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The Periplus
Periplus
of the Erythraean Sea or Periplus
Periplus
of the Red Sea
Red Sea
(Greek: Περίπλους τῆς Ἐρυθράς Θαλάσσης, Latin: Periplus
Periplus
Maris Erythraei) is a Greco-Roman periplus, written in Greek, describing navigation and trading opportunities from Roman Egyptian ports like Berenice along the coast of the Red Sea, and others along Northeast Africa
Africa
and the Sindh
Sindh
and South western India. The text has been ascribed to different dates between the 1st and 3rd centuries CE, but a mid-1st-century date is now the most commonly accepted. While the author is unknown, it is clearly a firsthand description by someone familiar with the area and is nearly unique in providing accurate insights into what the ancient European world knew about the lands around the Indian Ocean. The Erythraean Sea, or in modern spelling, Eritrean Sea (Greek: Ἐρυθρά Θάλασσα) is presently a Greek name for the Red Sea; to the ancient Greeks
Greeks
it included the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
in its entirety and the Persian Gulf.

Contents

1 Synopsis 2 Date and authorship 3 Arabian Peninsula

3.1 Himyarite
Himyarite
kingdom and Saba 3.2 Frankincense kingdom

4 Horn of Africa

4.1 Somalia

4.1.1 Opone 4.1.2 Malao

4.2 Aksum Empire

5 Southeast Africa

5.1 Rhapta

6 Indian Subcontinent

6.1 Barygaza 6.2 Early Chera, Pandyan, and Chola kingdoms 6.3 Indo-China Border 6.4 Remains of the Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
kingdom

7 See also 8 References

8.1 Citations 8.2 Bibliography

9 External links

Synopsis[edit]

17th century map depicting the locations of the Periplus
Periplus
of the Erythraean Sea.

The work consists of 66 chapters, most of them about the length of a long paragraph in English. For instance, the short Chapter 9 reads in its entirety:

"From Malao (Berbera) it is two courses to the mart of Moundou, where ships anchor more safely by an island lying very close to the land. The imports to this are as aforesaid [Chapter 8 mentions iron, gold, silver, drinking cups, etc.], and from it likewise are exported the same goods [Chapter 8 mentions myrrh, douaka, makeir, and slaves], and fragrant gum called mokrotou (cf. Sanskrit
Sanskrit
makaranda). The inhabitants who trade here are more stubborn."[1]

In many cases, the description of places is sufficiently accurate to identify their present locations; for others, there is considerable debate. For instance, a "Rhapta" is mentioned as the farthest market down the African coast of "Azania", but there are at least five locations matching the description, ranging from Tanga to south of the Rufiji River
Rufiji River
delta. The description of the Indian coast mentions the Ganges River
Ganges River
clearly, yet after that is somewhat garbled, describing China as a "great inland city Thina" that is a source of raw silk. The Periplus
Periplus
says that a direct sailing route from the Red Sea
Red Sea
to the Indian peninsula across the open ocean was discovered by Hippalus
Hippalus
(1st century BCE). Many trade goods are mentioned in the Periplus, but some of the words naming trade goods are seen nowhere else in ancient literature, and so we can only guess as to what they might be. For example, one trade good mentioned is "lakkos chromatinos". The name lakkos appears nowhere else in ancient Greek or Roman literature. The name re-surfaces in late medieval Latin
Latin
as lacca, borrowed from medieval Arabic lakk in turn borrowed from Sanskritic lakh, meaning lac i.e. a red-colored resin native to India
India
used as a lacquer and used also as a red colorant.[2] Some other named trade goods remain obscure. The Periplus
Periplus
text derives from a Byzantine 10th-century manuscript in minuscule hand, contained in the collections of the University Library Heidelberg
Heidelberg
(CPG 398: 40v-54v), and a copy of it dating from the 14th or 15th century in the British Museum
British Museum
(B.M. Add 19391 9r-12r). In the 10th-century manuscript, the text is attributed to Arrian, probably for no deeper reason than that the manuscript was adjacent to the Periplus
Periplus
Ponti Euxini written by him. The Periplus
Periplus
was edited by Sigmund Gelen (Zikmund Hruby z Jeleni of Prague)[3] and first published in a modern edition by Hieronymus Froben
Hieronymus Froben
in 1533. This edition was corrupt and full of errors but served for later editions for three centuries until the rediscovery of the 10th century Heidelberg
Heidelberg
manuscript which was taken to Rome
Rome
during the Thirty Years War (1618–1648), then to Paris under Napoleon, and finally returned to Heidelberg
Heidelberg
in 1816.[4] Date and authorship[edit] One historical analysis, published by Schoff in 1912, narrowed the date of the text to 60 CE.[5] Though redating the document from 1912 to a single year roughly 2000 years earlier might be considered remarkable by modern standards, a date of 60 CE nevertheless remains in agreement with present-day estimates of the middle of the 1st century CE.[citation needed] Schoff additionally provides an historical analysis as to the text's original authorship,[6] and arrives at the conclusion that the author must have been a "Greek in Egypt, a Roman subject."[7] By Schoff's calculations, this would have been during the time of Tiberius Claudius Balbilus (who coincidentally also was an Egyptian Greek). John Hill maintains that the " Periplus
Periplus
can now be confidently dated to between 40 and 70 AD and, probably, between AD 40 and 50."[8] Schoff continues by noting that the author could not have been "a highly educated man" as "is evident from his frequent confusion of Greek and Latin
Latin
words and his clumsy and sometimes ungrammatical constructions."[9] Because of "the absence of any account of the journey up the Nile
Nile
and across the desert from Coptos,"[9] Schoff prefers to pinpoint the author's residence to "Berenice rather than Alexandria."[9] Though Schoff is unclear about which of several Berenices he is referring to, it is actually Berenice Troglodytica which is documented, discussed at length and vividly described within the periplus text itself.[10] One peculiarity noted by Schoff while translating from the original Greek version is that "the text is so vague and uncertain that [the author] seems rather to be quoting from someone else, unless indeed much of this part of the work has been lost in copying."[9] Arabian Peninsula[edit] Himyarite
Himyarite
kingdom and Saba[edit] Main articles: Himyarite Kingdom
Himyarite Kingdom
and Sabaeans

Coin of the Himyarite
Himyarite
Kingdom, southern coast of the Arabian Peninsula, in which stopped ships between Egypt
Egypt
and India
India
passed. This is an imitation of a coin of Augustus. 1st Century CE.

Ships from Himyar regularly traveled the East African coast. The Periplus
Periplus
of the Erythraean Sea describes the trading empire of Himyar and Saba, regrouped under a single ruler Charibael (Karab Il Watar Yuhan'em II), who is said to have been on friendly terms with Rome:

"23. And after nine days more there is Saphar, the metropolis, in which lives Charibael, lawful king of two tribes, the Homerites and those living next to them, called the Sabaites; through continual embassies and gifts, he is a friend of the Emperors." —  Periplus
Periplus
of the Erythraean Sea, Paragraph 23.[11]

Frankincense kingdom[edit] The Frankincense kingdom is described further east along the southern coast of the Arabian Peninsula, with the harbour of Cana (South Arabic Qana, modern Bir Ali in Hadramaut). The ruler of this kingdom is named Eleazus, or Eleazar, thought to correspond to King Iliazz Yalit I:

"27. After Eudaemon Arabia
Arabia
there is a continuous length of coast, and a bay extending two thousand stadia or more, along which there are Nomads and Fish-Eaters living in villages; just beyond the cape projecting from this bay there is another market-town by the shore, Cana, of the Kingdom of Eleazus, the Frankincense Country; and facing it there are two desert islands, one called Island of Birds, the other Dome Island, one hundred and twenty stadia from Cana. Inland from this place lies the metropolis Sabbatha, in which the King lives. All the frankincense produced in the country is brought by camels to that place to be stored, and to Cana on rafts held up by inflated skins after the manner of the country, and in boats. And this place has a trade also with the far-side ports, with Barygaza
Barygaza
and Scythia
Scythia
and Ommana and the neighboring coast of Persia." —  Periplus
Periplus
of the Erythraean Sea, Chap 27

Horn of Africa[edit] Somalia[edit] Opone[edit] Main article: Opone Ras Hafun
Ras Hafun
in northern Somalia
Somalia
is believed to be the location of the ancient trade center of Opone. Ancient Egyptian, Roman and Persian Gulf pottery has been recovered from the site by an archaeological team from the University of Michigan. Opone
Opone
is in the thirteenth entry of the Periplus
Periplus
of the Erythraean Sea, which in part states:

"And then, after sailing four hundred stadia along a promontory, toward which place the current also draws you, there is another market-town called Opone, into which the same things are imported as those already mentioned, and in it the greatest quantity of cinnamon is produced, (the arebo and moto), and slaves of the better sort, which are brought to Egypt
Egypt
in increasing numbers; and a great quantity of tortoiseshell, better than that found elsewhere." —  Periplus
Periplus
of the Erythraean Sea, Chap.13[11]

In ancient times, Opone
Opone
operated as a port of call for merchants from Phoenicia, Egypt, Greece, Persia, Yemen, Nabataea, Azania, the Roman Empire and elsewhere, as it possessed a strategic location along the coastal route from Azania to the Red Sea. Merchants from as far afield as Indonesia
Indonesia
and Malaysia
Malaysia
passed through Opone, trading spices, silks and other goods, before departing south for Azania or north to Yemen or Egypt
Egypt
on the trade routes that spanned the length of the Indian Ocean's rim. As early as 50 CE, Opone
Opone
was well known as a center for the cinnamon trade, along with the trading of cloves and other spices, ivory, exotic animal skins and incense. Malao[edit] Main article: Malao (ancient) The ancient port city of Malao, situated in present-day Berbera
Berbera
in northwestern Somalia, is also mentioned in the Periplus:

"After Avalites there is another market-town, better than this, called Malao, distant a sail of about eight hundred stadia. The anchorage is an open roadstead, sheltered by a spit running out from the east. Here the natives are more peaceable. There are imported into this place the things already mentioned, and many tunics, cloaks from Arsinoe, dressed and dyed; drinking-cups, sheets of soft copper in small quantity, iron, and gold and silver coin, not much. There are exported from these places myrrh, a little frankincense, (that known as far-side), the harder cinnamon, duaca, Indian copal and macir, which are imported into Arabia; and slaves, but rarely." —  Periplus
Periplus
of the Erythraean Sea, Chap.8[11]

Aksum Empire[edit] Main article: Kingdom of Aksum

Coins of king Endybis, 227-235 CE. British Museum. The left one reads in Greek "AΧWMITW ΒΑϹΙΛΕΥϹ", "King of Axum"[dubious – discuss]. The right one reads in Greek: ΕΝΔΥΒΙϹ ΒΑϹΙΛΕΥϹ, "King Endybis".

Aksum is mentioned in the Periplus
Periplus
as an important market place for ivory, which was exported throughout the ancient world:

"From that place to the city of the people called Auxumites there is a five days' journey more; to that place all the ivory is brought from the country beyond the Nile
Nile
through the district called Cyeneum, and thence to Adulis." —  Periplus
Periplus
of the Erythraean Sea, Chap.4

According to the Periplus, the ruler of Aksum in the 1st century CE was Zoscales, who, besides ruling in Aksum also held under his sway two harbours on the Red Sea: Adulis
Adulis
(near Massawa) and Avalites (Assab). He is also said to have been familiar with Greek literature:

"These places, from the Calf-Eaters to the other Berber country, are governed by Zoscales; who is miserly in his ways and always striving for more, but otherwise upright, and acquainted with Greek literature." —  Periplus
Periplus
of the Erythraean Sea, Chap.5[11]

Southeast Africa[edit] Rhapta[edit]

Rhapta (Dar es Salaam)

Supposed location of Rhapta
Rhapta
in Africa

Recent research by the Tanzanian archaeologist Felix Chami has uncovered extensive remains of Roman trade items near the mouth of the Rufiji River
Rufiji River
and the nearby Mafia island, and makes a strong case that the ancient port of Rhapta
Rhapta
was situated on the banks of the Rufiji River just south of Dar es Salaam. The Periplus
Periplus
informs us that:

"Two runs beyond this island [Menuthias = Zanzibar?] comes the very last port of trade on the coast of Azania, called Rhapta
Rhapta
["sewn"], a name derived from the aforementioned sewn boats, where there are great quantities of ivory and tortoise shell."[12]

Chami summarizes the evidence for Rhapta's location as follows:

"The actual location of the Azanian capital, Rhapta, remains unknown. However, archaeological indicators reported above suggest that it was located on the coast of Tanzania, in the region of the Rufiji River and Mafia Island. It is in this region where the concentration of Panchaea/Azanian period settlements has been discovered. If the island of Menuthias mentioned in the Periplus
Periplus
was Zanzibar, a short voyage south would land one in the Rufiji region. The 2nd century geographer, Ptolemy, locates Rhapta
Rhapta
at latitude 8° south, which is the exact latitude of the Rufiji Delta and Mafia Island. The metropolis was on the mainland about one degree west of the coast near a large river and a bay with the same name. While the river should be regarded as the modern Rufiji River, the bay should definitely be identified with the calm waters between the island of Mafia and the Rufiji area. The peninsula east of Rhapta
Rhapta
would have been the northern tip of Mafia Island. The southern part of the bay is protected from the deep sea by numerous deltaic small islets separated from Mafia Island
Mafia Island
by shallow and narrow channels. To the north the bay is open to the sea and any sailor entering the waters from that direction would feel as if he were entering a bay. Even today the residents identify these waters as a bay, referring to it as a 'female sea', as opposed to the more violent open sea on the other side of the island of Mafia."[13]

In recent years, Felix Chami has found archaeological evidence for extensive Roman trade on Mafia Island
Mafia Island
and, not far away, on the mainland, near the mouth of the Rufiji River, which he dated to the first few centuries CE. Furthermore, J. Innes Miller points out that Roman coins have been found on Pemba island, just north of Rhapta.[14] Nevertheless, Carl Peters has argued that Rhapta
Rhapta
was near modern-day Quelimane in Mozambique,[15] citing the fact that (according to the Periplus) the coastline there ran down towards the southwest. Peters also suggests that the description of the "Pyralaoi" (i.e., the "Fire people") - "situated at the entry to the [Mozambique] Channel" - indicates that they were the inhabitants of the volcanic Comoro Islands. He also maintains that Menuthias (with its abundance of rivers and crocodiles) cannot have been Zanzibar; i.e., Madagascar seems more likely. Interestingly, the Periplus
Periplus
informs us that Rhapta, was under the firm control of a governor appointed by Arabian king of Musa, taxes were collected, and it was serviced by "merchant craft that they staff mostly with Arab
Arab
skippers and agents who, through continual intercourse and intermarriage, are familiar with the area and its language."[12] The Periplus
Periplus
explicitly states that Azania (which included Rhapta) was subject to Charibaêl, the king of both the Sabaeans
Sabaeans
and Homerites in the southwest corner of Arabia. The kingdom is known to have been a Roman ally at this period. Charibaêl is stated in the Periplus
Periplus
to be “a friend of the (Roman) emperors, thanks to continuous embassies and gifts” and, therefore, Azania could fairly be described as a vassal or dependency of Rome, just as Zesan is described in the 3rd-century Chinese history, the Weilüe.[16][17] Indian Subcontinent[edit] Barygaza[edit] Main article: Bharuch

Barygaza (Bharuch)

Location of Barygaza
Barygaza
in India.

Trade with the Indian harbour of Barygaza
Barygaza
is described extensively in the Periplus. Nahapana, ruler of the Indo-Scythian
Indo-Scythian
Western Satraps
Western Satraps
is mentioned under the name Nambanus,[18] as ruler of the area around Barigaza:

Coin of Nahapana
Nahapana
(119-124 CE). Obv: Bust of king Nahapana
Nahapana
with a legend in Greek script "ΡΑΝΝΙΩ ΙΑΗΑΡΑΤΑϹ ΝΑΗΑΠΑΝΑϹ", transliteration of the Prakrit Raño Kshaharatasa Nahapanasa: "King Kshaharata Nahapana".

41. "Beyond the gulf of Baraca is that of Barygaza
Barygaza
and the coast of the country of Ariaca, which is the beginning of the Kingdom of Nambanus and of all India. That part of it lying inland and adjoining Scythia
Scythia
is called Abiria, but the coast is called Syrastrene. It is a fertile country, yielding wheat and rice and sesame oil and clarified butter, cotton and the Indian cloths made therefrom, of the coarser sorts. Very many cattle are pastured there, and the men are of great stature and black in color. The metropolis of this country is Minnagara, from which much cotton cloth is brought down to Barygaza." —  Periplus
Periplus
of the Erythraean Sea, Chap. 41[11]

Under the Western Satraps, Barigaza
Barigaza
was one of the main centers of Roman trade in the subcontinent. The Periplus
Periplus
describes the many goods exchanged:

49. There are imported into this market-town (Barigaza), wine, Italian preferred, also Laodicean and Arabian; copper, tin, and lead; coral and topaz; thin clothing and inferior sorts of all kinds; bright-colored girdles a cubit wide; storax, sweet clover, flint glass, realgar, antimony, gold and silver coin, on which there is a profit when exchanged for the money of the country; and ointment, but not very costly and not much. And for the King there are brought into those places very costly vessels of silver, singing boys, beautiful maidens for the harem, fine wines, thin clothing of the finest weaves, and the choicest ointments. There are exported from these places spikenard, costus [ Saussurea costus
Saussurea costus
], bdellium, ivory, agate and carnelian, lycium, cotton cloth of all kinds, silk cloth, mallow cloth, yarn, long pepper and such other things as are brought here from the various market-towns. Those bound for this market-town from Egypt
Egypt
make the voyage favorably about the month of July, that is Epiphi." —  Periplus
Periplus
of the Erythraean Sea, Chapter 49.[19]

Goods were also brought down in quantity from Ujjain, the capital of the Western Satraps:

48. Inland from this place and to the east, is the city called Ozene, formerly a royal capital; from this place are brought down all things needed for the welfare of the country about Barygaza, and many things for our trade: agate and carnelian, Indian muslins and mallow cloth, and much ordinary cloth. —  Periplus
Periplus
of the Erythraean Sea, Chapter 48.[19]

Early Chera, Pandyan, and Chola kingdoms[edit] See also: Chera Dynasty, Early Pandyan Kingdom, Muziris, and Economy of ancient Tamil country

Muziris (Cochin)

Location of Muziris
Muziris
in India.

The lost port city of Muziris
Muziris
(Near present day Cochin) in the Chera kingdom, as well as the Early Pandyan Kingdom
Early Pandyan Kingdom
are mentioned in the Periplus
Periplus
as major centers of trade, pepper and other spices, metal work and semiprecious stones, between Damirica
Damirica
and the Roman Empire. According to the Periplus, numerous Greek seamen managed an intense trade with Muziris:

Then come Naura (Kannur) and Tyndis, the first markets of Damirica
Damirica
or Limyrike, and then Muziris
Muziris
and Nelcynda, which are now of leading importance. Tyndis
Tyndis
is of the Kingdom of Cerobothra; it is a village in plain sight by the sea. Muziris, of the same kingdom, abounds in ships sent there with cargoes from Arabia, and by the Greeks; it is located on a river (River Periyar), distant from Tyndis
Tyndis
by river and sea five hundred stadia, and up the river from the shore twenty stadia. Nelcynda is distant from Muziris
Muziris
by river and sea about five hundred stadia, and is of another Kingdom, the Pandian. This place also is situated on a river, about one hundred and twenty stadia from the sea...." — The Periplus
Periplus
of the Erythraean Sea, 53-54

Damirica
Damirica
or Limyrike is Tamilagam (Tamil தமிழகம்) – the "Tamil country". Further, this area served as a hub for trade with the interior, in the Gangetic plain:

Besides this there are ex-ported great quantities of fine pearls, ivory, silk cloth, spikenard from the Ganges, malabathrum from the places in the interior, transparent stones of all kinds, diamonds and sapphires, and tortoise-shell; that from Chryse Island, and that taken among the islands along the coast of Damirica
Damirica
(Limyrike). They make the voyage to this place in a favorable season who set out from Egypt about the month of July, that is Epiphi. — The Periplus
Periplus
of the Erythraean Sea, 56

Indo-China Border[edit] The Periplus
Periplus
also describes the annual fair in present-day Northeast India, on the border with Tibet.

"Every year there turns up at the border of Thina a certain tribe, short in body and very flat-faced...called Sêsatai...They come with their wives and children bearing great packs resembling mats of green leaves and then remain at some spot on the border between them and those on the Thina side, and they hold a festival for several days, spreading out the mats under them, and then take off for their own homes in the interior." — Periplus, Chap. 65[20]

Sêsatai[21] are the source of malabathron.

"The [? locals], counting on this, then turn up in the area, collect what the Sêsatai had spread out, extract the fibers from the reeds, which are called petroi, and lightly doubling over the leaves and rolling them into ball-like shapes, they string them on the fibers from the reeds. There are three grades: what is called big-ball malabathron from the bigger leaves; medium-ball from the lesser leaves; and small-ball from the smaller. Thus three grades of malabathron are produced, and then they are transported into India
India
by the people who make them." — Periplus, Chap 65[20]

Remains of the Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
kingdom[edit]

The Periplus
Periplus
explains that coins of the Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
king Menander I were current in Barigaza.

The Periplus
Periplus
claims that Greek buildings and wells exist in Barigaza, falsely attributing them to Alexander the Great, who never went this far south. This account of a kingdom tracing its beginnings to Alexander's campaigns and the Hellenistic Seleucid empire
Seleucid empire
that followed:

"The metropolis of this country is Minnagara, from which much cotton cloth is brought down to Barygaza. In these places there remain even to the present time signs of the expedition of Alexander, such as ancient shrines, walls of forts and great wells." — Periplus, Chap. 41

The Periplus
Periplus
further claims to the circulation of Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
coinage in the region:

"To the present day ancient drachmae are current in Barygaza, coming from this country, bearing inscriptions in Greek letters, and the devices of those who reigned after Alexander, Apollodorus [sic] and Menander." —  Periplus
Periplus
Chap. 47[11]

The Greek city of Alexandria
Alexandria
Bucephalous on the Jhelum River
Jhelum River
is mentioned in the Periplus, as well as in the Roman Peutinger Table:

"The country inland of Barigaza
Barigaza
is inhabited by numerous tribes, such as the Arattii, the Arachosii, the Gandaraei and the people of Poclais, in which is Bucephalus Alexandria" —  Periplus
Periplus
of the Erythraean Sea, 47[11]

See also[edit]

Silk
Silk
Road Indo-Roman trade relations

References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ Hakluyt Society (1980). The Periplus
Periplus
of the Erythraean Sea. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.  ^ Sino-Iranica by Berthold Laufer, year 1919, page 476, footnote 9. Also A Glossary of Colloquial Anglo-Indian Words and Phrases, by Yule and Burnell, year 1903, page 499. ^ "viaLibri Resources for Bibliophiles" Archived 2013-02-22 at Archive.is ^ Schoff (1912), pp. 7, 17. ^ Schoff (1912) "Date and Authorship of the Periplus," pages 7-15. ^ Schoff (1912), pages 15-16. ^ Schoff (1912) "Introduction," page 6. ^ Hill (2009), pp. xvi and 244-245, n. 10.10. ^ a b c d Schoff (1912), page 16. ^ Please refer to Berenice Troglodytica. ^ a b c d e f g Full text, Schoff's 1912 translation ^ a b Casson (1989), p. 61. ^ Chami (2002), p. 20. ^ Miller, J. Innes. 1969. Chapter 8: "The Cinnamon
Cinnamon
Route". In: The Spice
Spice
Trade of the Roman Empire. Oxford: University Press. ISBN 0-19-814264-1 ^ Peters, C., 1902. "The Eldorado of the Ancients", pages 312-319, 347. London: Pearson and Bell ^ William H. Schoff, The Periplus
Periplus
of the Erythraean Sea: Travel and Trade in the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
by a Merchant of the First Century (New York: Longmans, Green, and Co., 1912), Section 23. [1] ^ Hill (2004), Section 15 ^ "History of the Andhras" Archived 2007-03-13 at the Wayback Machine. by Durga Prasad ^ a b The Voyage around the Erythraean Sea, translation with commentary ^ a b (Casson 1989, pp. 51–93) ^ Besatae in the Schoff translation and also sometimes used by Ptolemy, they are a people similar to Kirradai and they lived in the region between "Assam and Sichuan" (Casson 1989, pp. 241–242)

Bibliography[edit]

Casson, Lionel (1989). The Periplus
Periplus
Maris Erythraei: Text With Introduction, Translation, and Commentary. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-04060-5.  Chami, F. A. 1999. "The Early Iron Age on Mafia island and its relationship with the mainland." Azania Vol. XXXIV 1999, pp. 1–10. Chami, Felix A. 2002. "The Graeco-Romans and Paanchea/Azania: sailing in the Erythraean Sea." From: Red Sea
Red Sea
Trade and Travel. The British Museum. Organised by The Society for Arabian Studies. Dihle, A. 1965. Umstrittene Daten – Untersuchungen zum Auftreten der Griechen am Roten Meer, Wissenschaftliche Abhandlungen der Arbeitsgemeinschaft Für Forschung des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen. Köln und Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag. Hill, John E. (2004). "The Peoples of the West" from the Weilüe, Section 15. (Draft version). Downloadable from: [2]. Menachery, George.(1987, repr.2000). "Kodungalluur City of St. Thomas" alias "Kodungallur Cradle of Christianity in India". Hill, John E. (2009) Through the Jade Gate to Rome: A Study of the Silk
Silk
Routes during the Later Han Dynasty, 1st to 2nd Centuries CE. BookSurge, Charleston, South Carolina. ISBN 978-1-4392-2134-1. Huntingford, G. W. B. (translator) (1980). The Periplus
Periplus
of the Erythraean Sea, ISBN 0-904180-05-0, (also includes translation of Red Sea
Red Sea
material from Agatharchides) Hjalmar Frisk, Le Périple de la Mer Erythrée (Göteborg, 1927) Miller, J. Innes. 1969. The Spice
Spice
Trade of The Roman Empire: 29 B.C. to A.D. 641. Oxford University Press. Special
Special
edition for Sandpiper Books. 1998. ISBN 0-19-814264-1. Fussman, G. 1991. "Le Periple et l'histoire politique del'Inde". Journal Asiatique 279 (1991):31-38. Robin, C. 1991. "L'Arabie du sud et la date du Périple de la mer érythrée". Journal Asiatique 279:1-30. Dr. Nagaswamy, R. 1995 Roman Karur. Brahadish Publications. https://web.archive.org/web/20120507185123/http://tamilartsacademy.com/books/roman%20karur/cover.html Schoff, Wilfred Harvey, translator and Secretary of the Commercial Museum of Philadelphia, with a foreword by W. P. Wilson, Sc. Director, The Philadelphia Museums. Periplus
Periplus
of the Erythraean Sea: Travel and Trade in the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
by a Merchant of the First Century, Translated from the Greek and Annotated. (First published 1912, New York, New York: Longmans, Green, and Co.) Reprinted 1995, New Delhi: Munshiram Monoharlal Publishers, ISBN 81-215-0699-9 .

External links[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Periplus
Periplus
of the Erythraean Sea

The Periplus
Periplus
of the Erythrean sea, containing an account of the navigation of the ancients, from the sea of Suez to the coast of Zanguebar, William Vincent (ed.), 2 voll., London, 1800, vol. 1, vol. 2. Arriani alexandrini periplus maris erythraei, B. Fabricius, Dresdae, de commissis H. M. Gottschalcki, 1849. Geographi graeci minores, Karl Otfried Müller, Paris, editoribus Firmin-Didot et sociis, 1882, vol. 1 pp. 257-305. William H. Schoff, The Periplus
Periplus
of the Erythraean Sea: Travel and Trade in the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
by a Merchant of the First Century (New York: Longmans, Green, and Co., 1912), with additional commentary including alternate spellings or translations from Lionel Casson's more recent edition. Ancient history sourcebook: The basic text from Schoff's

.