The PENNSYLVANIA DUTCH (Pennsilfaanisch Deitsch, listen (help
·info )) are a cultural group formed by early German-speaking
Pennsylvania and their descendants. The word "Dutch"
does not refer to the
Dutch people (Nederlanders) or their
descendants, but to
German people whose ethnonym in their own language
is Deitsch (in dialectal German) or Deutsch (in standard German ).
Most emigrated to the U.S. from
Switzerland in the 17th and
18th century. Over time, the various dialects spoken by these
immigrants fused into a unique dialect of German known as Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania "Dutch". At one time, more than one-third of
Pennsylvania's population spoke this language.
Pennsylvania Dutch maintained numerous religious affiliations,
with the greatest number being Lutheran or German Reformed , but also
Anabaptists , including
Amish . The
Anabaptist religions promoted a simple lifestyle, and their adherents
were known as
Plain people or Plain Dutch. This was in contrast to the
Fancy Dutch , who tended to assimilate more easily into the American
mainstream. Other religions were also represented by the late 1700s,
in smaller numbers.
* 1 Etymology
* 2 Geography
* 3 Immigrants from the
Palatinate of the Rhine
* 4 Emigration to the U.S.
* 5 Migration to
* 6 Religion
* 7 See also
* 8 References
* 9 Bibliography
* 10 External links
Pennsylvania German (Deitsch,
Pennsylvania Deitsch, Pennsilfaanisch
Deitsch, listen (help ·info ); usually called PENNSYLVANIA DUTCH)
is a variety of
West Central German
West Central German spoken by the
Amish and Old Order
Mennonites in the United States and Canada, closely related to the
Palatine dialects .
Middle Ages the use of "Dutch" in English referred to West
Germanic speakers of continental Europe in general. From c. 1600
onward it was mainly restricted to the inhabitants of the Low
Second World War
Second World War , use of
Pennsylvania German virtually
died out in favor of English , except among the more insular and
tradition-bound Anabaptists, such as the Old Order
Amish and Old Order
Mennonites . A number of German cultural practices continue to this
German Americans remain the largest ancestry group claimed in
Pennsylvania by people in the census.
Pennsylvania Dutch live primarily in Southeastern and in
Pennsylvania Dutch Country , a large area that includes South Central
Pennsylvania, in the area stretching in an arc from Bethlehem and
Allentown through Reading , Lebanon , and Lancaster to York and
Chambersburg . Some
Pennsylvania Dutch live in the historically
Pennsylvania Dutch -speaking areas of
North Carolina , and
After the American Revolution,
John Graves Simcoe
John Graves Simcoe , Lieutenant
Governor of Upper Canada, invited Americans, including
German Baptist Brethren, to settle in British North American territory
and offered tracts of land to immigrant groups. This resulted in
Pennsylvania Dutch speakers' emigrating to Canada, many
to the area called the German Company Tract in the Township of
Waterloo, which later became
Waterloo County, Ontario . Some still
live in the area around
Markham, Ontario and particularly in the
northern areas of the current Waterloo Region . Some members of the
two communities formed the Markham-Waterloo
Mennonite Conference .
Pennsylvania Dutch language is mostly spoken by Old Order
IMMIGRANTS FROM THE PALATINATE OF THE RHINE
Pennsylvania Dutch were descendants of refugees who had left
religious persecution in the Palatinate of the German Rhine . For
Mennonites came to the Palatinate and
surrounding areas from the German-speaking part of Switzerland, where,
Anabaptists , they were persecuted, and so their stay in the
Palatinate was of limited duration.
Most of the
Pennsylvania Dutch have roots going much further back in
the Palatinate. During the War of the Grand Alliance (1689–97),
French troops pillaged the Palatinate, forcing many
Germans to flee.
The War of the Palatinate (as it was called in Germany), also called
the War of the League of Augsburg , began in 1688 as
Louis XIV took
claim of the
Electorate of the Palatinate . French forces devastated
all major cities of the region, including
Cologne . By 1697 the war
came to a close with the
Treaty of Ryswick
Treaty of Ryswick , now Rijswijk in the
Netherlands, and the Palatinate remained free of French control.
However, by 1702, the
War of Spanish Succession
War of Spanish Succession began, lasting until
1713. French expansionism forced many Palatines to flee as refugees.
EMIGRATION TO THE U.S.
Some of the emigration of
Germans to America from the Rhine area was
caused by the devastation of the Thirty Years War (1618-1648) and the
wars between the German principalities and France. Members this group
founded Borough of Germantown , in northwest Philadelphia County,
Pennsylvania, in 1683. They settled on land that
William Penn had
sold to them. Germantown included not only
Mennonites but also
Mennonites of this group were organized by Francis Daniel
Pastorius, an agent for a land purchasing company based in Frankfurt
am Main . None of the Frankfurt Company ever came to Pennsylvania
except Pastorius himself, but 13
Krefeld German (Dutch -speaking)
Mennonite families arrived on October 6, 1683, in Philadelphia. They
were joined by eight more Dutch-speaking families from Hamburg-Altona
in 1700 and five German-speaking families from the Palatinate in 1707.
In 1723, some 33 Palatine families, dissatisfied under Governor
Hunter's rule, migrated from Schoharie, New York , along the
Susquehanna River to Tulpehocken ,
Berks County , Pennsylvania, where
other Palatines had settled. They became farmers and used intensive
German farming techniques that proved highly productive.
Pictures from Old-Germantown. Shown here is the first log cabin of
Pastorius about 1683, Pastorius' later house about 1715, print shop
and house of Saurs about 1735, and the market square about 1820.
Another wave of settlers from Germany, which would eventually
coalesce to form a large part of the
Pennsylvania Dutch, arrived
between 1727 and 1775; some 65,000
Germans landed in Philadelphia in
that era and others landed at other ports. Another wave from Germany
arrived 1749-1754. Not all were Mennonites; some were Quakers, for
example. The majority originated in what is today southwestern
Germany , i.e.,
Baden-Württemberg ; other
prominent groups were Alsatians , Dutch, French Huguenots (French
Protestants), Moravians from
Pennsylvania Dutch composed nearly half the population of
Pennsylvania and generally supported the Patriot cause in the American
Revolution . Henry Miller, an immigrant from
Germany of Swiss
ancestry, published an early German translation of the Declaration of
Independence (1776) in his newspaper Philadelphische Staatsbote.
Miller often wrote about Swiss history and myth, such as the William
Tell legend, to provide a context for patriot support in the conflict
Frederick Muhlenberg (1750–1801), a Lutheran pastor, became a major
patriot and politician, rising to be elected as Speaker of the U.S.
House of Representatives.
MIGRATION TO CANADA
From 1800 to the 1830s, some
Mennonites in Upstate
New York and
Pennsylvania moved north to
Canada , primarily to the
area that would become
Cambridge, Ontario , Kitchener, Ontario
Waterloo, Ontario and
St. Jacobs, Ontario /
Elmira, Ontario /Listowel,
Waterloo County, Ontario . Settlement started in 1800 by
Joseph Schoerg and Samuel Betzner, Jr. (brothers-in-law),
from Franklin County,
Pennsylvania . Other settlers followed mostly
Pennsylvania typically by Conestoga wagons . Many of the pioneers
Pennsylvania after November 1803 bought land in a 60,000
acre section established by a group of
Mennonites from Lancaster
County Pennsylvania, called the German Company Lands. Many of
Pennsylvania arrived in Waterloo County in
A fewer number of the
Pennsylvania Dutch settled in what would become
Greater Toronto Area in areas that would later be called Altona,
Pickering, Ontario and especially Markham Village, Ontario
Stouffville, Ontario .
William Berczy , a German entrepreneur
and artist, had settled in upstate New York and in May 1794, he was
able to obtain 64,000 acres in Markham Township, near the current city
Toronto, Ontario . Berczy arrived with approximately 190 German
Pennsylvania and settled here. Others later moved to
other locations in the general area, including a hamlet they founded,
German Mills, Ontario , named for its grist mill; that community is
Thornhill, Ontario ), in the township that is now part of
York Region .
The immigrants of the 1600s and 1700s who were known as the
Pennsylvania Dutch included Mennonites, Swiss Brethren (also called
Mennonites by the locals) and
Amish but also German Pietists such as
German Baptist Brethren and those who belonged to German Lutheran or
German Reformed Church congregations. Other settlers of that era
were of the
Moravian Church while a few were
Seventh Day Baptists
Seventh Day Baptists
or members of the
Dunkard Brethren . Calvanist Palatines and several
other religions to a lesser extent were also represented.
Over 60% of the immigrants who arrived in
Pennsylvania from Germany
Switzerland in the 1700s and 1800s were Lutherans and they
maintained good relations with those of the German Reformed Church.
The two groups founded Franklin College (now Franklin border:solid
* United States portal
* Philadelphia portal
* List of
Amish and their descendants
Old German Baptist Brethren
Pennsylvania German language
Pennsylvania German language
Pennsylvania Dutch Country
Hiwwe wie Driwwe newspaper
Michael Werner (publisher)
Pennsylvania Dutch cuisine
Helen Reimensnyder Martin , author
Anna Balmer Myers , author
John Schmid , singer
* Fraktur (
Pennsylvania German folk art)
Dwight Schrute , fictional character on The Office
PENNSYLVANIA GERMAN EDITION of , the free encyclopedia
* ^ https://journals.psu.edu/phj/article/download/25670/25439
* ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". www.etymonline.com.
* ^ www.etymonline.com (English) and Etymologisch Woordenboek van
het Nederlands (Dutch) entries "Dutch" and "Diets".
* ^ Fogleman, Aaron Spencer (1996). Hopeful Journeys: German
Immigration, Settlement, and Political Culture in Colonial America,
1717-1775. Philadelphia, PA: University of
Pennsylvania Press. p. 197.
ISBN 978-0812215489 . The term "Dutch," often considered a corruption
of "Deutsch", which means German, was actually not a corruption at
all. It was a legitimate, well-known term used by the English in the
early modern period to describe the people who lived along the Rhine.
The "Low Dutch" came from the area of the present Netherlands, while
the "High Dutch" came from the area of the middle and upper Rhine.
* ^ American FactFinder, United States Census Bureau. "American
Community Survey 3-Year Estimates". Factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved
* ^ "Lancaster, PA Dutch Country: Attractions, Amish, Events".
* ^ Lancaster, Discover. "PA
Amish Lifestyle - How the community of
Amish in PA live today". Discover Lancaster.
* ^ Steven M. Nolt. Foreigners in their own land: Pennsylvania
Germans in the early republic. p. 13.
* ^ "Biography – SIMCOE, JOHN GRAVES – Volume V (1801-1820) –
Dictionary of Canadian Biography".
* ^ "Ontario\'s
Mennonite Heritage". Wampumkeeper.com. Retrieved
* ^ "Kitchener-Waterloo Ontario History - To Confederation".
* ^ A B "History of Markham, Ontario, Canada". www.guidingstar.ca.
* ^ A B
Waterloo Historical Society 1930 Annual Meeting. Waterloo Historical
Society. 1930. Retrieved 13 March 2017.
* ^ A B "Kitchener-Waterloo Ontario History - To Confederation".
* ^ "Chapter Two - The History Of The German Immigration To America
- The Brobst Chronicles". homepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com.
* ^ Newman, George F., Newman, Dieter E. (2003) The Aebi-Eby
Families of Switzerland, Germany, Austria, and North America,
1550-1850. Pennsylvania: NMN Enterprises
* ^ Roeber 1988
* ^ A B "First German-Americans". Retrieved 2006-10-05
* ^ "Historic Germantown - Encyclopedia of Greater Philadelphia".
* ^ Germantown
Mennonite Settlement (Pennsylvania, USA) at the
Mennonite Encyclopedia Online
* ^ Farley Grubb, "German Immigration to Pennsylvania, 1709 to
1820," Journal of Interdisciplinary History Vol. 20, No. 3 (Winter,
1990), pp. 417-436 in JSTOR
* ^ A B
* ^ firstname.lastname@example.org. "The Palatinate".
Pennsylvania Dutch Cooking: Traditional Dutch Dishes.
Gettysburg, PA: Dutchcraft Company.
* ^ John B. Stoudt "The German Press in
Pennsylvania and the
Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography
59 (1938): 74-90 online
* ^ A. G.. Roeber, "Henry Miller's Staatsbote: A Revolutionary
Journalist's Use of the Swiss Past," Yearbook of German-American
Studies, 1990, Vol. 25, pp 57-76
* ^ "York County (Ontario, Canada) - GAMEO". gameo.org.
* ^ "What is
Pennsylvania Dutch?". 24 May 2014.
* ^ "The
Germans Come to North America". www.anabaptists.org.
* ^ A B Shea, John G. (27 December 2012). "Making Authentic
Pennsylvania Dutch Furniture: With Measured Drawings". Courier
Corporation – via Google Books.
* ^ https://journals.psu.edu/phj/article/download/25670/25439
* ^ Leonard R. Riforgiato, Missionary of moderation: Henry Melchior
Muhlenberg and the Lutheran Church in America (1980)
* ^ Samuel R. Zeiser, "Moravians and Lutherans: Getting beyond the
Zinzendorf-Muhlenberg Impasse," Transactions of the Moravian
Historical Society, 1994, Vol. 28, pp 15-29
2011) 250 studies their houses, churches, barns, outbuildings,
commercial buildings, and landscapes
* Nolt, Steven, Foreigners in Their Own Land:
in the Early American Republic, Penn State U. Press, 2002 ISBN
* Roeber, A. G. Palatines, Liberty, and Property: German Lutherans
in Colonial British America (1998)
* Roeber, A. G. "In German Ways? Problems and Potentials of
Eighteenth-Century German Social and Emigration History," William &
Mary Quarterly, Oct 1987, Vol. 44 Issue 4, pp 750–774 in JSTOR