NASTAʿLīQ (Persian : نستعلیق, from نسخ Naskh and
تعلیق Taʿlīq) is one of the main calligraphic hands used in
A less elaborate version of Nastaʿlīq serves as the preferred style for writing in Kashmiri , Punjabi and Urdu , and it is often used alongside Naskh for Pashto . In Persian it is used for poetry only. Nastaʿlīq was historically used for writing Ottoman Turkish , where it was known as TâLIK (not to be confused with a totally different Persian style, also called taʿlīq ; to distinguish the two, Ottomans referred to the latter as taʿlīq-i qadim, "old taʿlīq").
Nastaʿlīq is the core script of the post-
Nastaʿlīq is amongst the most fluid calligraphy styles for the
Arabic alphabet . It has short verticals with no serifs, and long
horizontal strokes. It is written using a piece of trimmed reed with a
tip of 5–10 mm (0.2–0.4 in), called qalam ("pen", in
Two important forms of Nastaʿlīq panels are Chalipa and Siah-Mashq . A Chalipa ("cross", in Persian) panel usually consists of four diagonal hemistiches (half-lines) of poetry, clearly signifying a moral, ethical or poetic concept. Siah- Mashq ("black drill") panels, however, communicate via composition and form, rather than content. In Siah-Mashq, repeating a few letters or words (sometimes even one) virtually inks the whole panel. The content is thus of less significance and not clearly accessible.
* 1 History * 2 Notable Nastaʿlīq calligraphers * 3 Etiquette
* 4 Nastaʿlīq typesetting
* 4.1 Nastaʿlīq electronic publishing and DTP
* 5.1 Gallery
* 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Further reading * 9 External links
Islamic conquest of Persia , the Iranian Persian people
Nastaʿlīq thrived, and many prominent calligraphers contributed to its splendor and beauty. It is believed that Nastaʿlīq reached its highest elegance in Mir Emad 's works. The current practice of Nastaʿlīq is, however, heavily based on Mirza Reza Kalhor 's technique. Kalhor modified and adapted Nastaʿlīq to be easily used with printing machines, which in turn helped wide dissemination of his transcripts. He also devised methods for teaching Nastaʿlīq and specified clear proportional rules for it, which many could follow.
Mughal Empire used Persian as the court language during their
South Asia . During this time, Nastaʿlīq came into
widespread use in
South Asia . The influence continues to this day. In
Pakistan, almost everything in
Urdu is written in the script,
constituting the greatest part of Nastaʿlīq usage in the world. The
situation of Nastaʿlīq in
Bangladesh used to be the same as in
Nastaʿlīq is a descendant of Nasḫ and Taʿlīq. Shikasta Nastaʿlīq (literally "broken Nastaʿlīq") style is a development of Nastaʿlīq.
NOTABLE NASTAʿLīQ CALLIGRAPHERS
Example showing «خط نستعلیق» (Nastaʿlīq script) written in Nastaʿlīq.
And others, including Mirza Jafar Tabrizi, Abdul Rashid Deilami, Sultan Ali Mashadi, Mir Ali Heravi, Emad Ul-Kottab, Mirza Gholam Reza Esfehani, Emadol Kotab, Yaghoot Mostasami, and Darvish Abdol Majid Taleghani.
And among contemporary artists: Hassan Mirkhani, Hossein Mirkhani, Abbas Akhavein and Qolam-Hossein Amirkhani, Ali Akbar Kaveh, Kaboli.
A Nastaʿlīq disciple was supposed to qualify himself spiritually for being a calligrapher, besides learning how to prepare qalam, ink, paper and, more importantly, master Nastaʿlīq. For instance see Adab al-Mashq, a manual of penmanship attributed to Mir Emad .
Folio of Poetry From the Divan of Sultan Husayn Mirza, ca. 1490.
Quatrain on the Virtue of Patience by Muhammad Muhsin Lahuri of the Mughal Empire . *
Spousal Advice by Abdallah Lahuri of the Mughal Empire .
Nastaʿlīq Typography first started with attempts to develop a metallic type for the script, but all such efforts failed. Fort William College developed a Nastaʿlīq Type, which was not close enough to Nastaʿlīq and hence was never used other than by the college library to publish its own books. The State of Hyderabad Dakan (now in India) also attempted to develop a Nastaʿlīq Typewriter but this attempt failed miserably and the file was closed with the phrase “Preparation of Nastaʿlīq on commercial basis is impossible”. Basically, in order to develop such a metal type, thousands of pieces would be required.
Modern Nastaʿlīq typography began with the invention of Noori Nastaleeq which was first created as a digital font in 1981 through the collaboration of Mirza Ahmad Jamil TI (as Calligrapher) and Monotype Imaging (formerly Monotype Corp text-decoration: none">Nastaʿlīq support, through Microsoft's " Urdu Typesetting" font.
NASTAʿLīQ ELECTRONIC PUBLISHING AND DTP
In 1994, InPage Urdu, which is a fully functional page layout software for Windows akin to Quark XPress , was developed for Pakistan's newspaper industry. This was done by an Indian software company – Concept Software Pvt Ltd – led by Rarendra Pratap Singh and Vijay Krishan Gupta, with the input and help of Firoz Hashmi expert in calligraphy text-decoration: none">Nastaʿlīq fonts which were created by Syed Manzar Hasan Zaidi. They licensed and improved the Noori Nastaliq font from Monotype at that time. This font, with its vast ligature base of over 20,000, is still used in current versions of the software for Windows. As of 2009 InPage has become Unicode based, supporting more languages, and the Faiz Lahori Nastaliq font with Kasheeda developed by Syed Manzar Hasan Zaidi, Axis SoftMedia Pvt. Ltd., has been added to it along with compatibility with OpenType Unicode fonts. Nastaliq Kashish has been made for the first time in the history of Nastaʿlīq Typography.
InPage has been widely marketed and sold in the UK,
Nowadays, nearly all Urdu newspapers, magazines, journals, and periodicals are composed on computers via various Urdu software programmes, the most widespread of which is the InPage Desktop Publishing package.
Shekasteh or Shekasteh NASTAʿLīQ (Persian : شکستهنستعلیق; "cursive Nastaʿlīq", or literally "broken Nastaʿlīq") style is a successor of Nastaʿlīq.
A line of poetry by the Iranian poet Omar Khayyam in Shikasta Nastaʿlīq. In print: این قافلهٔ عُمر عجب میگذرد *
A ruba\'i of Omar Khayyam in Shikasta Nastaʿlīq. In print: گویند کسان بهشت با حور خوش است من میگویم که آب انگور خوش است این نقد بگیر و دست از آن نسیه بدار کاواز دهل شنیدن از دور خوش است *
Fath Ali Shah Qajar 's order in Shikasta Nastaliq script, January 1831
* ^ The Cambridge History of Islam. By P. M. Holt, et al., Cambridge University Press, 1977, ISBN 0-521-29138-0 , p. 723. *