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Coalition victory

* Iraq
Iraq
expelled from Kuwait * Kuwaiti monarchy restored * Destruction of Iraqi and Kuwaiti infrastructure * Failed Shia/Kurdish uprisings against the Iraqi government * Iraqi Kurdistan
Iraqi Kurdistan
obtains autonomy, establishment of the northern Iraq
Iraq
no fly zone by the U.S. * Saddam Hussein
Saddam Hussein
retains power * U.N. sanctions against Iraq
Iraq
maintained until 2003 * United Nations Security Council Resolution 687establishes cease-fire terms, beginning of the Iraq
Iraq
disarmament controversies

BELLIGERENTS

KUWAIT UNITED STATES United Kingdom
United Kingdom
France
France
Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
COALITION FORCES

* Egypt
Egypt
* Syria
Syria
* Morocco
Morocco
* Oman
Oman
* Pakistan
Pakistan
* Canada
Canada
* United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
* Qatar
Qatar
* Bangladesh
Bangladesh
* Italy
Italy
* Australia
Australia
* Netherlands
Netherlands
* Niger
Niger
* Philippines
Philippines
* Sweden
Sweden
* Argentina
Argentina
* Senegal
Senegal
* Spain
Spain
* Bahrain
Bahrain
* Belgium
Belgium
* Poland
Poland
* South Korea
South Korea
* Singapore
Singapore
* Norway
Norway
* Czechoslovakia * Greece
Greece
* Denmark
Denmark
* New Zealand
New Zealand
* Hungary
Hungary

IRAQ

COMMANDERS AND LEADERS

Sheikh Jaber Al Ahmad Sheikh Saad Al Abdullah George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
Dick Cheney
Dick Cheney
Colin Powell
Colin Powell
Norman Schwarzkopf John J. Yeosock Walter E. Boomer Charles Horner Stanley Arthur J. William Kime King Fahd
King Fahd
Saleh Al-Muhaya Khalid bin Sultan Margaret Thatcher
Margaret Thatcher
John Major
John Major
Peter de la Billière Brian Mulroney
Brian Mulroney
Hussain Muhammad Ershad
Hussain Muhammad Ershad
François Mitterrand
François Mitterrand
Michel Roquejeoffre Konstantinos Mitsotakis Ioannis Varvitsiotis

Saddam Hussein
Saddam Hussein
Ali Hassan al-Majid Izzat Ibrahim al-Douri Salah Aboud Mahmoud
Salah Aboud Mahmoud
Hussein Kamel al-Majid Abid Hamid Mahmud

STRENGTH

956,600, including 700,000 US troops 650,000 soldiers

CASUALTIES AND LOSSES

COALITION: 292 killed (147 killed by enemy action, 145 non-hostile deaths) 467 wounded in action 776 wounded 31 Tanks destroyed/disabled 32 Bradley IFVs destroyed/damaged

1 M113 APC destroyed 2 British Warrior APCs destroyed 1 Artillery
Artillery
Piece destroyed 75 Aircraft destroyed KUWAIT: 57 aircraft lost, At least 8 aircraft captured (Mirage F1s) 4,200 killed, 12,000 captured ≈200 tanks destroyed/captured 850+ other armored vehicles destroyed/captured 17 ships sunk, 6 captured Hundreds tanks destroyed/captured about 1000 IFVs and APCs dozens aircraft dozens ships IRAQI: 20,000–35,000 killed 75,000+ wounded 3,700 tanks destroyed 2,400 APCs destroyed 2,600 Artillery
Artillery
Pieces destroyed 110 Aircraft destroyed 137 Aircraft escaped to Iran 19 naval ships sunk, 6 damaged

KUWAITI CIVILIAN LOSSES: Over 1,000 killed 600 missing people IRAQI CIVILIAN LOSSES: About 3,664 killed OTHER CIVILIAN LOSSES: 300 civilians killed, more injured

* v * t * e

Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
Wars

* Iranian Revolution
Iranian Revolution
(1978–79) * Iran– Iraq
Iraq
War (1980–88) * Invasion of Kuwait
Invasion of Kuwait
(1990) * Gulf War
Gulf War
(1990–91) * Iraqi Kurdish/Shi\'a uprisings (1991) * Iraq
Iraq
no-fly zones conflict (1991–2003) * Iraq
Iraq
missile strikes (1993) * Iraq
Iraq
missile strikes (1996) * Iraq
Iraq
bombing (1998) * 1999 Shia
Shia
uprising in Iraq
Iraq
* Iraq
Iraq
War (2003–11) * Iraqi insurgency (2011–13)
Iraqi insurgency (2011–13)
* Iraqi Civil War (2014–present)
Iraqi Civil War (2014–present)

* v * t * e

Gulf War
Gulf War

INVASION OF KUWAIT

* Kuwaiti Bridges * Dasman Palace * Failaka * British Airways Flight 149
British Airways Flight 149

COALITION INTERVENTION

* Khafji
Khafji
* Wadi Al-Batin

NAVAL OPERATIONS

* Ad-Dawrah * Qurah * Maradim * Bubiyan

AIR CAMPAIGN

* Air to Air combat * "Package Q" Air Strike * Ras Tanura * Samurra * Amiriyah

LIBERATION OF KUWAIT

* Order of battle * 67 Easting * 73 Easting * Al Busayyah * Phase Line Bullet * Medina
Medina
Ridge * Highway of Death * Jalibah * Norfolk * Kuwait
Kuwait
International Airport

POST-CEASEFIRE

* Rumaila * Safwan

Part of a series on

BA\\'ATHISM

Organisations

ARAB BA\\'ATH 1940–1947

ARAB BA\\'ATH MOVEMENT 1940–1947

BA\\'ATH PARTY 1947–1966

BA\\'ATH PARTY (PRO-IRAQI) 1968–2003

BA\\'ATH PARTY (PRO-SYRIAN) 1966–present

People

* Zaki al-Arsuzi
Zaki al-Arsuzi
* Michel Aflaq
Michel Aflaq
* Salah al-Din al-Bitar
Salah al-Din al-Bitar
* Abdullah Rimawi * Wahib al-Ghanim * Fuad al-Rikabi * Salah Jadid
Salah Jadid
* Hafez al-Assad
Hafez al-Assad
* Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr
Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr
* Saddam Hussein
Saddam Hussein
* Bashar al-Assad
Bashar al-Assad
* Izzat Ibrahim al-Douri

Literature

* On the Way of Resurrection * The Battle for One Destiny * The Genius of Arabic
Arabic
in Its Tongue

History

* BA\\'ATHIST IRAQ Ramadan Revolution
Ramadan Revolution
* November 1963 coup d\'état * 17 July Revolution * Iran– Iraq
Iraq
War * Gulf War * UN sanctions * Iraq
Iraq
War * De-Ba\'athification

* BA\\'ATHIST SYRIA Syrian Committee to Help
Help
Iraq
Iraq
* 1963 / 1966 coup d\'états

* Corrective Revolution * Civil War

Regional organisations

ALGERIA

* pro- Iraq
Iraq
* pro- Syria
Syria

BAHRAIN

* pro- Iraq
Iraq
* pro- Syria
Syria

EGYPT

* pro- Iraq
Iraq
* pro- Syria
Syria

IRAQ

* pro- Iraq
Iraq
* pro- Syria
Syria

JORDAN

* pro- Iraq
Iraq
* pro- Syria
Syria

KUWAIT

* pro- Iraq
Iraq

LEBANON

* pro- Iraq
Iraq
* pro- Syria
Syria

LIBYA

* pro- Iraq
Iraq

MAURITANIA

* pro- Iraq
Iraq
* pro- Syria
Syria

PALESTINE

* pro- Iraq
Iraq
* pro- Syria
Syria

SUDAN

* pro- Iraq
Iraq
* pro- Syria
Syria

SYRIA

* pro- Iraq
Iraq
* pro- Syria
Syria

TUNISIA

* pro- Iraq
Iraq
* pro- Syria
Syria

YEMEN

* pro- Iraq
Iraq
* pro- Syria
Syria

Splinter groups

ARAB SOCIALIST REVOLUTIONARY BA\\'ATH PARTY 1960–1962/63

SOCIALIST LEBANON 1965–1970

ARAB REVOLUTIONARY WORKERS PARTY 1966–present

DEMOCRATIC SOCIALIST ARAB BA\\'ATH PARTY 1970–present

SUDANESE BA\\'ATH PARTY 2002–present

Related topics

* Arab nationalism
Arab nationalism
* Arab socialism
Arab socialism
* Nasserism
Nasserism
* Pan-Arabism
Pan-Arabism
* Strasserism
Strasserism

* Politics portal * Socialism portal

* v * t * e

This article is part of a series about George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush

* Family * Bibliography * Electoral history

* 1966 U.S. House election

-------------------------

* VICE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES

* 1980 presidential campaign * 1980 Reagan-Bush Campaign

* Reagan assassination attempt * Deregulation

* 1984 Reagan-Bush Campaign

* Bush-Ferraro debate

-------------------------

PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES

* Presidency

* Timeline

-------------------------

* 1988 election

* Convention * "No new taxes"

* Inauguration

* Thousand points of light
Thousand points of light

* Foundation

* Gulf War * Invasion of Panama * Operation Restore Hope * NAFTA * Environmental policy * Foreign policy * International presidential trips * Judicial appointments * Pardons

* 1992 election

* Convention

-------------------------

LEGACY

* Presidential Library * Medal of Freedom * Bush School of Government * Reagan Award * USS _George H.W. Bush_ (CVN-77)

-------------------------

* v * t * e

The GULF WAR (2 August 1990 – 28 February 1991), codenamed OPERATION DESERT SHIELD (2 August 1990 – 17 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and OPERATION DESERT STORM (17 January 1991 – 28 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States
United States
against Iraq
Iraq
in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait
Kuwait
.

The war is also known under other names, such as the PERSIAN GULF WAR, FIRST GULF WAR, GULF WAR I, KUWAIT WAR, FIRST IRAQ WAR, or IRAQ WAR before the term " Iraq
Iraq
War" became identified instead with the 2003 Iraq
Iraq
War (also referred to in the US as "Operation Iraqi Freedom"). The Iraqi Army
Iraqi Army
's occupation of Kuwait
Kuwait
that began 2 August 1990 was met with international condemnation, and brought immediate economic sanctions against Iraq
Iraq
by members of the UN Security Council . US President George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
deployed US forces into Saudi Arabia , and urged other countries to send their own forces to the scene. An array of nations joined the coalition, the largest military alliance since World War II
World War II
. The great majority of the coalition's military forces were from the US, with Saudi Arabia, the United Kingdom, and Egypt
Egypt
as leading contributors, in that order. Kuwait
Kuwait
and Saudi Arabia paid around US$32 billion of the US$60 billion cost.

The war was marked by the introduction of live news broadcasts from the front lines of the battle, principally by the US network CNN
CNN
. The war has also earned the nickname _Video Game War_ after the daily broadcast of images from cameras on board US bombers during Operation Desert Storm.

The initial conflict to expel Iraqi troops from Kuwait
Kuwait
began with an aerial and naval bombardment on 17 January 1991, continuing for five weeks. This was followed by a ground assault on 24 February. This was a decisive victory for the coalition forces, who liberated Kuwait
Kuwait
and advanced into Iraqi territory. The coalition ceased its advance, and declared a ceasefire 100 hours after the ground campaign started. Aerial and ground combat was confined to Iraq, Kuwait, and areas on Saudi Arabia's border. Iraq
Iraq
launched Scud
Scud
missiles against coalition military targets in Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
and against Israel
Israel
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Terminology

* 1.1 Operational names * 1.2 Campaign names

* 2 Background

* 3 Invasion of Kuwait
Invasion of Kuwait

* 3.1 Kuwaiti resistance movement

* 4 Run-up to the war

* 4.1 Diplomatic means

* 4.2 Military means

* 4.2.1 Creating a coalition * 4.2.2 Justification for intervention

* 5 Early battles

* 5.1 Air campaign * 5.2 Iraqi missile strikes on Israel
Israel
and Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
* 5.3 Iraqi invasion of Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
(Battle of Khafji)

* 6 Counter reconnaissance * 7 Breach

* 8 Ground campaign

* 8.1 Kuwait\'s liberation * 8.2 Initial moves into Iraq
Iraq
* 8.3 Coalition forces enter Iraq
Iraq

* 9 The end of active hostilities

* 10 Coalition involvement

* 10.1 Australia
Australia
* 10.2 Argentina
Argentina
* 10.3 Canada
Canada
* 10.4 France
France
* 10.5 United Kingdom
United Kingdom

* 11 Casualties

* 11.1 Civilian * 11.2 Iraqi

* 11.3 Coalition

* 11.3.1 Friendly fire
Friendly fire

* 12 Controversies

* 12.1 Gulf War
Gulf War
Illness * 12.2 Effects of depleted uranium * 12.3 Highway of Death * 12.4 Bulldozer
Bulldozer
assault * 12.5 Palestinian exodus from Kuwait
Kuwait
* 12.6 Coalition bombing of Iraq\'s civilian infrastructure * 12.7 Abuse of Coalition POWs * 12.8 Operation Southern Watch
Operation Southern Watch
* 12.9 Sanctions * 12.10 Draining of the Qurna Marshes
Qurna Marshes
* 12.11 Oil spill
Oil spill
* 12.12 Kuwaiti oil fires

* 13 Cost

* 13.1 Effect on developing countries

* 14 Media coverage

* 15 Technology

* 15.1 Scud
Scud
and Patriot missiles

* 16 See also * 17 Notes * 18 References

* 19 Bibliography

* 19.1 Films * 19.2 Novels

* 20 External links

TERMINOLOGY

The following names have been used to describe the conflict itself:

* _Gulf War_ and _ Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
War_ have been the most common terms for the conflict used within western countries . A problem with these terms is that the usage is ambiguous, having now been applied to at least three conflicts: see Gulf War (other). The use of the term _Persian Gulf_ (as opposed to _Arabian Gulf_) is also disputed: see Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
naming dispute . With no consensus of naming, various publications have attempted to refine the name. Some variants include:

* _Gulf War_ (e.g. _The Gulf War_, BBC
BBC
television series, 2005; _Modern Conflicts: The Gulf War_, Discovery Channel
Discovery Channel
DVD set, 2010) * _ Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
War_ (e.g. _Encyclopedia of the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
War_, Mark Grossman, 1995; _An Operational Analysis of the Persian Gulf War_, US Army War College , 2016) * _ Gulf War
Gulf War
(1990–1991)_ (e.g. _The Gulf War
Gulf War
1991 (Essential Histories)_, Alastair Finlan, 2003; _Gulf War, 1990–91_, William Thomas Allison, 2012) * _First Gulf War_ (to distinguish it from the 2003 invasion of Iraq and the subsequent Iraq
Iraq
War ) (e.g. _ Gulf War
Gulf War
One: Real Voices from the Front Line, Hugh McManners, 2010)_ * _Second Gulf War_ (to distinguish it from the Iran– Iraq
Iraq
War ) (e.g. _ Iraq
Iraq
and the Second Gulf War: State Building and Regime Security_, Mohammad-Mahmoud Mohamedou, 1997)

* _Liberation of Kuwait
Kuwait
_ ( Arabic
Arabic
: تحرير الكويت‎‎) (_taḥrīr al-kuwayt_) is the term used by Kuwait
Kuwait
and most of the coalition's Arab states, including Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Egypt, and the United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
. * Other language terms include French : _la Guerre du Golfe_ and German : _Golfkrieg_ (_Gulf War_); German : _Zweiter Golfkrieg_ (_Second Gulf War_); French : _Guerre du Koweït_ (_War of Kuwait_) * _The mother of all battles_ ( Arabic
Arabic
: أم المعارك‎‎) (_umm al-ma‘ārik_) is a term derived from Saddam Hussein
Saddam Hussein
(e.g. _The Mother of All Battles: Saddam Hussein's Strategic Plan for the Persian Gulf War_, Kevin M. Woods, 2008).

OPERATIONAL NAMES

Most of the coalition states used various names for their operations and the war's operational phases. These are sometimes incorrectly used as the conflict's overall name, especially the US _Desert Storm_:

* _Operation Desert Shield_ was the US operational name for the US buildup of forces and Saudi Arabia's defense from 2 August 1990, to 16 January 1991.

* _Operation Desert Storm_ was the US name of the airland conflict from 17 January 1991, through 11 April 1991.

* _Operation Desert Sabre_ (early name _Operation Desert Sword_) was the US name for the airland offensive against the Iraqi Army
Iraqi Army
in the Kuwaiti Theater of Operations (the "100-hour war") from 24–28 February 1991, in itself, part of _Operation Desert Storm_.

* _ Operation Desert Farewell_ was the name given to the return of US units and equipment to the US in 1991 after Kuwait's liberation, sometimes referred to as _Operation Desert Calm_. * _ Operation Granby_ was the British name for British military activities during the operations and conflict. * _ Opération Daguet_ was the French name for French military activities in the conflict. * _ Operation Friction_ was the name of the Canadian operations * _Operazione Locusta _ (Italian for Locust
Locust
) was the Italian name for the operations and conflict.

In addition, various phases of each operation may have a unique operational name.

CAMPAIGN NAMES

The US divided the conflict into three major campaigns:

* _Defense of Saudi Arabian country_ for the period 2 August 1990, through 16 January 1991. * _Liberation and Defense of Kuwait_ for the period 17 January 1991, through 11 April 1991. * _Southwest Asia Cease-Fire_ for the period 12 April 1991, through 30 November 1995, including _ Operation Provide Comfort
Operation Provide Comfort
_.

BACKGROUND

See also: Iraq– United States
United States
relations

Throughout the Cold War
Cold War
, Iraq
Iraq
had been an ally of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
, and there was a history of friction between it and the United States. The US was concerned with Iraq's position on Israeli–Palestinian politics. The US also disliked Iraqi support for many Arab and Palestinian militant groups such as Abu Nidal, which led to Iraq's inclusion on the developing US list of State Sponsors of Terrorismon 29 December 1979. The US remained officially neutral after Iraq's invasion of Iran in 1980, which became the Iran– Iraq
Iraq
War , although it provided resources, political support, and some "non-military" aircraft to Iraq. In March 1982, Iran began a successful counteroffensive ( Operation Undeniable Victory), and the US increased its support for Iraq
Iraq
to prevent Iran from forcing a surrender. In a US bid to open full diplomatic relations with Iraq, the country was removed from the US list of State Sponsors of Terrorism. Ostensibly, this was because of improvement in the regime's record, although former US Assistant Defense Secretary Noel Koch later stated: "No one had any doubts about continued involvement in terrorism ... The real reason was to help them succeed in the war against Iran." With Iraq's newfound success in the war, and the Iranian rebuff of a peace offer in July, arms sales to Iraq
Iraq
reached a record spike in 1982. When Iraqi President Saddam Hussein
Saddam Hussein
expelled Abu Nidalto Syria
Syria
at the US's request in November 1983, the Reagan administration sent Donald Rumsfeld to meet Saddam as a special envoy and to cultivate ties. By the time the ceasefire with Iran was signed in August 1988, Iraq
Iraq
was heavily debt-ridden and tensions within society were rising. Most of its debt was owed to Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
and Kuwait. Iraq
Iraq
pressured both nations to forgive the debts, but they refused. Map of Kuwait
Kuwait

The Iraq– Kuwait
Kuwait
dispute also involved Iraqi claims to Kuwait
Kuwait
as Iraqi territory. Kuwait
Kuwait
had been a part of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
's province of Basra , something that Iraq
Iraq
claimed made it rightful Iraqi territory. Its ruling dynasty, the al-Sabah family , had concluded a protectorate agreement in 1899 that assigned responsibility for its foreign affairs to the United Kingdom. The UK drew the border between the two countries in 1922, making Iraq
Iraq
virtually landlocked. Kuwait rejected Iraqi attempts to secure further provisions in the region.

Iraq
Iraq
also accused Kuwait
Kuwait
of exceeding its OPEC
OPEC
quotas for oil production. In order for the cartel to maintain its desired price of $18 a barrel, discipline was required. The United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
and Kuwait
Kuwait
were consistently overproducing; the latter at least in part to repair losses caused by Iranian attacks in the Iran– Iraq
Iraq
War and to pay for the losses of an economic scandal. The result was a slump in the oil price – as low as $10 a barrel – with a resulting loss of $7 billion a year to Iraq, equal to its 1989 balance of payments deficit. Resulting revenues struggled to support the government's basic costs, let alone repair Iraq's damaged infrastructure. Jordan and Iraq
Iraq
both looked for more discipline, with little success. The Iraqi government described it as a form of economic warfare, which it claimed was aggravated by Kuwait
Kuwait
slant-drilling across the border into Iraq's Rumaila oil field. At the same time, Saddam looked for closer ties with those Arab states that had supported Iraq
Iraq
in the war. This was supported by the US, who believed that Iraqi ties with pro-Western Gulf states would help bring and maintain Iraq
Iraq
inside the US' sphere of influence.

In 1989, it appeared that Saudi–Iraqi relations , strong during the war, would be maintained. A pact of non-interference and non-aggression was signed between the countries, followed by a Kuwaiti-Iraqi deal for Iraq
Iraq
to supply Kuwait
Kuwait
with water for drinking and irrigation, although a request for Kuwait
Kuwait
to lease Iraq
Iraq
Umm Qasr was rejected. Saudi-backed development projects were hampered by Iraq's large debts, even with the demobilization of 200,000 soldiers. Iraq
Iraq
also looked to increase arms production so as to become an exporter, although the success of these projects was also restrained by Iraq's obligations; in Iraq, resentment to OPEC's controls mounted. Donald Rumsfeld
Donald Rumsfeld
as US special envoy to the Middle East, meets Saddam Hussein
Saddam Hussein
on 19–20 December 1983.

Iraq's relations with its Arab neighbors – in particular Egypt
Egypt
– were degraded by mounting violence in Iraq
Iraq
against expatriate groups, well-employed during the war, by Iraqi unemployed, among them demobilized soldiers. These events drew little notice outside the Arab world because of fast-moving events directly related to the fall of Communism
Communism
in Eastern Europe. However, the US did begin to condemn Iraq's human rights record, including the well-known use of torture. The UK also condemned the execution of Farzad Bazoft, a journalist working for the British newspaper _The Observer _. Following Saddam's declaration that "binary chemical weapons" would be used on Israel
Israel
if it used military force against Iraq, Washington halted part of its funding. A UN mission to the Israeli-occupied territories
Israeli-occupied territories
, where riots had resulted in Palestinian deaths, was vetoed by the US, making Iraq
Iraq
deeply skeptical of US foreign policy aims in the region, combined with the US' reliance on Middle Eastern energy reserves.

In early July 1990, Iraq
Iraq
complained about Kuwait's behavior, such as not respecting their quota, and openly threatened to take military action. On the 23rd, the CIA reported that Iraq
Iraq
had moved 30,000 troops to the Iraq- Kuwait
Kuwait
border, and the US naval fleet in the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
was placed on alert. Saddam believed an anti-Iraq conspiracy was developing – Kuwait
Kuwait
had begun talks with Iran, and Iraq's rival Syria
Syria
had arranged a visit to Egypt. Upon review by the Secretary of Defense, it was found that Syria
Syria
indeed planned a strike against Iraq
Iraq
in the coming days. Saddam immediately used funding to incorporate central intelligence into Syria
Syria
and ultimately prevented the impending air strike. On 15 July 1990, Saddam's government laid out its combined objections to the Arab League
Arab League
, including that policy moves were costing Iraq
Iraq
$1 billion a year, that Kuwait
Kuwait
was still using the Rumaila oil field, that loans made by the UAE and Kuwait
Kuwait
could not be considered debts to its "Arab brothers". He threatened force against Kuwait
Kuwait
and the UAE, saying: "The policies of some Arab rulers are American ... They are inspired by America to undermine Arab interests and security." The US sent aerial refuelling planes and combat ships to the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
in response to these threats. Discussions in Jeddah
Jeddah
, Saudi Arabia, mediated on the Arab League's behalf by Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak
Hosni Mubarak
, were held on 31 July and led Mubarak to believe that a peaceful course could be established.

On the 25th, Saddam met with April Glaspie
April Glaspie
, the US Ambassador to Iraq
Iraq
, in Baghdad. The Iraqi leader attacked American policy with regards to Kuwait
Kuwait
and the UAE:

So what can it mean when America says it will now protect its friends? It can only mean prejudice against Iraq. This stance plus maneuvers and statements which have been made has encouraged the UAE and Kuwait
Kuwait
to disregard Iraqi rights ... If you use pressure, we will deploy pressure and force. We know that you can harm us although we do not threaten you. But we too can harm you. Everyone can cause harm according to their ability and their size. We cannot come all the way to you in the United States, but individual Arabs
Arabs
may reach you ... We do not place America among the enemies. We place it where we want our friends to be and we try to be friends. But repeated American statements last year made it apparent that America did not regard us as friends.

Glaspie replied:

I know you need funds. We understand that and our opinion is that you should have the opportunity to rebuild your country. But we have no opinion on the Arab-Arab conflicts, like your border disagreement with Kuwait
Kuwait
... Frankly, we can only see that you have deployed massive troops in the south. Normally that would not be any of our business. But when this happens in the context of what you said on your national day, then when we read the details in the two letters of the Foreign Minister, then when we see the Iraqi point of view that the measures taken by the UAE and Kuwait
Kuwait
is, in the final analysis, parallel to military aggression against Iraq, then it would be reasonable for me to be concerned.

Saddam stated that he would attempt last-ditch negotiations with the Kuwaitis but Iraq
Iraq
"would not accept death".

According to Glaspie's own account, she stated in reference to the precise border between Kuwait
Kuwait
and Iraq, "... that she had served in Kuwait
Kuwait
20 years before; 'then, as now, we took no position on these Arab affairs'." Glaspie similarly believed that war was not imminent.

INVASION OF KUWAIT

Main article: Invasion of Kuwait
Invasion of Kuwait
Main article: Timeline of Gulf War Kuwaiti Armed Forces M-84
M-84
main battle tanks . Kuwait
Kuwait
Air Force McDonnell Douglas A-4KU Skyhawk ground-attack aircraft .

The result of the Jeddah
Jeddah
talks was an Iraqi demand for $10 billion to cover the lost revenues from Rumaila; Kuwait
Kuwait
offered $9 billion. The Iraqi response was to immediately order the invasion, which started on 2 August 1990 with the bombing of Kuwait's capital, Kuwait
Kuwait
City .

At the time of the invasion, the Kuwaiti military was believed to have numbered 16,000 men, arranged into three armored, one mechanised infantry and one under-strength artillery brigade. The pre-war strength of the Kuwait
Kuwait
Air Force was around 2,200 Kuwaiti personnel, with 80 fixed-wing aircraft and 40 helicopters. In spite of Iraqi saber-rattling , Kuwait
Kuwait
did not mobilize its force; the army had been stood down on 19 July, and at the time of the Iraqi invasion many Kuwaiti military personnel were on leave.

By 1988, at the Iran– Iraq
Iraq
war's end, the Iraqi Army
Iraqi Army
was the world's fourth largest army; it consisted of 955,000 standing soldiers and 650,000 paramilitary forces in the Popular Army. According to John Childs and André Corvisier, a low estimate shows the Iraqi Army capable of fielding 4,500 tanks, 484 combat aircraft and 232 combat helicopters. According to Michael Knights, a high estimate shows the Iraqi Army
Iraqi Army
capable of fielding one million men and 850,000 reservists, 5,500 tanks, 3,000 artillery pieces, 700 combat aircraft and helicopters; and held 53 divisions, 20 special-forces brigades, and several regional militias, and had a strong air defense. Iraqi Army T-72M main battle tanks. The T-72M tank was a common Iraqi battle tank used in the Gulf War. An Iraqi Air Force
Iraqi Air Force
Bell 214ST transport helicopter , after being captured by a US Marine Corps unit at the start of the ground phase of Operation Desert Storm.

Iraqi commandos infiltrated the Kuwaiti border first to prepare for the major units which began the attack at midnight. The Iraqi attack had two prongs, with the primary attack force driving south straight for Kuwait
Kuwait
City down the main highway, and a supporting attack force entering Kuwait
Kuwait
farther west, but then turning and driving east, cutting off Kuwait
Kuwait
City from the country's southern half. The commander of a Kuwaiti armored battalion, 35th Armoured Brigade
Brigade
, deployed them against the Iraqi attack and was able to conduct a robust defense at the Battle of the Bridgesnear Al Jahra
Al Jahra
, west of Kuwait
Kuwait
City.

Kuwaiti aircraft scrambled to meet the invading force, but approximately 20% were lost or captured. A few combat sorties were flown against Iraqi ground forces.

The main Iraqi thrust into Kuwait
Kuwait
City was conducted by commandos deployed by helicopters and boats to attack the city from the sea, while other divisions seized the airports and two airbases . The Iraqis
Iraqis
attacked the Dasman Palace , the Royal Residence of Kuwait\'s Emir , Jaber Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah
Jaber Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah
, which was defended by the Emiri Guard supported with M-84
M-84
tanks. In the process, the Iraqis killed Fahad Al-Ahmed Al-Jaber Al-Sabah, the Emir's youngest brother.

Within 12 hours, most resistance had ended within Kuwait
Kuwait
and the royal family had fled, leaving Iraq
Iraq
in control of most of Kuwait. After two days of intense combat, most of the Kuwaiti military were either overrun by the Iraqi Republican Guard
Iraqi Republican Guard
, or had escaped to Saudi Arabia. The Emir and key ministers were able to get out and head south along the highway for refuge in Saudi Arabia. Iraqi ground forces consolidated their control of Kuwait
Kuwait
City, then headed south and redeployed along the Saudi border. After the decisive Iraqi victory, Saddam initially installed a puppet regime known as the "Provisional Government of Free Kuwait
Kuwait
" before installing his cousin Ali Hassan al-Majid as Kuwait's governor on 8 August.

KUWAITI RESISTANCE MOVEMENT

Kuwaitis founded a local armed resistance movement following the Iraqi occupation of Kuwait. The Kuwaiti resistance's casualty rate far exceeded that of the coalition military forces and Western hostages. The resistance predominantly consisted of ordinary citizens who lacked any form of training and supervision.

RUN-UP TO THE WAR

DIPLOMATIC MEANS

A key element of US political-military and energy economic planning occurred in early 1984. The Iran– Iraq
Iraq
war had been going on for five years by that time and there were significant casualties on both sides, reaching into the hundreds of thousands. Within President Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
's National Security Council concern was growing that the war could spread beyond the boundaries of the two belligerents. A National Security Planning Group meeting was formed, chaired by then Vice President George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
to review US options. It was determined that there was a high likelihood that the conflict would spread into Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
and other Gulf states, but that the United States had little capability to defend the region. Furthermore, it was determined that a prolonged war in the region would induce much higher oil prices and threaten the fragile recovery of the world economy which was just beginning to gain momentum. On 22 May 1984, President Reagan was briefed on the project conclusions in the Oval Office
Oval Office
by William Flynn Martinwho had served as the head of the NSC staff that organized the study. The full declassified presentation can be seen here. The conclusions were threefold: first oil stocks needed to be increased among members of the International Energy Agency
International Energy Agency
and, if necessary, released early in the event of oil market disruption; second the United States
United States
needed to beef up the security of friendly Arab states in the region and thirdly an embargo should be placed on sales of military equipment to Iran and Iraq. The plan was approved by the President Reagan and later affirmed by the G-7 leaders headed by Great Britain's Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher
Margaret Thatcher
in the London Summit of 1984 . The plan was implemented and became the basis for US preparedness to respond to the Iraqi occupation of Kuwait
Kuwait
in 1991.

Within hours of the invasion, Kuwait
Kuwait
and US delegations requested a meeting of the UN Security Council , which passed Resolution 660 , condemning the invasion and demanding a withdrawal of Iraqi troops. On 3 August, the Arab League
Arab League
passed its own resolution, which called for a solution to the conflict from within the league, and warned against outside intervention; Iraq
Iraq
and Libya were the only two Arab League states which opposed a resolution for Iraq
Iraq
to withdraw from Kuwait. The PLO
PLO
opposed it as well. The Arab states of Yemen
Yemen
and Jordan
Jordan
– a Western ally which bordered Iraq
Iraq
and relied on the country for economic support – opposed military intervention from non-Arab states. The Arab state of Sudan aligned itself with Saddam.

On 6 August, Resolution 661 placed economic sanctions on Iraq. Resolution 665 followed soon after, which authorized a naval blockade to enforce the sanctions. It said the "use of measures commensurate to the specific circumstances as may be necessary ... to halt all inward and outward maritime shipping in order to inspect and verify their cargoes and destinations and to ensure strict implementation of resolution 661." President Bush visiting American troops in Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
on Thanksgiving Day , 1990.

From the beginning, US officials insisted on a total Iraqi pullout from Kuwait, without any linkage to other Middle Eastern problems, fearing any concessions would strengthen Iraqi influence in the region for years to come.

On 12 August 1990, Saddam "propose that all cases of occupation, and those cases that have been portrayed as occupation, in the region, be resolved simultaneously". Specifically, he called for Israel
Israel
to withdraw from occupied territories in Palestine, Syria, and Lebanon, Syria
Syria
to withdraw from Lebanon, and "mutual withdrawals by Iraq
Iraq
and Iran and arrangement for the situation in Kuwait." He also called for a replacement of US troops that mobilized in Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
in response to Kuwait's invasion with "an Arab force", as long as that force did not involve Egypt. Additionally, he requested an "immediate freeze of all boycott and siege decisions" and a general normalization of relations with Iraq. From the beginning of the crisis, President Bush was strongly opposed to any "linkage" between Iraq's occupation of Kuwait
Kuwait
and the Palestinian issue.

Saddam Hussein
Saddam Hussein
detained several Westerners, with video footage shown on state television

On 23 August, Saddam appeared on state television with Western hostages to whom he had refused exit visas. In the video, he asks a young British boy, Stuart Lockwood, whether he is getting his milk, and goes on to say, through his interpreter, "We hope your presence as guests here will not be for too long. Your presence here, and in other places, is meant to prevent the scourge of war."

Another Iraqi proposal communicated in August 1990 was delivered to US National Security Advisor Brent Scowcroft
Brent Scowcroft
by an unidentified Iraqi official. The official communicated to the White House
White House
that Iraq
Iraq
would "withdraw from Kuwait
Kuwait
and allow foreigners to leave" provided that the UN lifted sanctions, allowed "guaranteed access to the Persian Gulf through the Kuwaiti islands of Bubiyan and Warbah", and allowed Iraq to "gain full control of the Rumaila oil fieldthat extends slightly into Kuwaiti territory". The proposal also "include offers to negotiate an oil agreement with the United States
United States
'satisfactory to both nations' national security interests,' develop a joint plan 'to alleviate Iraq's economical and financial problems' and 'jointly work on the stability of the gulf.'"

In December 1990, Iraq
Iraq
made a proposal to withdraw from Kuwait provided that foreign troops left the region and that an agreement was reached regarding the Palestinian problem and the dismantlement of both Israel's and Iraq's weapons of mass destruction . The White House rejected the proposal. The PLO
PLO
's Yasser Arafat
Yasser Arafat
expressed that neither he nor Saddam insisted that solving the Israel–Palestine issues should be a precondition to solving the issues in Kuwait, though he did acknowledge a "strong link" between these problems.

Ultimately, the US stuck to its position that there would be no negotiations until Iraq
Iraq
withdrew from Kuwait
Kuwait
and that they should not grant Iraq
Iraq
concessions, lest they give the impression that Iraq benefited from its military campaign. Also, when US Secretary of State James Baker
James Baker
met with Tariq Aziz
Tariq Aziz
in Geneva, Switzerland, for last minute peace talks in early 1991, Aziz reportedly made no concrete proposals and did not outline any hypothetical Iraqi moves.

On 29 November 1990, the Security Council passed Resolution 678 which gave Iraq
Iraq
until 15 January 1991 to withdraw from Kuwait
Kuwait
and empowered states to use "all necessary means" to force Iraq
Iraq
out of Kuwait
Kuwait
after the deadline.

On 14 January 1991, France
France
proposed that the UN Security Council call for "a rapid and massive withdrawal" from Kuwait
Kuwait
along with a statement to Iraq
Iraq
that Council members would bring their "active contribution" to a settlement of the region's other problems, "in particular, of the Arab–Israeli conflict
Arab–Israeli conflict
and in particular to the Palestinian problem by convening, at an appropriate moment, an international conference" to assure "the security, stability and development of this region of the world." The French proposal was supported by Belgium
Belgium
(at the moment one of the rotating Council members), Germany, Spain, Italy, Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, and several non-aligned nations. The US, the UK, and the Soviet Union rejected it; US Ambassador to the UN Thomas Pickering stated that the French proposal was unacceptable, because it went beyond previous Council resolutions on the Iraqi invasion. France
France
dropped this proposal when it found "no tangible sign of interest" from Baghdad.

MILITARY MEANS

"Operation Desert Shield" redirects here. For the 2006 operation by the Iraqi insurgency, see Operation Desert Shield (Iraq). F-15Es parked during Operation Desert Shield.

One of the West's main concerns was the significant threat Iraq
Iraq
posed to Saudi Arabia. Following Kuwait's conquest, the Iraqi Army
Iraqi Army
was within easy striking distance of Saudi oil fields . Control of these fields, along with Kuwaiti and Iraqi reserves, would have given Saddam control over the majority of the world's oil reserves. Iraq
Iraq
also had a number of grievances with Saudi Arabia. The Saudis had lent Iraq
Iraq
some 26 billion dollars during its war with Iran. The Saudis had backed Iraq
Iraq
in that war, as they feared the influence of Shia
Shia
Iran's Islamic revolution on its own Shia
Shia
minority. After the war, Saddam felt he shouldn't have to repay the loans due to the help he had given the Saudis by fighting Iran.

Soon after his conquest of Kuwait, Saddam began verbally attacking the Saudis. He argued that the US-supported Saudi state was an illegitimate and unworthy guardian of the holy cities of Mecca
Mecca
and Medina
Medina
. He combined the language of the Islamistgroups that had recently fought in Afghanistan with the rhetoric Iran had long used to attack the Saudis. US Army soldiers from the 11th Air Defense Artillery
Artillery
Brigade
Brigade
during the Gulf War
Gulf War

Acting on the Carter Doctrine
Carter Doctrine
's policy, and out of fear the Iraqi Army could launch an invasion of Saudi Arabia, US President George H. W. Bush quickly announced that the US would launch a "wholly defensive" mission to prevent Iraq
Iraq
from invading Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
under the codename Operation Desert Shield. Operation Desert Shield began on 7 August 1990 when US troops were sent to Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
due also to the request of its monarch, King Fahd
King Fahd
, who had earlier called for US military assistance. This "wholly defensive" doctrine was quickly abandoned when, on 8 August, Iraq
Iraq
declared Kuwait
Kuwait
to be Iraq's 19th province and Saddam named his cousin, Ali Hassan Al-Majid, as its military-governor.

The US Navy dispatched two naval battle groups built around the aircraft carriers USS _Dwight D. Eisenhower_ and USS _Independence_ to the Persian Gulf, where they were ready by 8 August. The US also sent the battleships USS _Missouri_ and USS _Wisconsin_ to the region. A total of 48 US Air Force F-15s from the 1st Fighter Wing
1st Fighter Wing
at Langley Air Force Base , Virginia, landed in Saudi Arabia, and immediately commenced round the clock air patrols of the Saudi–Kuwait–Iraq border to discourage further Iraqi military advances. They were joined by 36 F-15 A-Ds from the 36th Tactical Fighter Wing at Bitburg, Germany . The Bitburg contingent was based at Al Kharj Air Base, approximately an hour south east of Riyadh. The 36th TFW would be responsible for 11 confirmed Iraqi Air Force
Iraqi Air Force
aircraft shot down during the war. There were also two Air National Guard units stationed at Al Kharj Air Base, the South Carolina Air National Guard's 169th Fighter Wing flew bombing missions with 24 F-16s flying 2,000 combat missions and dropping 4 million pounds of munitions, and the New York Air National Guard 's 174th Fighter Wing from Syracuse flew 24 F-16s on bombing missions. Military buildup continued from there, eventually reaching 543,000 troops, twice the number used in the 2003 invasion of Iraq
Iraq
. Much of the material was airlifted or carried to the staging areas via fast sealift ships , allowing a quick buildup.

Creating A Coalition

Nations that deployed coalition forces or provided support.

A series of UN Security Council resolutions and Arab League resolutions were passed regarding Iraq's invasion of Kuwait. One of the most important was Resolution 678 , passed on 29 November 1990, which gave Iraq
Iraq
a withdrawal deadline until 15 January 1991, and authorized "all necessary means to uphold and implement Resolution 660", and a diplomatic formulation authorizing the use of force if Iraq
Iraq
failed to comply.

To ensure that economic backing, Baker went on an 11-day journey to nine countries that the press dubbed "The Tin Cup Trip". The first stop was Saudi Arabia, which a month before had already granted permission to the United States
United States
to use its facilities. However, Baker believed that Saudi Arabia, an immensely wealthy nation, should assume some of the cost of the military efforts, since one of the most important military objectives was to defend Saudi Arabia. When Baker asked King Fahd
King Fahd
for 15 billion dollars, the King readily agreed, with the promise that Baker ask Kuwait
Kuwait
for the same amount.

The next day, 7 September, he did just that, and the Emir of Kuwait
Kuwait
, displaced in a Sheraton hotel outside his invaded country, easily agreed. Baker then moved to enter talks with Egypt, whose leadership he considered to be "the moderate voice of the middle east". President Mubarak of Egypt
Egypt
was furious with Saddam for his invasion of Kuwait, and for the fact that Saddam had assured Mubarak that an invasion was not his intention. Therefore, he was willing to commit troops to the coalition forces to quell Saddam, as well as relieved the United States was willing to forgive his country's 7.1 billion dollar debt.

After stops in Helsinki and Moscow to smooth out Iraqi demands for a middle-eastern peace conference with the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
, Baker traveled to Syria
Syria
to discuss its role in the crisis with its President Hafez Assad . Assad had a deep personal enmity towards Saddam, which was defined by the fact that "Saddam had been trying to kill him for years". Harboring this animosity and being impressed with Baker's diplomatic initiative to visit Damascus (relations had been severed since the 1983 bombing of US Marine barracks in Beirut
Beirut
), Assad agreed to pledge up to 100,000 Syrian troops to the coalition effort. This was a vital step in ensuring Arab states were represented in the coalition.

Baker flew to Rome for a brief visit with the Italians in which he was promised the use of some military equipment, before journeying to Germany to meet with American ally Chancellor Kohl . Although Germany\'s constitution (which was brokered essentially by the United States) prohibited military involvement in outside nations, Kohl was willing to repay his gratitude for the United States
United States
with a two billion dollar contribution to the coalition's war effort, as well as further economic and military support of coalition ally Turkey, and the execution of the transport of Egyptian soldiers and ships to the Persian Gulf. General Norman Schwarzkopf, Jr.
Norman Schwarzkopf, Jr.
and President George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
visit US troops in Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
on Thanksgiving Day , 1990.

A coalition of forces opposing Iraq's aggression was formed, consisting of forces from 34 countries: Argentina, Australia, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Egypt, France, Greece, Italy, Kuwait, Morocco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Niger, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, South Korea, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Spain, Syria, the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom, and the US itself. It was the largest coalition since World War II
World War II
. US Army General Norman Schwarzkopf, Jr.
Norman Schwarzkopf, Jr.
was designated to be the commander of the coalition forces in the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
area. The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
also supported United States
United States
intervention.

Although they did not contribute any forces, Japan and Germany made financial contributions totaling $10 billion and $6.6 billion respectively. US troops represented 73% of the coalition's 956,600 troops in Iraq.

Many of the coalition countries were reluctant to commit military forces. Some felt that the war was an internal Arab affair or did not want to increase US influence in the Middle East. In the end, however, many nations were persuaded by Iraq's belligerence towards other Arab states, offers of economic aid or debt forgiveness, and threats to withhold aid.

Justification For Intervention

Dick Cheney
Dick Cheney
meets with Prince Sultan, Minister of Defence and Aviation in Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
to discuss how to handle the invasion of Kuwait
Kuwait

The US and the UN gave several public justifications for involvement in the conflict, the most prominent being the Iraqi violation of Kuwaiti territorial integrity. In addition, the US moved to support its ally Saudi Arabia, whose importance in the region, and as a key supplier of oil, made it of considerable geopolitical importance. Shortly after the Iraqi invasion, US Defense Secretary Dick Cheney made the first of several visits to Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
where King Fahd requested US military assistance. During a speech in a special joint session of the US Congress given on 11 September 1990, US President George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
summed up the reasons with the following remarks: "Within three days, 120,000 Iraqi troops with 850 tanks had poured into Kuwait
Kuwait
and moved south to threaten Saudi Arabia. It was then that I decided to act to check that aggression."

The Pentagon stated that satellite photos showing a buildup of Iraqi forces along the border were this information's source, but this was later alleged to be false. A reporter for the _ St. Petersburg Times
St. Petersburg Times
_ acquired two commercial Soviet satellite images made at the time in question, which showed nothing but empty desert. Gen. Colin Powell (left), Gen. Norman Schwarzkopf, Jr.
Norman Schwarzkopf, Jr.
, and Paul Wolfowitz (right) listen as Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney
Dick Cheney
addresses reporters regarding the 1991 Gulf War.

Other justifications for foreign involvement included Iraq's history of human rights abuses under Saddam . Iraq
Iraq
was also known to possess biological weapons and chemical weapons , which Saddam had used against Iranian troops during the Iran– Iraq
Iraq
War and against his own country's Kurdish population in the Al-Anfal campaign
Al-Anfal campaign
. Iraq
Iraq
was also known to have a nuclear weapons program, but the report about it from January 1991 was partially declassified by the CIA on 26 May 2001.

Although there were human rights abuses committed in Kuwait
Kuwait
by the invading Iraqi military, the alleged incidents which received most publicity in the US were inventions of the public relations firm hired by the government of Kuwait
Kuwait
to influence US opinion in favor of military intervention. Shortly after Iraq's invasion of Kuwait, the organization _Citizens for a Free Kuwait
Kuwait
_ was formed in the US. It hired the public relations firm Hill & Knowltonfor about $11 million, paid by Kuwait\'s government .

Among many other means of influencing US opinion, such as distributing books on Iraqi atrocities to US soldiers deployed in the region, "Free Kuwait" T-shirts and speakers to college campuses, and dozens of video news releases to television stations, the firm arranged for an appearance before a group of members of the US Congress in which a woman identifying herself as a nurse working in the Kuwait
Kuwait
City hospital described Iraqi soldiers pulling babies out of incubators and letting them die on the floor.

The story was an influence in tipping both the public and Congress towards a war with Iraq: six Congressmen said the testimony was enough for them to support military action against Iraq
Iraq
and seven Senators referenced the testimony in debate. The Senate supported the military actions in a 52–47 vote. However, a year after the war, this allegation was revealed to be a fabrication. The woman who had testified was found to be a member of Kuwait\'s Royal Family , in fact the daughter of Kuwait's ambassador to the US. She hadn't lived in Kuwait
Kuwait
during the Iraqi invasion.

The details of the Hill one residence was repeatedly defecated in. A resident later commented: "The whole thing was violence for the sake of violence, destruction for the sake of destruction ... Imagine a surrealistic painting by Salvador Dalí
Salvador Dalí
".

EARLY BATTLES

AIR CAMPAIGN

Main article: Gulf War air campaign The USAF
USAF
F-117 Nighthawk
F-117 Nighthawk
, one of the key players in Desert Storm.

The Gulf War
Gulf War
began with an extensive aerial bombing campaign on 16 January 1991. For 42 consecutive days and nights, the coalition forces subjected Iraq
Iraq
to the most intensive air bombardment in military history. The coalition flew over 100,000 sorties , dropping 88,500 tons of bombs, and widely destroying military and civilian infrastructure. The air campaign was commanded by USAF
USAF
Lieutenant General Chuck Horner, who briefly served as US Central Command 's Commander-in-Chief – Forward while General Schwarzkopf was still in the US.

A day after the deadline set in Resolution 678, the coalition launched a massive air campaign, which began the general offensive codenamed Operation Desert Storm. The first priority was the destruction of Iraq's Air Force and anti-aircraft facilities. The sorties were launched mostly from Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
and the six carrier battle groups (CVBG) in the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
and Red Sea
Red Sea
. An Iraqi T-54A or Type 59 tank lies destroyed after a coalition bombing attack during Operation Desert Storm.

The next targets were command and communication facilities. Saddam Hussein had closely micromanaged Iraqi forces in the Iran– Iraq
Iraq
War, and initiative at lower levels was discouraged. Coalition planners hoped that Iraqi resistance would quickly collapse if deprived of command and control.

The air campaign's third and largest phase targeted military targets throughout Iraq
Iraq
and Kuwait: Scud
Scud
missile launchers, weapons research facilities, and naval forces. About a third of the coalition's air power was devoted to attacking Scuds, some of which were on trucks and therefore difficult to locate. US and British special operations forces had been covertly inserted into western Iraq
Iraq
to aid in the search for and destruction of Scuds.

Iraqi anti-aircraft defenses, including man-portable air-defense systems , were surprisingly ineffective against enemy aircraft and the coalition suffered only 75 aircraft losses in over 100,000 sorties, 44 due to Iraqi action. Two of these losses are the result of aircraft colliding with the ground while evading Iraqi ground fired weapons. One of these losses is a confirmed air-air victory.

IRAQI MISSILE STRIKES ON ISRAEL AND SAUDI ARABIA

Scud
Scud
Transporter Erector Launcher (TEL) with missile in upright position.

Iraq's government made no secret that it would attack if invaded. Prior to the war's start, in the aftermath of the failed US–Iraq peace talks in Geneva, Switzerland, a reporter asked Iraq's English-speaking Foreign Minister and Deputy Prime Minister Tariq Aziz : "Mr. Foreign Minister, if war starts ... will you attack?" His response was: "Yes, absolutely, yes."

Five hours after the first attacks, Iraq's state radio broadcast declaring that "The dawn of victory nears as this great showdown begins." Iraq
Iraq
fired eight missiles the next day. These missile attacks were to continue throughout the war. A total of 88 Scud
Scud
missiles were fired by Iraq
Iraq
during the war's seven weeks.

Iraq
Iraq
hoped to provoke a military response from Israel. The Iraqi government hoped that many Arab states would withdraw from the Coalition, as they would be reluctant to fight alongside Israel. Following the first attacks, Israeli Air Force
Israeli Air Force
jets were deployed to patrol the northern airspace with Iraq. Israel
Israel
prepared to militarily retaliate, as its policy for the previous 40 years had always been retaliation. However, President Bush pressured Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamirnot to retaliate and withdraw Israeli jets, fearing that if Israel
Israel
attacked Iraq, the other Arab nations would either desert the coalition or join Iraq. It was also feared that if Israel used Syrian or Jordanian airspace to attack Iraq, they would intervene in the war on Iraq's side or attack Israel. The coalition promised to deploy Patriot missiles to defend Israel
Israel
if it refrained from responding to the Scud
Scud
attacks. Israeli civilians taking shelter from rockets (left) and aftermath of attack in Ramat Gan, Tel Aviv (right)

The Scud
Scud
missiles targeting Israel
Israel
were relatively ineffective, as firing at extreme range resulted in a dramatic reduction in accuracy and payload. According to the Jewish Virtual Library
Jewish Virtual Library
, a total of 74 Israelis died as a result of the Iraqi attacks: two directly and the rest from suffocation and heart attacks. Approximately 230 Israelis were injured. Extensive property damage was also caused, and according to Israel
Israel
Ministry of Foreign Affairs, "Damage to general property consisted of 1,302 houses, 6,142 apartments, 23 public buildings, 200 shops and 50 cars." It was feared that Iraq
Iraq
would fire missiles filled with nerve agents such as sarin . As a result, Israel's government issued gas masks to its citizens. When the first Iraqi missiles hit Israel, some people injected themselves with an antidote for nerve gas. It has been suggested that the sturdy construction techniques used in Israeli cities, coupled with the fact that Scuds were only launched at night, played an important role in limiting the number of casualties from Scud
Scud
attacks. Aftermath of an Iraq
Iraq
Armed Forces strike on US barracks.

In response to the threat of Scuds on Israel, the US rapidly sent a Patriot missile air defense artillery battalion to Israel
Israel
along with two batteries of MIM-104 Patriot
MIM-104 Patriot
missiles for the protection of civilians. The Royal Netherlands
Netherlands
Air Force also deployed a Patriot missile squadron to Israel
Israel
and Turkey. The Dutch Defense Ministry later stated that the military use of the Patriot missile system was largely ineffective, but its psychological value for the affected populations was high.

Coalition air forces were also extensively exercised in " Scud
Scud
hunts" in the Iraqi desert, trying to locate the camouflaged trucks before they fired their missiles at Israel
Israel
or Saudi Arabia. On the ground, special operations forces also infiltrated Iraq, tasked with locating and destroying Scuds. Once special operations were combined with air patrols, the number of attacks fell sharply, then increased slightly as Iraqi forces adjusted to coalition tactics.

As the Scud
Scud
attacks continued, the Israelis grew increasingly impatient, and considered taking unilateral military action against Iraq. On 22 January 1991, a Scud
Scud
missile hit the Israeli city of Ramat Gan , after two coalition Patriots failed to intercept it. Three elderly people suffered fatal heart attacks, another 96 people were injured, and 20 apartment buildings were damaged. After this attack, the Israelis warned that if the US failed to stop the attacks, they would. At one point, Israeli commandos boarded helicopters prepared to fly into Iraq, but the mission was called off after a phone call from US Defense Secretary Dick Cheney, reporting on the extent of coalition efforts to destroy Scuds and emphasizing that Israeli intervention could endanger US forces.

In addition to the attacks on Israel, 47 Scud
Scud
missiles were fired into Saudi Arabia, and one missile was fired at Bahrain
Bahrain
and another at Qatar. The missiles were fired at both military and civilian targets. One Saudi civilian was killed, and 78 others were injured. No casualties were reported in Bahrain
Bahrain
or Qatar. The Saudi government issued all its citizens and expatriates with gas masks in the event of Iraq
Iraq
using missiles with chemical or biological warheads. The government broadcast alerts and 'all clear' messages over television to warn citizens during Scud
Scud
attacks.

On 25 February 1991, a Scud
Scud
missile hit a US Army barracks of the 14th Quartermaster Detachment, out of Greensburg, Pennsylvania, stationed in Dhahran
Dhahran
, Saudi Arabia, killing 28 soldiers and injuring over 100.

IRAQI INVASION OF SAUDI ARABIA (BATTLE OF KHAFJI)

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Main article: Battle of Khafji
Battle of Khafji
Military operations during Khafji's liberation

On 29 January, Iraqi forces attacked and occupied the lightly defended Saudi city of Khafji
Khafji
with tanks and infantry. The Battle of Khafji
Khafji
ended two days later when the Iraqis
Iraqis
were driven back by the Saudi Arabian National Guard, supported by Qatari forces and US Marines. The allied forces used extensive artillery fire.

Both sides suffered casualties, although Iraqi forces sustained substantially more dead and captured than the allied forces. Eleven Americans were killed in two separate friendly fire incidents, an additional 14 US airmen were killed when their AC-130
AC-130
gunship was shot down by an Iraqi surface-to-air missile, and two US soldiers were captured during the battle. Saudi and Qatari forces had a total of 18 dead. Iraqi forces in Khafji
Khafji
had 60–300 dead and 400 captured.

The Battle of Khafji
Battle of Khafji
was an example of how air power could single-handedly hinder the advance of enemy ground forces. Upon learning of Iraqi troop movements, 140 coalition aircraft were diverted to attack an advancing column consisting of two armored divisions in battalion-sized units. Precision stand-off attacks were conducted during the night and through to the next day. Iraqi vehicle losses included 357 tanks, 147 armored personnel carriers, and 89 mobile artillery pieces. Some crews simply abandoned their vehicles upon realizing that they could be destroyed by guided bombs without warning, stopping the divisions from massing for an organized attack on the town. One Iraqi soldier, who had fought in the Iran- Iraq
Iraq
War, remarked that his brigade "had sustained more punishment from allied airpower in 30 minutes at Khafji
Khafji
than in eight years of fighting against Iran."

COUNTER RECONNAISSANCE

Main article: Task Force 1-41 Infantry Iraqi tanks destroyed by Task Force 1-41 Infantryduring the 1st Gulf War, February 1991.

Task Force 1-41 Infantrywas a heavy battalion task force from the 2nd Armored Division (Forward). It was the spearhead of VII Corps . It consisted primarily of the 1st Battalion, 41st Infantry Regiment , 3rd Battalion, 66th Armor Regiment, and the 4th Battalion, 3rd Field Artillery
Artillery
Regiment . Task Force 1–41 was the first coalition force to breach the Saudi Arabian border on 15 February 1991 and conduct ground combat operations in Iraq
Iraq
engaging in direct and indirect fire fights with the enemy on 17 February 1991. Shortly after arrival in theatre Task Force 1–41 Infantry received a counter-reconnaissance mission. 1–41 Infantry was assisted by the 1st Squadron, 4th Armored Cavalry Regiment. This joint effort would become known as Task Force Iron. Counter-reconnaissance generally includes destroying or repelling the enemy's reconnaissance elements and denying their commander any observation of friendly forces. On 15 February 1991 4th Battalion of the 3rd Field Artillery
Artillery
Regiment fired on a trailer and a few trucks in the Iraqi sector that was observing American forces. On 16 February 1991 several groups of Iraqi vehicles appeared to be performing reconnaissance on the Task Force and were driven away by fire from 4–3 FA. Another enemy platoon, including six vehicles, was reported as being to the northeast of the Task Force. They were engaged with artillery fire from 4–3 FA. Later that evening another group of Iraqi vehicles was spotted moving towards the center of the Task Force. They appeared to be Iraqi Soviet-made BTRs and tanks. For the next hour the Task Force fought several small battles with Iraqi reconnaissance units. TF 1–41 IN fired TOW missiles at the Iraqi formation destroying one tank. The rest of the formation was destroyed or driven away by artillery fire from 4–3 FA. On 17 February 1991 the Task Force took enemy mortar fire, however, the enemy forces managed to escape. Later that evening the Task Force received enemy artillery fire but suffered no casualties. Soldiers of 2nd Platoon, Company C, 1st Battalion, 41st Infantry Regiment pose with a captured Iraqi tank during the 1st Gulf War, February 1991. An Iraqi Republican Guard
Iraqi Republican Guard
tank destroyed by Task Force 1–41 Infantry during the 1st Gulf War, February 1991. M270 Multiple Launch Rocket Systems attack Iraqi positions during the 1st Gulf War, February 1991.

BREACH

Main article: Task Force 1-41 Infantry

The breach was preceded by a heavy artillery barrage, led by 4th Battalion of the 3rd Field Artillery
Artillery
Regiment and the 210th Field Artillery
Artillery
Brigade
Brigade
, to soften up Iraqi defenses. Around 300 guns from multiple nations participated in the barrage. Over 14,000 rounds of artillery and over 4,900 MLRS rockets were fired at Iraqi forces during these raids. Iraq
Iraq
lost close to 22 artillery battalions during the initial stages of this barrage. This would include the destruction of approximately 396 Iraqi artillery pieces. By the end of these raids Iraqi artillery assets had all but ceased to exist. These raids were supplemented by air attacks by B-52 Stratofortress bombers and C-130 cargo aircraft.

Task Force 1-41 Infantryand the 1st Squadron, 4th Armored Cavalry Regiment was given the task of breaching Iraq's initial defensive positions along the Iraq- Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
border. Once into Iraqi territory the Task Force encountered multiple Iraqi defensive positions and bunkers. These defensive positions were occupied by a brigade-sized element. TF 1–41 IN elements dismounted and prepared to engage the enemy soldiers which occupied these well-prepared and heavily fortified bunkers. The Task Force found itself engaged in six hours of combat in order to clear the extensive bunker complex. The Iraqis
Iraqis
engaged the Task Force with small arms fire, RPGs , mortar fire, and what was left of Iraqi artillery assets. A series of battles unfolded which resulted in heavy Iraqi casualties and the Iraqis
Iraqis
being removed from their defensive positions with many becoming prisoners of war. Some escaped to be killed or captured by other coalition forces. In the process of clearing the bunkers Task Force 1–41 captured two brigade command posts and the command post of the Iraqi 26th Infantry Division. The Task Force also captured a brigade commander, several battalion commanders, company commanders, and staff officers. As combat operations progressed Task Force 1–41 Infantry engaged at short range multiple dug in enemy tanks in ambush positions. For a few hours, bypassed Iraqi RPG equipped anti-tank teams, T-55 tanks, and dismounted Iraqi infantry fired at passing American vehicles, only to be destroyed by other US tanks and fighting vehicles following the initial forces. Task Force 1–41 earned a Valorous Unit Award
Valorous Unit Award
for its efforts. 4th Battalion of the 3rd Field Artillery
Artillery
Regiment , 2nd Armored Division(FWD) conducts artillery strikes on Iraqi positions during the 1st Gulf War. 4-3 FA was the primary fire support battalion for Task Force 1-41 Infantryduring the 1st Gulf War , February 1991.

GROUND CAMPAIGN

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Ground troop movements 24–28 February 1991 during Operation Desert Storm

Coalition forces dominated the air with their technological advantages. Air supremacy
Air supremacy
was achieved before the start of the main ground offensive. Coalition forces also had two key technological advantages:

* Coalition main battle tanks , such as the US M1 Abrams
M1 Abrams
, British Challenger 1
Challenger 1
, and Kuwaiti M-84
M-84
AB were vastly superior to the Type 69 and export-model T-72tanks used by the Iraqis. Coalition crews were better trained, with more highly developed armored doctrine. Iraqi tanks were mainly employed as armored self-propelled artillery , rather than in the maneuver warfare roles employed by the coalition. * The use of GPS made it possible for coalition forces to navigate without reference to roads or other fixed landmarks. This, along with aerial reconnaissance , allowed them to fight a battle of maneuver rather than a battle of encounter : they knew where they were and where the enemy was, so they could attack a specific target rather than searching on the ground for enemy forces.

KUWAIT\'S LIBERATION

Main article: Liberation of Kuwait
Kuwait
campaign See also: Gulf War
Gulf War
order of battle ground campaign

US decoy attacks by air attacks and naval gunfire the night before Kuwait's liberation were designed to make the Iraqis
Iraqis
believe the main coalition ground attack would focus on central Kuwait. US tanks from the 3rd Armored Division along the Line of Departure.

Iraqi Type 69 tank on the road into Kuwait
Kuwait
City during the Gulf War. Two Iraqi tanks lie abandoned near Kuwait
Kuwait
City on 26 February 1991.

For months, American units in Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
had been under almost constant Iraqi artillery fire, as well as threats from Scud
Scud
missile or chemical attacks. On 24 February 1991, the 1st and 2nd Marine Divisions, and the 1st Light Armored Infantry Battalion crossed into Kuwait
Kuwait
and headed toward Kuwait
Kuwait
City. They encountered trenches, barbed wire, and minefields. However, these positions were poorly defended, and were overrun in the first few hours. Several tank battles took place, but apart from that, coalition troops encountered minimal resistance, as most Iraqi troops surrendered. The general pattern was that the Iraqis
Iraqis
would put up a short fight before surrendering. However, Iraqi air defenses shot down nine US aircraft. Meanwhile, forces from Arab states advanced into Kuwait
Kuwait
from the east, encountering little resistance and suffering few casualties.

Despite the successes of coalition forces, it was feared that the Iraqi Republican Guard
Iraqi Republican Guard
would escape into Iraq
Iraq
before it could be destroyed. It was decided to send British armored forces into Kuwait 15 hours ahead of schedule, and to send US forces after the Republican Guard. The coalition advance was preceded by a heavy artillery and rocket barrage, after which 150,000 troops and 1,500 tanks began their advance. Iraqi forces in Kuwait
Kuwait
counterattacked against US troops, acting on a direct order from Saddam Hussein
Saddam Hussein
himself. Despite the intense combat, the Americans repulsed the Iraqis
Iraqis
and continued to advance towards Kuwait
Kuwait
City.

Kuwaiti forces were tasked with liberating the city. Iraqi troops offered only light resistance. The Kuwaitis lost one soldier and one plane was shot down, and quickly liberated the city. On 27 February, Saddam ordered a retreat from Kuwait, and President Bush declared it liberated. However, an Iraqi unit at Kuwait
Kuwait
International Airport appeared not to have received the message and fiercely resisted. US Marines had to fight for hours before securing the airport, after which Kuwait
Kuwait
was declared secure. After four days of fighting, Iraqi forces were expelled from Kuwait. As part of a scorched earth policy, they set fire to nearly 700 oil wells and placed land mines around the wells to make extinguishing the fires more difficult.

INITIAL MOVES INTO IRAQ

Destroyed LAV-25

The war's ground phase was officially designated Operation Desert Saber.

The first units to move into Iraq
Iraq
were three patrols of the British Special Air Service
Special Air Service
's B squadron, call signs Bravo One Zero, Bravo Two Zero , and Bravo Three Zero, in late January. These eight-man patrols landed behind Iraqi lines to gather intelligence on the movements of Scud
Scud
mobile missile launchers, which could not be detected from the air, as they were hidden under bridges and camouflage netting during the day. Other objectives included the destruction of the launchers and their fiber-optic communications arrays that lay in pipelines and relayed coordinates to the TEL operators that were launching attacks against Israel. The operations were designed to prevent any possible Israeli intervention. Due to lack of sufficient ground cover to carry out their assignment, One Zero and Three Zero abandoned their operations, while Two Zero remained, and was later compromised, with only Sergeant Chris Ryan escaping to Syria. Iraqi T-62
T-62
knocked out by 3rd Armored Division fire

Elements of the 2nd Brigade, 1st Battalion 5th Cavalry of the 1st Cavalry Division of the US Army performed a direct attack into Iraq
Iraq
on 15 February 1991, followed by one in force on 20 February that led directly through seven Iraqi divisions which were caught off guard. On 17 January 1991 the 101st Airborne Division
101st Airborne Division
Aviation Regiment, fired the first shots of the war when eight AH-64helicopters successfully destroyed two Iraqi early warning radar sites. From 15–20 February, the Battle of Wadi Al-Batintook place inside Iraq; this was the first of two attacks by 1 Battalion 5th Cavalry of the 1st Cavalry Division. It was a feint attack, designed to make the Iraqis
Iraqis
think that a coalition invasion would take place from the south. The Iraqis fiercely resisted, and the Americans eventually withdrew as planned back into the Wadi Al-Batin. Three US soldiers were killed and nine wounded, with one M2 Bradley IFV turret destroyed, but they had taken 40 prisoners and destroyed five tanks, and successfully deceived the Iraqis. This attack led the way for the XVIII Airborne Corps
XVIII Airborne Corps
to sweep around behind the 1st Cav and attack Iraqi forces to the west. On 22 February 1991, Iraq
Iraq
agreed to a Soviet-proposed ceasefire agreement. The agreement called for Iraq
Iraq
to withdraw troops to pre-invasion positions within six weeks following a total ceasefire, and called for monitoring of the ceasefire and withdrawal to be overseen by the UN Security Council.

The coalition rejected the proposal, but said that retreating Iraqi forces would not be attacked, and gave 24 hours for Iraq
Iraq
to withdraw its forces. On 23 February, fighting resulted in the capture of 500 Iraqi soldiers. On 24 February, British and American armored forces crossed the Iraq– Kuwait
Kuwait
border and entered Iraq
Iraq
in large numbers, taking hundreds of prisoners. Iraqi resistance was light, and four Americans were killed.

COALITION FORCES ENTER IRAQ

Destroyed Iraqi civilian and military vehicles on the Highway of Death . Aerial view of destroyed Iraqi T-72tank, BMP-1and Type 63 armored personnel carriers and trucks on Highway 8 in March 1991 The oil fires caused were a result of the scorched earth policy of Iraqi military forces retreating from Kuwait
Kuwait
Remains of downed F-16C Bradley IFV burns after being hit by Iraqi T-72fire

Shortly afterwards, the US VII Corps , in full strength and spearheaded by the 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment, launched an armored attack into Iraq
Iraq
early on 24 February, just to the west of Kuwait, taking Iraqi forces by surprise. Simultaneously, the US XVIII Airborne Corps launched a sweeping "left-hook" attack across southern Iraq's largely undefended desert, led by the US 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment and the 24th Infantry Division (Mechanized) . This movement's left flank was protected by the French Division Daguet. The 101st Airborne Division conducted a combat air assault into enemy territory. The 101st Airborne Division
101st Airborne Division
had struck 155 miles behind enemy lines. It was the deepest air assault operation in history. Approximately 400 helicopters transported 2,000 soldiers into Iraq
Iraq
where they destroyed Iraqi columns trying to flee westward and prevented the escape of Iraqi forces. The Screaming Eagles would travel an additional fifty to sixty miles into Iraq. By nightfall, the 101st cut off Highway 8 which was a vital supply line running between Basra and the Iraqi forces. The 101st had lost 16 soldiers in action during the 100-hour war and captured thousands of enemy prisoners of war.

The French force quickly overcame Iraq's 45th Infantry Division, suffering light casualties and taking a large number of prisoners, and took up blocking positions to prevent an Iraqi counterattack on the coalition's flank. The movement's right flank was protected by the United Kingdom\'s 1st Armoured Division . Once the allies had penetrated deep into Iraqi territory, they turned eastward, launching a flank attack against the elite Republican Guard before it could escape. The Iraqis
Iraqis
resisted fiercely from dug-in positions and stationary vehicles, and even mounted armored charges.

Unlike many previous engagements, the destruction of the first Iraqi tanks did not result in a mass surrender. The Iraqis
Iraqis
suffered massive losses and lost dozens of tanks and vehicles, while US casualties were comparatively low, with a single Bradley knocked out. Coalition forces pressed another 10 km into Iraqi territory, and captured their objective within three hours. They took 500 prisoners and inflicted heavy losses, defeating Iraq's 26th Infantry Division. A US soldier was killed by an Iraqi land mine, another five by friendly fire, and 30 wounded during the battle. Meanwhile, British forces attacked Iraq's Medina
Medina
Division and a major Republican Guard logistics base. In nearly two days of some of the war's most intense fighting, the British destroyed 40 enemy tanks and captured a division commander.

Meanwhile, US forces attacked the village of Al Busayyah , meeting fierce resistance. The US force destroyed a considerable amount of military hardware and took prisoners, while suffering no casualties.

On 25 February 1991, Iraqi forces fired a Scud
Scud
missile at an American barracks in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. The missile attack killed 28 US military personnel.

The coalition's advance was much swifter than US generals had expected. On 26 February, Iraqi troops began retreating from Kuwait, after they had set 737 of its oil wells on fire. A long convoy of retreating Iraqi troops formed along the main Iraq- Kuwait
Kuwait
highway. Although they were retreating, this convoy was bombed so extensively by coalition air forces that it came to be known as the Highway of Death . Hundreds of Iraqi troops were killed. American, British, and French forces continued to pursue retreating Iraqi forces over the border and back into Iraq, eventually moving to within 150 miles (240 km) of Baghdad, before withdrawing back to Iraq's border with Kuwait and Saudi Arabia.

One hundred hours after the ground campaign started, on 28 February, President Bush declared a ceasefire, and he also declared that Kuwait had been liberated.

THE END OF ACTIVE HOSTILITIES

Main article: 1991 uprisings in Iraq
1991 uprisings in Iraq
Civilians and coalition military forces wave Kuwaiti and Saudi Arabian flags as they celebrate the retreat of Iraqi forces from Kuwait. Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
Veterans National Medal of the US military.

In coalition-occupied Iraqi territory, a peace conference was held where a ceasefire agreement was negotiated and signed by both sides. At the conference, Iraq
Iraq
was authorized to fly armed helicopters on their side of the temporary border, ostensibly for government transit due to the damage done to civilian infrastructure. Soon after, these helicopters and much of Iraq's military were used to fight an uprising in the south . The rebellions were encouraged by an airing of "The Voice of Free Iraq" on 2 February 1991, which was broadcast from a CIA-run radio station out of Saudi Arabia. The Arabic
Arabic
service of the Voice of America
Voice of America
supported the uprising by stating that the rebellion was well supported, and that they soon would be liberated from Saddam.

In the North, Kurdish leaders took American statements that they would support an uprising to heart, and began fighting, hoping to trigger a coup d\'état . However, when no US support came, Iraqi generals remained loyal to Saddam and brutally crushed the Kurdish uprising . Millions of Kurds fled across the mountains to Turkey and Kurdish areas of Iran. These events later resulted in no-fly zones being established in northern and southern Iraq. In Kuwait, the Emir was restored, and suspected Iraqi collaborators were repressed. Eventually, over 400,000 people were expelled from the country, including a large number of Palestinians
Palestinians
, because of PLO
PLO
support of Saddam. Yasser Arafat
Yasser Arafat
didn't apologize for his support of Iraq, but after his death, the Fatah under Mahmoud Abbas' authority formally apologized in 2004.

There was some criticism of the Bush administration, as they chose to allow Saddam to remain in power instead of pushing on to capture Baghdad and overthrowing his government. In their co-written 1998 book, _ A World Transformed_, Bush and Brent Scowcroft
Brent Scowcroft
argued that such a course would have fractured the alliance, and would have had many unnecessary political and human costs associated with it.

In 1992, the US Defense Secretary during the war, Dick Cheney, made the same point:

I would guess if we had gone in there, we would still have forces in Baghdad today. We'd be running the country. We would not have been able to get everybody out and bring everybody home.

And the final point that I think needs to be made is this question of casualties. I don't think you could have done all of that without significant additional US casualties, and while everybody was tremendously impressed with the low cost of the (1991) conflict, for the 146 Americans who were killed in action and for their families, it wasn't a cheap war.

And the question in my mind is, how many additional American casualties is Saddam (Hussein) worth? And the answer is, not that damned many. So, I think we got it right, both when we decided to expel him from Kuwait, but also when the President made the decision that we'd achieved our objectives and we were not going to go get bogged down in the problems of trying to take over and govern Iraq.

Instead of a greater involvement of its own military, the US hoped that Saddam would be overthrown in an internal coup d'état. The CIA used its assets in Iraq
Iraq
to organize a revolt, but the Iraqi government defeated the effort.

On 10 March 1991, 540,000 US troops began moving out of the Persian Gulf.

COALITION INVOLVEMENT

Coalition troops from Egypt, Syria, Oman, France
France
and Kuwait during Operation Desert Storm
Operation Desert Storm
Main article: Coalition of the Gulf War

Coalition members included Argentina, Australia, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Belgium, Canada, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Egypt, France, Greece, Honduras, Hungary, Italy, Kuwait, Malaysia, Morocco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Niger, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Syria, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States
United States
of America.

Germany and Japan provided financial assistance and donated military hardware, although they did not send direct military assistance. This later became known as _checkbook diplomacy _.

AUSTRALIA

_ HMAS Sydney_ in the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
in 1991 Main article: Australian contribution to the 1991 Gulf War

Australia
Australia
contributed a Naval Task Group, which formed part of the multi-national fleet in the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
and Gulf of Oman
Oman
, under OPERATION DAMASK. In addition, medical teams were deployed aboard a US hospital ship , and a naval clearance diving team took part in de-mining Kuwait's port facilities following the end of combat operations. Australian forces experienced a number of incidents in the first number of weeks of the Desert Storm Campaign including the detection of significant air threats from Iraq
Iraq
as a part of the outer perimeter of Battle Force Zulu; the detection of free sea floating mines and assistance to the aircraft carrier USS Midway. The Australian Task Force was also placed at great risk with regard to the sea mine threat, with HMAS Brisbane narrowly avoiding a mine by a small distance. The Australians played a significant role in enforcing the sanctions put in place against Iraq
Iraq
following Kuwait's invasion. Following the war's end, Australia
Australia
deployed a medical unit on Operation Habitatto northern Iraq
Iraq
as part of Operation Provide Comfort .

ARGENTINA

Argentine Navy Alouette III
Alouette III
helicopter onboard USNS Comfort
USNS Comfort
, February 1991

Argentina
Argentina
was the only Latin American country to participate in the 1991 Gulf War
Gulf War
sending a destroyer, ARA Almirante Brown (D-10), a corvette, ARA Spiro (P-43)(later replaced by another corvette, ARA Rosales (P-42) ) and a supply ship (ARA _Bahía San Blas_ (B-4) ) to participate on the United Nations
United Nations
blockade and sea control effort of the Persian Gulf. The success of "Operación Alfil" (English: "Operation Bishop") as it was known, with more than 700 interceptions and 25,000 miles sailed in the theatre of operations helped to overcome the so-called "Malvinas syndrome ". Argentina
Argentina
was later classified as major non- NATO
NATO
ally due to her contributions during the war.

CANADA

Canadian CF-18 Hornets participated in combat during the Gulf War See also: Operation FRICTION

Canada
Canada
was one of the first countries to condemn Iraq's invasion of Kuwait, and it quickly agreed to join the US-led coalition. In August 1990, Prime Minister Brian Mulroney
Brian Mulroney
committed the Canadian Forces
Canadian Forces
to deploy a Naval Task Group. The destroyers HMCS _Terra Nova_ and HMCS _Athabaskan_ joined the maritime interdiction force supported by the supply ship HMCS _Protecteur_ in Operation Friction. The Canadian Task Group led the coalition's maritime logistics forces in the Persian Gulf. A fourth ship, HMCS _Huron_ , arrived in-theater after hostilities had ceased and was the first allied ship to visit Kuwait.

Following the UN-authorized use of force against Iraq, the Canadian Forces deployed a CF-18 Hornetand CH-124 Sea King squadron with support personnel, as well as a field hospital to deal with casualties from the ground war. When the air war began, the CF-18s were integrated into the coalition force and were tasked with providing air cover and attacking ground targets. This was the first time since the Korean War
Korean War
that Canada's military had participated in offensive combat operations. The only CF-18 Hornetto record an official victory during the conflict was an aircraft involved in the beginning of the Battle of Bubiyan against the Iraqi Navy.

The Canadian Commander in the Middle East was Commodore Kenneth J. Summers .

FRANCE

French and American soldiers inspecting an Iraqi Type 69 tank destroyed by the French Division Daguetduring Operation Desert Storm
Operation Desert Storm

The second largest European contingent was from France, which committed 18,000 troops. Operating on the left flank of the US XVIII Airborne Corps, the French Army force was the Division Daguet, including troops from the French Foreign Legion
French Foreign Legion
. Initially, the French operated independently under national command and control, but coordinated closely with the Americans (via CENTCOM ) and Saudis. In January, the Division was placed under the tactical control of the XVIII Airborne Corps. France
France
also deployed several combat aircraft and naval units. The French called their contribution Opération Daguet.

UNITED KINGDOM

Main article: Battle of Norfolk
Battle of Norfolk
British Army
British Army
Challenger 1
Challenger 1
main battle tank during Operation Desert Storm
Operation Desert Storm

The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
committed the largest contingent of any European state that participated in the war's combat operations. Operation Granby was the code name for the operations in the Persian Gulf. British Army
British Army
regiments (mainly with the 1st Armoured Division) , Royal Air Force squadrons and Royal Navy
Royal Navy
vessels were mobilized in the Persian Gulf. The Royal Air Force, using various aircraft, operated from airbases in Saudi Arabia. The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
played a major role in the Battle of Norfolk
Battle of Norfolk
where its forces destroyed over 200 Iraqi tanks and a large quantity of other vehicles. After 48 hours of combat the British 1st Armoured Division destroyed or isolated four Iraqi infantry divisions (the 26th, 48th, 31st, and 25th) and overran the Iraqi 52nd Armored Division in several sharp engagements.

Chief Royal Navy
Royal Navy
vessels deployed to the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
included _Broadsword_-class frigates , and _Sheffield_-class destroyers , other R.N. and R.F.A. ships were also deployed. The light aircraft carrier HMS _Ark Royal_ was deployed to the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
.

Special
Special
operations forces were deployed in the form of several SAS squadrons.

A British Challenger 1
Challenger 1
achieved the longest range confirmed tank kill of the war, destroying an Iraqi tank with an armour-piercing fin-stabilized discarding-sabot (APFSDS) round fired over a distance of 4,700 metres (2.9 mi)—the longest tank-on-tank kill shot recorded.

CASUALTIES

CIVILIAN

Over 1,000 Kuwaiti civilians were killed by Iraqis. More than 600 Kuwaitis went missing during Iraq's occupation, and approximately 375 remains were found in mass graves in Iraq. The increased importance of air attacks from both coalition warplanes and cruise missiles led to controversy over the number of civilian deaths caused during Desert Storm's initial stages. Within Desert Storm's first 24 hours, more than 1,000 sorties were flown, many against targets in Baghdad. The city was the target of heavy bombing, as it was the seat of power for Saddam and the Iraqi forces' command and control . This ultimately led to civilian casualties .

In one noted incident, two USAF
USAF
stealth planes bombed a bunker in Amiriyah , causing the deaths of 408 Iraqi civilians who were in the shelter. Scenes of burned and mutilated bodies were subsequently broadcast, and controversy arose over the bunker's status, with some stating that it was a civilian shelter, while others contended that it was a center of Iraqi military operations, and that the civilians had been deliberately moved there to act as human shields .

Saddam's government gave high civilian casualty figures in order to draw support from Islamic countries. The Iraqi government claimed that 2,300 civilians died during the air campaign. According to the Project on Defense Alternatives study, 3,664 Iraqi civilians were killed in the conflict. An investigation by Beth Osborne Daponte estimated total civilian fatalities at about 3,500 from bombing, and some 100,000 from the war's other effects.

IRAQI

The exact number of Iraqi combat casualties is unknown, but is believed to have been heavy. Some estimate that Iraq
Iraq
sustained between 20,000 and 35,000 fatalities. A report commissioned by the US Air Force, estimated 10,000–12,000 Iraqi combat deaths in the air campaign, and as many as 10,000 casualties in the ground war. This analysis is based on Iraqi prisoner of war reports.

According to the Project on Defense Alternatives study, between 20,000 and 26,000 Iraqi military personnel were killed in the conflict while 75,000 others were wounded.

COALITION

Coalition troops killed by country COUNTRY TOTAL Enemy action ACCIDENT Friendly fire REF

United States 146 111 35 35

Senegal 92

92

United Kingdom 47 38 1 9

Saudi Arabia 24 18 6

.

France 9 9

United Arab Emirates 6 6

Qatar 3 3

Syria 2

Egypt 11

5

.

Kuwait 1 1

Sailors from a US Navy honor guard carry Navy pilot Scott Speicher 's remains

The Department of Defense reports that US forces suffered 148 battle-related deaths (35 to friendly fire ), with one pilot listed as MIA (his remains were found and identified in August 2009). A further 145 Americans died in non-combat accidents. The UK suffered 47 deaths (nine to friendly fire, all by US forces), France
France
two, and the other countries, not including Kuwait, suffered 37 deaths (18 Saudis, one Egyptian, six UAE and three Qataris). At least 605 Kuwaiti soldiers were still missing 10 years after their capture.

The largest single loss of life among coalition forces happened on 25 February 1991, when an Iraqi Al Hussein missile hit a US military barrack in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, killing 28 US Army Reservists from Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
. In all, 190 coalition troops were killed by Iraqi fire during the war, 113 of whom were American, out of a total of 358 coalition deaths. Another 44 soldiers were killed and 57 wounded by friendly fire . 145 soldiers died of exploding munitions or non-combat accidents.

The largest accident among coalition forces happened on 21 March 1991, a Royal Saudi Air Force C-130H crashed in heavy smoke on approach to Ras Al-Mishab Airport, Saudi Arabia. 92 Senegalese soldiers and six Saudi crew members were killed.

The number of coalition wounded in combat was 776, including 458 Americans.

190 coalition troops were killed by Iraqi combatants, the rest of the 379 coalition deaths being from friendly fire or accidents. This number was much lower than expected. Among the American dead were three female soldiers.

Friendly Fire

While the death toll among coalition forces engaging Iraqi combatants was very low, a substantial number of deaths were caused by accidental attacks from other Allied units. Of the 148 US troops who died in battle, 24% were killed by friendly fire, a total of 35 service personnel. A further 11 died in detonations of coalition munitions. Nine British military personnel were killed in a friendly fire incident when a USAF
USAF
A-10Thunderbolt II destroyed a group of two Warrior IFVs .

CONTROVERSIES

GULF WAR ILLNESS

Main article: Gulf War syndrome

Many returning coalition soldiers reported illnesses following their action in the war, a phenomenon known as Gulf War syndromeor Gulf War illness. Common symptoms that were reported are chronic fatigue, Fibromyalgia, and Gastrointestinal disorder. There has been widespread speculation and disagreement about the causes of the illness and the reported birth defects. Researchers found that infants born to male veterans of the 1991 war had higher rates of two types of heart valve defects. Gulf War
Gulf War
veterans' children born after the war had a certain kidney defect that was not found in Gulf War
Gulf War
veterans' children born before the war. Researchers have said that they did not have enough information to link birth defects with exposure to toxic substances. Some factors considered as possibilities include exposure to depleted uranium , chemical weapons , anthrax vaccines given to deploying soldiers, and/or infectious diseases. Major Michael Donnelly , a USAF
USAF
officer during the War, helped publicize the syndrome and advocated for veterans' rights in this regard.

EFFECTS OF DEPLETED URANIUM

Approximate area and major clashes in which DU rounds were used. Main article: Depleted uranium§ Health considerations

Depleted uraniumwas used in the war in tank kinetic energy penetrators and 20–30 mm cannon ordnance . Significant controversy regarding the long term safety of depleted uranium exists, although detractors claim pyrophoric , genotoxic , and teratogenic heavy metal effects. Many have cited its use during the war as a contributing factor to a number of instances of health issues in the conflict's veterans and surrounding civilian populations. However, scientific opinion on the risk is mixed.

Depleted uraniumhas 40% less radioactivity than natural uranium, but the negative effects should not be overlooked. Some say that depleted uranium is not a significant health hazard unless it is taken into the body. External exposure to radiation from depleted uranium is generally not a major concern because the alpha particles emitted by its isotopes travel only a few centimeters in air or can be stopped by a sheet of paper. Also, the uranium-235 that remains in depleted uranium emits only a small amount of low-energy gamma radiation. However, if allowed to enter the body, depleted uranium, like natural uranium, has the potential for both chemical and radiological toxicity with the two important target organs being the kidneys and the lungs.

HIGHWAY OF DEATH

Main article: Highway of Death

On the night of 26–27 February 1991, some Iraqi forces began leaving Kuwait
Kuwait
on the main highway north of Al Jahra
Al Jahra
in a column of some 1,400 vehicles. A patrolling E-8 Joint STARS aircraft observed the retreating forces and relayed the information to the DDM-8 air operations center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. These vehicles and the retreating soldiers were subsequently attacked by two A-10aircraft, resulting in a 60 km stretch of highway strewn with debris—the Highway of Death. _New York Times_ reporter Maureen Dowd wrote, "With the Iraqi leader facing military defeat, Mr. Bush decided that he would rather gamble on a violent and potentially unpopular ground war than risk the alternative: an imperfect settlement hammered out by the Soviets and Iraqis
Iraqis
that world opinion might accept as tolerable."

Chuck Horner, Commander of US and allied air operations, has written:

, the Iraqis
Iraqis
totally lost heart and started to evacuate occupied Kuwait, but airpower halted the caravan of Iraqi Army
Iraqi Army
and plunderers fleeing toward Basra. This event was later called by the media "The Highway of Death." There were certainly a lot of dead vehicles, but not so many dead Iraqis. They'd already learned to scamper off into the desert when our aircraft started to attack. Nevertheless, some people back home wrongly chose to believe we were cruelly and unusually punishing our already whipped foes.

By February 27, talk had turned toward terminating the hostilities. Kuwait
Kuwait
was free. We were not interested in governing Iraq. So the question became "How do we stop the killing."

BULLDOZER ASSAULT

An armored bulldozer similar to the ones used in the attack.

Another incident during the war highlighted the question of large-scale Iraqi combat deaths. This was the "bulldozer assault", wherein two brigades from the US 1st Infantry Division (Mechanized) were faced with a large and complex trench network, as part of the heavily fortified " Saddam Hussein
Saddam Hussein
Line". After some deliberation, they opted to use anti-mine plows mounted on tanks and combat earthmovers to simply plow over and bury alive the defending Iraqi soldiers. Not a single American was killed during the attack. Reporters were banned from witnessing the attack, near the neutral zone that touches the border between Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
and Iraq. Every American in the assault was inside an armored vehicle. One newspaper story reported that US commanders estimated thousands of Iraqi soldiers surrendered, escaping live burial during the two-day assault 24–26 February 1991. Patrick Day Sloyan of _Newsday_ reported, "Bradley Fighting Vehicles and Vulcan armored carriers straddled the trench lines and fired into the Iraqi soldiers as the tanks covered them with mounds of sand. 'I came through right after the lead company,' Moreno said. 'What you saw was a bunch of buried trenches with peoples' arms and things sticking out of them... '" However, after the war, the Iraqi government said that only 44 bodies were found. In his book _The Wars Against Saddam_, John Simpson alleges that US forces attempted to cover up the incident. After the incident, the commander of the 1st Brigade
Brigade
said: "I know burying people like that sounds pretty nasty, but it would be even nastier if we had to put our troops in the trenches and clean them out with bayonets." Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney
Dick Cheney
did not mention the First Division's tactics in an interim report to Congress on Operation Desert Storm. In the report, Cheney acknowledged that 457 enemy soldiers were buried during the ground war.

PALESTINIAN EXODUS FROM KUWAIT

Main article: Palestinian exodus from Kuwait
Kuwait
(Gulf War)

A Palestinian exodus from Kuwait
Kuwait
took place during and after the Gulf War. During the Gulf War, more than 200,000 Palestinians
Palestinians
voluntarily fled Kuwait
Kuwait
during the Iraqi occupation of Kuwait
Kuwait
due to harassment and intimidation by Iraqi security forces, in addition to getting fired from work by Iraqi authority figures in Kuwait. After the Gulf War, the Kuwaiti authorities forcibly pressured nearly 200,000 Palestinians
Palestinians
to leave Kuwait
Kuwait
in 1991. Kuwait's policy, which led to this exodus, was a response to alignment of Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat and the PLO
PLO
with Saddam Hussein.

The Palestinians
Palestinians
who fled Kuwait
Kuwait
were Jordanian citizens . In 2013, there were 280,000 Jordanian citizens of Palestinian origin in Kuwait. In 2012, 80,000 Palestinians
Palestinians
(without Jordanian citizenship ) lived in Kuwait.

Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
expelled Yemeni workers after Yemen
Yemen
supported Saddam during the Gulf War.

COALITION BOMBING OF IRAQ\'S CIVILIAN INFRASTRUCTURE

In the 23 June 1991 edition of _The Washington Post_, reporter Bart Gellman wrote: "Many of the targets were chosen only secondarily to contribute to the military defeat of ... Military planners hoped the bombing would amplify the economic and psychological impact of international sanctions on Iraqi society ... They deliberately did great harm to Iraq's ability to support itself as an industrial society ..." In the Jan/Feb 1995 edition of _Foreign Affairs_, French diplomat Eric Rouleau wrote: "he Iraqi people, who were not consulted about the invasion, have paid the price for their government's madness ... Iraqis
Iraqis
understood the legitimacy of a military action to drive their army from Kuwait, but they have had difficulty comprehending the Allied rationale for using air power to systematically destroy or cripple Iraqi infrastructure and industry: electric power stations (92 percent of installed capacity destroyed), refineries (80 percent of production capacity), petrochemical complexes, telecommunications centers (including 135 telephone networks), bridges (more than 100), roads, highways, railroads, hundreds of locomotives and boxcars full of goods, radio and television broadcasting stations, cement plants, and factories producing aluminum, textiles, electric cables, and medical supplies." However, the UN subsequently spent billions rebuilding hospitals, schools, and water purification facilities throughout the country.

ABUSE OF COALITION POWS

During the conflict, coalition aircrew shot down over Iraq
Iraq
were displayed as prisoners of war on TV, most with visible signs of abuse. Amongst several testimonies to poor treatment, USAF
USAF
Captain Richard Storr was allegededly tortured by Iraqis
Iraqis
during the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
War. Iraqi secret police broke his nose, dislocated his shoulder and punctured his eardrum. Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
Tornado crew John Nichol and John Peters have both alleged that they were tortured during this time. Nichol and Peters were forced to make statements against the war in front of television cameras. Members of British Special
Special
Air Service Bravo Two Zerowere captured while providing information about an Iraqi supply line of Scud
Scud
missiles to coalition forces. Only one, Chris Ryan, evaded capture while the group's other surviving members were violently tortured. Flight surgeon (later General) Rhonda Cornum was raped by one of her captors after the Black Hawk helicopter in which she was riding was shot down while searching for a downed F-16 pilot.

OPERATION SOUTHERN WATCH

Main article: Operation Southern Watch
Operation Southern Watch

Since the war, the US has had a continued presence of 5,000 troops stationed in Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
– a figure that rose to 10,000 during the 2003 conflict in Iraq
Iraq
. Operation Southern Watch
Operation Southern Watch
enforced the no-fly zones over southern Iraq
Iraq
set up after 1991; oil exports through the Persian Gulf's shipping lanes were protected by the Bahrain-based US Fifth Fleet .

Since Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
houses Mecca
Mecca
and Medina, Islam's holiest sites, many Muslims were upset at the permanent military presence. The continued presence of US troops in Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
after the war was one of the stated motivations behind the 11 September terrorist attacks , the Khobar Towers bombing, and the date chosen for the 1998 US embassy bombings (7 August), which was eight years to the day that US troops were sent to Saudi Arabia. Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden
interpreted the Islamic prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
as banning the "permanent presence of infidels in Arabia". In 1996, bin Laden issued a fatwa , calling for US troops to leave Saudi Arabia. In a December 1999 interview with Rahimullah Yusufzai, bin Laden said he felt that Americans were "too near to Mecca" and considered this a provocation to the entire Islamic world.

SANCTIONS

Main articles: United Nations Security Council
United Nations Security Council
Resolution 661 and Iraq
Iraq
sanctions

Wikisourcehas original text related to this article: UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTION 661

On 6 August 1990, after Iraq\'s invasion of Kuwait
Kuwait
, the UN Security Council adopted Resolution 661 which imposed economic sanctions on Iraq, providing for a full trade embargo , excluding medical supplies, food and other items of humanitarian necessity, these to be determined by the Council's sanctions committee. From 1991 until 2003, the effects of government policy and sanctions regime led to hyperinflation , widespread poverty and malnutrition.

During the late 1990s, the UN considered relaxing the sanctions imposed because of the hardships suffered by ordinary Iraqis. Studies dispute the number of people who died in south and central Iraq
Iraq
during the years of the sanctions.

DRAINING OF THE QURNA MARSHES

Main article: Draining of the Mesopotamian Marshes

The draining of the Qurna Marshes
Qurna Marshes
was an irrigation project in Iraq during and immediately after the war, to drain a large area of marshes in the Tigris–Euphrates river system
Tigris–Euphrates river system
. Formerly covering an area of around 3,000 square kilometers, the large complex of wetlands were almost completely emptied of water, and the local Shi'ite population relocated, following the war and 1991 uprisings . By 2000, United Nations Environment Programme estimated that 90% of the marshlands had disappeared, causing desertification of over 7,500 square miles (19,000 km2).

The draining of the Qurna Marshes
Qurna Marshes
also called The DRAINING OF THE MESOPOTAMIAN MARSHES occurred in Iraq
Iraq
and to a smaller degree in Iran between the 1950s and 1990s to clear large areas of the marshes in the Tigris-Euphrates river system. Formerly covering an area of around 20,000 km2 (7,700 sq mi), the large complex of wetlands was 90% drained prior to the 2003 Invasion of Iraq
Iraq
. The marshes are typically divided into three main sub-marshes, the Hawizeh , Central, and Hammar Marshes
Marshes
and all three were drained at different times for different reasons. Initial draining of the Central Marshes
Marshes
was intended to reclaim land for agriculture but later all three marshes would become a tool of war and revenge.

Many international organizations such as the UN Human Rights Commission , the Islamic Supreme Council of Iraq
Iraq
, the Wetlands International , and Middle East Watch have described the project as a political attempt to force the Marsh Arabs
Arabs
out of the area through water diversion tactics.

OIL SPILL

Main article: Gulf War oil spill

On 23 January, Iraq
Iraq
dumped 400 million US gallons (1,500,000 m3) of crude oil into the Persian Gulf, causing the largest offshore oil spill in history at that time. It was reported as a deliberate natural resources attack to keep US Marines from coming ashore (_Missouri_ and _Wisconsin_ had shelled Failaka Islandduring the war to reinforce the idea that there would be an amphibious assault attempt). About 30–40% of this came from allied raids on Iraqi coastal targets.

KUWAITI OIL FIRES

Main article: Kuwaiti oil fires See also: Environmental impact of war Oil well fires rage outside Kuwait
Kuwait
City in 1991

The Kuwaiti oil fireswere caused by the Iraqi military setting fire to 700 oil wells as part of a scorched earth policy while retreating from Kuwait
Kuwait
in 1991 after conquering the country but being driven out by coalition forces. The fires started in January and February 1991, and the last one was extinguished by November.

The resulting fires burned out of control because of the dangers of sending in firefighting crews. Land mineshad been placed in areas around the oil wells, and a military cleaning of the areas was necessary before the fires could be put out. Somewhere around 6 million barrels (950,000 m3) of oil were lost each day. Eventually, privately contracted crews extinguished the fires, at a total cost of US$1.5 billion to Kuwait. By that time, however, the fires had burned for approximately 10 months, causing widespread pollution.

COST

The cost of the war to the United States
United States
was calculated by the US Congress to be $61.1 billion. About $52 billion of that amount was paid by other countries: $36 billion by Kuwait, Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
and other Arab states of the Persian Gulf; $16 billion by Germany and Japan (which sent no combat forces due to their constitutions). About 25% of Saudi Arabia's contribution was paid in the form of in-kind services to the troops, such as food and transportation. US troops represented about 74% of the combined force, and the global cost was therefore higher.

EFFECT ON DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

Apart from the impact on Arab States of the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
, the resulting economic disruptions after the crisis affected many states. The Overseas Development Institute(ODI) undertook a study in 1991 to assess the effects on developing states and the international community's response. A briefing paper finalized on the day that the conflict ended draws on their findings which had two main conclusions: Many developing states were severely affected and while there has been a considerable response to the crisis, the distribution of assistance was highly selective.

The ODI factored in elements of "cost" which included oil imports, remittance flows, re-settlement costs, loss of export earnings and tourism. For Egypt, the cost totaled $1 billion, 3% of GDP. Yemen
Yemen
had a cost of $830 million, 10% of GDP, while it cost Jordan
Jordan
$1.8 billion, 32% of GDP.

International response to the crisis on developing states came with the channeling of aid through The Gulf Crisis Financial Co-ordination Group. They were 24 states, comprising most of the OECD countries plus some Gulf states: Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Qatar
Qatar
and Kuwait. The members of this group agreed to disperse $14 billion in development assistance.

The World Bank
World Bank
responded by speeding up the disbursement of existing project and adjustment loans. The International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund
adopted two lending facilities – the Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility (ESAF) and the Compensatory white-space:nowrap;"> in assistance.

MEDIA COVERAGE

_ The examples and perspective in this section MAY NOT REPRESENT A WORLDWIDE VIEW OF THE SUBJECT. You may improve this article , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new article , as appropriate. (January 2010)_ _(Learn how and when to remove this template message )_

Main article: Media coverage of the Gulf War

The war was heavily televised . For the first time, people all over the world were able to watch live pictures of missiles hitting their targets and fighters departing from aircraft carriers. Allied forces were keen to demonstrate their weapons' accuracy.

In the United States, the "big three" network anchors led the war's network news coverage: ABC 's Peter Jennings
Peter Jennings
, CBS
CBS
's Dan Rather
Dan Rather
, and NBC
NBC
's Tom Brokaw
Tom Brokaw
were anchoring their evening newscasts when air strikes began on 16 January 1991. ABC News
ABC News
correspondent Gary Shepard, reporting live from Baghdad, told Jennings of the city's quietness. But, moments later, Shepard was back on the air as flashes of light were seen on the horizon and tracer fire was heard on the ground.

On CBS, viewers were watching a report from correspondent Allen Pizzey, who was also reporting from Baghdad, when the war began. Rather, after the report was finished, announced that there were unconfirmed reports of flashes in Baghdad and heavy air traffic at bases in Saudi Arabia. On the NBC
NBC
Nightly News, correspondent Mike Boettcher reported unusual air activity in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. Moments later, Brokaw announced to his viewers that the air attack had begun.

Still, it was CNN
CNN
whose coverage gained the most popularity and indeed its wartime coverage is often cited as one of the landmark events in the network's history, ultimately leading to the establishment of CNN
CNN
International . CNN
CNN
correspondents John Holliman and Peter Arnettand CNN
CNN
anchor Bernard Shaw relayed audio reports from Baghdad's Al-Rashid Hotel as the air strikes began. The network had previously convinced the Iraqi government to allow installation of a permanent audio circuit in their makeshift bureau. When the telephones of all of the other Western TV correspondents went dead during the bombing, CNN
CNN
was the only service able to provide live reporting. After the initial bombing, Arnett remained behind and was, for a time, the only American TV correspondent reporting from Iraq.

In the United Kingdom, the BBC
BBC
devoted the FM portion of its national speech radio station BBC
BBC
Radio 4 to an 18-hour rolling news format creating Radio 4 News FM
Radio 4 News FM
. The station was short lived, ending shortly after President Bush declared the ceasefire and Kuwait's liberation. However, it paved the way for the later introduction of Radio Five Live .

Two BBC
BBC
journalists, John Simpson and Bob Simpson (no relation), defied their editors and remained in Baghdad to report on the war's progress. They were responsible for a report which included an "infamous cruise missile that travelled down a street and turned left at a traffic light."

Newspapers all over the world also covered the war and _Time_ magazine published a special issue dated 28 January 1991, the headline "War in the Gulf" emblazoned on the cover over a picture of Baghdad taken as the war began.

US policy regarding media freedom was much more restrictive than in the Vietnam War
Vietnam War
. The policy had been spelled out in a Pentagon document entitled _ Annex Foxtrot_. Most of the press information came from briefings organized by the military. Only selected journalists were allowed to visit the front lines or conduct interviews with soldiers. Those visits were always conducted in the presence of officers, and were subject to both prior approval by the military and censorship afterward. This was ostensibly to protect sensitive information from being revealed to Iraq. This policy was heavily influenced by the military's experience with the Vietnam War, in which public opposition within the US grew throughout the war's course. It was not only the limitation of information in the Middle East; media were also restricting what was shown about the war with more graphic depictions like Ken Jarecke's image of a burnt Iraqi soldier being pulled from the American AP wire whereas in Europe it was given extensive coverage.

At the same time, the war's coverage was new in its instantaneousness. About halfway through the war, Iraq's government decided to allow live satellite transmissions from the country by Western news organizations, and US journalists returned en masse to Baghdad. NBC
NBC
's Tom Aspell, ABC's Bill Blakemore, and CBS
CBS
News' Betsy Aaron filed reports, subject to acknowledged Iraqi censorship. Throughout the war, footage of incoming missiles was broadcast almost immediately.

A British crew from CBS
CBS
News, David Green and Andy Thompson, equipped with satellite transmission equipment, traveled with the front line forces and, having transmitted live TV pictures of the fighting en route, arrived the day before the forces in Kuwait
Kuwait
City, broadcasting live television from the city and covering the entrance of the Arab forces the next day.

Alternative media outlets provided views in opposition to the war. Deep Dish Television
Television
compiled segments from independent producers in the US and abroad, and produced a 10-hour series that was distributed internationally, called The Gulf Crisis TV Project. The series' first program _War, Oil and Power_ was compiled and released in 1990, before the war broke out. _News World Order_ was the title of another program in the series; it focused on the media's complicity in promoting the war, as well as Americans' reactions to the media coverage. In San Francisco, as a local example, Paper Tiger Television West produced a weekly cable television show with highlights of mass demonstrations, artists' actions, lectures, and protests against mainstream media coverage at newspaper offices and television stations. Local media outlets in cities across the country screened similar oppositional media.

The organization Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting(FAIR) critically analyzed media coverage during the war in various articles and books, such as the 1991 _ Gulf War
Gulf War
Coverage: The Worst Censorship was at Home_.

TECHNOLOGY

_ The USS Missouri_ launches a Tomahawk missile . The Gulf War was the last conflict in which battleships were deployed in a combat role (as of 2017)

Precision-guided munitions were heralded as key in allowing military strikes to be made with a minimum of civilian casualties compared to previous wars, although they were not used as often as more traditional, less accurate bombs. Specific buildings in downtown Baghdad could be bombed while journalists in their hotels watched cruise missiles fly by.

Precision-guided munitions amounted to approximately 7.4% of all bombs dropped by the coalition. Other bombs included cluster bombs , which disperse numerous submunitions, and daisy cutters , 15,000-pound bombs which can disintegrate everything within hundreds of yards.

Global Positioning System
Global Positioning System
(GPS) units were relatively new at the time and were important in enabling coalition units to easily navigate across the desert. Since military GPS receivers were not available for most troops, many used commercially available units. To permit these to be used to best effect, the "selective availability" feature of the GPS system was turned off for the duration of Desert Storm, allowing these commercial receivers to provide the same precision as the military equipment.

Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS) and satellite communication systems were also important. Two examples of this are the US Navy's Grumman E-2 Hawkeyeand the US Air Force's Boeing E-3 Sentry . Both were used in command and control area of operations. These systems provided essential communications links between air, ground, and naval forces. It is one of several reasons why coalition forces dominated the air war.

American-made color photocopiers were used to produce some of Iraq's battle plans. Some of the copiers contained concealed high-tech transmitters that revealed their positions to American electronic warfare aircraft , leading to more precise bombings.

SCUD AND PATRIOT MISSILES

Military personnel examine the remains of a Scud
Scud

The role of Iraq's Scud
Scud
missiles featured prominently in the war. Scud
Scud
is a tactical ballistic missile that the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
developed and deployed among the forward deployed Red Army
Red Army
divisions in East Germany . The role of the Scuds which were armed with nuclear and chemical warheads was to destroy command, control, and communication facilities and delay full mobilization of Western German and Allied Forces in Germany. It could also be used to directly target ground forces.

Scud
Scud
missiles utilize inertial guidance which operates for the duration that the engines operate. Iraq
Iraq
used Scud
Scud
missiles, launching them into both Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
and Israel. Some missiles caused extensive casualties, while others caused little damage. Concerns were raised of possible chemical or biological warheads on these rockets, but if they existed, they were not used.

The US Patriot missile was used in combat for the first time. The US military claimed a high effectiveness against Scuds at the time, but later analysis gives figures as low as 9%, with 45% of the 158 Patriot launches being against debris or false targets. The Dutch Ministry of Defense , which also sent Patriot missiles to protect civilians in Israel
Israel
and Turkey, later disputed the higher claim. Further, there is at least one incident of a software error causing a Patriot missile's failure to engage an incoming Scud, resulting in deaths. Both the US Army and the missile manufacturers maintained the Patriot delivered a "miracle performance" in the Gulf War.

SEE ALSO

* Iraq
Iraq
portal * United States
United States
portal * War portal * 1990s portal

* 1973 Samita border skirmish * War on Terror
War on Terror
* War in Afghanistan (2001–present)
War in Afghanistan (2001–present)
* United Nations
United Nations
Iraq– Kuwait
Kuwait
Observation Mission (April 1991 – October 2003) * Kuwait– Iraq
Iraq
barrier * Gulf War military awards * Iraq
Iraq
disarmament timeline 1990–2003 * Iraq–Russia relations * Lion of Babylon (tank) * List of Gulf War military equipment * Operation Simoom * Organization of United States Air Force
United States Air Force
Units in the Gulf War
Gulf War
* SIPRI Arms Transfers Database, Iraq
Iraq
1973–1990 * Timeline of the Gulf War * History of the M1 Abrams
M1 Abrams

REGIONAL WARS:

* List of modern conflicts in the Middle East
List of modern conflicts in the Middle East

GENERAL:

* Loss of Strength Gradient * Military history of the United States
United States
* Post– World War II
World War II
air-to-air combat losses

GAMES:

* _Conflict: Desert Storm _ * _Conflict: Desert Storm II _ * _Gulf War: Operation Desert Hammer _

NOTES

* ^ The numbering of Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
conflicts depends on whether the Iran– Iraq
Iraq
War (1980–1988) is referred to as the First (Persian) Gulf War
Gulf War
(English language sources prior to the start of the Kuwait war in 1990 usually called it the Gulf War), which would make the 1990 war the Second (Persian) Gulf War. Different sources may call the conflicts by different names. The name ' Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
' is itself a subject of dispute . The start date of the Kuwait
Kuwait
War can also be seen as either August 1990 (when Iraq's Saddam Hussein
Saddam Hussein
invaded Kuwait
Kuwait
) or as January 1991 (the start of Operation Desert Storm, when the US-led coalition forced Iraq
Iraq
out of Kuwait), so that the war is also often called the 1991 Gulf War, the 1990–1991 Gulf War, the 1990s Gulf War, etc... This dating is also used to distinguish it from the other two \'Gulf Wars\' .

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_. New York. Retrieved 17 October 2010. * ^ Friedman, Thomas L. (11 January 1991). "CONFRONTATION IN THE GULF; As U.S. Officials See It, Hands of Aziz Were Tied". _The New York Times_. pp. A10. Retrieved 30 September 2010. * ^ See Paul Lewis, "Confrontation in the Gulf: The U.N.; France and 3 Arab States Issue an Appeal to Hussein," _New York Times_, 15 January 1991, p. A12 * ^ Michael Kranish et al., "World waits on brink of war: Late effort at diplomacy in gulf fails," _Boston Globe_, 16 January 1991, p. 1 * ^ Ellen Nimmons, A.P., "Last-ditch pitches for peace; But U.S. claims Iraqis
Iraqis
hold key," _Houston Chronicle_, 15 January 1991, p. 1 * ^ Alan Riding, "CONFRONTATION IN THE GULF: France; Paris Says Its Last-Ditch Peace Effort Has Failed" _New York Times_ 16 January 1991 * ^ Gilles Kepel_Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam._ * ^ "The Operation Desert Shield/Desert Storm Timeline". Archived from the original on 26 May 2008. Retrieved 30 June 2010. * ^ "15 Years After Desert Storm, U.S. Commitment to Region Continues". Archived from the original on 2011-06-08. Retrieved 29 March 2007. * ^ "Essential Documents: UN Security Council Resolution 678". Council on Foreign Relations. * ^ Baker, James Addison, and Thomas M. DeFrank. _The Politics of Diplomacy: Revolution, War, and Peace, 1989–1992_. New York: Putnam, 1995. * ^ "The Unfinished War: A Decade Since Desert Storm". CNN
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, Volume 59, page 33, Educational Foundation for Nuclear Science (Chicago, Ill.), Atomic Scientists of Chicago, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists (Organization), 2003. * ^ "How PR Sold the War in the Persian Gulf
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Airpower Survey, Vol. 5; Norman Friedman, Desert Victory; World Air Power Journal. Additionally, Mark Bovankovich and LT Chuck Chase offered corrections and several intriguing details on these incidents. All errors, however, remain entirely mine. * ^ Atkinson, Rick (1994). _Crusade: The Untold Story of the Persian Gulf
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War_. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, p. 47. ISBN 0-395-71083-9 * ^ Lawrence Freedman and Efraim Karsh, _The Gulf Conflict: Diplomacy and War in the New World Order_, 1990–1991 (Princeton, 1993), 332. * ^ Post Video To Facebook (9 January 1991). "Geneva Meeting on Persian Gulf
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_. * ^ Atkinson, Rick; Balz, Dan (23 January 1991). " Scud
Scud
Hits Tel Aviv, Leaving 3 Dead, 96 Hurt". _ The Washington Post
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_. Retrieved 2 June 2013. * ^ Cheney, Richard: _In My Time: A Personal and Political Memoir_ * ^ "DOD: Information Paper- Iraq\'s Scud
Scud
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Iraqis
Buried Alive – U.S. Attacked With Bulldozers During War Ground Attack". _The Seattle Times_. 12 September 1991. Retrieved 4 March 2014. * ^ _A_ _B_ Sloyan, Patrick Day (12 September 1991), "Buried Alive: U.S. Tanks Used Plows To Kill Thousands In Gulf War
Gulf War
Trenches", _Newsday_, New York, p. 1 . * ^ "The gulf war: appendix: Iraqi death toll". _Frontline_. Retrieved 4 December 2005. * ^ Simpson, John (2003), _The Wars Against Saddam_, Basingstoke: MacMillan . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Shafeeq Ghabra (8 May 1991). "The PLO
PLO
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Kuwait
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Palestinians
Open Kuwaiti Embassy". _Al Monitor_. 23 May 2013.

* ^ "Yemen\'s president flees for medical treatment as search for new leader begins". _The Daily Telegraph_. 5 June 2011 * ^ 23 June 1991, Washington Post, Bart Gellman * ^ "The View From France: America's Unyielding Policy toward Iraq," Foreign Affairs, Vol. 74, No. 1, January/February 1995, pp.61–62 * ^ Rubin, Michael (December 2001). "Sanctions on Iraq: A Valid Anti-American Grievance?" (PDF). 5 (4). Middle East Review of International Affairs : 100–115. Archived from the original on 11 August 2006. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link ) * ^ "Frontline: War Stories". Pbs.org. Retrieved 1 February 2011. * ^ Patrice O'Shaughness." Gulf War
Gulf War
POW denounces abuse of Iraqi detainees".New York Daily News. Lexis Nexis Academic. 12 May. 2004. Web. 15 April. 2014 * ^ "The Flight That Changed My Life". Johnnichol.com. Archived from the original on 29 April 2011. Retrieved 1 February 2011. * ^ "War Story:John Peters". Pbs.org. Retrieved 1 February 2011. * ^ _The One that Got Away_ by Chris Ryan& _Bravo Two Zero_ by Andy McNab * ^ "A Woman\'s Burden". _Time _ magazine. 28 March 2003. * ^ _A_ _B_ "US pulls out of Saudi Arabia". _ BBC
BBC
News_. 29 April 2003. Retrieved 29 November 2009. * ^ Plotz, David (2001) What Does Osama Bin Laden Want?, Slate * ^ Bergen, Peter L. (2001). _Holy War Inc_. Simon & Schuster. p. 3. * ^ Yusufzai, Rahimullah (26 September 2001). "Face to face with Osama". _The Guardian_. London. Archived from the original on 19 January 2008. Retrieved 30 June 2010. * ^ " Iraq
Iraq
surveys show \'humanitarian emergency\'". 12 August 1999. Retrieved 29 November 2009. * ^ Spagat, Michael (September 2010). "Truth and death in Iraq under sanctions" (PDF). Significance . * ^ Rubin, Michael (December 2001). "Sanctions on Iraq: A Valid Anti-American Grievance?". 5 (4). Middle East Review of International Affairs : 100–115. Archived from the original on 28 October 2012. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Marsh Arabs". American University School of International Service . Retrieved 1 August 2010. * ^ _A_ _B_ Jeffrey Pollack (Mar–Apr 2003). "Duke Magazine-Oil Spill-After the Deluge". _Duke Magazine_. Archived from the original on 2010-06-13. Retrieved 1 February 2011. * ^ Note: The cited supporting source uses the term _Arabian Gulf_ to name this body of water. This article uses the proper name _Persian Gulf_. For more information, see the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
naming dispute article. * ^ "V: "Thunder And Lightning"- The War With Iraq
Iraq
(Subsection:The War At Sea)". _The United States
United States
Navy in "Desert Shield" / "Desert Storm"_. United States
United States
Navy . Archived from the original on 5 December 2006. Retrieved 26 November 2006. * ^ Leckie, Robert (1998). _The Wars of America_. Castle Books. * ^ Wellman, Robert Campbell (14 February 1999). "" Iraq
Iraq
and Kuwait: 1972, 1990, 1991, 1997." Earthshots: Satellite Images of Environmental Change". U.S. Geological Survey. Archived from the original on 2002-10-28. Retrieved 27 July 2010. * ^ Husain, T. (1995). _Kuwaiti Oil Fires: Regional Environmental Perspectives_. Oxford: BPC Wheatons Ltd. p. 68. * ^ _A_ _B_ "How much did the Gulf War
Gulf War
cost the US?". People.psych.cornell.edu. 20 May 1997. Archived from the original on 21 August 2010. Retrieved 1 February 2011. * ^ _A_ _B_ "The Impact of the Gulf Crisis on Developing Countries". _ODI Briefing Paper_. March 1991. Retrieved 29 June 2011. * ^ Peter Ruff (31 July 2006). "Obituary : Bob Simpson". _The Guardian_. London. Retrieved 4 September 2011. * ^ Lori Robertson (2007). "Images of War". AJR. Retrieved 20 July 2007. * ^ Ken Jarecke's account to the BBC
BBC
World Service programme (9 May 2005). "Picture power: Death of an Iraqi soldier". BBC
BBC
News. Retrieved 14 October 2010. * ^ Lucas, Dean (2007). "Famous Pictures Magazine – Iraqi Soldier". Famous Pictures Magazine. Retrieved 23 May 2013. * ^ "Series (The Gulf Crisis TV Project)". _archive.org_. 11 July 2010. Archived from the original on 11 July 2010. Retrieved 17 January 2017. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link ) * ^ "War, Oil and Power". Retrieved 17 January 2017 – via Internet Archive. * ^ "News World Order". Retrieved 17 January 2017 – via Internet Archive. * ^ Naureckas, Jim (2010). " Gulf War
Gulf War
Coverage: The Worst Censorship Was at Home". Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting(FAIR). Retrieved 14 October 2010. * ^ "Dumb Bombs". Fas.org. Retrieved 18 March 2010. * ^ McNamara, Joel. _GPS for Dummies_. * ^ "Something wrong with our **** chips today". _The Economist_. 7 April 2011. Retrieved 13 June 2011. * ^ _A_ _B_ Cirincione, Joseph (October 1992). "The Performance of the Patriot Missile
Missile
in the war" (PDF). Carnegie Endowment for International Peace . Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 December 2003. Retrieved 4 December 2005. * ^ "The Patriot Missile
Missile
Failure". Ima.umn.edu. Retrieved 1 February 2011.

WORKS CITED

* Victoria, William L. Cleveland, late of Simon Fraser University, Martin Bunton, University of (2013). _A History of the Modern Middle East_ (Fifth edition. ed.). Boulder, CO: Westview Press. p. 450. ISBN 978-0813348339 . Last paragraph: "On 16 January 1991 the air war against Iraq
Iraq
began * Bourque, Stephen A. (2001). _Jayhawk! The 7th Corps in the Persian Gulf War_. Center of Military History, United States
United States
Army. LCCN 2001028533 . OCLC
OCLC
51313637 .

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Arbuthnot, Felicity (17 September 2000). "Allies Deliberately Poisoned Iraq
Iraq
Public Water Supply in Gulf War". Scotland: Sunday Herald. Retrieved 4 December 2005. Atkinson, Rick; Devroy, Ann (12 January 1991). "U.S. Claims Iraqi Nuclear Reactors Hit Hard". _Washington Post_. Retrieved 4 December 2005. Austvik, Ole Gunnar (1993). "_The War Over the Price of Oil_". International Journal of Global Energy Issues. Bard, Mitchell. "The Gulf War". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 25 May 2009. Barzilai, Gad (1993). Klieman, Aharon; Shidlo, Gil, eds. _The Gulf Crisis and Its Global Aftermath_. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-08002-9 . Blum, William (1995). Killing Hope: U.S. Military and CIA Interventions Since World War II. Common Courage Press. ISBN 1-56751-052-3 . Archived from the original on 23 January 2008. Retrieved 4 December 2005. Bolkom, Christopher; Pike, Jonathan. "_Attack Aircraft Proliferation: Areas for Concern_". Retrieved 4 December 2005. Brown., Miland. "First Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
War". Archived from the original on 21 January 2007. Emering, Edward John (2005). _The Decorations and Medals of the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
War (1990 to 1991)_. Claymont, DE: Orders and Medals Society of America. ISBN 1-890974-18-8 . OCLC
OCLC
62859116 . Finlan, Alastair (2003). _The Gulf War
Gulf War
1991_. Osprey. ISBN 1-84176-574-0 . Forbes, Daniel (15 May 2000). "Gulf War crimes?". Salon Magazine. Retrieved 4 December 2005. Graham., Bob (2012). _GULF in the WAR STORY: A US Navy Personnel Manager Confides in You_. Florida u.a.: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform. ISBN 978-1475147056 . Hawley., T. M. (1992). _Against the Fires of Hell: The Environmental Disaster of the Gulf War_. New York u.a.: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. ISBN 0-15-103969-0 . Hiro, Dilip (1992). _Desert Shield to Desert Storm: The Second Gulf War_. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-90657-9 . Clancy, Tom; Horner, Chuck (1999). _Every Man a Tiger: The Gulf War
Gulf War
Air Campaign_. Putnam. ISBN 978-0-399-14493-6 . Hoskinson, Ronald Andrew; Jarvis, Norman (1994). " Gulf War
Gulf War
Photo Gallery". Retrieved 4 December 2005. Kepel, Gilles (2002). "From the Gulf War
Gulf War
to the Taliban Jihad / Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam". Latimer, Jon (2001). _Deception in War_. London: John Murray. ISBN 0-7195-5605-8 . Little, Allan (1 December 1997). " Iraq
Iraq
coming in from the cold?". BBC. Retrieved 4 December 2005. Lowry, Richard S. "The Gulf War
Gulf War
Chronicles". iUniverse (2003 and 2008). MacArthur, John. "Independent Policy Forum Luncheon Honoring". Retrieved 4 December 2005. Makiya, Kanan (1993). _Cruelty and silence : war, tyranny, uprising, and the Arab World_. W.W. Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-03108-9 . Moise, Edwin. "Bibliography: The First U.S. – Iraq
Iraq
War: Desert Shield and Desert Storm (1990–1991)". Retrieved 21 March 2009. Munro, Alan (2006). _Arab Storm: Politics and Diplomacy Behind the Gulf War_. I.B. Tauris. ISBN 1-84511-128-1 . Naval Historical Center (15 May 1991). "The United States
United States
Navy in Desert Shield/Desert Storm". Retrieved 4 December 2005. Wright, Steven (2007). _The United States and Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
Security: The Foundations of the War on Terror_. Ithaca Press. ISBN 978-0-86372-321-6 . Niksch, Larry A; Sutter, Robert G (23 May 1991). "Japan\'s Response to the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
Crisis: Implications for U.S.-Japan Relations". Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress. Retrieved 4 December 2005. Odgers, George (1999). _100 Years of Australians at War_. Sydney: Lansdowne. ISBN 1-86302-669-X . Riley, Jonathon (2010). _Decisive Battles: From Yorktown to Operation Desert Storm_. Continuum. ISBN 1-84725-250-8 . Roberts, Paul William (1998). _The demonic comedy : some detours in the Baghdad of Saddam Hussein_. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 978-0-374-13823-3 . Sifry, Micah; Cerf, Christopher (1991). _The Gulf War
Gulf War
Reader_. New York, NY: Random House. ISBN 0-8129-1947-5 . Simons, Geoff (2004). _Iraq: from Sumer
Sumer
to post-Saddam_ (3 ed.). Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1-4039-1770-1 . Smith, Jean Edward (1992). _George Bush's War_. New York: Henry Holt. ISBN 978-0-8050-1388-7 . Tucker, Spencer (2010). _The Encyclopedia of Middle East Wars. The United States
United States
in the Persian Gulf, Afghanistan, and Iraq
Iraq
Conflicts_. ABC-Clio. ISBN 1-84725-250-8 . Turnley, Peter (December 2002). "The Unseen Gulf War
Gulf War
(photo essay)". Retrieved 4 December 2005. Walker, Paul; Stambler, Eric (1991). "... and the dirty little weapons". _ Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists
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Vol 47, Number 4_. Archived from the original on 3 February 2007. Retrieved 30 June 2010. Frank, Andre Gunder (20 May 1991). "Third World War in the Gulf: A New World Order". _Political Economy Notebooks for Study and Research, no. 14, pp. 5–34_. Retrieved 4 December 2005. PBS Frontline. "The Gulf War: an in-depth examination of the 1990–1991 Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
crisis". Retrieved 4 December 2005. "Report to Congress on the Conduct of the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
War, Chapter 6". Retrieved 4 December 2005.

FILMS

* _ Dawn of the World
Dawn of the World
_ (2008) * _ Bravo Two Zero_ (1999) * _ Courage Under Fire_ (1996) * _The Finest Hour _ (1991) * _ The Heroes of Desert Storm_ (1991) * _Jarhead _ (2005) * _ Lessons of Darkness_ (1992) (a documentary) * _Live from Baghdad _ (2002) * _Towelhead _ (2007) * _Three Kings _ (1999) * _The Manchurian Candidate _ (2004) * Used as a back drop for the film _ The Big Lebowski
The Big Lebowski
_ (1998). It is frequently discussed as well. * Used in retconned backstory for _The Punisher _ (2004) * The Bollywood
Bollywood
movie Airlift (2016) is based on the true story of the evacuation of 170,000 Indians stranded in the War Zone.

NOVELS

* _Braving the Fear – The True Story of Rowdy US Marines in the Gulf War_ (by Douglas Foster) ISBN 978-1-4137-9902-6 * _Bravo Two Zero_ (by Andy McNab) ISBN 0-440-21880-2 * _ The Fist of God_ (by Frederick Forsyth
Frederick Forsyth
) ISBN 0-553-09126-3 * _Glass (Pray the Electrons Back to Sand)_ (by James Chapman) * _Gulf in the War Story: A US Navy Personnel Manager Confides in You_ (diary from inside the real Top Gun, VF-1 "Wolfpack" by Bob Graham) ISBN 978-1-4751-4705-6 * _Hogs_ dime novel series by James Ferro * _Jarhead_ (by Anthony Swofford) ISBN 0-7432-3535-5 * _Savant_ (by James Follett) * _Summer 1990_ (by Firyal AlShalabi) * _Third Graders at War_ (by Felix G) * _To Die in Babylon_ by Harold Livingston * M60 vs T-62
T-62
Cold War
Cold War
Combatants 1956–92 by Lon Nordeen font-size: 90%; color: #555">(via Wayback Machine) * Desert Shield/Desert Storm Photographs US Army Heritage and Education Center, Carlisle, Pennsylvania * Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
War * 20th Anniversary of Desert Storm in Photos * Air Force and Air Defense of Iraq
Iraq
before the war (not translated) exact list of the technical details * Liberating Kuwait
Kuwait
United States
United States
Marine Corps * Baath Ground Forces Equipment – GlobalSecurity.org * Friendly-fire Incidents – www.gulflink.osd.mil

* v * t * e

Gulf War
Gulf War

* Conflict
Conflict
timeline * Disarmament timeline

INVASION OF KUWAIT

* Battle of Dasman Palace * Battle of the Bridges * Battle of Failaka * U.N. Resolution 660

COALITION INTERVENTION

* U.N. Resolution 661 * Coalition * Iraq– United States
United States
relations * Carter Doctrine
Carter Doctrine
* Military equipment

BATTLES

* Air campaign * "Package Q" air strike * Khafji
Khafji
* Wadi Al-Batin * Samurra * Al Busayyah * 67 Easting * 73 Easting * Phase Line Bullet * Medina
Medina
Ridge * 2nd Kuwait
Kuwait
* Highway of Death * Jalibah * Norfolk * Rumaila * Safwan

AFTERMATH

* Operation _Southern Watch_ * Iraq
Iraq
sanctions * Kuwaiti oil fires * 1991 uprisings * Draining of the marshes * Gulf War oil spill * Depleted uranium * Gulf War syndrome * Awards * Operation _Provide Comfort_

MEMORIALS

* London

* v * t * e

Saddam Hussein
Saddam Hussein

28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006

BIOGRAPHY

* 17 July Revolution * Iran– Iraq
Iraq
War (U.S. support ) * Anfal genocide * Gulf War * Human rights record

* Relationship with Al-Qaeda

* timeline

* Capture * Interrogation * Trial * Execution

_

BOOKS

* Zabibah and the King_ * _ The Fortified Castle_ * _ Men and the City_ * _ Begone, Demons_

PROPAGANDA

* Killing babies * Alleged shredder

FAMILY

* Father: Hussein \'Abid al-Majid * Mother: Subha Tulfah al-Mussallat * Half-brothers: Watban , Sabawi , and Barzan * Wives: Sajida Talfahand Samira Shahbandar
Samira Shahbandar
* Uncle and Father-in-Law: Khairallah Talfah * Sons: Uday and Qusay * Daughters: Rana , Raghad , and Hala * Grandchildren: Mustapha Hussein

MEDIA

* _ House of Saddam
House of Saddam
_ * _ South Park
South Park
_ * _The Devil\'s Double _

* WIKIMEDIA: * _ Wiktionary * Wikibooks * Wikiquote * Wikisource * Commons * Wikinews * Wikibook * Category
Category

* v * t * e

Iraq
Iraq
articles

HISTORY

ANCIENT

* Sumer
Sumer
* Akkadian Empire
Akkadian Empire
* Babylonia
Babylonia
* Assyria
Assyria
* Neo-Assyrian Empire
Neo-Assyrian Empire
* Neo-Babylonian Empire * Achaemenid Assyria
Assyria
* Seleucid Babylonia
Babylonia
* Parthian Babylonia
Babylonia
* Sassanid Asorestan

638–1958

* Muslim conquest of Persia
Muslim conquest of Persia
* Abbasid Caliphate
Abbasid Caliphate
* Buyid dynasty
Buyid dynasty
* Kara Koyunlu
Kara Koyunlu
* Ak Koyunlu * Safavids
Safavids
* Ottoman Iraq
Iraq
(Mamluk dynasty ) * Mandatory Iraq
Iraq
* Kingdom of Iraq
Iraq
* Arab Federation
Arab Federation

REPUBLIC

* 1958–68 * 1968–2003 * 2003–11 * 2011–present

* Arab Socialist Ba\'ath Party – Iraq
Iraq
Region (National Command ) * Saddam Hussein
Saddam Hussein
* Iran– Iraq
Iraq
War * Invasion of Kuwait
Invasion of Kuwait
* Gulf War * Sanctions

* Iraq
Iraq
War

* U.S. invasion * Iraqi insurgency * U.S. troop withdrawal

* Insurgency (2011–2013)

* Civil War (2014–present)

* Mosul liberation

GEOGRAPHY

* Al-Faw Peninsula
Al-Faw Peninsula
* Al-Jazira * Euphrates
Euphrates
* Hamrin Mountains * Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
* Islands * Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
* Mesopotamian Marshes
Marshes
* Places * Lakes * Shatt al-Arab
Shatt al-Arab
* Syrian Desert
Syrian Desert
* Tigris
Tigris
* Umm Qasr
Umm Qasr
* Zagros Mountains
Zagros Mountains

POLITICS

* Administrative divisions * Constitution * Council of Representatives (legislative) * Elections * Foreign aid * Foreign relations

* Government

* Council of Ministers * Presidency Council * President * Prime Minister

* Human rights

* in pre-Saddam Iraq
Iraq
* in Saddam Hussein\'s Iraq
Iraq

* in post-invasion Iraq
Iraq

* in ISIL-controlled territory

* LGBT * Freedom of religion * Women

* Law * Military * Police * Political parties * Judiciary * Wars and conflicts

ECONOMY

* Central Bank * Dinar (currency) * Infrastructure * Oil Industry * Oil reserves * Reconstruction * Stock Exchange * Telecommunications * Transportation

SOCIETY

* Cuisine * Culture * Education * Health * Media * Music * Sports

DEMOGRAPHICS

* Iraqis
Iraqis

* diaspora * refugees

* Languages

* Arabic
Arabic
* Aramaic * Kurdish * Persian * Turkmen

* Minorities

* Armenians * Assyrians * Circassians * Kurds * Mandaeans
Mandaeans
* Marsh Arabs
Arabs
* Persians * Solluba * Turkmen

* Religion

* Islam * Christianity * Jews * Mandaeism
Mandaeism
* Yazidis
Yazidis

* Outline * Index

* Category
Category
* Portal
Portal

* v * t * e

List of modern conflicts in the Middle East
List of modern conflicts in the Middle East

1910S

* World War I
World War I

* Middle Eastern theatre * Arab Revolt
Arab Revolt
* Armenian Genocide
Armenian Genocide
* Assyrian genocide
Assyrian genocide

* Unification of Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
* Simko Shikak revolt * Egyptian revolution of 1919
Egyptian revolution of 1919

* Turkish War of Independence
Turkish War of Independence

* Greco-Turkish War * Turkish–Armenian War * Franco-Turkish War * Revolts

* Mahmud Barzanji revolts
Mahmud Barzanji revolts

1920S

* Franco-Syrian War
Franco-Syrian War
* Iraqi revolt against the British * Sectarian conflict in Mandatory Palestine * Adwan Rebellion * Arab separatism in Khuzestan
Arab separatism in Khuzestan
_ * Great Syrian Revolt * Sheikh Said rebellion * 1921 Persian coup d\'état

1930S

* Ararat rebellion
Ararat rebellion
* Ahmed Barzani revolt * Simele massacre * Saudi–Yemeni War (1934) * Goharshad Mosque rebellion * 1935–36 Iraqi Shia
Shia
revolts * 1935 Yazidi revolt * Dersim rebellion

1940S

* World War II
World War II

* Italian bombing of Palestine * Anglo-Iraqi War
Anglo-Iraqi War
* Syria–Lebanon Campaign * Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran
Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran

* 1943 Barzani revolt * Alwaziri coup * Al-Wathbah uprising

* _ Kurdish separatism in Iran
Kurdish separatism in Iran
_

* Iran crisis of 1946
Iran crisis of 1946

* ARAB–ISRAELI CONFLICT

* _ Israeli–Palestinian conflict_

1950S

* Egyptian revolution of 1952
Egyptian revolution of 1952
* 1953 Iranian coup d\'état * Jebel Akhdar War * Cypriot ethnic crisis * Yemeni–Adenese clan violence * 1958 Lebanon crisis
1958 Lebanon crisis
* 1958 Iraqi revolution * 1959 Mosul uprising
1959 Mosul uprising

1960S

* Iraqi–Kurdish conflict
Iraqi–Kurdish conflict

* First Iraqi-Kurdish War

* Dhofar Rebellion * North Yemen
Yemen
Civil War * Feb. 1963 Iraqi coup * 8th March Syrian Revolution * Nov. 1963 Iraqi coup * Aden Emergency
Aden Emergency
* 1964 Hama riot * 1966 Syrian coup d\'état

1970S

* Black September
Black September
in Jordan
Jordan
* 1972 North Yemen–South Yemen
Yemen
war * Turkish invasion of Cyprus
Turkish invasion of Cyprus
* LEBANESE CIVIL WAR * Political violence in Turkey (1976–80) * Libyan–Egyptian War
Libyan–Egyptian War
* Islamistuprising in Syria
Syria
* NDF Rebellion
NDF Rebellion

* Iranian Revolution
Iranian Revolution

* Consolidation of the Iranian Revolution
Iranian Revolution

* 1979 Qatif Uprising * Grand Mosque seizure
Grand Mosque seizure

1980S

* Sadr uprising (1980) * IRAN–IRAQ WAR * 1980 Turkish coup d\'état

* Kurdish separatism in Turkey

* _Turkey-PKK conflict _

* South Yemen
Yemen
Civil War * 1986 Egyptian conscripts riot * 1986 Damascus bombings
1986 Damascus bombings
* Mecca
Mecca
massacre * Abu Nidal\'s executions

1990S

* GULF WAR (1990–1991) * 1991 uprisings in Iraq
1991 uprisings in Iraq
* Terror campaign in Egypt
Egypt
(1990s) * Yemeni Civil War (1994) * _Islamic insurgency in Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
(2000–present)_ * Operation Desert Fox * al-Qaeda insurgency in Yemen
Yemen
* 1999 Shia
Shia
uprising in Iraq
Iraq

2000S

* IRAQ WAR * _Balochi insurgency in Iran _ * 2004 al-Qamishli riots
2004 al-Qamishli riots
* Houthi insurgency in Yemen
Yemen

* _Iran– Israel
Israel
proxy conflict _

* 2006 Lebanon conflict

* Fatah–Hamas conflict * Nahr al-Bared fighting * 2008 conflict in Lebanon * South Yemen
Yemen
insurgency * 2009–10 Iranian election protests

2010S

* Bahraini uprising

* Egyptian Crisis

* _ Sinai insurgency_ * _Insurgency in Egypt
Egypt
(2013–present) _

* _SYRIAN CIVIL WAR _ * _Syrian War spillover in Lebanon _ * Iraqi insurgency (2011–13)
Iraqi insurgency (2011–13)
* _ Iraqi Civil War (2014–present)
Iraqi Civil War (2014–present)
_ * Yemeni Crisis

THIS LIST INCLUDES POST-OTTOMAN CONFLICTS (AFTER 1918) OF AT LEAST 100 FATALITIES EACH Prolonged conflicts are listed in the decade when initiated; ongoing conflicts are marked italic and conflict with +100,000 killed with bold.

* v * t * e

Armed conflicts involving the United States
United States
Armed Forces

listed chronologically

DOMESTIC

* Shays\' Rebellion * Whiskey Rebellion * Fries\'s Rebellion * Mormon War * Dorr Rebellion * Bleeding Kansas
Bleeding Kansas
* Utah War * Civil War * Indian Wars * Brooks–Baxter War * Range War * Lincoln County War
Lincoln County War
* Johnson County War * Coal Creek War
Coal Creek War
* Homestead Strike
Homestead Strike
* Battle of Blair Mountain * Bonus Army * Battle of Athens

FOREIGN

* Revolutionary War * Quasi-War
Quasi-War
* First Barbary War
First Barbary War
* War of 1812
War of 1812
* Second Barbary War
Second Barbary War
* First Sumatran expedition
First Sumatran expedition
* Second Sumatran expedition * Ivory Coast Expedition
Ivory Coast Expedition
* Mexican–American War
Mexican–American War
* First Fiji Expedition * Second Opium War
Second Opium War
* Second Fiji Expedition * Formosa Expedition
Formosa Expedition
* Korean Expedition * Spanish–American War
Spanish–American War
* Philippine–American War
Philippine–American War
* Boxer Rebellion
Boxer Rebellion
* Banana Wars
Banana Wars
* Border War * World War I
World War I
* Russian Civil War * World War II
World War II
* Korean War
Korean War
* Vietnam War
Vietnam War
* Invasion of the Dominican Republic * Invasion of Grenada
Invasion of Grenada
* Lebanese Civil War
Lebanese Civil War
* Invasion of Panama * Gulf War * Somali Civil War
Somali Civil War
* Bosnian War * Kosovo War * Afghanistan War * Iraq
Iraq
War * War in North-West Pakistan
Pakistan
* Libyan Civil War

* Intervention against ISIL

* Iraq
Iraq
* Syria
Syria
* Cameroon * Libya

RELATED ARTICLES

* List of conflicts in the U.S. * List of wars involving the U.S. * Timeline of U.S. military operations * Length of U.S. participation in major wars * Overseas expansion * Military history * Covert regime-change actions * Casualties of war * Peace movement * List of anti-war organizations * Conscientious objector

* v * t * e

History of the United States
United States

TIMELINE

* Prehistory * Pre-Columbian * Colonial * 1776–89 * 1789–1849 * 1849–65 * 1865–1918 * 1918–45 * 1945–64 * 1964–80 * 1980–91 * 1991–2008 * 2008–present

TOPICS

* American Century * Cities * Constitution * Demographic * Diplomatic * Economic * Education * Immigration * Medical * Merchant Marine * Military * Musical * Religious * Slavery * Southern * Technological and industrial * Territorial acquisitions * Territorial evolution * Voting rights * Women

* _ Category
Category
* Portal
Portal

* v * t * e

Cold War
Cold War

* USA * USSR * ANZUS
ANZUS
* NATO
NATO
* Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
* SEATO * Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact

1940S

* Hukbalahap Rebellion
Hukbalahap Rebellion
* Dekemvriana
Dekemvriana
* Yalta Conference
Yalta Conference

* Guerrilla war in the Baltic states
Guerrilla war in the Baltic states

* Forest Brothers * Operation Priboi
Operation Priboi
* Operation Jungle * Occupation of the Baltic states
Occupation of the Baltic states

* Cursed soldiers
Cursed soldiers
* Operation Unthinkable_ * Potsdam Conference
Potsdam Conference
* Gouzenko Affair * Operation _Masterdom_ * Operation _Beleaguer_ * Operation _Blacklist Forty_ * Iran crisis of 1946
Iran crisis of 1946
* Greek Civil War * Corfu Channel incident
Corfu Channel incident
* Turkish Straits crisis
Turkish Straits crisis
* Restatement of Policy on Germany * First Indochina War
First Indochina War
* Truman Doctrine * Asian Relations Conference
Asian Relations Conference
* Marshall Plan
Marshall Plan
* 1948 Czechoslovak coup d\'état * Tito–Stalin Split
Tito–Stalin Split
* Berlin Blockade
Berlin Blockade
* Western betrayal
Western betrayal
* Iron Curtain * Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
* Western Bloc
Western Bloc
* Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
(Second round) * Malayan Emergency
Malayan Emergency
* Albanian Subversion

1950S

* Bamboo Curtain
Bamboo Curtain
* Korean War
Korean War
* 1953 Iranian coup d\'état * Uprising of 1953 in East Germany
East Germany
* 1954 Guatemalan coup d\'état * Partition of Vietnam * First Taiwan Strait Crisis * Geneva Summit (1955) * Poznań 1956 protests * Hungarian Revolution of 1956
Hungarian Revolution of 1956
* Suez Crisis
Suez Crisis
* Syrian Crisis of 1957 * Sputnik crisis * Second Taiwan Strait Crisis
Second Taiwan Strait Crisis
* Cuban Revolution
Cuban Revolution
* Kitchen Debate
Kitchen Debate
* Bandung Conference
Bandung Conference
* Bricker Amendment * McCarthyism * Operation Gladio * Iraqi July Revolution * " We will bury you
We will bury you
"

1960S

* Congo Crisis
Congo Crisis
* Sino-Soviet split * 1960 U-2 incident
1960 U-2 incident
* Bay of Pigs Invasion * 1960 Turkish coup d\'état * Soviet–Albanian split
Soviet–Albanian split
* Berlin Wall
Berlin Wall

* Portuguese Colonial War
Portuguese Colonial War

* Angolan War of Independence * Guinea-Bissau War of Independence
Guinea-Bissau War of Independence
* Mozambican War of Independence

* Cuban Missile
Missile
Crisis * Sino-Indian War
Sino-Indian War
* Communist insurgency in Sarawak
Communist insurgency in Sarawak
* Iraqi Ramadan Revolution
Ramadan Revolution
* 1963 Syrian coup d\'état * Vietnam War
Vietnam War
* 1964 Brazilian coup d\'état * United States
United States
occupation of the Dominican Republic (1965–66) * South African Border War
South African Border War
* Transition to the New Order * Domino theory
Domino theory
* ASEAN Declaration * Laotian Civil War
Laotian Civil War
* 1966 Syrian coup d\'état * Argentine Revolution
Argentine Revolution
* Korean DMZ Conflict
Conflict
* Greek military junta of 1967–74 * USS _Pueblo_ incident * Six-Day War
Six-Day War
* War of Attrition
War of Attrition
* Dhofar Rebellion * Protests of 1968
Protests of 1968
* French May * Cultural Revolution
Cultural Revolution
* Prague Spring
Prague Spring
* Communist insurgency in Malaysia * Invasion of Czechoslovakia * Iraqi Ba\'athist Revolution * Goulash Communism * Sino-Soviet border conflict
Sino-Soviet border conflict
* CPP–NPA–NDF rebellion * Corrective Move

1970S

* Détente
Détente
* Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty * Black September
Black September
in Jordan
Jordan
* Corrective Movement (Syria) * Cambodian Civil War
Cambodian Civil War
* Realpolitik * Ping-pong diplomacy
Ping-pong diplomacy
* 1971 Turkish military memorandum * Corrective Revolution (Egypt) * Four Power Agreement on Berlin * Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Liberation War * 1972 Nixon visit to China
1972 Nixon visit to China
* North Yemen-South Yemen
Yemen
Border Conflict
Conflict
* 1973 Chilean coup d\'état * Yom Kippur War
Yom Kippur War
* Carnation Revolution
Carnation Revolution
* Strategic Arms Limitation Talks
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks
* Rhodesian Bush War
Rhodesian Bush War
* Angolan Civil War * Mozambican Civil War * Ogaden War
Ogaden War
* Ethiopian Civil War
Ethiopian Civil War
* Lebanese Civil War
Lebanese Civil War
* Sino-Albanian split * Cambodian–Vietnamese War
Cambodian–Vietnamese War
* Sino-Vietnamese War
Sino-Vietnamese War
* Iranian Revolution
Iranian Revolution
* Operation _Condor_ * Dirty War
Dirty War
* Korean Air Lines Flight 902
Korean Air Lines Flight 902
* Saur Revolution
Saur Revolution
* New Jewel Movement * 1979 Herat uprising
1979 Herat uprising
* Seven Days to the River Rhine * Struggle against political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union

1980S

* Soviet–Afghan War
Soviet–Afghan War
* 1980 and 1984 Summer Olympics boycotts * 1980 Turkish coup d\'état * Invasion of Grenada
Invasion of Grenada
* 1986 Black Sea incident
1986 Black Sea incident
* 1988 Black Sea bumping incident
1988 Black Sea bumping incident

* Solidarity

* Soviet reaction

* Contras
Contras
* Central American crisis
Central American crisis
* RYAN
RYAN
* Korean Air Lines Flight 007 * Able Archer 83 * Star Wars * People Power Revolution
People Power Revolution
* Nagorno-Karabakh War
Nagorno-Karabakh War
* Tiananmen Square protests of 1989
Tiananmen Square protests of 1989
* Fall of the Berlin Wall
Berlin Wall
* Revolutions of 1989
Revolutions of 1989
* Glasnost
Glasnost
* Perestroika
Perestroika

1990S

* Mongolian Revolution of 1990
Mongolian Revolution of 1990
* German reunification
German reunification
* Yemeni unification
Yemeni unification
* Fall of communism in Albania
Fall of communism in Albania
* Breakup of Yugoslavia
Breakup of Yugoslavia
* Dissolution of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
* Dissolution of Czechoslovakia
Dissolution of Czechoslovakia

FROZEN CONFLICTS

* Abkhazia * China * Korea * Nagorno-Karabakh * South Ossetia * Transnistria * Sino-Indian border dispute
Sino-Indian border dispute
* North Borneo dispute
North Borneo dispute

FOREIGN POLICY

* Truman Doctrine * Containment
Containment
* Eisenhower Doctrine * Domino theory
Domino theory
* Hallstein Doctrine
Hallstein Doctrine
* Kennedy Doctrine
Kennedy Doctrine
* Peaceful coexistence * Ostpolitik
Ostpolitik
* Johnson Doctrine
Johnson Doctrine
* Brezhnev Doctrine
Brezhnev Doctrine
* Nixon Doctrine
Nixon Doctrine
* Ulbricht Doctrine * Carter Doctrine
Carter Doctrine
* Reagan Doctrine
Reagan Doctrine
* Rollback * Sovereignty of Puerto Rico during the Cold War
Cold War

IDEOLOGIES

* Capitalism
Capitalism

* Chicago school * Keynesianism * Monetarism * Neoclassical economics
Neoclassical economics
* Reaganomics * Supply-side economics * Thatcherism
Thatcherism
* CIA and the Cultural Cold War
Cold War

* Communism
Communism

* Marxism–Leninism
Marxism–Leninism
* Castroism * Eurocommunism
Eurocommunism
* Guevarism * Hoxhaism * Juche
Juche
* Maoism
Maoism
* Naxalism * Stalinism
Stalinism
* Titoism

* Liberal democracy
Liberal democracy
* Social democracy
Social democracy
* White supremacy
White supremacy

ORGANIZATIONS

* ASEAN * CIA * Comecon * EEC * KGB
KGB
* Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
* SAARC * Safari Club
Safari Club
* MI6 * Stasi
Stasi

PROPAGANDA

* Active measures * _ Izvestia
Izvestia
_ * _ Pravda
Pravda
_ * Crusade for Freedom * Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty * Red Scare
Red Scare
* TASS * Voice of America
Voice of America
* Voice of Russia
Voice of Russia

RACES

* Arms race
Arms race
* Nuclear arms race
Nuclear arms race
* Space Race
Space Race

SEE ALSO

* Brinkmanship * NATO–Russia relations * Soviet espionage in the United States
United States
* Russian espionage in the