertussis vaccine for use in adolescents and adults".
J Am Med Assoc. 293 (24): 3003–11. doi:10.1001/jama.293.24.3003.
V · T · D
eMedicine: emerg/394 ped/1778
Patient UK: Pertussis
Wikipedia's health care articles can be viewed offline with the
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pertussis.
Pertussis at Todar's Online Textbook of Bacteriology
PBS NOVA – Vaccines: Calling The Shots
New England Journal of Medicine, Classic Whooping
Cough sound file,
Supplement to the N Engl J Med 2004; 350:2023-2026
Bacterial disease: Proteobacterial G−
primarily A00–A79, 001–041, 080–109
Epidemic typhus, Brill–Zinsser disease, Flying squirrel typhus
Rocky Mountain spotted fever
Japanese spotted fever
North Asian tick typhus
Queensland tick typhus
Flinders Island spotted fever
African tick bite fever
American tick bite fever
Rickettsia aeschlimannii infection
Flea-borne spotted fever
Ehrlichiosis: Anaplasma phagocytophilum
Human granulocytic anaplasmosis, Anaplasmosis
Human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis
Ehrlichiosis ewingii infection
Bartonellosis: Bartonella henselae
Either B. henselae or B. quintana
Carrion's disease, Verruga peruana
Meningococcal disease, Waterhouse–Friderichsen syndrome,
Eikenella corrodens/Kingella kingae
Burkholderia cepacia complex
Bordetella pertussis/Bordetella parapertussis
Rhinoscleroma, Klebsiella pneumonia
Escherichia coli: Enterotoxigenic
Enterobacter aerogenes/Enterobacter cloacae
Citrobacter koseri/Citrobacter freundii
Typhoid fever, Paratyphoid fever, Salmonellosis
Shigellosis, Bacillary dysentery
Proteus mirabilis/Proteus vulgaris
Far East scarlet-like fever
Brazilian purpuric fever
Legionella pneumophila/Legionella longbeachae
Aeromonas hydrophila/Aeromonas veronii
Campylobacteriosis, Guillain–Barré syndrome
Peptic ulcer, MALT lymphoma, Gastric cancer