HOME
The Info List - Pennsylvania German


--- Advertisement ---



The Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Dutch (Pennsilfaanisch Deitsch,  listen (help·info)) are a cultural group formed by early German-speaking immigrants to Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
and their descendants. The word "Dutch" does not refer to the Dutch people
Dutch people
or Dutch language, but to the German settlers, known as Deutsch (in standard German) and Deitsch (in the principal dialect they spoke, Palatine German). Most emigrated to the Americas from Germany
Germany
or Switzerland
Switzerland
in the 17th and 18th century. Over time, the various dialects spoken by these immigrants fused into a unique dialect of German known as Pennsylvania German or Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
"Dutch". At one time, more than one-third of Pennsylvania's population spoke this language. The Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Dutch maintained numerous religious affiliations, with the greatest number being Lutheran or German Reformed, but also with many Anabaptists, including Mennonites, Amish, and Hutterite. The Anabaptist
Anabaptist
religions promoted a simple lifestyle, and their adherents were known as Plain people
Plain people
or Plain Dutch. This was in contrast to the Fancy Dutch, who tended to assimilate more easily into the American mainstream. Other religions were also represented by the late 1700s, in smaller numbers.[1]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Geography 3 Immigrants from the Palatinate of the Rhine 4 Immigration to the U.S. 5 Migration to Canada 6 Religion 7 See also 8 References 9 Bibliography 10 External links

Etymology[edit] Further information: Theodiscus Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
German (Deitsch, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Deitsch, Pennsilfaanisch Deitsch,  listen (help·info); usually called Pennsylvania Dutch) is a variety of West Central German
West Central German
spoken by the Amish, Old Order Mennonites, and other descendants of German immigrants in the United States and Canada, closely related to the Palatine dialects. During the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
the use of "Dutch" in English referred to West Germanic speakers of continental Europe in general. From c. 1600 onward it was mainly restricted to the inhabitants of the Low Countries.[2][3] After the Second World War, use of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
German virtually died out in favor of English, except among the more insular and tradition-bound Anabaptists, such as the Old Order Amish
Amish
and Old Order Mennonites. A number of German cultural practices continue to this day, and German Americans
German Americans
remain the largest ancestry group claimed in Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
by people in the census.[4] Geography[edit] The Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Dutch live primarily in Southeastern and in Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Dutch Country, a large area that includes South Central Pennsylvania, in the area stretching in an arc from Bethlehem and Allentown through Reading, Lebanon, and Lancaster to York and Chambersburg.[5][6] Some Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Dutch live in the historically Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Dutch-speaking areas of Maryland, North Carolina, and Virginia.[7] Immigrants from the Palatinate of the Rhine[edit] Many Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Dutch were descendants of refugees who had left religious persecution in the Palatinate of the German Rhine.[8] For example, some Amish
Amish
and Mennonites
Mennonites
came to the Palatinate and surrounding areas from the German-speaking part of Switzerland, where, as Anabaptists, they were persecuted, and so their stay in the Palatinate was of limited duration.[9] Most of the Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Dutch have roots going much further back in the Palatinate. During the War of the Grand Alliance (1689–97), French troops pillaged the Palatinate, forcing many Germans
Germans
to flee. The War of the Palatinate (as it was called in Germany), also called the War of the League of Augsburg, began in 1688 as Louis XIV
Louis XIV
took claim of the Electorate of the Palatinate. French forces devastated all major cities of the region, including Cologne. By 1697 the war came to a close with the Treaty of Ryswick, now Rijswijk in the Netherlands, and the Palatinate remained free of French control. However, by 1702, the War of Spanish Succession
War of Spanish Succession
began, lasting until 1713. French expansionism forced many Palatines to flee as refugees.[10] Immigration to the U.S.[edit] Some of the emigration of Germans
Germans
to America from the Rhine area was caused by the devastation of the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648) and the wars between the German principalities and France. Members this group founded the borough of Germantown, in northwest Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, in 1683.[11] They settled on land that William Penn
William Penn
had sold to them. Germantown included not only Mennonites
Mennonites
but also Quakers.[12] The Mennonites
Mennonites
of this group were organized by Francis Daniel Pastorius, an agent for a land purchasing company based in Frankfurt am Main.[11] None of the Frankfurt Company ever came to Pennsylvania except Pastorius himself, but 13 Krefeld
Krefeld
German (Dutch-speaking) Mennonite
Mennonite
families arrived on October 6, 1683, in Philadelphia. They were joined by eight more Dutch-speaking families from Hamburg-Altona in 1700 and five German-speaking families from the Palatinate in 1707.[13] In 1723, some 33 Palatine families, dissatisfied under Governor Hunter's rule, migrated from Schoharie, New York, along the Susquehanna River
Susquehanna River
to Tulpehocken, Berks County, Pennsylvania, where other Palatines had settled. They became farmers and used intensive German farming techniques that proved highly productive.[14]

Pictures from Old-Germantown. Shown here is the first log cabin of Pastorius about 1683, Pastorius' later house about 1715, print shop and house of Saurs about 1735, and the market square about 1820.

Another wave of settlers from Germany, which would eventually coalesce to form a large part of the Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Dutch, arrived between 1727 and 1775; some 65,000 Germans
Germans
landed in Philadelphia in that era and others landed at other ports. Another wave from Germany
Germany
arrived 1749-1754. Not all were Mennonites; some were Quakers, for example.[15] The majority originated in what is today southwestern Germany, i.e., Rhineland-Palatinate[15] and Baden-Württemberg; other prominent groups were Alsatians, Dutch, French Huguenots (French Protestants), Moravians from Bohemia
Bohemia
and Moravia
Moravia
and Germans
Germans
from Switzerland. [16][17] The Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Dutch composed nearly half the population of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
and generally supported the Patriot cause in the American Revolution.[18] Henry Miller, an immigrant from Germany
Germany
of Swiss ancestry, published an early German translation of the Declaration of Independence (1776) in his newspaper Philadelphische Staatsbote. Miller often wrote about Swiss history and myth, such as the William Tell legend, to provide a context for patriot support in the conflict with Britain.[19] Frederick Muhlenberg
Frederick Muhlenberg
(1750–1801), a Lutheran pastor, became a major patriot and politician, rising to be elected as Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives. Migration to Canada[edit] An early group, mainly from the Roxborough-Germantown area of Pennsylvania, emigrated to then colonial Nova Scotia in 1766 and founded the Township of Monckton, site of present day Moncton, New Brunswick. The extensive Steeves clan descends from this group.[20] After the American Revolution, John Graves Simcoe, Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada, invited Americans, including Mennonites
Mennonites
and German Baptist Brethren, to settle in British North American territory and offered tracts of land to immigrant groups.[21][22] This resulted in communities of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Dutch speakers' emigrating to Canada, many to the area called the German Company Tract in the Township of Waterloo, which later became Waterloo County, Ontario.[23] Some still live in the area around Markham, Ontario
Markham, Ontario
[24][25] and particularly in the northern areas of the current Waterloo Region. Some members of the two communities formed the Markham-Waterloo Mennonite
Mennonite
Conference. Today, the Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Dutch language
Dutch language
is mostly spoken by Old Order Mennonites.[26][23][27][28] From 1800 to the 1830s, some Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Dutch Mennonites
Mennonites
in Upstate New York and Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
moved north to Canada, primarily to the area that would become Cambridge, Ontario, Kitchener, Ontario/Waterloo, Ontario and St. Jacobs, Ontario/Elmira, Ontario/ Listowel, Ontario
Listowel, Ontario
in Waterloo County, Ontario. Settlement started in 1800 by Joseph Schoerg and Samuel Betzner, Jr. (brothers-in-law), Mennonites, from Franklin County, Pennsylvania. Other settlers followed mostly from Pennsylvania typically by Conestoga wagons. Many of the pioneers arriving from Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
after November 1803 bought land in a 60,000 acre section established by a group of Mennonites
Mennonites
from Lancaster County Pennsylvania, called the German Company Lands.[26][23]

Many of the Mennonite
Mennonite
Germans
Germans
from Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
arrived in Waterloo County in Conestoga wagons.

A fewer number of the Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Dutch settled in what would become the Greater Toronto Area
Greater Toronto Area
in areas that would later be called Altona, Ontario, Pickering, Ontario
Pickering, Ontario
and especially Markham Village, Ontario and Stouffville, Ontario.[29] William Berczy, a German entrepreneur and artist, had settled in upstate New York and in May 1794, he was able to obtain 64,000 acres in Markham Township, near the current city of Toronto, Ontario. Berczy arrived with approximately 190 German families from Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
and settled here. Others later moved to other locations in the general area, including a hamlet they founded, German Mills, Ontario, named for its grist mill; that community is now called Thornhill, Ontario), in the township that is now part of York Region.[24][25] Religion[edit] The immigrants of the 1600s and 1700s who were known as the Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Dutch included Mennonites, Swiss Brethren (also called Mennonites
Mennonites
by the locals) and Amish
Amish
but also German Pietists such as German Baptist Brethren and those who belonged to German Lutheran or German Reformed Church congregations.[30][31] Other settlers of that era were of the Moravian Church
Moravian Church
while a few were Seventh Day Baptists[32][33] or members of the Dunkard Brethren.[32] Calvinist Palatines and several other religions to a lesser extent were also represented.[34][35] Over 60% of the immigrants who arrived in Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
from Germany
Germany
or Switzerland
Switzerland
in the 1700s and 1800s were Lutherans and they maintained good relations with those of the German Reformed Church.[36] The two groups founded Franklin College (now Franklin & Marshall College) in 1787. Henry Muhlenberg
Henry Muhlenberg
(1711–1787) founded the Lutheran Church in America. He organized the Ministerium of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
in 1748, set out the standard organizational format for new churches and helped shape Lutheran liturgy.[37] Muhlenberg was sent by the Lutheran bishops in Germany, and he always insisted on strict conformity to Lutheran dogma. Muhlenberg's view of church unity was in direct opposition to Nicolaus Ludwig Zinzendorf's Moravian approach, with its goal of uniting various Pennsylvania German religious groups under a less rigid "Congregation of God in the Spirit." The differences between the two approaches led to permanent impasse between Lutherans and Moravians, especially after a December 1742 meeting in Philadelphia.[38] The Moravians settled Bethlehem and nearby areas and established schools for Native Americans.[34] See also[edit]

United States portal Germany
Germany
portal Philadelphia portal

Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
German edition of, the free encyclopedia

Amish List of Amish
Amish
and their descendants Mennonite Schwenkfeldian Old German Baptist Brethren Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
German language Hex sign Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Dutch Country Hiwwe wie Driwwe newspaper Michael Werner (publisher) Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Dutch cuisine German American Helen Reimensnyder Martin, author Anna Balmer Myers, author John Schmid, singer Fraktur ( Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
German folk art) Kurrent
Kurrent
handwriting Dwight Schrute, fictional character on The Office

References[edit]

^ Donald F. Durnbaugh. "Pennsylvania's Crazy Quilt of German Religious Groups". Journals.psu.edu. Retrieved 2017-08-28.  ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. Retrieved 2017-08-28.  ^ Fogleman, Aaron Spencer (1996). Hopeful Journeys: German Immigration, Settlement, and Political Culture in Colonial America, 1717-1775. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Press. p. 197. ISBN 978-0812215489. The term "Dutch," often considered a corruption of "Deutsch", which means German, was actually not a corruption at all. It was a legitimate, well-known term used by the English in the early modern period to describe the people who lived along the Rhine. The "Low Dutch" came from the area of the present Netherlands, while the "High Dutch" came from the area of the middle and upper Rhine.  ^ American FactFinder, United States Census Bureau. "American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates". Factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 2010-07-31.  ^ "Lancaster, PA Dutch Country: Attractions, Amish, Events". LancasterPA.com. Retrieved 2017-08-28.  ^ Lancaster, Discover. "PA Amish
Amish
Lifestyle - How the community of Amish
Amish
in PA live today". Discover Lancaster.  ^ Steven M. Nolt. Foreigners in their own land: Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Germans in the early republic. Books.google.com. p. 13. Retrieved 2017-08-28.  ^ "Chapter Two - The History Of The German Immigration To America - The Brobst Chronicles". Homepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com. Retrieved 2017-08-28.  ^ Newman, George F., Newman, Dieter E. (2003) The Aebi-Eby Families of Switzerland, Germany, Austria, and North America, 1550-1850. Pennsylvania: NMN Enterprises ^ Roeber 1988 ^ a b "First German-Americans". Germanheritage.com. Retrieved 2006-10-05  ^ "Historic Germantown - Encyclopedia of Greater Philadelphia". Philadelphiaencyclopedia.org. Retrieved 2017-08-28.  ^ "Germantown Mennonite
Mennonite
Settlement (Pennsylvania, USA) - GAMEO". gameo.org. Retrieved 28 August 2017.  ^ Farley Grubb, "German Immigration to Pennsylvania, 1709 to 1820," Journal of Interdisciplinary History Vol. 20, No. 3 (Winter, 1990), pp. 417-436 in JSTOR ^ a b "German Settlement in Pennsylvania : An Overview" (PDF). Hsp.org. Retrieved 2017-08-28.  ^ "The Palatinate". Swissmennonite.org. Retrieved 2017-08-28.  ^ Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Dutch Cooking: Traditional Dutch Dishes. Gettysburg, PA: Dutchcraft Company.  ^ John B. Stoudt "The German Press in Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
and the American Revolution." Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Magazine of History and Biography 59 (1938): 74-90 online ^ A. G.. Roeber, "Henry Miller's Staatsbote: A Revolutionary Journalist's Use of the Swiss Past," Yearbook of German-American Studies, 1990, Vol. 25, pp 57-76 ^ Bowser, Les (2016). The Settlers of Monckton Township, Omemee ON: 250th Publications. ^ "Biography – SIMCOE, JOHN GRAVES – Volume V (1801-1820) – Dictionary of Canadian Biography". Biographi.ca. Retrieved 2017-08-28.  ^ "Ontario's Mennonite
Mennonite
Heritage". Wampumkeeper.com. Retrieved 2013-05-10.  ^ a b c "Kitchener-Waterloo Ontario History - To Confederation". Kitchener.foundlocally.com. Retrieved 2017-08-28.  ^ a b "History of Markham, Ontario, Canada". Guidingstar.ca. Retrieved 2017-08-28.  ^ a b Ruprecht, Tony (14 December 2010). "Toronto's Many Faces". Dundurn. Retrieved 28 August 2017 – via Google Books.  ^ a b "History" (PDF). Waterloo Historical Society 1930 Annual Meeting. Waterloo Historical Society. 1930. Retrieved 13 March 2017.  ^ "Life of the Amish". PediaPress. Retrieved 28 August 2017 – via Google Books.  ^ Elizabeth Bloomfield. "BUILDING COMMUNITY ON THE FRONTIER : the Mennonite
Mennonite
contribution to shaping the Waterloo settlement to 1861" (PDF). Mhso.org. Retrieved 2017-08-28.  ^ "York County (Ontario, Canada)". Gameo.org. Retrieved 2017-08-28.  ^ "What is Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Dutch?". Padutch.net. 24 May 2014. Retrieved 2017-08-28.  ^ "The Germans
Germans
Come to North America". Anabaptists.org. Retrieved 2017-08-28.  ^ a b Shea, John G. (27 December 2012). "Making Authentic Pennsylvania Dutch Furniture: With Measured Drawings". Courier Corporation – via Google Books.  ^ Gibbons, Phebe Earle (28 August 1882). "" Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Dutch.": And Other Essays". J.B. Lippincott & Company. Retrieved 28 August 2017 – via Google Books.  ^ a b Murtagh, William J. (28 August 1967). "Moravian Architecture and Town Planning: Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, and Other Eighteenth-Century American Settlements". University of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Press. Retrieved 28 August 2017 – via Google Books.  ^ Donald F. Durnbaugh. "Pennsylvania's Crazy Quilt of German Religious Groups" (PDF). Journals.psu.edu. Retrieved 2017-08-28.  ^ Murtagh, William J. (28 August 1967). "Moravian Architecture and Town Planning: Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, and Other Eighteenth-Century American Settlements". University of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Press. Retrieved 28 August 2017 – via Google Books.  ^ Leonard R. Riforgiato, Missionary of moderation: Henry Melchior Muhlenberg and the Lutheran Church in America (1980) ^ Samuel R. Zeiser, "Moravians and Lutherans: Getting beyond the Zinzendorf-Muhlenberg Impasse," Transactions of the Moravian Historical Society, 1994, Vol. 28, pp 15-29

Bibliography[edit]

Bronner, Simon J. and Joshua R. Brown, eds. Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Germans: An Interpretive Encyclopedia (: Johns Hopkins UP, 2017), xviii, 554 pp. Grubb, Farley. "German Immigration to Pennsylvania, 1709 to 1820," Journal of Interdisciplinary History Vol. 20, No. 3 (Winter, 1990), pp. 417–436 in JSTOR Louden, Mark L. Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Dutch: The Story of an American Language. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2016. McMurry, Sally, and Nancy Van Dolsen, eds. Architecture and Landscape of the Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Germans, 1720-1920 (University of Pennsylvania Press; 2011) 250 studies their houses, churches, barns, outbuildings, commercial buildings, and landscapes Nolt, Steven, Foreigners in Their Own Land: Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Germans
Germans
in the Early American Republic, Penn State U. Press, 2002 ISBN 0-271-02199-3 Roeber, A. G. Palatines, Liberty, and Property: German Lutherans in Colonial British America (1998) Roeber, A. G. "In German Ways? Problems and Potentials of Eighteenth-Century German Social and Emigration History," William & Mary Quarterly, Oct 1987, Vol. 44 Issue 4, pp 750–774 in JSTOR

External links[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1905 New International Encyclopedia article Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Dutch.

The Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
German Society Hiwwe wie Driwwe - the Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
German Newspaper Lancaster County tourism website Overview of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
German Culture[permanent dead link] German-American Heritage Foundation of the USA in Washington, DC "Why the Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
German still prevails in the eastern section of the State", by George Mays, M.D.. Reading, Pa., Printed by Daniel Miller, 1904 The Schwenkfelder
Schwenkfelder
Library & Heritage Center FamilyHart Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Dutch Genealogy Family Pages and Database Alsatian Roots of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Dutch Firestones Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Dutch Family History, Genealogy, Culture, and Life Several digitized books on Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Dutch arts and crafts, design, and prints from The Metropolitan Museum of Art Libraries

In Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
German

Deitscherei.org — Fer der Deitsch Wandel Hiwwe wie Driwwe — The Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
German Newspaper Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
German Encyclopedia

v t e

Varieties of German spoken outside Europe

Africa

Namibia: Namibian German, Namibian Black German South Africa: Nataler Deutsch

North America

Amana German Alsatian German Bernese German Hutterite
Hutterite
German Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
German Texas German Wisconsin German

South America

Alemán Coloniero Argentinian Swiss German Belgranodeutsch Brazilian German
Brazilian German
(Ostpommersch, Paraná Volga German and Riograndenser Hunsrückisch)

Oceania

Barossa German Unserdeutsch

v t e

European Americans

Central Europe

Austrian1, Czech German1,

Amish German Texan Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Dutch German Mennonites
Mennonites
from Russia

Hungarian

Hungarian Ohioans

Kashubian Liechtensteiner Luxembourgian Polish1, Slovak Slovene Sorbian Swiss

Eastern Europe

Azerbaijani5 Belarusian Chechen Georgian5 Kazakh6 Russian1, 2

Cossack Kalmyk

Ukrainian

Cossack Rusyn

Northern Europe

Danish Estonian Faroese Finnish Icelandic Latvian Lithuanian Norwegian

Norwegian Dakotan Norwegian Minnesotan

Sami Swedish

Southeast Europe3

Albanian Bosnian Bulgarian Cypriot Croatian Greek Macedonian Moldovan Montenegrin Romanian Serbian

Alaskan Serbs

Turkish4

Southern Europe

Italian

Sicilian

Maltese Monacan Portuguese Sanmarinese Spanish

Asturian Basque Canarian Catalan Galician Hispano

Western Europe

Belgian

Flemish

British

Cornish English Manx Scots-Irish/Ulster Scots Scottish Welsh

Dutch French

Basque Breton Cajun Corsican

Frisian Irish

Other Europeans

Non-Hispanic whites Métis Roma

Hungarian Slovak Romanies7

Louisiana Creole

Cajun Isleños

By region

California Hawaii White Southerners

1 Poles came to the United States legally as Austrians, Germans, Prussians or Russians throughout the 19th century, because from 1772–1795 till 1918, all Polish lands had been partitioned between imperial Austria, Prussia (a protoplast of Germany) and Russia until Poland regained its sovereignty in the wake of World War I. 2 Russia is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. The vast majority of its population (80%) lives in European Russia, therefore Russia as a whole is included as a European country here. 3 Yugoslav Americans are the American people from the former Yugoslavia. 4 Turkey
Turkey
is a transcontinental country in the Middle East and Southeast Europe. Has a small part of its territory (3%) in Southeast Europe called Turkish Thrace. 5 Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and Georgia are transcontinental countries. They have a small part of their territories in the European part of the Caucasus. 6 Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
is technically a bicontinental country, having a small portion in European hands. 7 Disputed; Roma have recognized origins and historic ties to Asia (specifically to Northern India), but they experienced at least some distinctive identity development while in diaspora among Europeans.

v t e

German people

Historical

Bundesdeutsche Reichsdeutsche Volksdeutsche

Diaspora

Europe

Central Europe Mitteleuropa

Croatia Czech Republic

Sudeten Germans

Hungary Poland

Walddeutsche Galicia

Slovakia

Zipser

Serbia Slovenia

Gottschee

Switzerland

Eastern Europe

Moldova Romania

Transylvanian Saxons Landler Danube Banat (including Walser) Sathmar Bukovina Dobruja Regat Zipser

Russia (Volga Caucasus) Ukraine

Bessarabia Black Sea Russian Mennonite Crimea Galicia

Northern Europe

Denmark

Potato Germans

Southern Europe

Bulgaria Italy (South Tyrol) Yugoslavia Turkey

Bosporus

Western Europe

Belgium France Netherlands United Kingdom

Multinational dimension

Baltic states Central and Eastern

Americas

Argentina Belize Bolivia Brazil Canada

Hutterites British Columbia

Chile Colombia Costa Rica Haiti Jamaica Guatemala Mexico Nicaragua Paraguay Peru United States

Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Dutch Nebraska Texas Palatines Puerto Rico by city

Uruguay Venezuela

Colonia Tovar

El Salvador

Africa

Namibia South Africa

Afrikaners

Asia

India Japan Kazakhstan Korea Kyrgyzstan Pakistan Philippines United Arab Emirates

Oceania

Australia New Zealand

See also

Ostsiedlung Partitions of Poland Flight and expulsion of G

.