Perennial plant


A perennial plant or simply perennial is a that lives more than two years. The term (' + ', "through the years") is often used to differentiate a plant from shorter-lived and . The term is also widely used to distinguish plants with little or no woody growth (secondary growth in girth) from trees and shrubs, which are also technically perennials. Perennialsespecially small sthat grow and bloom over the spring and summer, die back every autumn and winter, and then return in the spring from their or other overwintering structure, are known as . However, depending on the rigours of local climate (temperature, moisture, organic content in the soil, microorganisms), a plant that is a perennial in its native habitat, or in a milder garden, may be treated by a gardener as an annual and planted out every year, from seed, from cuttings, or from divisions. Tomato vines, for example, live several years in their natural tropical/subtropical habitat but are grown as annuals in regions because their above-ground biomass doesn't survive the winter. There is also a class of , or non-herbaceous, perennials, including plants like ' which retain a mantle of leaves throughout the year. An intermediate class of plants is known as s, which retain a vestigial woody structure in winter, e.g. '. The symbol for a perennial plant, based on ' by , is represented by the symbol: , which is also the for the planet .

Life cycle and structure

Perennial plants are most commonly herbaceous (plants that have leaves and stems that die to the ground at the end of the growing season and which show only primary growth) or woody (plants with persistent above grounds stems that survive from one growing season to the next, with primary and secondary growth, or growth in width protected by an outer cortex),
The First-Time Gardener: Growing Plants and Flowers: All the Know-How You Need to Plant and Tend Outdoor Areas Using Eco-friendly Methods
'. Quarto Publishing Group USA; 2 February 2021. . p. 18–.
and some are evergreen with persistent foliage without woody stems. They can be short-lived (only a few years) or long-lived. They include a wide assortment of plant groups from non-flowering plants like s and to the highly diverse flowering plants like s, es, and s. Plants that flower and fruit only once and then die are termed or , these species may live for many years before they flower,
The Biology of Reproduction
'. Cambridge University Press; 10 October 2019. . p. 77–.
for example, can live for 80 years and grow 30 meters tall before flowering and dying.
Instant Notes in Plant Biology
'. Taylor & Francis; 15 June 2001. . p. 175–.
However, most perennials are (or iteroparous), flowering over many seasons in their lifetime.Jill Bailey.
The Facts on File Dictionary of Ecology and the Environment
'. Infobase Publishing; 2004. . p. 132–.
Perennials invest more resources than annuals into roots, crowns, and other structures that allow them to live from one year to the next, but have a competitive advantage because that they can commence their growth and fill out earlier in the growing season than annuals, in doing so they can better compete for space and collect more light.John P. Vogel.
Genetics and Genomics of Brachypodium
'. Springer; 17 February 2016. . p. 315–.
Perennials typically grow structures that allow them to adapt to living from one year to the next through a form of rather than seeding. These structures include s, s, woody crowns, s and s. They might have specialized or that allow them to survive periods of over cold or dry seasons during the year. , by contrast, produce seeds to continue the species as a new generation. At the same time, the growing season is suitable, and the seeds survive over the cold or dry period to begin growth when the conditions are again suitable. Many perennials have specialized features that allow them to survive extreme environmental conditions. Some have adapted to hot or dry conditions and others too cold temperatures; they tend to invest resources into their adaptations and often do not flower and set seed until after a few years of growth. In s that are warm all year long, perennials may grow continuously.Lynden B. Miller.
Parks, Plants, and People: Beautifying the Urban Landscape
'. Norton; 2009. . p. 87–.
In seasonal climates, their growth is limited by temperature or moisture to a growing season. Some perennials retain their foliage year-round; these are perennials. perennials shed all their leaves part of the year,
Forests And Forest Plants - Volume III
'. EOLSS Publications; 24 February 2009. . p. 153–.
they include herbaceous and woody plants; herbaceous plants have stems that lack hard, fibrous growth, while woody plants hard stems with buds that survive above ground during dormancy,Tracy DiSabato-Aust.
The Well-Tended Perennial Garden: The Essential Guide to Planting and Pruning Techniques, Third Edition
'. Timber Press; 22 February 2017. . p. 134–.
some perennials are semi-deciduous, meaning they lose some of their leaves in either winter or summer. Deciduous perennials shed their leaves when growing conditions are no longer suitable for photosynthesis, such as when it is too cold or dry. In many parts of the world, seasonality is expressed as wet and dry periods rather than warm and cold periods, and deciduous perennials lose their leaves in the dry season.T.T. Kozlowski.
Shedding of Plants Parts
'. Elsevier; 2 December 2012. . p. 88–.
Some perennial plants are protected from s because they have underground roots that produce adventitious shoots, bulbs, s, or s;R. F. Wagle.
Fire, Its Effects on Plant Succession and Wildlife in the Southwest: Some Effects of Fire on Plant Succession and Variability in the Southwest from a Wildlife Management Viewpoint
'. School of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Arizona; 1981. p. 5.
other perennials like trees and shrubs may have thick s that protect the stems. perennials from temperate and alpine regions of the world can tolerate the cold during winters. Perennial plants may remain dormant for long periods and then recommence growth and reproduction when the environment is more suitable, while most annual plants complete their life cycle during one growing period, and s have two growing periods. The of perennial plants communicates with the hormones produced due to environmental situations (i.e., seasons), reproduction, and stage of development to begin and halt the ability to grow or flower. There is also a distinction between the ability to grow and the actual task of growth. For example, most trees regain the ability to grow during winter but do not initiate physical growth until the spring and summer months. The start of dormancy can be seen in perennials plants through withering flowers, loss of leaves on trees, and halting of reproduction in both flowering and budding plants. Perennials species may produce relatively large seeds that have the advantage of generating larger s that can better compete with other plants. Perennials also produce seeds over many years.


Perennials that are cultivated include: woody plants like s grown for their edible fruits; shrubs and trees grown as landscaping s; herbaceous food crops like , , ; and subtropical plants not hardy in colder areas such as es, , and (which are treated as annuals in colder areas).Jules Janick.
Horticultural Science
'. W. H. Freeman; 15 February 1986 p. 44
Perennials also include plants grown for their flowering and other ornamental value including: bulbs (like tulips, narcissus, and gladiolus); and lawn grass, and other , (such as and ). Each type of plant must be separated differently; for example, plants with fibrous root systems like daylilies, Siberian iris or grasses can be pried apart with two garden forks inserted back to back, or cut by knives. However, plants such as bearded irises have a root system of rhizomes; these root systems should be planted with the top of the rhizome just above ground level, with leaves from the following year showing. The point of dividing perennials is to increase the amount of a single breed of plant in your garden. In the United States more than 900 million dollars worth of potted herbaceous perennial plants were sold in 2019.

Benefits in agriculture

Although most of humanity is fed by the re-sowing of the seeds of grain crops, (either naturally or by the manual efforts of man), s provide numerous benefits. Perennial plants often have deep, extensive root systems which can hold soil to prevent , capture dissolved before it can contaminate ground and surface water, and out-compete weeds (reducing the need for s). These potential benefits of perennials have resulted in new attempts to increase the seed yield of perennial species, which could result in the creation of new perennial grain crops.Cox et al. 200

Retrieved on 2008-11-14
Some examples of new perennial crops being developed are and . The estimates that profitable, productive perennial grain crops will take at least 25 years to achieve.


Perennial plants dominate many natural s on land and in fresh water, with only a very few (e.g. ') occurring in shallow sea water. perennial plants are particularly dominant in conditions too fire-prone for trees and shrubs, e.g., most plants on s and s are perennials; they are also dominant on too cold for tree growth. Nearly all plants are perennials, including the trees and shrubs. Perennial plants are usually better long-term competitors, especially under stable, resource-poor conditions. This is due to the development of larger systems which can access water and soil nutrients deeper in the soil and to earlier emergence in the spring. Annual plants have an advantage in disturbed environments because of their faster growth and reproduction rates.Stephen B. Monsen.
Proceedings--ecology and Management of Annual Rangelands
'. United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station; 1994. p. 342–.


* Examples of perennials include ' and . * Examples of perennials include and . * Examples of perennials include ' and some species of '. * Examples of perennials include , , and trees. * Examples of perennials used in agriculture include , ', and .

List of perennials

Perennial flowers

Perennials grown for their decorative flowers include very many species and types. Examples include * * * *

Perennial fruits

The majority of fruit bearing plants are perennial even in temperate climates. Examples include * * * * * * * * * *

Perennial herbs

Many s are perennial including these examples: * * * * * *

Perennial vegetables

Many vegetable plants can grow as perennials in tropical climates, but die in cold weather. Examples of some of the more completely perennial vegetables are: * * * * * * * * * * * *

See also

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External links

Gardening with Perennials

Plants for a Future
{{Authority control Perennial plants,