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NASTAʿLīQ (Persian : نستعلیق, from نسخ Naskh and تعلیق Taʿlīq) is one of the main calligraphic hands used in writing the Persian script , and traditionally the predominant style in Persian calligraphy . It was developed in Iran in the 14th and 15th centuries. It is sometimes used to write Arabic-language text (where it is known as _Taʿliq_ or _Persian _ and is mainly used for titles and headings), but its use has always been more popular in the Persian, Turkic and Urdu sphere of influence. Nastaʿlīq has extensively been (and still is) practised in Iran , Pakistan , India , Afghanistan and other countries for written poetry and as a form of art.

A less elaborate version of Nastaʿlīq serves as the preferred style for writing in Kashmiri , Punjabi and Urdu , and it is often used alongside Naskh for Pashto . In Persian it is used for poetry only. Nastaʿlīq was historically used for writing Ottoman Turkish , where it was known as _TâLIK_ (not to be confused with a totally different Persian style, also called _taʿlīq _; to distinguish the two, Ottomans referred to the latter as _taʿlīq-i qadim_, "old taʿlīq").

Nastaʿlīq is the core script of the post- Sassanid Persian writing tradition, and is equally important in the areas under its cultural influence. The languages of Iran (Western Persian, Azeri, Balochi, Kurdi, Luri, etc.), Afghanistan (Dari, Pashto, Uzbek, Turkmen, etc.), Pakistan (Punjabi, Urdu, Kashmiri, Saraiki, etc.), and the Turkic Uyghur language of the Chinese province of Xinjiang , rely on _Nastaʿlīq_. Under the name _taʿliq_ (lit. “suspending ”), it was also beloved by Ottoman calligraphers who developed the Diwani (_divanî_) and Ruqah (_rık’a_) styles from it.

Nastaʿlīq is amongst the most fluid calligraphy styles for the Arabic alphabet . It has short verticals with no serifs, and long horizontal strokes. It is written using a piece of trimmed reed with a tip of 5–10 mm (0.2–0.4 in), called _qalam _ ("pen", in Arabic and Persian قلم), and carbon ink, named _davat_. The nib of a _qalam_ can be split in the middle to facilitate ink absorption.

Two important forms of Nastaʿlīq panels are _ Chalipa _ and _Siah- Mashq _. A _Chalipa_ ("cross", in Persian) panel usually consists of four diagonal hemistiches (half-lines) of poetry, clearly signifying a moral, ethical or poetic concept. _Siah-Mashq_ ("black drill") panels, however, communicate via composition and form, rather than content. In _Siah-Mashq_, repeating a few letters or words (sometimes even one) virtually inks the whole panel. The content is thus of less significance and not clearly accessible.

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 Notable Nastaʿlīq calligraphers * 3 Etiquette

* 4 Nastaʿlīq typesetting

* 4.1 Nastaʿlīq electronic publishing and DTP

* 5 Shikasta Nastaʿlīq

* 5.1 Gallery

* 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Further reading * 9 External links

HISTORY

Persian Chalipa panel, Mir Emad . In print: بودم به تو عمری و ترا سیر ندیدم از وصل تو هرگز به مرادی نرسیدم از بهر تو بیگانه شدم از همه خویشان وحشی صفت از خلق به یکبار بریدم

After the Islamic conquest of Persia , the Iranian Persian people adopted the Perso-Arabic script , and the art of Persian calligraphy flourished in Iran as territories of the former Persian empire. Apparently, Mir Ali Tabrizi (14th century) developed Nastaʿlīq by combining two existing scripts of Nasḫ and Taʿlīq. Hence, it was originally called Nasḫ-Taʿlīq. Another theory holds that the name _Nastaʿlīq_ means "that which abrogated (_naskh_) _Taʿlīq_".

Nastaʿlīq thrived, and many prominent calligraphers contributed to its splendor and beauty. It is believed that Nastaʿlīq reached its highest elegance in Mir Emad 's works. The current practice of Nastaʿlīq is, however, heavily based on Mirza Reza Kalhor 's technique. Kalhor modified and adapted Nastaʿlīq to be easily used with printing machines, which in turn helped wide dissemination of his transcripts. He also devised methods for teaching Nastaʿlīq and specified clear proportional rules for it, which many could follow.

The Mughal Empire used Persian as the court language during their rule over South Asia . During this time, Nastaʿlīq came into widespread use in South Asia . The influence continues to this day. In Pakistan, almost everything in Urdu is written in the script, constituting the greatest part of _Nastaʿlīq_ usage in the world. The situation of Nastaʿlīq in Bangladesh used to be the same as in Pakistan until 1971, when Urdu ceased to remain an official language. Today, only a few people use this form of writing in Bangladesh .

Nastaʿlīq is a descendant of Nasḫ and Taʿlīq. Shikasta Nastaʿlīq (literally "broken Nastaʿlīq") style is a development of Nastaʿlīq.

NOTABLE NASTAʿLīQ CALLIGRAPHERS

Example showing «خط نستعلیق» (Nastaʿlīq script) written in Nastaʿlīq.

* Mir Ali Tabrizi * Mir Emad * Mirza Buzurg-i-Nuri * Mishkín- Qalam * Mirza Mohammad Reza Kalhor

And others, including Mirza Jafar Tabrizi, Abdul Rashid Deilami, Sultan Ali Mashadi, Mir Ali Heravi, Emad Ul-Kottab, Mirza Gholam Reza Esfehani, Emadol Kotab, Yaghoot Mostasami, and Darvish Abdol Majid Taleghani.

And among contemporary artists: Hassan Mirkhani, Hossein Mirkhani, Abbas Akhavein and Qolam-Hossein Amirkhani, Ali Akbar Kaveh, Kaboli.

ETIQUETTE

Islamic calligraphy was originally used to adorn Islamic religious texts, specifically the Qur\'an , as pictorial ornaments were prohibited in Islam . Therefore, a sense of sacredness always hovered in the background of calligraphy.

A Nastaʿlīq disciple was supposed to qualify himself spiritually for being a calligrapher, besides learning how to prepare _qalam_, ink, paper and, more importantly, master Nastaʿlīq. For instance see _Adab al-Mashq_, a manual of penmanship attributed to Mir Emad .

*

_Folio of Poetry From the Divan of Sultan Husayn Mirza_, ca. 1490. Brooklyn Museum . *

Quatrain on the Virtue of Patience by Muhammad Muhsin Lahuri of the Mughal Empire . *

Spousal Advice by Abdallah Lahuri of the Mughal Empire .

NASTAʿLīQ TYPESETTING

An example of the Nastaʿlīq script used for writing Urdu

Nastaʿlīq Typography first started with attempts to develop a metallic type for the script, but all such efforts failed. Fort William College developed a Nastaʿlīq Type, which was not close enough to Nastaʿlīq and hence was never used other than by the college library to publish its own books. The State of Hyderabad Dakan (now in India) also attempted to develop a Nastaʿlīq Typewriter but this attempt failed miserably and the file was closed with the phrase “Preparation of Nastaʿlīq on commercial basis is impossible”. Basically, in order to develop such a metal type, thousands of pieces would be required.

Modern Nastaʿlīq typography began with the invention of _Noori Nastaleeq_ which was first created as a digital font in 1981 through the collaboration of Mirza Ahmad Jamil TI (as Calligrapher) and Monotype Imaging (formerly Monotype Corp text-decoration: none">Nastaʿlīq support, through Microsoft's " Urdu Typesetting" font.

NASTAʿLīQ ELECTRONIC PUBLISHING AND DTP

In 1994, InPage Urdu, which is a fully functional page layout software for Windows akin to Quark XPress , was developed for Pakistan's newspaper industry. This was done by an Indian software company – Concept Software Pvt Ltd – led by Rarendra Pratap Singh and Vijay Krishan Gupta, with the input and help of Firoz Hashmi expert in calligraphy text-decoration: none">Nastaʿlīq fonts which were created by Syed Manzar Hasan Zaidi. They licensed and improved the _Noori Nastaliq_ font from Monotype at that time. This font, with its vast ligature base of over 20,000, is still used in current versions of the software for Windows. As of 2009 InPage has become Unicode based, supporting more languages, and the _Faiz Lahori Nastaliq_ font with Kasheeda developed by Syed Manzar Hasan Zaidi, Axis SoftMedia Pvt. Ltd., has been added to it along with compatibility with OpenType Unicode fonts. Nastaliq Kashish has been made for the first time in the history of Nastaʿlīq Typography.

InPage has been widely marketed and sold in the UK, India and elsewhere since 1994, and is utilized in the majority of UK schools and local authorities where Urdu is a main language of pupils and constituents. InPage is also reported to be in use on millions of PCs in India, Pakistan and other countries of the world.

Nowadays, nearly all Urdu newspapers, magazines, journals, and periodicals are composed on computers via various Urdu software programmes, the most widespread of which is the InPage Desktop Publishing package.

SHIKASTA NASTAʿLīQ

_Shekasteh_ or _Shekasteh_ NASTAʿLīQ (Persian : شکسته‌نستعلیق‎‎; "cursive Nastaʿlīq", or literally "broken Nastaʿlīq") style is a successor of Nastaʿlīq.

GALLERY

*

A line of poetry by the Iranian poet Omar Khayyam in Shikasta Nastaʿlīq. In print: این قافلهٔ عُمر عجب میگذرد *

A ruba\'i of Omar Khayyam in Shikasta Nastaʿlīq. In print: گویند کسان بهشت با حور خوش است من میگویم که آب انگور خوش است این نقد بگیر و دست از آن نسیه بدار کاواز دهل شنیدن از دور خوش است *

Nastaʿlīq *

Fath Ali Shah Qajar 's order in Shikasta Nastaliq script, January 1831

SEE ALSO

* Islamic calligraphy * Persian calligraphy * Shahmukhi script * Shekaste-Nasta\'liq * Urdu alphabet * Modi , another "broken" script

REFERENCES

* ^ _The Cambridge History of Islam_. By P. M. Holt, et al., Cambridge University Press, 1977, ISBN 0-521-29138-0 , p. 723. * ^ Hamed, Payman. "Famous Calligraphers - Persian Calligraphy- All about Persian Calligraphy". _www.persiancalligraphy.org_. * ^ ""The Scripts"". * ^ "Famous Calligraphers". _Persian Calligraphy_. Retrieved 12 January 2012. * ^ Nastaliq Script – Persian Calligraphy Archived September 28, 2010, at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Khurshiq, Iqbal. "زندگی آگے بڑھنے کا نام اور جمود موت ہے: نوری نستعلیق کی ایجاد سے خط نستعلیق کی دائمی حفاظت ہوگئی". Express. Retrieved 24 November 2013. * ^ ":مائیکروسافٹ ڈا ٔون لوڈ مرکزWindows". Microsoft.com. Retrieved 2011-12-18. * ^ "The evolving Story of Locale Support, part 9: Nastaleeq vs. Nastaliq? Either way, Windows 8 has got it!". MSDN Blogs. Retrieved 2013-03-24.

FURTHER READING

* Habib-ollah Feza'eli, _Ta'lim-e Khatt_, Tehran: Sorush, 1977 (in Persian) * Sheila Blair, _Islamic Calligraphy_, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2005. * H.R. Ghelichkhānī, _The Oldest Inscriptions written in the Nast‘alīq Calligraphic Hand_, Quarterly Naqd-O-Taḥqīq, ISSN 2454-2563 , Editor: S. Naqi Abbas (Kaify), Volume 1, Issue IV, pp. 48–54, Oct-Nov-Dec. 2015, New Delhi (in Persian)

EXTERNAL LINKS

_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to NASTALIQ _.

* Rumicode: Online Service For Nastaʿlīq Calligraphy * Nastaliq Online: Online Service For Nastaʿlīq Calligraphy * Download Nastaʿlīq Unicode Font by the Supreme Council of ICT Iran * Download IPA for Urdu and Roman Urdu for Mobile and Internet Users * Iranian Calligraphers Association * Center for Research in Urdu Language Processing – Download Urdu Fonts * Free