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The Penny
Penny
Post is any one of several postal systems in which normal letters could be sent for one penny. Five such schemes existed in the United Kingdom while the United States
United States
initiated at least three such simple fixed rate postal arrangements.

Contents

1 United Kingdom

1.1 London
London
Penny
Penny
Post 1.2 Local Penny
Penny
Post 1.3 Uniform Fourpenny Post 1.4 Uniform Penny
Penny
Post 1.5 Ocean Penny
Penny
Post 1.6 Imperial Penny
Penny
Post

2 United States 3 Notes 4 Citations 5 Sources 6 Further reading 7 External links

United Kingdom[edit] London
London
Penny
Penny
Post[edit]

Postmark and time stamps from Lime St office

Main article: London
London
Penny
Penny
Post In England, the postal service, from 1660 General Post Office, had developed into a monopoly, affirmed by Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
in 1654,[1][2] for the collection and carriage of letters between post towns, however, there was no delivery system until William Dockwra
William Dockwra
and his partner Robert Murray established the London
London
Penny
Penny
Post in 1680. They set up a local post that used a uniform rate of one old penny for delivery of letters and packets weighing up to one pound within the cities of Westminster
Westminster
and London
London
as well as in Southwark.[3] Several deliveries took place a day within the city, and items were also delivered to addresses up to ten miles outside London
London
for an extra charge of one penny. In 1683 Dockwra was forced to surrender the Penny Post to the English Monarchy for circulating what were considered seditious newsletters sharply criticizing the Duke of York, who was in charge of and directly benefited from the General Post Office.[4][5]

Local Penny
Penny
Post[edit] In 1765, Parliament authorized the creation of Penny
Penny
Posts in any town or city of the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland. The single postage rate of one penny was charged within the area, calculated by weight.[4] By the beginning of the 19th century there were many of these, identifiable on covers, with markings such as "PP", "Py Post", or " Penny
Penny
Post" along with the name of the town.[4][5] The early penny post system in Edinburgh, founded in 1773/4 by Peter Williamson,[4][5] known as "Indian Peter," usefully combined it with one of the world's first street directories.[6] He circulated mail to 17 shops in the city (effectively post offices) and employed 4 uniformed postmen. Their hats read " Penny
Penny
Post" and were numbered 1,4,8 and 16 to make the business look bigger. Uniform Fourpenny Post[edit] Main article: Uniform Fourpenny Post On 5 December 1839 the Uniform Fourpenny Post
Uniform Fourpenny Post
was introduced by the General Post Office
General Post Office
but lasted only 36 days until 9 January 1840 when the Uniform Penny
Penny
Post was introduced.[7] The penny post box was green.[citation needed] Uniform Penny
Penny
Post[edit] Main article: Uniform Penny
Penny
Post In 1835 Rowland Hill published a pamphlet entitled 'Post Office Reform' which led to various reforms and the introduction of the first postage stamp and convinced Parliament to implement much needed reforms in the current postal system. On 10 January 1840, the Uniform Penny
Penny
Post was established throughout the UK, facilitating the safe, speedy and cheap conveyance of letters, and from 6 May could be prepaid with the first postage stamp, known as the Penny
Penny
Black.[8] Ocean Penny
Penny
Post[edit] Elihu Burritt
Elihu Burritt
proposed that a fixed rate of one pence be established for all mail throughout the entire British Empire
British Empire
as a means of facilitating international interaction and international unity. This was known as the Ocean Penny
Penny
Post.[9][a] Imperial Penny
Penny
Post[edit] On Christmas Day, 1898, the Imperial Penny
Penny
Post extended the rate throughout the British Empire
British Empire
except for Australia and New Zealand, who would not benefit from it until 1905.[10] In 1908 it was extended to America. The Penny
Penny
Post rate ended in Great Britain in 1918. United States[edit] In the United States, Spaulding's Penny
Penny
Post operated in Buffalo, New York from 1847 to 1850. Davis' Penny
Penny
Post operated in Baltimore, Maryland
Baltimore, Maryland
for several weeks of February 1856, leaving behind a handful of rare stamps.[11][12] The Penny
Penny
Post is the journal of the Carriers and Locals Society, and was also the original name of The Cincinnati Post. Notes[edit]

^ See also League of Universal Brotherhood Pledge

Citations[edit]

^ "September 1654: An Ordinance touching the Office of Postage of Letters, Inland and Foreign". Acts and Ordinances of the Interregnum, 1642-1660. His Majesty's Stationery Office. 1911. Retrieved 4 September 2016.  ^ Blake, Heidi (10 June 2010). "The Royal Mail: a history of the British postal service". Royal Mail. Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 4 September 2016.  ^ "Calendar of Treasury Papers Vol. LXXXII. 1702, Oct.13 - Nov. 30" ^ a b c d "Provincial Penny
Penny
Posts". The British Postal Museum and Archive. Retrieved 4 September 2016.  ^ a b c George Brumell. "Dockwra Family Research Center". The Local Posts of London
London
1680-1840 by George Brumell. first published in 1938, second edition published by Alcock and Holland. Retrieved 17 June 2011.  ^ Dobson, David. "A Man Called Indian Peter". University of Georgia Press. Retrieved 6 April 2017.  ^ "Glossary of Stamp Collecting Terms". AskPhil.org - Collectors Club of Chicago. Archived from the original on 28 June 2011. Retrieved 2009-04-17.  ^ Baker, Colin. "Bath Royal Literary and Scientific Institution Proceedings vol.8 The History of the Postal Services". Royal Literary & Scientific Institution. Retrieved December 12, 2010.  ^ Bacon, E. D. (1899). "Ocean penny postage". St. Martin's-le-grand (April): 164ff.  ^ "Dictionary of Australian Biography: Sir John Henniker Heaton". National Centre of Biography, Australian National University. Retrieved 3 September 2015.  ^ Davis's Penny
Penny
Post (PDF), Siegal Auction Gallaries, 1999-11-15, pp. 196–197, retrieved 2014-05-01  ^ "Davis's Penny
Penny
Post, Baltimore, Maryland". Auction catalog. Siegal Auction Galleries. 1999. Retrieved 2014-05-01. 

Sources[edit]

Staff, Frank (1993). The Penny
Penny
Post 1680-1918. The Lutterworth Press. ISBN 0-7188-2878-X.  Golden, Catherine J. (2009). Posting It: The Victorian Revolution in Letter Writing. [University Press of Florida]. ISBN 978-0-8130-3379-2. 

Further reading[edit]

Anon. "Peter Williamson and the Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Penny
Penny
Post". Philatelic Journal of Great Britain. (November 1938). Brumell, George. The Local Posts of London
London
1680-1840. Cheltenham: R. C. Alcock Ltd, 1971, 91p. Cochrane, William P. The Glasgow Penny
Penny
Post, 1800-1845. Hamilton: The Scottish Postal History Society, 2012 ISBN 978-1-9081390-3-0, 238p. Cowell, J.B. The Bangor Penny
Penny
Post, 1814-1840. Gwynedd, Wales: Welsh Philatelic Society, 1977 ISBN 0-904098-01-X, 20p. Dittmann, Manfred. Die Dubliner penny post nach offiziellen unterlagen und verschiedenen samumlungen = The Dublin penny post compiled from official and historical data from collections. Munich: Forschungs- und Arbeitsgemeinschaft Irland e.V. im Bund Deutscher Philatelisten e.V., 1992, 312p. Holyoake, Alan. Great Britain, the development and introduction of uniform penny postage (1839-1840). Gerrards Cross: the author, 2006, 15p. Melville, Fred J. Origins Of The Penny
Penny
Post. London: Philatelic Institute, 1930, 120p. Melville, Fred J. A Penny
Penny
All The Way. London: W.H. Peckitt, 1908, 48p. Phil (A.D. Blackburn). The Penny
Penny
Postage Jubilee and Philatelic History. London: Sampson Low, Marston & Co., 1891, 261p. Staff, Frank. The Penny
Penny
Post, 1680-1918. London: Lutterworth Press, 1964, 219p. Todd, Thomas. William Dockwra
William Dockwra
and the Rest of the Undertakers: The story of the London
London
penny post, 1680-1682. Edinburgh: C. J. Cousland & Sons, 1952, 156p. Winmill, R.B. The Evolution of Imperial Penny
Penny
Postage and the postal history of the Canadian 1898 Map Stamp. Toronto: Jim A. Hennok Ltd., 1982 ISBN 0-919772-00-5, 110p.

External links[edit]

Siegel Auctions info on Spaulding, with pictures Siegel Auctions info on Da

.