People's Liberation Army Navy Surface Force
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The People's Liberation Army Navy Surface Force is the
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branch of
China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.4 billion. Covering approximately 9.6& ...

China
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People's Liberation Army Navy The People's Liberation Army Navy (, Pinyin: Zhōngguó rénmín jiěfàngjūn hǎijūn), also known as the Chinese Navy, PLA Navy or PLAN, is the navy, naval warfare branch of the People's Liberation Army, the armed wing of the Communist Par ...
(PLAN), consisting of all surface vessels in operational service with the PLAN. The PLAN Surface Force operates 661 ships organized into three fleets: the
North Sea Fleet The Northern Theater Command Navy (), or the North Sea Fleet (NSF; ) is one of the three fleets of the Chinese People's Liberation Army Navy, under the Northern Theater Command. In September 1950 the Qingdao Army Base was redesignated as a naval ...
, the
East Sea Fleet The Eastern Theater Command Navy (), or East Sea Fleet (ESF; ), is one of the three fleets of the People's Liberation Army Navy, operating in the East China Sea under the Eastern Theater Command. It was the first naval force formed by the People's ...
and the
South Sea Fleet The Southern Theater Command Navy (), or the South Sea Fleet (SSF; ) is one of the three fleets of the Chinese People's Liberation Army Navy, operating in the South China Sea under the Southern Theater Command. It is headquartered in Zhanjiang, Gua ...
. Since the late 20th century, the People's Liberation Army Navy is turning away from its traditional focus on
coastal The coast, also known as the coastline or seashore, is defined as the area where land meets the sea or ocean, or as a line that forms the boundary between the land and the ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body ...
and
littoral warfareImage:Us navy rhib.jpg, 300px, Rigid-hulled_inflatable_boat, RHIB deployed from a US Navy destroyer operating in a littoral area In military and naval warfare, littoral warfare is operations in and around the littoral zone, within a certain distance ...
and instead prioritizing the development of
blue water 350px, The four kinds of navigable water in the Gulf of Mexico. Maritime geography is a collection of terms used by naval A navy, naval force, or maritime force is the branch of a nation's armed forces A military, also known collectiv ...
capabilities. This has led to a significant reduction in fleet numbers as the PLAN has replaced a larger number of smaller ships with a smaller number of larger, more capable and versatile ships, including
destroyer In naval A navy, naval force, or maritime force is the branch of a Nation's armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is typically ...
s,
frigate A frigate () is a type of warship A warship or combatant ship is a naval ship that is built and primarily intended for naval warfare. Usually they belong to the armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is ...

frigate
s,
corvette A corvette is a small warship A warship or combatant ship is a naval ship that is built and primarily intended for naval warfare. Usually they belong to the armed forces of a state. As well as being armed, warships are designed to withstand da ...

corvette
s,
amphibious warfare ship An amphibious warfare ship (or amphib) is an amphibious vehicle warship A warship or combatant ship is a naval ship that is built and primarily intended for naval warfare. Usually they belong to the armed forces of a state. As well as bei ...
s and large
auxiliary ship German Navy An auxiliary ship is a naval ship designed to operate in support of combatant ships and other naval operations. Auxiliaries are not primary combatants, although they may have some limited combat capacity, usually of a self-defence ...
s. According to the '' 2020 China Military Power Report'' published by The Pentagon in September 2020, as of early 2020, China has the largest navy in the world with an overall battle force of approximately 350 surface ships and submarines, including over 130 major surface combatants — in comparison, the United States Navy's battle force is approximately 293 ships.


Aircraft carriers

The PLAN Surface Force currently operates two aircraft carriers: * Type 004 aircraft carrier - under development. * Type 003 aircraft carrier - 1 under construction. * Chinese aircraft carrier Shandong, Type 002 aircraft carrier Shandong - In active service. * Chinese aircraft carrier Liaoning, Type 001 aircraft carrier Liaoning - In active service.


Development

The 67,000 tonne ''Chinese aircraft carrier Liaoning, Liaoning'' is the first operational aircraft carrier in service with the PLAN. ''Liaoning'', previously known as ''Varyag'', is an Admiral Kuznetsov-class aircraft carrier which the Chinese purchased from Ukraine in 1998 through a private tourist venture in Macau. At the time, ''Varyag'' was only 68% completed and stripped of all military equipment as well as her propulsion. After the purchase, ''Varyag'' was towed to Dalian, where she underwent extensive refurbishment, coordinated by the Dalian Shipbuilding Industry Company. On 10 August 2011, it was announced that the refurbishment of the new ''Liaoning'' was complete, and that the ship was undergoing sea trials. ''Liaoning'' was finally commissioned on 25 September 2012. In July 2011, a senior researcher of the Academy of Military Science (People's Republic of China), Academy of Military Sciences said China needed at least three aircraft carriers for its fleet. During the same month, another Chinese official announced that two aircraft carriers were being built at the Jiangnan Shipyard in Shanghai, the aircraft carriers are reportedly based on a similar design to ''Liaoning'', suggesting a displacement of approximately 65,000 tonnes. A new Chinese variant of the Sukhoi Su-33 fighter aircraft, known as the Shenyang J-15 (or ''Flying Shark'') are expected to fly from the new aircraft carriers. In 2013, Chinese media reported that the PLAN is designing and planning to build a 110,000 tonne 'super aircraft carrier'. Media reports also stated that the current aircraft carriers under construction are based on ''Liaoning'', but would be larger and would displace around 80,000 tonnes. The PLA Navy plans to establish three aircraft carrier battle groups by 2020. ''Liaoning'' and China's first domestically built carrier, currently under construction, will be part of the battle groups. One of the battle groups is to be deployed in the East China Sea, while the other two are to be deployed to the South China Sea. On 31 December 2015, it was announced that China was building a second carrier in STOBAR configuration, displacing around 50,000 tonnes, a length of 300m with a capacity of an estimated 50 aircraft. The hull was launched on 26 April 2017 and is estimated to be operational by 2020. PLAN's second aircraft carrier ''Chinese aircraft carrier Shandong, Shandong'' was put in commission on 17 December 2019, one year earlier than the estimation.


Amphibious warfare ships

The PLAN operates many types of amphibious vessels of various sizes and capabilities: Landing Helicopter Docks (LHDs) * Type 076 landing helicopter dock, Type 076 — planned * Type 075 landing helicopter dock, Type 075 (NATO designation Yushen-class) — 1 in active service, 2 in sea trials. Amphibious Transport Docks (LPDs) * Type 071 amphibious transport dock, Type 071 (NATO designation Yuzhao-class) — 8 in active service. Landing Ship, Tank (LSTs) * Type 072A landing ship, Type 072A (NATO designation Yuting III-class) — 15 in active service. * Type 072III landing ship, Type 072III (NATO designation Yuting II-class) — 10 in active service. * Type 072II landing ship, Type 072II (NATO designation Yuting-class) — 4 in active service. * Type 072 landing ship, Type 072 (NATO designation Yukan-class) — 3 in active service. Landing Ship, Medium (LSMs) * Type 073 landing ship, Type 073 (NATO designation Yudao, Yudeng and Yunshu-class) — 13 in active service. * Type 074 landing ship#Type 074A-class landing ship, Type 074A (NATO designation Yubei-class) — 6 in active service. * Type 074 landing ship, Type 074 (NATO designation Yuhai-class) — 12 in active service.


Development

The recent construction of the large Yuzhao-class amphibious transport docks (LPDs) (''pictured'') indicates an important shift toward blue water capabilities for the PLAN. However, the Landing Ship, Tanks (LSTs) of the 072 series still constitute the core of PLAN amphibious capabilities. With approximately 26 confirmed in service, the PLAN possesses the capabilities to conduct amphibious operations in the Littoral zone, littoral waters of the South East Asian region, as well as a limited capability in outer sea landings. Most vessels are only capable of transporting troops while some are capable of transporting limited numbers of armored vehicles. In late 2012, it was reported that China may be developing a class of 40,000 to 48,000 tonne landing helicopter docks (LHDs). They will possibly be known as the Type 075 landing helicopter dock, Type 075 class. Two vessels of this class are known to have been launched with a third believed to be under construction. ''For a list of smaller landing craft of the PLAN, see: List of active People's Liberation Army Navy landing craft''


Destroyers

Destroyers are the largest principal surface combatants in the People's Liberation Army Navy. * Type 055 destroyer (NATO designation Renhai-class) — 4 in service, 1 in sea trials, 3 fitting out. * Type 052D destroyer (NATO designation Luyang III-class) — 20 in active service, 2 in sea trials, 3 fitting out. * Type 051C destroyer (NATO designation Luzhou-class) — 2 in active service. * Type 052C destroyer (NATO designation Luyang II-class) — 6 in active service. * Type 052B destroyer (NATO designation Luyang I-class) — 2 in active service. * Sovremenny-class destroyer, Project 956E/956EM destroyer (NATO designation Sovremenny-class) — 4 in active service. * Type 051B destroyer (NATO designation Luhai-class) — 1 in active service. * Type 052 destroyer (NATO designation Luhu-class) — 2 in active service.


Development

The People's Liberation Army Navy had traditionally focused on the principles of coastal defense. With this came a series of warship designs based on the Soviet Navy's destroyers and frigates. The first PLAN destroyers were the Anshan class destroyer, ''Anshan'' class, directly purchased from the Soviet Union. These were armed with torpedoes and various surface- and air-warfare guns. The ''Anshans effectiveness in naval warfare was significantly enhanced with the torpedo tubes being replaced by anti-ship missile launchers. Although retired from the active service, the Anshan class destroyers remain on PLAN's list and act as training ships and perform public relations duties. The Type 051 destroyer, ''Luda'' class followed from the 1970s onwards, with many similarities to the Soviet ''Kotlin'' class. The ''Luda''s are armed with six anti-ship missiles and various guns and anti-submarine warfare, ASW weapons. Both the ''Luda'' and ''Anshan'' were key vessels to PLAN's coastal defense doctrines, as small coastal defense destroyers. These ships were all armed with mostly manually operated air defense artillery with no surface-to-air missiles and no ASW torpedoes. One ''Luda'' class ship, 160, was lost in an accident. By the mid 1990s, all ''Anshan'' class destroyers were retired. The PLAN focus shifted in the 1980s. With the import of Western systems, and a focus on blue-water multi-role operations, the ''Luhu'' class emerged. The first vessel, ''Harbin'' (112) (seen and commissioned by the early 1990s), was a significant shift from traditional Chinese warship design. There was much more focus on air defense and ASW warfare, including the installation an 8-celled ''Crotale missile, Crotale'' launcher, a short range missile system later indigenously produced as HQ-7. A second vessel, the ''Qingdao'' was launched later in the mid 1990s. Towards the end of the 1990s, the ''Luhai'' class was introduced as an enlarged version of the ''Luhu''. These ships were the first truly modern combat vessels with blue water and multi-role operations in mind. These destroyers were still obsolete by Western standards, and delays in their construction resulted in just three being built. Since the late 1980s, the older ''Luda'', and later the ''Luhu'' and ''Luhai'' classes have been through various upgrade and refit programmes. Both 112 and 113 of the ''Luhu'' class, and 167 of the ''Luhai'' class have undergone major refits. All three now carry sixteen YJ83 Anti-ship missiles, improved HQ-7 SAM (Based on the Crotale), and enhanced electronic, sensor and weaponry capabilities. Upgrades to the ''Luda'' class have been more sporadic. One vessel was refitted with a double hangar and helicopter deck. At least four others have been upgraded with HQ-7 short range SAM, new automatic air defense artillery (as opposed to the old manual mounts), torpedoes and sixteen YJ83 anti-ship missiles. Though the other remaining ships continue to retain original weaponry, they have all undergone major refits to extend their surface lives. All ''Luda''s are being fitted with satellite communications and navigation systems to allow them to operate beyond coastal waters. In 1996, China signed a deal with Russia for the purchase of two ''Sovremenny'' class destroyers. The first ship arrived in January 2000 and the second in January 2001. These ships significantly improve the PLAN's fighting capabilities. Each ship displaces 7,940 tons full loaded. Weaponry included ASW torpedoes and mortar launchers, AK-630 automatic Close-in weapon system, CIWS cannons, two twin mountings of 130 mm rapid fire cannons, the short-medium ranged SA-N-12, SA-N-12 ''Grizzly'' Surface to Air Missile and the SS-N-22, SS-N-22 ''Sunburn'' supersonic sea-skimming anti-ship missile. Two improved ''Sovremenny'' class vessels were acquired in 2002, and include a longer range SS-N-22 missile, improved air defense missiles, and the Kashtan CIWS cannon and missile combination. Since 2003, three new classes of indigenous destroyers have emerged. The Type 052B destroyer was the first, and features a stealthy design, modern layout, and adopted many Russian and indigenous weapons and sensors. Its armament included two indigenously designed Type 730 CIWS (first of its kind in China), sixteen C-802, YJ83 anti-ship missiles, two SA-N-12 ''Grizzly'' air defense missile launchers (48 missiles, 50 km range), torpedoes, anti-submarine rockets, a 100 mm artillery mount, and a hangar to hold one Kamov Ka-27, Kamov KA-28 ASW helicopter. This was followed by the Type 052C destroyer, which included 4 statically mounted phased array radars of indigenous design, providing the ship with continuous 360-degree coverage for search, tracking and direction for multiple SAM missiles. The Type 052C destroyer was the first PLAN warship to utilize a Vertical Launching System, with HQ-9 long range air defense missile (48 missiles, 200 km range, similar to the Russian S-300 missile). It is also armed with a new anti-ship cruise missile known as the C-602, YJ-62. The third class was the Type 051C destroyer. This class uses the same hull and layout as the Luhai class destroyer, ''Luhai'' class. Initial construction was delayed by the slow acquisition of the Russian S-300 (missile), S-300FM long range SAM. The ship uses Vertical Launching System, VLS launchers with 48 rounds of the S-300 (missile), S-300FM. The S-300FM is capable of engaging low- to high-altitude targets as far as at least 150 km. The most recent class to be commissioned is the Type 052D destroyer that is a further development of the Type 052C destroyer, equipped with a new VLS system that includes 64 missiles of different variety. Currently three Type 055 destroyers, The ''Nanchang'', the ''Lhasa'' and the ''Dalian'', which are Asia's biggest warships (Aircraft carriers and Amphibious assault ship not included) since the Second World War, are in active service. A total of 8 vessels are planned. The Type 055 destroyer is China's biggest surface combatant until now. It is designed to be a modern, multi-purpose warship, with four enormous Type 346B AESA radars and an integrated mast containing intelligence equipment, electronic countermeasures, and fire control radars. Armament will include 112-cell modular VLS able to operate with a variety of missiles, including land-attack cruise missiles, and a new 130 mm naval gun. Its displacement in excess of 12,000 tons and upgraded VLS capacity has led to the United States classifying it as a guided missile cruiser rather than a destroyer and as a result, analysts have compared it to the U.S Navy's Ticonderoga-class cruiser, ''Ticonderoga'' class cruiser and the Zumwalt-class destroyer, ''Zumwalt'' class destroyer.


Frigates

Frigates are the most numerous principal surface combatants in the People's Liberation Army Navy. In spite of the more recent trend to construction of larger warships, like destroyers, this status is unlikely to change in the near future: * Type 054A frigate (NATO designation Jiangkai II-class) - 30 in active service, 1 under construction. * Type 054 frigate (NATO designation Jiangkai I-class) - 2 in active service. * Type 053H3 frigate (NATO designation Jiangwei II-class) - 8 in active service. * Type 053 frigate (NATO designation Jianghu-class) - 5 in active service (1 Type 053H1, 4 Type 053H1G).


Development

Frigates were the first large surface combatants made available to the PLAN. The Soviet Union sold several frigates to the PLAN in the 1950s, including the Riga-class frigates. These frigates became the foundation of Chinese built designs, such as the Type 053 frigates. These ships were mostly armed with naval guns, though later designs managed to replace torpedo tubes with a twin launcher for SS-N-2 Styx anti-ship missiles. Initial attempts to fit anti-aircraft missiles to frigates resulted in a single ship known as the ''Jiangdong''. The ship was completed in 1970 carrying two twin launchers for the HQ-61B short ranged SAM, this vessel served as the sole PLAN SAM capable frigate until the 1990s. Its effectiveness in engaging missiles and aircraft was thought to be limited. The same hull was later used for the Type 053 frigate, ''Jianghu'' class (Type 053H) class. During the 1970s the PLAN introduced the ''Jianghu'' class. Essentially, a scaled down version of the ''Luda'' class of destroyers, this large class of missile frigates would have many follow-on variants. The first hull, 515 ''Xiamen'' was completed in 1975, and mass production followed until 1996. All ''Jianghu'' class ships are armed with four SY-2 anti-ship missiles (indigenous and improved versions of initial Soviet SS-N-2 Styx). Gun armaments vary across the class, including a single 100 mm mount or a more modern Type 79 100 mm twin mounts. The latest eight hulls (built during the early 1990s) feature automatic twin 37 mm Type 76A AA guns. One ''Jianghu'', hull 516, was refitted recently to carry a battery of 122 mm rockets, fixed on stabilized launchers. A total of 27 ''Jianghu'' Is were built, and they remain in use today with various upgrades and refits to extend their service life. The vessels are deficient in modern anti-aircraft, anti-ship and anti-submarine fighting capabilities. The first Chinese frigate to carry a helicopter was a modified ''Jianghu'' II, the ''Siping'' 544, dubbed as the ''Jianghu'' IV class. Only one ship was modified, despite great optimism that most of the class would follow suit. The ''Siping'' is believed to perform more as a test ship, with a single helicopter hangar and a new single 100 mm gun mount similar to the French Creusot-Loire rapid fire main gun. Its fighting capabilities have been retained with twin SY-2 missiles and AA guns. The fitting of the helicopter hangar meant the sacrifice of the aft SY-2 missile launchers. A further step for the ''Jianghu'' class was made by the appearance of the ''Jianghu'' III/V class, first commissioned in 1986. These ships are the first to have air conditioning onboard Chinese warships. They feature heavy Western influence, and instead of using the SY-2 missiles, they are armed with the YJ8 series. The ''Jianghu'' V class carries the YJ82 with extended range. There are three ships in the ''Jianghu'' III class and six ships in ''Jianghu'' V class. The ''Jiangwei'' I class was launched in 1991 and represented a shift away from the old ''Jianghu'' concept. Major features included a sextuple HQ-61B SAM launcher, modernized electronics and radar, six YJ8 missiles, automatic Type 76F anti-aircraft guns and a hangar and helicopter deck for one French AS 565 or Z-9C helicopter. Four of the ''Jiangwei'' I were built between 1990 and 1994. Though a great versatile design, it suffered the same weaknesses in air defense, as its SAM had to be manually reloaded as well as unsatisfactory performance. The four ships have been refitted since for life extension, and continue to serve the PLAN. The HQ-61 SAM system was later replaced by HQ-7 SAM systems during refits. The first ''Jiangwei'' II was launched in 1997. This has a similar design layout to the ''Jiangwei'' I but has incorporated major improvements. These included eight (not six) YJ82/3 missiles, octuple HQ-7 SAM (replacing the HQ-61B), improved fully automated main gun, and a redesigned aft structure. Ten ''Jiangwei'' IIs have been built, the last ship commissioned in 2005. All ''Jiangwei''s have since been refitted with a stealthier gun casing for their 100 mm main guns. In 2005, The ''Jiangkai'' I Type 054 frigate entered PLAN service (hulls 525 and 526). The Type 054 is considerably stealthier than all previous PLAN frigate designs. The Type 054 ''Ma'anshan'' class is armed with an HQ-7 octuple launcher, eight YJ83 anti-ship missiles, a 100 mm main gun, four AK630 CIWS turrets, ASW torpedoes and rocket launchers, carries one Ka-28 Helix or Z-9C, and displaces 3,400 tons. This represents a new generation of frigate design in the PLAN, and a shifting focus on larger multi-role platforms. The air defense missile armament is no better than the ''Jiangwei'' II class although this may be upgraded later. The Type 054 has now been superseded by the ''Jiangkai'' II Type 054A frigate, which is in series production. The 054A features a number of important improvements over the original 054. The main air defense armament has been upgraded to a 32-cell Vertical Launching System, VLS HQ-16 medium-range SAM system, giving area air-defence capability for the first time to PLAN frigates. In addition, the four AK630 CIWS have been replaced by two autonomous Type 730 CIWS. The Type 054A is altogether a well balanced and stealthy frigate design, with considerable firepower and multi-role versatility.


Corvettes

Corvettes are the smallest principal surface combatants in the People's Liberation Army Navy. Traditionally the PLAN operated extensive fleets of missile and gun boats for defence of its littoral waters. However, as the PLAN moved towards developing blue water capabilities, there is a growing need to replace a larger number of smaller vessels with a smaller number of larger and much more capable vessels: * Type 056 corvette (NATO designation Jiangdao-class) - 72 in active service (22 type 056, 50 Type 056A).


Development

Following the designing and building of the HTMS Pattani, Pattani class corvette for the Royal Thai Navy in the mid-2000s, speculation of a domestic variant of the design was rife. The speculations were confirmed in November 2010 during a visit by Maj. Gen. Wang Junli, Deputy commander of the Hong Kong Garrison and the Hong Kong University's Vice-Chancellor Tsui Lap-chee when a model of the Type 056 was presented. The first ship was launched in May 2012. Though the Type 056 appears in the 21st century, the design concept can be referred to as early as the 1980s, when the PLAN were considering developing a larger patrol ship to replace the Type 037 to improve the living conditions on the ship, which was firstly called by Type 038. However, this concept was not realized until the appearance of Type 056 in 2012 due to the shortage of funds. The Type 056 has a stealthy hull design with sloped surface and a reduced superstructure clutter. There is a helipad at the stern for a light helicopter but has no organic helicopter support facilities. The main anti-ship armament consists of YJ-83 sea-skimming anti-ship missile, anti-ship cruise missiles in two twin-cell launchers. The primary anti-aircraft armament is one FL-3000N short range missile system with 8 rounds. A 76 mm main gun based on a Russian AK-176 is mounted forward. 2 triple torpedo tubes are mounted for ASW operations. Type 056 is the first Chinese warship with modular design, which makes it cover the roles from OPV to multi-role frigate. The PLAN used versions may include patrol type, ASW type, ASuW type, AAW type and commander type; while the export versions can be quite differently fitted according to consumer's requirement. For the moment, at least 3 variants of Type 056 for export exist with the same design of hull but varying bridge designs and armament layouts. A total of 20 corvettes are initially planned, but it is expected that anywhere up-to 60 corvettes could be eventually brought into active service. At present, there are 2 variants of the Jiangdao-class in PLAN service - Type 056 and Type 056A. The main difference between the 2 variants is the addition of towed passive sonar line array and towed active variable depth sonar on Type 056A, giving this variant a significant ASW capability. The breakdown of numbers of the 2 variants is 22 Type 056 and 50 Type 056A, totaling 72 vessels across the 2 variants.


Missile boats, submarine chasers and gunboats

With increasing acquisition of destroyers, submarines, frigates and auxiliary support assets, missile and gun boats mostly disappeared from the PLAN fleet, with numbers reduced dramatically. However new classes of missile attack boats continue to be built to replace older types: * Type 22 missile boat (NATO designation Houbei-class) * Type 037 corvette#Type 037II-class missile boat, Type 037II missile boat (NATO designation Houjian-class) - 5 in active service * Type 037 corvette#Type 037IG-class missile boat, Type 037IG missile boat (NATO designation Houxin-class) * Type 037 corvette#Type 037I-class submarine chaser, Type 037I submarine chaser (NATO designation Haiqing-class) * Type 037 corvette#Type 037-class submarine chaser, Type 037 submarine chaser (NATO designation Hainan-class) * Type 062-class gunboat#Type 062I-class gunboat, Type 062I gunboat (NATO designation Shanghai III-class)


Development

The PLAN's main focus until the 1980s was a sharp emphasis on coastal defense and littoral warfare. This was influenced from early engagements where the Communist forces found the value of small maneuverable craft against larger, better armed but slower Nationalist ships. Early littoral craft in the PLAN's inventory included riverine craft and gun boats converted from various ships. This was later added to in the 1950s by Soviet-designed gun and torpedo attack craft. Such gun craft included the ''Kronstadt'' class heavily armed gun boats which served the PLAN until the 1980s. Soviet missile attack craft were later added to the fleet, including the Komar and Osa type fast attack missile craft. Although most littoral designs bore Soviet influence, there were quite a few indigenous designs or copies of Soviet-type craft. Hundreds of vessels were deployed by the fleet, serving as the backbone of the PLAN until a higher emphasis was placed upon bluewater naval operations. Despite availability of frigates and destroyers, the brunt of PLAN involvement in small-scale conflicts have been borne by the littoral forces. For instance, the various naval engagements between Chinese and Vietnamese naval forces were carried out by PLAN littoral craft. Today missile boats compose of the ''Houjian'', ''Houxin'' and ''Houbei'' classes. The 478-ton ''Houxin'' design is based on the Hainan-class hull, but with a redesigned superstructure, new systems, two automatic twin-37 mm guns and four YJ8 series anti-ship missiles. Around 28 are in service, built since the 1990s. A much more sophisticated and stealthy design is the 520-ton ''Houjian'' class. Main armament of the Houjian design is the twin 37 mm mount, two 30 mm twin turrets, and six YJ8 series anti-ship missiles. The latest generation missile attack craft is the 220X (''Houbei'') design. Seen since 2005, its most distinctive feature is its trimaran hull that can achieve maximum wave piercing performance at high speeds. The stealthy design has two missile-houses, that can possibly be fitted with various ordnance. Eight missiles of the YJ83 anti-ship missiles are believed to be carried, as well as a single AK630 CIWS for self-defense. Four hulls emerged by 2005, with another eight to twelve others being constructed as of 2006. Submarine chasers are plentiful in the PLAN and serve to screen China's territorial waters against submarine incursions. The ''Hainan'' class has proven itself to be a reliable design in many roles. Its main armament is two twin 57 mm guns, and two 25 mm AAA. The Hainan is also armed with anti-submarine multi-barrelled rockets and depth charges. There is provision for the fitment of four YJ8 series anti-ship missiles as well. The ''Haiqing'' class is a second generation improvement over the Hainan, with redesigned superstructure, automatic 37 mm AA guns and newer generation sonars and ASW equipment.


Mine countermeasures

The People's Liberation Army Navy operates three mine countermeasure classes and a single mine layer class: * Type 081 mine countermeasure vessel (NATO designation Wochi-class) - 10 in active service. * Type 082 mine countermeasure vessel#Type 082II mine countermeasure vessel, Type 082II mine countermeasure vessel (NATO designation Wozang-class) - 2 in active service. * Type 082 mine countermeasure vessel (NATO designation Wosao-class) - 17 in active service.


Development

Despite the extensive use of mines as a strategically important defensive and offensive weapon, the PLAN operates only a small number of mine warfare ships. These boats comprised mine-laying and mine-sweeping types. The PLAN operates a single ''Wolei'' class mine-layer. This ship was commissioned in 1988 and displaces 2,300 tons full load. It can carry and lay up to 300 mines. There is little need of a dedicated mine-laying type however, as most PLA surface and submarine combatants can lay minefields. Minesweepers have served the PLAN since its founding. Currently two new classes of minesweeper have emerged since the late 1980s (Type 082 and Type 082II) and a single class since the 2000s (Type 081). Coastal minesweeping is primarily conducted by the Type 082 class. Blue-water minesweeping is fulfilled by the Type 082II and Type 081 classes.


Fleet replenishment

Fleet replenishment has been an expanding element in PLAN auxiliaries. The PLAN view the need of replenishment ships as vital for blue water fleet operations: * Type 901 fast combat support ship (NATO designation Fuyu-class) - 2 in active service, 1 under construction. * Type 903 replenishment ship (NATO designation Fuchi-class) - 9 in active service (2 Type 903, 7 Type 903A). * Type 904 general stores issue ship (NATO designation Dayun-class) - 4 in active service (1 Type 904, 3 Type 904A). * Type 908 replenishment ship (NATO designation Fusu-class) - 1 in active service.


Development

Since the 1970s, underway replenishment has been widely practiced by destroyer and frigate combatants. In many overseas visits, a tanker has traditionally accompanied the visiting ship. The first replenishment ships built for the dedicated task of fleet refueling were the Fuqing-class replenishment ship, of which two remain in service. The next fleet replenishment vessel was purchased from Russia in the 1990s, being the single ''Nancang'' (Fusu-class). This ship is significantly superior to the Fuqing-class in terms of refueling systems and the storage capacity. Two new hulls of the indigenous Fuchi-class were commissioned into service by 2005. With five ships (and possibly a sixth vessel), the PLAN's ability to operate further away from home has been significantly enhanced. The demands of modern-day warfare has meant that logistic support ships in the navy are becoming vital.


Auxiliaries

The PLAN operates a very large number and variety of auxiliary vessels that are capable of supporting fleet and military operations both in a coastal and ocean theatres of war. PLAN auxiliary vessels are present in all three fleets, stationed in many naval bases and have increasingly exercised frequently alongside combatants. PLAN auxiliaries include tugboats, freighters, submarine tenders, research, survey ships, missile and satellite monitoring platforms, ice breakers, repair and communications, electronic warfare and monitoring, transport and training ships. The following is a list of auxiliaries thought to be in service with the PLAN as of 2014–2015. ; Hospital ships * 1 Type 920 hospital ship (NATO designation Anwei-class) * 1 Chinese medical evacuation ship Zhuanghe (NATO designation unknown) * 1 Qiongsha-class cargo ship, Qiongsha-class ambulance transport (NATO designation Qiongsha-class) ; Icebreakers * 2 Type 272 icebreaker (NATO designation Yanrao-class) * 1 Type 210 icebreaker (NATO designation Yanbing-class) * 3 Type 071 icebreaker (NATO designation Yanha-class) ; Barracks ship * 1 Chinese barracks ship Xu Xiake (NATO designation Daguan-class) ; Troop transport/ferry & cargo * 5 Qiongsha-class cargo ship (NATO designation Qiongsha-class) * 1 Beidiao 990 ;Training ships * 1 Type 680 training ship (NATO designation Dadu-class) * 1 Type 679 training ship (NATO designation Daxin-class) * 1 Type 0891A training ship (NATO designation Dashi-class) ;Cargo transport * 3 Type 072 landing ship#Yantai class, Yantai-class (NATO designation Yantai-class) * 5 Type 081 cargo ship (NATO designation Hongqi-class) * 13 Danlin-class cargo ship (NATO designation Danlin-class) * 4 Danlin-class cargo ship#Dandao class, Dandao-class (NATO designation Dandao-class) * 2 Galați-class cargo ship (NATO designation Galați-class) ; Coastal oil tankers * 9 Leizhou-class tanker (NATO designation Leizhou-class) * 8 Fulin-class oil tanker (NATO designation Fulin-class) * 2 Shengli-class oil tanker (NATO designation Shengli-class) * 7 Fuzhou-class tanker (NATO designation Fuzhou-class) * 3 Jinyou-class oil tanker (NATO designation Jinyou-class) ; Ballistic missile tracking * 6 Yuan Wang-class tracking ship (NATO designation Yuanwang-class) ; Intelligence gathering * 1 Type 813 spy ship (NATO designation unknown) * 1 Type 814A spy ship (NATO designation Dadie-class) * 6 Type 815 spy ship (NATO designation Dondiao-class) ; Oceanographic surveillance ships * 2 Type 595 ocean surveillance ship (NATO designation unknown) * 1 Type 639 oceanographic surveillance ship (NATO designation unknown) * 3 Type 927 acoustic surveillance ships ; Oceanographic research, meteorological and hydrographic survey ships * 1 Chinese oceanographic research ship Xiangyanghong 5 (NATO designation unknown) * 1 Type 645 oceanographic research ship (NATO designation unknown) * 8 Type 625 research vessel (NATO designation unknown) * 5 Type 614 research vessel (NATO designation unknown) * 5 Type 635 hydrographic survey ship (NATO designation Yanlai-class) * 6 Type 636 hydrographic survey ship (NATO designation unknown) * 1 Type 988 hydrographic survey ship (NATO designation unknown) ; Submarine support * 1 Type 930 submarine rescue ship (NATO designation Hudong-class) * 3 Type 946 submarine rescue ship (NATO designation Dazhou, Dadong-class) * 3 Type 925 submarine support ship (NATO designation Dajiang-class) * 3 Type 926 submarine support ship (NATO designation Dalao-class) * 1 Type 648 repair ship (NATO designation unknown) ; Torpedo trials/retriever * 1 Type 906 torpedo trials craft (NATO designation unknown) * 1 Type 907A torpedo trials craft (NATO designation unknown) * 7 Type 917 torpedo retriever (NATO designation unknown) ; Weapons trials * 3 Type 909 weapon trials ship (NATO designation Wuhu-B-class) ; Sonar trials * 1 Chinese sonar trials ship Beidiao 993 (NATO designation Beidiao-class) ; Experimental ships * Chinese target ship Experiment 216 (NATO designation unknown) ; Rescue and salvage * 6 Type 922 rescue and salvage ship (NATO designation Dalang-class) * 2 Type 917 rescue and salvage ship (NATO designation unknown) ; Dive tender * 2 Type 904 dive tender (NATO designation unknown) ; Tug boats * 4 Tuozhong-class tug, Tuozhong-class (NATO designation Tuozhong-class) * 1 Tuozhong-class tug, Daozha-class (NATO designation Tuozhong-class) * 15 Type 802 tug (NATO designation Gromovoy-class) * 3 Type 830 tug (NATO designation unknown) * 18 Type 837 tug (NATO designation Hujiu-class) * 19 Type 852 tug (NATO designation Roslavl-class) ; Degaussing & deperming * 2 Type 911 degaussing/deperming ship (NATO designation unknown) * 8 Type 912 degaussing/deperming ship (NATO designation unknown) ; Cable laying * 1 Type 890 cable layer (NATO designation Youzheng-class) * 7 Type 991 cablelayer (NATO designation Youdian-class) ; Buoy tenders * 6 Type 744 buoy tender (NATO designation Yannan-class) * 1 Type 999 buoy tender (NATO designation unknown)


Nomenclature

Ships of PLAN are named per Naval Vessels Naming Regulation (中国海军舰艇命名条例) that was first issued by the Central Military Commission (China), Central Military Commission (CMC) on 3 November 1978, and subsequently revised 7 July 1986.


See also

* People's Liberation Army Navy Submarine Force * List of active People's Liberation Army Navy ships


References


External links


Global Security: Chinese Warships
(globalsecurity.org) {{Ship classes of the Chinese Navy People's Liberation Army Navy branches, #1 Ships of the People's Liberation Army Navy,