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The ''People's Daily'' () is the largest newspaper group in China. The paper is an official newspaper of the
Central Committee Central committee is the common designation of a standing administrative body of communist parties, analogous to a board of directors, of both ruling and nonruling parties of former and existing Socialist State, socialist states. In such party org ...
of the
Chinese Communist Party The Chinese Communist Party (CCP), officially the Communist Party of China (CPC), is the founding and One-party state, sole ruling party of the China, People's Republic of China (PRC). The CCP leads List of political parties in China, eight other ...
(CCP). In addition to its main
Chinese-language Chinese ( or also , especially for the written language) is a group of language varieties that form the Sinitic branch of the Sino-Tibetan languages Sino-Tibetan, also known as Trans-Himalayan in a few sources, is a family of more than ...
edition, it has editions in
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
,
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...

Spanish
,
Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or ...

Japanese
,
French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of co ...

French
,
Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (россияне), Russian language term ...
,
Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variants of the Portuguese language ** Portug ...

Portuguese
,
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...

Arabic
,
Tibetan Tibetan may mean: * of, from, or related to Tibet * Tibetan people, an ethnic group * Tibetan language: ** Classical Tibetan, the classical language used also as a contemporary written standard ** Standard Tibetan, the most widely used spoken dialec ...
, Kazakh,
UyghurUyghur may refer to: * Uyghurs, a Turkic ethnic group living in Eastern and Central Asia * Uyghur language, a Turkic language spoken primarily by the Uyghurs ** Uyghur alphabets, any of four systems used to write the language * Uyghur Khaganate, a T ...

Uyghur
,
ZhuangZhuang may refer to: *Zhuang people (or Bouxcuengh people), ethnic group in China *Zhuang languages *Zhuang logogram *Zhuang Zhou, ancient Chinese philosopher *Zhuang (surname) (庄/莊), a Chinese surname {{disambiguation Language and nationality ...
,
Mongolian Mongolian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Mongolia, a country in Asia * Mongolian people, or Mongols * Mongolia (1911–24), the government of Mongolia, 1911–1919 and 1921–1924 * Mongolian language * Mongolian alphabet * Mongo ...

Mongolian
, and other minority languages in China. The newspaper provides direct information on the policies and viewpoints of the CCP.


History

The paper was established on 15 June 1948 and was published in Pingshan,
Hebei Hebei (; alternately Hopeh) is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, f ...
, until its offices were moved to Beijing in March 1949. Ever since its founding, the ''People's Daily'' has been under direct control of the Party's top leadership.
Deng Tuo Deng may refer to: * Deng (company) DENG is a Danish Danish may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Denmark * A national or citizen of Denmark, also called a "Dane", see Demographics of Denmark * Danish people or Danes, ...
and Wu Lengxi served as editor-in-chief from 1948 to 1958 and 1958–1966, respectively, but the paper was in fact controlled by
Mao Mao Zedong pronounced ; also romanised Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for st ...

Mao
's personal secretary
Hu Qiaomu Hu Qiaomu (4 June 191228 September 1992) was a Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by ...
. During the
Cultural Revolution The Cultural Revolution, formally known as the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, was a sociopolitical movement Movement may refer to: Common uses * Movement (clockwork), the internal mechanism of a timepiece * Motion (physics), co ...
, the ''People's Daily'' was one of the few sources of information from which either foreigners or Chinese could figure out what the Chinese government was doing or planning to do. During this period, an editorial in the ''People's Daily'' would be considered an authoritative statement of government policy, was studied and reproduced nationwide, and analyzed globally for insight into the Party's plans. The most important editorials were jointly published by ''People's Daily'', ''
People's Liberation Army Daily The ''People's Liberation Army Daily'' (), or ''PLA Daily'' for short, is the official newspaper of the Chinese People's Liberation Army The People's Liberation Army (PLA) is the armed forces A military, also known collectively as ar ...
'' and ''
Red FlagRed flag may refer to: * Red flag (idiom), a metaphor for something signalling a problem ** Red flag warning, a term used by meteorologists ** Red flag (racing), used in auto racing when conditions are too dangerous to continue the session Politi ...
'', from 1967 to 1978, so called "Two newspapers and one journal" (), directly representing the highest voice of Chinese Communist Party. Newspaper articles in the ''People's Daily'' are often not read for content so much as placement. A large number of articles devoted to a political figure, idea, or geographic focus is often taken as a sign that the mentioned official or subject is rising. Editorials in the ''People's Daily'' are regarded both by foreign observers and Chinese readers as authoritative statements of official government policy. Distinction is made between editorials, commentaries, and opinions. Although all must be government approved, they differ sharply on the amount of official authoritativeness they contain by design – from the top. For example, although an opinion piece is unlikely to contain views opposed to those of the government, it may express a viewpoint, or it may contain a debate that is under consideration and reflect only the opinions of the writer: an editorial
trial balloon A trial balloon, or kite-flying (used in the UK and elsewhere), is information sent out to the media in order to observe the reaction of an audience. It can be used by companies sending out press releases to judge reaction by customers, or it can b ...
to assess internal public opinion. By contrast, an official editorial, which is rather infrequent, means that the government has reached a final decision on an issue. During the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests and massacre, the ''People's Daily'' April 26 Editorial, editorial of 26 April, which condemned "unlawful parades and demonstrations," marked a significant moment in the newspaper's history. The editorial increased tension between the government and protesters, and top CCP leaders argued about whether to revise it. People's Daily during the 1989 Student Movement, An article that compiles the most important editorials was released by the ''People's Daily'' during the student movement. Since the mid-1990s, the ''People's Daily'' has faced a decline of governmental subsidies combined with increasing competition from international news sources and Chinese tabloids. As part of its effort to modernize, it began an online edition in 1997, and the web bulletin forums, such as the Strengthening Nation Forum in the Chinese edition, has been known for their surprisingly candid content. An analysis of the wording of all the issues of the ''People's Daily'' from 1995 to 2000 was used in the writing of ''The First Series of Standardized Forms of Words with Non-standardized Variant Forms''. The ''People's Daily'' is also responsible for the publication of the tabloid ''Global Times.'' In 2020, the United States Department of State designated the ''People's Daily'' a Diplomatic mission, foreign mission, thereby requiring it to disclose more information about its operations in the U.S.


Overseas editions

The ''People's Daily'' also maintains a multilingual internet presence; and established the ''People's Daily Online'' (人民网) in 1997. The website of ''People's Daily'' includes content in Arabic, French, Russian, Spanish, Japanese and English. In comparison to the original Chinese version, the foreign-language version offers less in-depth discussion of domestic policies and affairs and more editorial about China's foreign policies and motives. ''People's Daily'' in recent years has been expanding its publicity on the overseas social media platforms. It has millions followers on its Facebook page, Twitter account, Instagram account, and YouTube account. However, an unusually high proportion of its followers are virtually inactive and likely to be fake users, according to the study of Committee to Protect Journalists. According to a 2021 report by ''The Washington Post'', the ''People's Daily Online'' provides overseas public opinion monitoring outside of the Great Firewall for various police, judicial, and CCP organizations.


Writing practices

The ''People's Daily'' employs "writing task groups" ( zh, s=写作小组, p=xiězuò xiǎozǔ) of various staff to compose editorial pieces to signal the significance of certain pieces or their relationship to the official views of the CCP. These groups are published under "signatures" (i.e., pen names: 署名 ''shǔmíng'') that may correspond with the topic and weight of a piece, and what specific government or CCP body is backing it, often with homophone, homophonous references to their purpose.


List of presidents

* Zhang Panshi () *
Hu Qiaomu Hu Qiaomu (4 June 191228 September 1992) was a Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by ...
() * Fan Changjiang () *
Deng Tuo Deng may refer to: * Deng (company) DENG is a Danish Danish may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Denmark * A national or citizen of Denmark, also called a "Dane", see Demographics of Denmark * Danish people or Danes, ...
() * Wu Lengxi () * Chen Boda () * Hu Jiwei () * Qin Chuan () * Qian Liren () * Gao Di (politician), Gao Di () * Shao Huaze () * Bai Keming () * Xu Zhongtian () * Wang Chen (politician), Wang Chen () * Zhang Yannong () * Yang Zhengwu () * Li Baoshan () * Tuo Zhen ()


Reactions

A 2013 study of the ''People's Daily'' coverage of the 2002–2004 SARS outbreak reported that it "regurgitated triumph and optimism" and framed the outbreak as an "opportunity to showcase China's scientific achievements, and the strength of national spirits, as well as the wise leadership of the party and effective measures to protect the lives of ordinary citizens." In February 2020, the ''People's Daily'' published an article stating that the Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, novel coronavirus "did not necessarily originate in China." In March 2020, the online insert of the ''People's Daily'', distributed by ''The Daily Telegraph'', published an article stating that Traditional Chinese medicine "helps fight coronavirus." In May 2020, the ''People's Daily'' stated that the novel coronavirus had "multiple origins." In November 2020, the ''People's Daily'' published a claim that COVID-19 was "imported" into China. In January 2021, the ''People's Daily'' inaccurately attributed deaths in Norway to the Pfizer–BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine. In 2021, ProPublica and ''The New York Times'' reported that the ''People's Daily'' was part of a coordinated state propaganda campaign to deny human rights abuses in Xinjiang.


''The Onion'' parody

In November 2012, American satire news site ''The Onion'' published an article where it declared North Korean leader Kim Jong-un as the 'Sexiest Man Alive for 2012'. In response, ''People's Daily'' republished the article with 55-page photo spread of Kim and tongue-in-cheek quotes from ''The Onion''. They later took down the article from its site after realizing that it was a parody. ''The Onion'' later updated their article about Kim stating; "For more coverage on The Onion's Sexiest Man Alive 2012, Kim Jong-Un, please visit our friends at the People's Daily in China, a proud Communist subsidiary of The Onion, Inc."


See also

* China News Service *Xinwen Lianbo, the news program of China Central Television * ''Global Times'' * Media of the People's Republic of China * People's Daily during the 1989 Student Movement, ''People's Daily'' during the 1989 Student Movement * ''Qiushi'' * ''Reference News'' * ''Rodong Sinmun'', North Korean counterpart * Strengthening Nation Forum * Xinhua News Agency * Yang Gang (journalist), Yang Gang, deputy chief editor who committed suicide during the Anti-Rightist Movement


References


Further reading

* Merrill, John C. and Harold A. Fisher. ''The world's great dailies: profiles of fifty newspapers'' (1980) pp 264–72 * Wu Guoguang. "Command Communication: The Politics of Editorial Formulation in the People's Daily". ''China Quarterly'' 137:194–211. *


External links

* * {{Authority control People's Daily, Chinese-language newspapers (Simplified Chinese) Communism in China Chinese Communist Party newspapers Multilingual news services Newspapers published in Beijing Publications established in 1948 1948 establishments in China Daily newspapers published in China Chinese propaganda organisations Disinformation operations