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Pentarchy
Pentarchy
(from the Greek Πενταρχία, pentarchía, from πέντε pénte, "five", and ἄρχειν archein, "to rule") is a model of Church organization historically championed in the Eastern Orthodox Church. It found its fullest expression in the laws of Emperor Justinian
Emperor Justinian
I of the Byzantine Empire. In the model, the Christian church
Christian church
is governed by the heads (patriarchs) of the five major episcopal sees of the Roman Empire: Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem.[3] The idea came about because of the political and ecclesiastical prominence of these five sees, but the concept of their universal and exclusive authority was firmly tied to the administrative structure of the Roman Empire. The pentarchy was first legally expressed in the legislation of Emperor Justinian
Emperor Justinian
I (527–565), particularly in Novella 131. The Quinisext Council
Quinisext Council
of 692 gave it formal recognition and ranked the sees in order of preeminence. Especially following Quinisext, the pentarchy was at least philosophically accepted in Eastern Orthodoxy, but generally not in the West, which rejected the Council, and the concept of the pentarchy.[4] The greater authority of these sees in relation to others was tied to their political and ecclesiastical prominence; all were located in important cities and regions of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and were important centers of the Christian Church. Rome, Alexandria
Alexandria
and Antioch
Antioch
were prominent from the time of early Christianity, while Constantinople came to the fore upon becoming the imperial residence in the 4th century. Thereafter it was consistently ranked just after Rome. Jerusalem
Jerusalem
received a ceremonial place due to the city's importance in the early days of Christianity. Justinian and the Quinisext Council excluded from their pentarchical arrangement churches outside the empire, such as the then-flourishing Church of the East
Church of the East
in Sassanid Persia, which they saw as heretical. Within the empire they recognized only the Chalcedonian (or Melchite) incumbents, regarding as illegitimate the non- Chalcedonian claimants of Alexandria
Alexandria
and Antioch. Infighting among the sees, and particularly the rivalry between Rome (which considered itself preeminent over all the church) and Constantinople (which came to hold sway over the other Eastern sees and which saw itself as equal to Rome, with Rome
Rome
"first among equals"), prevented the pentarchy from ever becoming a functioning administrative reality. The Islamic conquests
Islamic conquests
of Alexandria, Jerusalem, and Antioch
Antioch
in the 7th century left Constantinople the only practical authority in the East, and afterward the concept of a "pentarchy" retained little more than symbolic significance. Tensions between East and West, which culminated in the East–West Schism, and the rise of powerful, largely independent metropolitan sees and patriarchates outside the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
in Bulgaria, Serbia, and Russia, eroded the importance of the old imperial sees. Today, only the sees of Rome
Rome
and of Constantinople still hold authority over an entire major Christian church, the first being the head of the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
and the second having symbolic hegemony over the Orthodox Church.

Contents

1 Development towards the Pentarchy

1.1 Early Christianity 1.2 Council of Nicaea 1.3 Later councils

2 Formulation of the pentarchy theory 3 After the East–West Schism 4 Rise of patriarchates outside the Pentarchy 5 Outside views 6 Current patriarchs of the five sees 7 See also 8 References 9 Sources 10 External links

Development towards the Pentarchy[edit] Early Christianity[edit] In the Apostolic Age
Apostolic Age
(largely the 1st century) the Christian Church comprised an indefinite number of local churches that in the initial years looked to the first church at Jerusalem
Jerusalem
as its main centre and point of reference. But by the 4th century it had developed a system whereby the bishop of the capital of each civil province (the metropolitan bishop) normally held certain rights over the bishops of the other cities of the province (later called suffragan bishops).[5] Of the three sees that the First Council of Nicaea
First Council of Nicaea
was to recognize as having such extraprovincial power, Rome
Rome
is the one of which most evidence is discerned. The church in Rome
Rome
intervened in other communities to help resolve conflicts.[6] Pope Clement I
Pope Clement I
did so in Corinth
Corinth
in the end of the 1st century.[7] In the beginning of the 2nd century, Ignatius, Bishop
Bishop
of Antioch, speaks of the Church of Rome
Rome
as "presiding in the region of the Romans" (ἥτις προκάθηται ἐν τόπῳ χωρίου Ῥωμαίων).[7] In the end of that century, Pope Victor I
Pope Victor I
threatened to excommunicate the Eastern bishops who continued to celebrate Easter on 14 Nisan, not on the following Sunday.[8] The first records of the exercise of authority by Antioch
Antioch
outside its own province of Syria
Syria
date from the late 2nd century, when Serapion of Antioch
Antioch
intervened in Rhosus, a town in Cilicia, and also consecrated the third Bishop
Bishop
of Edessa, outside the Roman Empire. Bishops participating in councils held at Antioch
Antioch
in the middle of the 3rd century came not only from Syria, but also from Palestine, Arabia, and eastern Asia Minor. Dionysius of Alexandria
Dionysius of Alexandria
spoke of these bishops as forming the "episcopate of the Orient", mentioning Demetrian, bishop of Antioch, in the first place.[9] In Egypt
Egypt
and the nearby African territories the bishop of Alexandria was at first the only metropolitan. When other metropolitan sees were established there, the bishop of Alexandria
Alexandria
became known as the arch-metropolitan. In the mid-3rd century, Heraclas of Alexandria exercised his power as arch-metropolitan by deposing and replacing the Bishop
Bishop
of Thmuis.[10] Council of Nicaea[edit] The First Council of Nicaea
First Council of Nicaea
in 325, in whose sixth[11] canon the title "metropolitan" appears for the first time, sanctioned the existing grouping of sees by provinces of the Roman empire,[5] but also recognized that three sees, Alexandria, Antioch
Antioch
and Rome, already had authority over wider areas. In speaking of Antioch, it also spoke generically about "other provinces". While the Council did not specify the extent of the authority of Rome or Antioch, it clearly indicated the area, even outside its own province of Egypt, over which Alexandria
Alexandria
had authority, by referring to "the ancient customs of Egypt, Libya
Libya
and Pentapolis, according to which the bishop of Alexandria
Alexandria
has authority over all these places".[12] Immediately after mentioning the special traditions of wider authority of Rome, Alexandria
Alexandria
and Antioch, the same canon speaks of the organization under metropolitans, which was also the subject of two previous canons. In this system, the bishop of the capital of each Roman province
Roman province
(the metropolitan) possessed certain rights with regard to the bishops of other cities of the province (suffragans).[5] In the interpretation of John H. Erickson, the Council saw the special powers of Rome
Rome
and Alexandria, whose bishops were in effect metropolitans over several provinces, as exceptions to the general rule of organization by provinces, each with its own metropolitan.[13] After the mention of the special traditions of Rome, Alexandria, Antioch
Antioch
and other provinces, canon 6 goes on immediately to speak of the metropolitan form of organization, which was also the topic of the two preceding canons. This Council's recognition of the special powers of Rome, Alexandria and Antioch
Antioch
served as the basis of the theory of the three Petrine sees ( Rome
Rome
and Antioch
Antioch
were said to be founded by Saint Peter
Saint Peter
and Alexandria
Alexandria
by his disciple Mark the Evangelist) that was later upheld, especially in Rome
Rome
and Alexandria, in opposition to the theory of the five Pentarchy
Pentarchy
sees.[14] In its seventh canon, the Council attributed special honour, but not metropolitan authority, to the Bishop
Bishop
of Jerusalem, which was then called Aelia,[15] and was in the province ( Syria
Syria
Palaestina) whose capital was Caesarea. Later councils[edit] The First Council of Constantinople
First Council of Constantinople
(381) decreed in a canon of disputed validity: "The Bishop
Bishop
of Constantinople, however, shall have the prerogative of honour after the Bishop
Bishop
of Rome; because Constantinople is New Rome."[16] This "prerogative of honour" did not entail jurisdiction outside his own "diocese". The Emperor Theodosius I, who called the Council, divided the eastern Roman Empire
Roman Empire
into five "dioceses": Egypt
Egypt
(under Alexandria), the East (under Antioch), Asia (under Ephesus), Pontus (under Caesarea Cappadociae), and Thrace (originally under Heraclea, later under Constantinople).[17] The Council also decreed: "The bishops are not to go beyond their dioceses to churches lying outside of their bounds, nor bring confusion on the churches; but let the Bishop
Bishop
of Alexandria, according to the canons, alone administer the affairs of Egypt; and let the bishops of the East manage the East alone, the privileges of the Church in Antioch, which are mentioned in the canons of Nice, being preserved; and let the bishops of the Asian Diocese administer the Asian affairs only; and the Pontic bishops only Pontic matters; and the Thracian bishops only Thracian affairs."[18] Jerusalem
Jerusalem
was not put at the head of any of the five dioceses. The transfer of the capital of the empire from Rome
Rome
to Constantinople in 330 enabled the latter to free itself from its ecclesiastical dependency on Heraclea and in little more than half a century to obtain this recognition of next-after- Rome
Rome
ranking from the first Council held within its walls. Alexandria's objections to Constantinople's promotion, which led to a constant struggle between the two sees in the first half of the 5th century,[19] were supported, at least until the Fourth Council of Constantinople of 869–870, by Rome, which proposed the theory that the most important sees were the three Petrine ones, with Rome
Rome
in first place.[17] The Western bishops took no part in the First Council of Constantinople, and it was only in the mid-6th century that the Latin Church recognized it as ecumenical.[17] The Council of Ephesus
Council of Ephesus
(431) defended the independence of the Church in Cyprus
Cyprus
against the supra-metropolitan interference by Antioch,[20] but in the same period Jerusalem
Jerusalem
succeeded in gaining supra-metropolitan power over the three provinces of Palestine.[21] After the Council of Chalcedon
Council of Chalcedon
(451), the position of the Pentarchy's Patriarchate
Patriarchate
of Alexandria
Alexandria
was weakened by a division in which the great majority of its Christian population followed the form of Christianity
Christianity
that its opponents called Monophysitism.[17] The Council of Chalcedon
Council of Chalcedon
(451), which marked a serious defeat of Alexandria, gave recognition, in its 28th canon, to Constantinople's extension of its power over Pontus and Asia in addition to Thrace.[22] The Council justified this decision on the grounds that "the Fathers rightly granted privileges to the throne of old Rome, because it was the royal city", and that the First Council of Constantinople, "actuated by the same consideration, gave equal privileges to the most holy throne of New Rome, justly judging that the city which is honoured with the Sovereignty and the Senate, and enjoys equal privileges with the old imperial Rome, should in ecclesiastical matters also be magnified as she is, and rank next after her".[23] Pope
Pope
Leo I, whose delegates were absent when this resolution was passed and who protested against it, recognized the council as ecumenical and confirmed its doctrinal decrees, but rejected canon 28 on the ground that it contravened the sixth canon of Nicaea and infringed the rights of Alexandria
Alexandria
and Antioch.[17][24] However, by that time Constantinople, the permanent residence of the emperor, had in reality enormous influence, and had it not been for the opposition of Rome, its bishop could easily have been given first place among all the bishops.[17] Canon 9 of the Council declared: "If a bishop or clergyman should have a difference with the metropolitan of the province, let him have recourse to the Exarch of the Diocese, or to the throne of the Imperial City of Constantinople, and there let it be tried." This has been interpreted as conferring on the see of Constantinople a greater privilege than what any council ever gave Rome
Rome
(Johnson) or as of much lesser significance than that (Hefele).[25] Thus in little more than a hundred years the structural arrangement by provinces envisaged by the First Council of Nicaea
First Council of Nicaea
was, according to John H. Erickson, transformed into a system of five large divisions headed by the bishops of Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem. He does not use for these divisions the term patriarchate because the term patriarch as a uniform term for the heads of the divisions came into use only in the time of Emperor Justinian I
Justinian I
in the following century, and because there is little suggestion that the divisions were regarded as quasi-sovereign entities, as patriarchates are in Eastern Orthodox ecclesiology.[26] Because of the decision of the Council of Ephesus, Cyprus
Cyprus
maintained its independence from the Antioch
Antioch
division, and the arrangement did not apply outside the empire, where separate "catholicates" developed in Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
and Armenia.[17] Formulation of the pentarchy theory[edit] The basic principles of the pentarchy theory, which, according to the Byzantinist historian Milton V. Anastos,[27] "reached its highest development in the period from the eleventh century to the middle of the fifteenth", go back to the 6th-century Justinian I, who often stressed the importance of all five of the patriarchates mentioned, especially in the formulation of dogma.[14] Justinian was the first to use (in 531) the title of "patriarch" to designate exclusively the bishops of Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem, setting the bishops of these five sees on a level superior to that of metropolitans.[17][28] Justinian's scheme for a renovatio imperii (renewal of the empire) included, as well as ecclesiastical matters, a rewriting of Roman law in the Corpus Juris Civilis
Corpus Juris Civilis
and an only partially successful reconquest of the West, including the city of Rome.[17][29] When in 680 Constantine IV
Constantine IV
called the Third Council of Constantinople, he summoned the metropolitans and other bishops of the jurisdiction of Constantinople; but since there were representatives of all five bishops to whom Justinian had given the title of Patriarch, the Council declared itself ecumenical.[30] This has been interpreted as signifying that a council is ecumenical if attended by representatives of all five patriarchs.[17] The first Council classified (in the East, but not in the West, which did not participate in it) as ecumenical that mentioned together all five sees of the pentarchy in the order indicated by Justinian I
Justinian I
is the Council in Trullo of 692, which was called by Justinian II: "Renewing the enactments by the 150 Fathers assembled at the God-protected and imperial city, and those of the 630 who met at Chalcedon; we decree that the see of Constantinople shall have equal privileges with the see of Old Rome, and shall be highly regarded in ecclesiastical matters as that is, and shall be second after it. After Constantinople shall be ranked the See of Alexandria, then that of Antioch, and afterwards the See of Jerusalem."[31] The 7th and 8th centuries saw an increasing attribution of significance to the pentarchy as the five pillars of the Church upholding its infallibility: it was held to be impossible that all five should at the same time be in error.[17] They were compared to the five senses of the human body, all equal and entirely independent of each other, and none with ascendancy over the others.[14] The Byzantine view of the pentarchy had a strongly anti-Roman orientation, being put forward against the Roman claim to the final word on all Church matters and to the right to judge even the patriarchs.[14] This was not a new claim: in about 446 Pope Leo I
Pope Leo I
had expressly claimed authority over the whole Church: "The care of the universal Church should converge towards Peter's one seat, and nothing anywhere should be separated from its Head."[17][32] In a synod held in Rome
Rome
in 864, Pope Nicholas I
Pope Nicholas I
declared that no ecumenical council could be called without authorization by Rome; and, until Pope
Pope
Hadrian II (867–872), none of the Popes recognized the legitimacy of all four eastern patriarchs, but only those of Alexandria
Alexandria
and Antioch.[17] The principal adviser of the two last-named popes, Anastasius Bibliothecarius, accepted the Byzantine comparison of the pentarchy with the five senses of the human body, but added the qualification that the patriarchate of Rome, which he likened to the sense of sight, ruled the other four.[14] While the theory of the pentarchy is still upheld by the Greek Orthodox Church successor to the Byzantine Church, it is questioned by other Eastern Orthodox, who view it as "a highly artificial theory, never implemented until the great 5c. debates over Christology had removed the Alexandrian (Coptic) Church from communion and fatally split the weakened Church of Antioch. In addition the theory's insistence on the sovereignty of these five patriarchs was at least debatable".[33] After the East–West Schism[edit] By 661, Muslim Arabs had taken over the territories assigned to the patriarchates of Alexandria, Antioch
Antioch
and Jerusalem, which thereafter were never more than partially and temporarily recovered. In 732, Leo III the Isaurian, in revenge for the opposition of Pope Gregory III
Pope Gregory III
to the emperor's iconoclast policies, transferred Sicily, Calabria and Illyria from the patriarchate of Rome
Rome
(whose jurisdiction until then extended as far east as Thessalonica) to that of Constantinople.[34] The Constantinople patriarchate, after expanding eastward at the time of the Council of Chalcedon
Council of Chalcedon
to take in Pontus and Asia, which still remained under the emperor's control, thus expanded equally to the west, and was practically coextensive with the empire. Nearly all the Byzantine writers who treated the subject of the pentarchy assumed that Constantinople, as the seat of the ruler of the empire and therefore of the world, was the highest among the patriarchates and, like the emperor, had the right to govern them.[14] This feeling was further intensified after the East–West Schism
East–West Schism
in 1054,[17] which reduced the pentarchy to a tetrarchy, but it existed long before that. The idea that with the transfer of the imperial capital from Rome
Rome
to Constantinople primacy in the Church was also transferred is found in undeveloped form as early as John Philoponus (c. 490–c. 570); it was enunciated in its most advanced form by Photios I of Constantinople
Photios I of Constantinople
(c. 810–c. 893), and was embraced by his successors, including Callistus Ι (1350–53, 1355–63), Philotheus (1353–54, 1364–76), and Nilus (1379–88).[14] Thus, for the Byzantines of the first half of the second millennium, the government of the Christian Church
Christian Church
was a primacy belonging to the patriarchate of Constantinople, which however was choosing not to insist on it with regard to the west. This was illustrated by Nilus Doxapatris, who in 1142–43 insisted strongly on the primacy of the Church of Constantinople, which he regarded as inherited from Rome because of the transfer of the capital and because Rome
Rome
had fallen into the hands of the barbarians, but who expressly restricted Byzantine authority to the other three eastern patriarchates. Patriarch
Patriarch
Callistus, mentioned above, did the same about two hundred years later. "In other words, Rome
Rome
was definitely excluded from the Constantinopolitan sphere of influence and put on a par with Constantinople, as can be inferred from Nilus's statement that the bishops of Constantinople and Rome, and only these two, were called oecumenical patriarchs."[14] Rise of patriarchates outside the Pentarchy[edit] The Patriarchate of Constantinople
Patriarchate of Constantinople
recognized the patriarchal status of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church
Bulgarian Orthodox Church
(Metropolitanate of Preslav) in 927.[35] The Serbian Orthodox Church
Serbian Orthodox Church
became autocephalous in 1219, and was elevated to Patriarchate
Patriarchate
in 1346 (although deemed schismatic at first).[36] The Russian Orthodox Church
Russian Orthodox Church
(Metropolitanate of Moscow) was elevated to Patriarchate
Patriarchate
in 1589.[37] Today the Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
includes nine patriarchates: Ecumenical Patriarchate
Patriarchate
of Constantinople; Patriarchate
Patriarchate
of Alexandria; Patriarchate
Patriarchate
of Antioch; Bulgarian Patriarchate; Georgian Patriarchate; Patriarchate
Patriarchate
of Jerusalem; Russian Patriarchate; Romanian Patriarchate; Serbian Patriarchate. Outside views[edit] The Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
partially recognizes the Pentarchy, but not as an equal Pentarchy
Pentarchy
without an order of precedence starting with Rome
Rome
(immediately followed by Constantinople). Oriental Orthodoxy still holds to the theory of the three Petrine sees. The Assyrian Church of the East
Church of the East
has no official position on the Pentarchy. Current patriarchs of the five sees[edit] The following are the current archbishops of the Pentarchal sees, along with the churches that recognize them. Catholic Church

Rome
Rome
– Francis of the Latin Church Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Fouad Twal
Fouad Twal
of the Latin Church Alexandria
Alexandria
Ibrahim Isaac Sidrak
Ibrahim Isaac Sidrak
of the Coptic Catholic Church Antioch, Alexandria
Alexandria
and Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Joseph Absi of the Melkite Greek Catholic Church Antioch
Antioch
- Bechara Boutros al-Rahi
Bechara Boutros al-Rahi
of the Syriac Maronite Church Antioch
Antioch
- Ignatius Joseph III Yonan
Ignatius Joseph III Yonan
of the Syriac Catholic Church

Eastern Orthodox Church

( Rome
Rome
– not in communion) Constantinople – Bartholomew I Alexandria
Alexandria
– Theodore II Antioch
Antioch
– John X Jerusalem
Jerusalem
– Theophilos III

Oriental Orthodoxy

Alexandria
Alexandria
- Tawadros II of the Coptic Orthodox Church Antioch
Antioch
Ignatius Aphrem II
Ignatius Aphrem II
of the Syriac Orthodox Church

See also[edit]

Catholicos Primate (bishop) Limits of the Five Patriarchates

References[edit]

^ Deno John Geanakoplos, Byzantium: Church, Society, and Civilization Seen Through Contemporary Eyes (University of Chicago Press, 1984), p. 203 ^ A.P. Vlasto, The Entry of the Slavs into Christendom
Christendom
(Cambridge University Press, 1970, p. 308 ^ "Pentarchy". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 14 February 2010. The proposed government of universal Christendom
Christendom
by five patriarchal sees under the auspices of a single universal empire. Formulated in the legislation of the emperor Justinian I
Justinian I
(527–65), especially in his Novella 131, the theory received formal ecclesiastical sanction at the Council in Trullo (692), which ranked the five sees as Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem.  ^ "Quinisext Council". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 14 February 2010. "The Western Church and the Pope
Pope
were not represented at the council. Justinian, however, wanted the Pope
Pope
as well as the Eastern bishops to sign the canons. Pope Sergius I (687–701) refused to sign, and the canons were never fully accepted by the Western Church". ^ a b c Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church
Christian Church
(Oxford University Press 2005 ISBN 978-0-19-280290-3), s.v. metropolitan ^ Fr. Nicholas Afanassieff: "The Primacy of Peter" Ch. 4, pgs. 126–127 (c. 1992) ^ a b Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005, article Clement of Rome, St ^ Eusebius Pamphilius: Church History, Life of Constantine, Oration in Praise of Constantine, Ch. XXIV ^ "The Church of Antioch". Catholic Encyclopedia; New Advent. Retrieved 14 February 2010.  ^ "The Church of Alexandria". Catholic Encyclopedia; New Advent. Retrieved 14 February 2010.  ^ "DOCUMENTS FROM THE FIRST COUNCIL OF NICEA". Fordham University. Retrieved 21 April 2013.  ^ "The ancient customs of Egypt, Libya
Libya
and Pentapolis shall be maintained, according to which the bishop of Alexandria
Alexandria
has authority over all these places since a similar custom exists with reference to the bishop of Rome. Similarly in Antioch
Antioch
and the other provinces the prerogatives of the churches are to be preserved. In general the following principle is evident: if anyone is made bishop without the consent of the metropolitan, this great synod determines that such a one shall not be a bishop. If however two or three by reason of personal rivalry dissent from the common vote of all, provided it is reasonable and in accordance with the church's canon, the vote of the majority shall prevail" (Canon 6). ^ Erickson 1991, p. 94. ^ a b c d e f g h Milton V. Anastos, Aspects of the Mind of Byzantium (Political Theory, Theology, and Ecclesiastical Relations with the See of Rome), Ashgate Publications, Variorum Collected Studies Series, 2001. ISBN 0-86078-840-7 ^ "Since there prevails a custom and ancient tradition to the effect that the bishop of Aelia is to be honoured, let him be granted everything consequent upon this honour, saving the dignity proper to the metropolitan" (Canon 7) ^ "NPNF2-14. The Seven Ecumenical Councils - Christian Classics Ethereal Library". CCEL.org. Retrieved 16 April 2017.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "L'idea di pentarchia nella cristianità". Homolaicus.com. Retrieved 16 April 2017.  ^ "NPNF2-14. The Seven Ecumenical Councils - Christian Classics Ethereal Library". CCEL.org. Retrieved 16 April 2017.  ^ Georgen, Sankt. "404 - Nicht gefunden: Sankt Georgen". Sankt-Georgen.de. Retrieved 16 April 2017.  ^ "NPNF2-14. The Seven Ecumenical Councils - Christian Classics Ethereal Library". CCEL.org. Retrieved 16 April 2017.  ^ Erickson 1991, p. 96. ^ Erickson 1991, p. 97. ^ "NPNF2-14. The Seven Ecumenical Councils - Christian Classics Ethereal Library". CCEL.org. Retrieved 16 April 2017.  ^ Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
1911: Council of Chalcedon
Council of Chalcedon
Archived 2013-01-23 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "NPNF2-14. The Seven Ecumenical Councils - Christian Classics Ethereal Library". CCEL.org. Retrieved 16 April 2017.  ^ Erickson 1991, pp. 96–97. ^ An account of his distinguished academic career is found in Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, vol. 143, No 3, September 1999. ^ The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, s.v. patriarch (ecclesiastical), also calls it "a title dating from the 6th century, for the bishops of the five great sees of Christendom". And Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions says: "Five patriarchates, collectively called the pentarchy, were the first to be recognized by the legislation of the emperor Justinian (reigned 527–565)". ^ "Justinian I, East Roman Emperor - Timeline Index". TimelineIndex.com. Retrieved 16 April 2017.  ^ "NPNF2-14. The Seven Ecumenical Councils - Christian Classics Ethereal Library". CCEL.org. Retrieved 16 April 2017.  ^ "NPNF2-14. The Seven Ecumenical Councils - Christian Classics Ethereal Library". CCEL.org. Retrieved 16 April 2017.  ^ "CHURCH FATHERS: Letter 14 (Leo the Great)". NewAdvent.org. Retrieved 16 April 2017.  ^ Michael Prokurat; Michael D. Peterson; Alexander Golitzin (2010). The A to Z of the Orthodox Church. Scarecrow Press. pp. 259–. ISBN 978-1-4616-6403-1.  ^ Encyclopædia Britannica: Leo III ^ Kiminas 2009, p. 15. ^ Kiminas 2009, pp. 16–17. ^ Kiminas 2009, p. 19.

Sources[edit]

Erickson, John H. (1991). The Challenge of Our Past: Studies in Orthodox Canon Law and Church History. Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press. ISBN 978-0-88141-086-0.  Erickson, John H. (1992). "The Local Churches and Catholicity: An Orthodox Perspective". The Jurist. 52: 490–508.  Kiminas, Demetrius (2009). The Ecumenical Patriarchate. Wildside Press LLC. ISBN 978-1-4344-5876-6.  Pheidas, Blasios I. (2005). "Papal Primacy and Patriarchal Pentarchy in the Orthodox Tradition". The Petrine Ministry: Catholics and Orthodox in Dialogue. New York: The Newman Press. 

External links[edit]

Milton V. Anastos, Aspects of the Mind of Byzantium (Political Theory, Theology, and Ecclesiastical Relations with the See of Rome), Ashgate Publications, Variorum Collected Studies Series, 2001. ISBN 0-86078-840-7 L'idea di pentarchia nella cristianità Encyclopædia Britannica: Pentarchy Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions: An A–Z Guide to the World's Religions, by Wendy Doniger, M. Webster (Merriam–Webster, 1999 ISBN 0-87779-044-2, ISBN 978-0-87779-044-0): Patriarch Catholic Encyclopedia: Patriarch
Patriarch
and Patriarchate

v t e

Pentarchy

   

Pope
Pope
of Rome (1st century*)

Patriarch
Patriarch
of Alexandria (1st century*)

Patriarch
Patriarch
of Antioch (1st century*)

Patriarch
Patriarch
of Constantinople (4th century)

Patriarch
Patriarch
of Jerusalem (5th century*)

(* =Apostolic sees) Christianity
Christianity
portal Eastern Christianity
Christianity
portal Orienta

.