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PENNSYLVANIA /ˌpɛnsᵻlˈveɪnjə/ (_ listen ) (Pennsylvania German : Pennsylvaani_ or _Pennsilfaani_), officially the COMMONWEALTH OF PENNSYLVANIA, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States
United States
. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle. The Commonwealth borders Delaware
Delaware
to the southeast, Maryland
Maryland
to the south, West Virginia
West Virginia
to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie
Lake Erie
and the Canadian province of Ontario
Ontario
to the northwest, New York to the north, and New Jersey
New Jersey
to the east.

Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
is the 33rd-largest , the 6th-most populous , and the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 United States
United States
. The state's five most populous cities are Philadelphia
Philadelphia
(1,560,297), Pittsburgh (305,801), Allentown (118,577), Erie
Erie
(100,671), and Reading (89,893). The state capital, and its ninth-largest city, is Harrisburg . Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
has 140 miles (225 km) of shoreline along Lake Erie
Lake Erie
and the Delaware
Delaware
Estuary.

The state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States; it came into being in 1681 as a result of a royal land grant to William Penn
William Penn
, the son of the state's namesake. Part of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
(along the Delaware
Delaware
River), together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden. It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution , on December 12, 1787. Independence Hall , where the United States
United States
Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state's largest city of Philadelphia. During the American Civil War , the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia
Philadelphia
was General Washington 's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78.

CONTENTS

* 1 Geography

* 1.1 Adjacent States

* 2 Climate

* 3 History

* 3.1 17th century * 3.2 18th century * 3.3 19th century * 3.4 20th century * 3.5 21st century

* 4 Demographics

* 4.1 Birth data

* 4.2 Languages

* 4.2.1 Pennsylvania German language

* 4.3 Religion

* 5 Economy

* 5.1 Banking * 5.2 Agriculture * 5.3 Gambling * 5.4 Film

* 6 Governance

* 6.1 Government

* 6.1.1 Governor * 6.1.2 General Assembly * 6.1.3 Judiciary * 6.1.4 Taxation

* 6.2 Federal Representation * 6.3 Municipalities

* 7 Health

* 8 Education

* 8.1 Primary and secondary education * 8.2 Higher education

* 9 Recreation * 10 Transportation

* 11 Sports

* 11.1 College sports

* 12 Food

* 13 State symbols

* 13.1 Nicknames

* 14 Notable people * 15 Sister regions * 16 See also

* 17 References

* 17.1 Bibliography

* 18 External links

GEOGRAPHY

Further information: Geography of Pennsylvania and List of counties in Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Counties of Pennsylvania World\'s End State Park , Sullivan County

Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
is 170 miles (274 km) north to south and 283 miles (455 km) east to west. Of a total 46,055 square miles (119,282 km2), 44,817 square miles (116,075 km2) are land, 490 square miles (1,269 km2) are inland waters, and 749 square miles (1,940 km2) are waters in Lake Erie. It is the 33rd-largest state in the United States. Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
has 51 miles (82 km) of coastline along Lake Erie
Lake Erie
and 57 miles (92 km) of shoreline along the Delaware
Delaware
Estuary .

The boundaries of the state are the Mason–Dixon line (39° 43' N) to the south, the Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80° 31' W to the west and the 42° N to the north, with the exception of a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie
Lake Erie
.

Cities include Philadelphia
Philadelphia
, Reading , Lebanon and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown , Bethlehem , and Easton in the central east (known as the Lehigh Valley ). The northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining communities of Scranton , Wilkes-Barre , Pittston City (Greater Pittston ), and Hazleton . Erie
Erie
is located in the northwest. Williamsport serves as the commonwealth's north-central region, with York and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the east-central region of the Commonwealth and Altoona and Johnstown in the west-central region.

The state has 5 regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau , Ridge and Valley , Atlantic Coastal Plain , Piedmont , and the Erie Plain .

ADJACENT STATES

* New York (North) * Ontario, Canada (Northwest) * Maryland
Maryland
(South) * Delaware
Delaware
(Southeast) * West Virginia
West Virginia
(Southwest) * New Jersey
New Jersey
(East) * Ohio
Ohio
(West)

CLIMATE

Köppen climate types of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Autumn in North Branch Township, Wyoming County, Pennsylvania Main article: Climate of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania's diverse topography also produces a variety of climates, though the entire state experiences cold winters and humid summers. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the southeastern corner, has a humid continental climate ( Köppen climate classification _Dfa_). The largest city, Philadelphia
Philadelphia
, has some characteristics of the humid subtropical climate (Köppen _Cfa_) that covers much of Delaware
Delaware
and Maryland
Maryland
to the south.

Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increase, and snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state, particularly locations near Lake Erie
Lake Erie
, can receive over 100 inches (250 cm) of snowfall annually, and the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year. The state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, such as 30 recorded tornadoes in 2011.

Monthly Average High and Low Temperatures For Various Pennsylvania Cities (in °F)

CITY JAN. FEB. MAR. APR. MAY. JUN. JUL. AUG. SEP. OCT. NOV. DEC.

SCRANTON 33/19 37/21 46/28 59/38 70/48 78/56 82/61 80/60 72/52 61/41 49/33 38/24

ERIE 34/21 36/21 44/27 56/38 67/48 76/58 80/63 79/62 72/56 61/45 50/37 38/27

PITTSBURGH 36/21 39/23 49/30 62/40 71/49 79/58 83/63 81/62 74/54 63/43 51/35 39/25

HARRISBURG 37/23 41/25 50/33 62/42 72/52 81/62 85/66 83/64 76/56 64/45 53/35 41/27

PHILADELPHIA 40/26 44/28 53/34 64/44 74/54 83/64 87/69 85/68 78/60 67/48 56/39 45/30

ALLENTOWN 36/20 40/22 49/29 61/39 72/48 80/58 84/63 82/61 75/53 64/41 52/33 40/24

Sources:

HISTORY

Main article: History of Pennsylvania See also: Province of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
, List of Pennsylvania firsts , and List of people from Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania

Long before the Commonwealth was visited and later settled by Europeans, the area was home to subgroups of the Delaware
Delaware
(also known as Lenni Lenape), Susquehannock , Iroquois
Iroquois
, Eriez , Shawnee , and still other American Indian Nations of uncertain designation. The Tuscarora Nation took up temporary residence in the central portion of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
ca. 1715–55.

17TH CENTURY

British map of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
from 1680 (from the Darlington Collection

Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their colonial lands in America. The Dutch were the first to take possession.

By June 3, 1631, the Dutch had begun settling the Delmarva Peninsula by establishing the Zwaanendael Colony on the site of present-day Lewes, Delaware
Delaware
. In 1638, Sweden established the New Sweden Colony , in the region of Fort Christina , on the site of present-day Wilmington, Delaware
Delaware
. New Sweden claimed and, for the most part, controlled the lower Delaware River region (parts of present-day Delaware, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania) but settled few colonists there. _ Penn's Treaty with the Indians_, by Edward Hicks
Edward Hicks

On March 12, 1664, King Charles II of England
Charles II of England
gave James, Duke of York a grant that incorporated all lands included in the original Virginia Company
Virginia Company
of Plymouth Grant plus other lands. This grant was in conflict with the Dutch claim for New Netherland , which included parts of today's Pennsylvania.

On June 24, 1664, the Duke of York sold the portion of his large grant that included present-day New Jersey
New Jersey
to John Berkeley and George Carteret for a proprietary colony. The land was not yet in British possession, but the sale boxed in the portion of New Netherland on the West side of the Delaware River . The British conquest of New Netherland began on August 29, 1664, when New Amsterdam
New Amsterdam
was coerced to surrender while facing cannons on British ships in New York Harbor. This conquest continued, and was completed in October 1664, when the British captured Fort Casimir in what today is New Castle, Delaware
Delaware
. John Dickinson

The Peace of Breda between England, France
France
and the Netherlands confirmed the English conquest on July 21, 1667, although there were temporary reversions.

On September 12, 1672, as part of the Third Anglo-Dutch War , the Dutch re-conquered New York Colony / New Amsterdam
New Amsterdam
, the Dutch established three County Courts which went on to become original Counties in present-day Delaware
Delaware
and Pennsylvania. The one that later transferred to Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
was Upland. This was partially reversed on February 9, 1674, when the Treaty of Westminster ended the Third Anglo-Dutch War, and reverted all political situations to the _status quo ante bellum_. The British retained the Dutch Counties with their Dutch names. By June 11, 1674, New York reasserted control over the outlying colonies, including Upland, but the names started to be changed to British names by November 11, 1674. Upland was partitioned on November 12, 1674, producing the general outline of the current border between Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
and Delaware.

On February 28, 1681, Charles II granted a land charter to William Penn to repay a debt of £16,000 (around £2,100,000 in 2008, adjusting for retail inflation) owed to William's father, Admiral William Penn
William Penn
. This was one of the largest land grants to an individual in history. The King named it Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
(literally "Penn's Woods") in honor of the Admiral. Penn, the son, who wanted it to be called New Wales, and then Sylvania (from the Latin
Latin
_silva_: "forest, woods"), was embarrassed at the change, fearing that people would think he had named it after himself, but King Charles would not rename the grant. Penn established a government with two innovations that were much copied in the New World: the county commission and freedom of religious conviction . A mapp of ye improved part of Pensilvania in America, divided into countyes townships and lotts

What had been Upland on what became the Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
side of the Pennsylvania- Delaware
Delaware
Border was renamed as Chester County when Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
instituted their colonial governments on March 4, 1681. The Quaker leader William Penn
William Penn
had signed a peace treaty with Tammany , leader of the Delaware
Delaware
tribe, beginning a long period of friendly relations between the Quakers
Quakers
and the Indians. Additional treaties between Quakers
Quakers
and other tribes followed. The treaty of William Penn was never violated.

18TH CENTURY

Between 1730 and when it was shut down by Parliament with the Currency Act of 1764, the Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Colony made its own paper money to account for the shortage of actual gold and silver. The paper money was called Colonial Scrip . The Colony issued "bills of credit", which were as good as gold or silver coins because of their legal tender status. Since they were issued by the government and not a banking institution, it was an interest-free proposition, largely defraying the expense of the government and therefore taxation of the people. It also promoted general employment and prosperity, since the Government used discretion and did not issue too much to inflate the currency. Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
had a hand in creating this currency, of which he said its utility was never to be disputed, and it also met with the "cautious approval" of Adam Smith .

James Smith wrote that in 1763, "the Indians again commenced hostilities, and were busily engaged in killing and scalping the frontier inhabitants in various parts of Pennsylvania." Further, "This state was then a Quaker government, and at the first of this war the frontiers received no assistance from the state." The ensuing hostilities became known as Pontiac\'s War . President\'s House (Philadelphia) . The Masters-Penn mansion housed Pennsylvania's governor in the early 1770s. It later served as the presidential mansion of George Washington
George Washington
and John Adams
John Adams
, 1790–1800, while Philadelphia
Philadelphia
was the temporary national capital.

After the Stamp Act Congress of 1765, Delegate John Dickinson of Philadelphia
Philadelphia
wrote the _ Declaration of Rights and Grievances _. The Congress was the first meeting of the Thirteen Colonies , called at the request of the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Assembly, but only nine colonies sent delegates. Dickinson then wrote _Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania, To the Inhabitants of the British Colonies _, which were published in the Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Chronicle between December 2, 1767, and February 15, 1768.

When the Founding Fathers of the United States
United States
convened in Philadelphia
Philadelphia
in 1774, 12 colonies sent representatives to the First Continental Congress . The Second Continental Congress , which also met in Philadelphia
Philadelphia
(in May 1775), drew up and signed the Declaration of Independence in Philadelphia, but when that city was captured by the British, the Continental Congress escaped westward, meeting at the Lancaster courthouse on Saturday, September 27, 1777, and then to York . There they and its primary author, John Dickinson, drew up the Articles of Confederation that formed 13 independent colonies into a new nation. Later, the Constitution was written, and Philadelphia
Philadelphia
was once again chosen to be cradle to the new American Nation. The Constitution was drafted and signed at the Pennsylvania State House , now known as Independence Hall, and the same building where the Declaration of Independence was signed.

Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
became the second state to ratify the U.S. Constitution on December 12, 1787, five days after Delaware
Delaware
became the first.

Dickinson College of Carlisle was the first college founded in the United States. Established in 1773, the college was ratified five days after the Treaty of Paris on September 9, 1783. The school was founded by Benjamin Rush and named after John Dickinson. The "Hills Capitol", used from 1821 until it burned down in 1897.

For half a century, the Commonwealth's General Assembly (legislature) met at various places in the general Philadelphia
Philadelphia
area before starting to meet regularly in Independence Hall in Philadelphia
Philadelphia
for 63 years. But it needed a more central location, as for example the Paxton Boys massacres of 1763 had made the legislature aware. So, in 1799 the General Assembly moved to the Lancaster Courthouse, and finally in 1812 to Harrisburg .

19TH CENTURY

The General Assembly met in the old Dauphin County Court House until December 1821, when the Federal-style "Hills Capitol" (named for its builder, Stephen Hills , a Lancaster architect) was constructed on a hilltop land grant of four acres set aside for a seat of state government by the prescient, entrepreneurial son and namesake of John Harris, Sr. , a Yorkshire native who had founded a trading post in 1705 and ferry (1733) on the east shore of the Susquehanna River. The Hills Capitol burned down on February 2, 1897, during a heavy snowstorm, presumably because of a faulty flue . The General Assembly met at Grace Methodist Church on State Street (still standing) until a new capitol could be built. Following an architectural selection contest that many alleged had been "rigged", Chicago
Chicago
architect Henry Ives Cobb was charged with designing and building a replacement building; however, the legislature had little money to allocate to the project, and a roughly finished, somewhat industrial building (the Cobb Capitol) was completed. The General Assembly refused to occupy the building. Political and popular indignation in 1901 prompted a second contest that was restricted to Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
architects, and Joseph Miller Huston of Philadelphia
Philadelphia
was chosen to design the present Pennsylvania State Capitol
Pennsylvania State Capitol
that incorporated Cobb's building into magnificent public work finished and dedicated in 1907.

The new state Capitol drew rave reviews. Its dome was inspired by the domes of St. Peter\'s Basilica in Rome and the United States Capitol. President Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
called it "the most beautiful state Capital in the nation" and said, "It's the handsomest building I ever saw" at the dedication. In 1989, _ The New York Times _ praised it as "grand, even awesome at moments, but it is also a working building, accessible to citizens ... a building that connects with the reality of daily life".

James Buchanan
James Buchanan
, of Franklin County , the only bachelor President of the United States, was the only one to be born in Pennsylvania. The Battle of Gettysburg
Battle of Gettysburg
—the major turning point of the Civil War—took place near Gettysburg . An estimated 350,000 Pennsylvanians served in the Union Army forces including 8,600 African American military volunteers .

Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
was also the home of the first commercially drilled oil well. In 1859, near Titusville, Pennsylvania , Edwin Drake successfully drilled the well, which led to the first major oil boom in United States
United States
history.

20TH CENTURY

_ THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (June 2016)_

Franklin D. Roosevelt 's FERA camp for unemployed women, 1934

At the beginning of the 20th century Pennsylvania's economy was centered around steel production, logging, coal mining, textile production and other forms of industrial manufacturing. A surge in immigration to the U.S. during the late 19th and early 20th centuries provided a steady flow of cheap labor for these industries which often employed children and people who could not speak English.

In 1923 President Calvin Coolidge
Calvin Coolidge
established the Allegheny National Forest under the authority of the Weeks Act of 1911 in the northwest part of the state in Elk, Forest, McKean, and Warren Counties for the purposes of timber production and watershed protection in the Allegheny River basin. The Allegheny is the state's only national forest.

21ST CENTURY

_ THIS SECTION IS EMPTY. You can help by adding to it . (April 2016)_

DEMOGRAPHICS

Further information: List of people from Pennsylvania
List of people from Pennsylvania

The United States
United States
Census Bureau estimates that the population of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
was 12,802,503 on July 1, 2015, a 0.79% increase since the 2010 United States
United States
Census . In an earlier estimate, the state was 78.8% Non-Hispanic White, 11.4% Black or African American, 0.3% Native American, 3.0% Asian, 0.1% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, 1.7% Two or More Races, and 6.1% Hispanic or Latino.

Of the people residing in Pennsylvania, 74.5% were born in Pennsylvania, 18.4% were born in a different U.S. state, 1.5% were born Puerto Rico, U.S. Island areas, or born abroad to American parent(s), and 5.6% were foreign born.

According to the 2010 Census, 81.9% of the population was White (79.2% non-Hispanic white ), 11.3% was Black or African American, 0.3% American Indian and Alaska
Alaska
Native, 2.9% Asian , 1.9% from two or more races. 5.9% of the total population was of Hispanic or Latino origin (they may be of any race).

PENNSYLVANIA RACIAL BREAKDOWN OF POPULATION RACIAL COMPOSITION 1990 2000 2010

White 88.5% 85.4% 81.9%

Black 9.2% 10.0% 10.9%

Asian 1.2% 1.8% 2.8%

Native 0.1% 0.1% 0.2%

Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander – – -

Other race 1.0% 1.5% 2.4%

Two or more races – 1.2% 1.9%

As of 2011, 32.1% of Pennsylvania's population younger than age one were minorities.

Pennsylvania's Hispanic population grew by 82.6% between 2000 and 2010, making it one of the largest increases in a state's Hispanic population. The significant growth of the Hispanic population is due to immigration to the state mainly from Puerto Rico, which is a US territory, but to a lesser extent from countries such as the Dominican Republic, Mexico, and various Central and South American nations, as well as from the wave of Hispanics leaving New York and New Jersey
New Jersey
for safer and more affordable living. The Asian population swelled by almost 60%, which was fueled by Indian, Vietnamese, and Chinese immigration, as well the many Asian transplants moving to Philadelphia from New York. The rapid growth of this community has given Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
one of the largest Asian populations in the nation by numerical values. The Black and African American
African American
population grew by 13%, which was the largest increase in that population amongst the state's peers (New York, New Jersey, Ohio, Illinois, and Michigan).The White population declined by 0.7%, a trend that is beginning to reverse itself. Twelve other states saw decreases in their White populations. The state of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
has a high in-migration of blacks and Hispanics from other nearby states, with eastern and south-central portions of the state seeing the bulk of the increases.

The center of population of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
is located in Perry County , in the borough of Duncannon . State population from 1790 to 2000 Pennsylvania's population distribution

As of 2013, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
has an estimated population of 12,773,801, which is an increase of 10,265 from the previous year and an increase of 71,422 since the year 2010. Net migration to other states resulted in a decrease of 27,718, and immigration from other countries resulted in an increase of 127,007. Net migration to the Commonwealth was 98,289. Migration of native Pennsylvanians resulted in a decrease of 100,000 people. From 2008 to 2012, 5.8% of the population was foreign-born. The state has an estimated 2005 poverty rate of 12%. The state also has the 3rd-highest proportion of elderly (65+) citizens in 2005.

Foreign born Pennsylvanians are largely from Asia (36.0%), Europe (35.9%), and Latin
Latin
America (30.6%), with the remainder from Africa (5%), North America (3.1%), and Oceania (0.4%).

The majority of Hispanics in Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
are of Puerto Rican descent, having one of the largest and fastest-growing Puerto Rican populations in the country. Most of the remaining Hispanic population is made up of Mexicans and Dominicans . Most Hispanics are concentrated in Philadelphia, Lehigh Valley
Lehigh Valley
and South Central Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
. Pennsylvania's reported population of Hispanics, especially among the Black race, has markedly increased in recent years. The Hispanic population is greatest in Hazleton , Allentown , Reading , Lancaster , York , and around Philadelphia
Philadelphia
. It is not clear how much of this change reflects a changing population and how much reflects increased willingness to self-identify minority status. As of 2010, it is estimated that about 85% of all Hispanics in Pennsylvania live within a 150-mile (240 km) radius of Philadelphia, with about 20% living within the city itself.

Of the black population, the vast majority in the state are African American, being descendants of African slaves brought to the US south during the colonial era. There are also a growing number of blacks of West Indian , recent African , and Hispanic origins. Most blacks live in the Philadelphia
Philadelphia
area, Pittsburgh, and South Central Pennsylvania, among other areas. Whites make-up the majority of Pennsylvania, they are mostly descended from German, Irish, Italian, and English immigrants, among others. Rural portions of South Central Pennsylvania are famous nationwide for its notable Amish
Amish
communities . The "Wyoming Valley " or the Scranton/Wilkes-Barre Metropolitan Area has a large concentration of whites. As a matter of fact, it has the highest percentage of white residents than any other metropolitan area in the U.S. with 96.2% of its population claiming to be white with no Hispanic background.

Pennsylvania's population was reported as 5.9% under 5 and 23.8% under 18, with 15.6% aged 65 or older. Women made up 52% of the population. The largest ancestry groups are listed below, expressed as a percentage of total people who responded with a particular ancestry for the 2010 census:

* 28.5% German * 18.2% Irish * 12.8% Italian * 9.6% African American
African American
* 8.5% English * 7.2% Polish * 4.2% French Canadian

HISTORICAL POPULATION

CENSUS POP.

1790 434,373

1800 602,365

38.7%

1810 810,091

34.5%

1820 1,049,458

29.5%

1830 1,348,233

28.5%

1840 1,724,033

27.9%

1850 2,311,786

34.1%

1860 2,906,215

25.7%

1870 3,521,951

21.2%

1880 4,282,891

21.6%

1890 5,258,113

22.8%

1900 6,302,115

19.9%

1910 7,665,111

21.6%

1920 8,720,017

13.8%

1930 9,631,350

10.5%

1940 9,900,180

2.8%

1950 10,498,012

6.0%

1960 11,319,366

7.8%

1970 11,793,909

4.2%

1980 11,863,895

0.6%

1990 11,881,643

0.1%

2000 12,281,054

3.4%

2010 12,702,379

3.4%

EST. 2016 12,784,227

0.6%

Source: 1910–2010 2015 Estimate

BIRTH DATA

_Note: Births in table don't add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number._

Live Births by Race/Ethnicity of Mother RACE 2013 2014 2015

White 109,007 (77.3%) 110,809 (77.9%) 109,595 (77.7%)

> Non-Hispanic White 98,751 (70.0%) 99,306 (69.8%) 97,845 (69.4%)

Black 24,770 (17.6%) 24,024 (16.9%) 24,100 (17.1%)

Asian 6,721 (4.7%) 7,067 (5.0%) 6,961 (4.9%)

Native 423 (0.3%) 368 (0.3%) 390 (0.3%)

_Hispanic _ (of any race) _14,163 (10.1%)_ _14,496 (10.2%)_ _14,950 (10.6%)_

TOTAL PENNSYLVANIA 140,921 (100%) 142,268 (100%) 141,047 (100%)

LANGUAGES

TOP 10 NON-ENGLISH LANGUAGES SPOKEN IN PENNSYLVANIA LANGUAGE Percentage of population (as of 2010)

Spanish 4.09%

German (including Pennsylvania Dutch ) 0.87%

Chinese (including Mandarin ) 0.47%

Italian 0.43%

French 0.34%

Russian and Vietnamese (tied) 0.29%

Korean 0.25%

Polish 0.21%

Arabic 0.20%

Hindi 0.17%

As of 2010, 90.15% (10,710,239) of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
residents age 5 and older spoke English at home as a primary language , while 4.09% (486,058) spoke Spanish, 0.87% (103,502) German (which includes Pennsylvania Dutch ) and by 0.47% (56,052) Chinese (which includes Mandarin ) of the population over the age of five. In total, 9.85% (1,170,628) of Pennsylvania's population age 5 and older spoke a mother language other than English.

Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
German Language

Main article: Pennsylvania German language

Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
German is often—even though misleadingly—called " Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Dutch". The term "Dutch", when referring to the language spoken by the Pennsylvania Dutch people ( Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
German ) means "German" or "Teutonic" rather than "Netherlander". Germans, in their own language, call themselves "Deutsch", ( Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
German: "Deitsch") which in English became, misleadingly, "Dutch". The Pennsylvania German language is a descendant of German, in the West Central German dialect family. It is closest to Palatine German . Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
German is still very vigorous as a first language among Old Order Amish and Old Order Mennonites (principally in the Lancaster County area ), whereas it is almost extinct as an everyday language outside the plain communities , though a few words have passed into English usage.

RELIGION

RELIGION IN PENNSYLVANIA

religion

percent

Protestant   50%

Catholic   29%

None   13%

Jewish   2%

other/don't know or refused to say   2%

Orthodox   1%

Hindu   1%

Jehovah's witnesses   1%

An Amish
Amish
family riding in a traditional Amish
Amish
buggy in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania .

Of all the colonies, only Rhode Island
Rhode Island
had religious freedom as secure as in Pennsylvania. Voltaire
Voltaire
, writing of William Penn
William Penn
in 1733, observed: "The new sovereign also enacted several wise and wholesome laws for his colony, which have remained invariably the same to this day. The chief is, to ill–treat no person on account of religion, and to consider as brethren all those who believe in one God." One result of this uncommon freedom was a wide religious diversity , which continues to the present.

Pennsylvania's population in 2010 was 12,702,379. Of these, 6,838,440 (53.8%) were estimated to belong to some sort of organized religion. According to the Association of religion data archives (ARDA) at Pennsylvania State University , the largest religions in Pennsylvania by adherents are the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
with 3,503,028 adherents, the United Methodist Church
United Methodist Church
with 591,734 members, and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America with 501,974 members.

The third-largest single denomination is the Presbyterian Church (USA) with 250,000 members and 1,011 congregations. Pennsylvania, especially western part and Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
area has one of the highest percentage of Presbyterians in the nation. The Presbyterian Church in America has also significant, 112 congregations and 23,000 adherents, the EPC has around 50 congregations, as well as ECO. The next largest Protestant denomination, the United Church of Christ , has 180,000 members and 627 congregations. American Baptist Churches USA (Northern Baptist Convention ) is based in King of Prussia, Pennsylvania .

Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
was the center state of the German Reformed denomination since the 1700s. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania , is one of the headquarters of the Moravian Church
Moravian Church
in America. Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
also has a very large Amish
Amish
population, second only to Ohio
Ohio
among the states. In the year 2000 there was a total Amish
Amish
population of 47,860 in Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
and a further 146,416 Mennonites and 91,200 Brethren . The total Anabapist population including Bruderhof was 232,631, about 2 percent of the population. While Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
owes its existence to Quakers
Quakers
, and much of the historic character of the Commonwealth is ideologically rooted in the teachings of the Religious Society of Friends (as they are officially known), practicing Quakers
Quakers
are a small minority of about 10,000 adherents in 2010.

The religious affiliations of the people of Pennsylvania:

* Christianity – 80%

* Protestant – 50%

* Mainline Protestant – 25% * Evangelical Protestant – 18% * Black Protestant – 7%

* Jehovah\'s Witnesses – 1% * Roman Catholic – 29% * Orthodox – 1%

* Non-religious /Unaffiliated – 13% * Judaism – 2% * Hinduism – 1% * Other religions – 1% * Don't know/Refused to say – 1%

According to a 2012 Gallup poll, 40% of Pennsylvanians are very religious, 28% are moderately religious, and 32% are non-religious.

ECONOMY

See also: List of Pennsylvania counties by per capita income and List of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
locations by per capita income Pennsylvania was home of two of the largest steel producers in the world; Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
-based U.S. Steel and Bethlehem -based Bethlehem Steel
Bethlehem Steel
. The former blast furnace sites have either been destroyed, preserved , or in the case of Bethlehem, became a new multi-million dollar Sands Casino Resort in 2009. "Sorry We're Open" sign, West Chester

Pennsylvania's 2013 total gross state product (GSP) of $644 billion ranks the state 6th in the nation. If Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
were an independent country, its economy would rank as the 18th-largest in the world. On a per-capita basis, Pennsylvania's per-capita GSP of $47,274 (in chained 2009 dollars) ranks 26th among the 50 states. Geo map of average income by location in Pennsylvania. Data shown is from the 2014 American Community Survey 5-year estimate.

Philadelphia
Philadelphia
in the southeast corner, Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
in the southwest corner, Erie
Erie
in the northwest corner, Scranton- Wilkes-Barre in the northeast corner, and Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton in the east central region are urban manufacturing centers. Much of the Commonwealth is rural; this dichotomy affects state politics as well as the state economy. Philadelphia
Philadelphia
is home to six Fortune 500 companies, with more located in suburbs like King of Prussia ; it is a leader in the financial and insurance industry.

Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
is home to eight Fortune 500 companies, including U.S. Steel , PPG Industries , and H.J. Heinz . In all, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
is home to fifty Fortune 500 companies. Erie
Erie
is also home to GE Transportation Systems , which is the largest producer of train locomotives in the United States.

As in the US as a whole and in most states, the largest private employer in the Commonwealth is Wal-Mart
Wal-Mart
, followed by the University of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
. Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
is also home to the oldest investor-owned utility company in the U.S.A, The York Water Company .

As of June 2014, the state's unemployment rate is 5.6%.

BANKING

The first nationally chartered bank in the United States, the Bank of North America , was founded in 1781 in Philadelphia. After a series of mergers, the Bank of North America is part of Wells Fargo
Wells Fargo
, which uses national charter 1.

Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
is also the home to the first nationally chartered bank under the 1863 National Banking Act . That year, the Pittsburgh Savings and over $1.7 billion in food product export (in 2011).

GAMBLING

Main article: Gambling in Pennsylvania

Casino gambling was legalized in Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
in 2004. Currently, there are nine casinos across the state with three under construction or in planning. Only horse racing, slot machines and electronic table games were legal in Pennsylvania, although a bill to legalize table games was being negotiated in the fall of 2009. Table games such as poker, roulette, blackjack and craps were finally approved by the state legislature in January 2010, being signed into law by the Governor on January 7. Sports betting is illegal.

Former Governor Ed Rendell had considered legalizing video poker machines in bars and private clubs in 2009, since an estimated 17,000 operate illegally across the state. Under this plan, any establishment with a liquor license would be allowed up to 5 machines. All machines would be connected to the state's computer system, like commercial casinos. The state would impose a 50% tax on net gambling revenues, after winning players have been paid, with the remaining 50% going to the establishment owners.

FILM

The Pennsylvania Film Production Tax Credit began in 2004 and stimulated the development of a film industry in the state.

GOVERNANCE

PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS RESULTS YEAR REPUBLICAN DEMOCRATIC

2016 48.58% _2,970,733_ 47.85% _2,926,441_

2012 46.58% _2,680,434_ 51.97% _2,990,274_

2008 44.15% _2,655,885_ 54.47% _3,276,363_

2004 48.42% _2,793,847_ 50.92% _2,938,095_

2000 46.43% _2,281,127_ 50.60% _2,485,967_

1996 39.97% _1,801,169_ 49.17% _2,215,819_

1992 36.13% _1,791,841_ 45.15% _2,239,164_

1988 50.70% _2,300,087_ 48.39% _2,194,944_

1984 53.34% _2,584,323_ 45.99% _2,228,131_

1980 49.59% _2,261,872_ 42.48% _1,937,540_

1976 47.73% _2,205,604_ 50.40% _2,328,677_

1972 59.11% _2,714,521_ 39.13% _1,796,951_

1968 44.02% _2,090,017_ 47.59% _2,259,405_

1964 34.70% _1,673,657_ 64.92% _3,130,954_

1960 48.74% _2,439,956_ 51.06% _2,556,282_

VOTER REGISTRATION AND PARTY ENROLLMENT AS OF APRIL 26, 2016

PARTY NUMBER OF VOTERS PERCENTAGE

Democratic 4,062,187 49.09%

Republican 3,126,166 37.78%

Independent/Other parties 1,085,350 13.12%

TOTAL 8,273,703 100%

Treemap
Treemap
of the popular vote by county, 2016 presidential election.

GOVERNMENT

Main article: Government of Pennsylvania See also: Commonwealth (U.S. state)

Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
has had five constitutions during its statehood: 1776, 1790, 1838, 1874, and 1968. Before that the province of Pennsylvania was governed for a century by a Frame of Government , of which there were four versions: 1682, 1683, 1696, and 1701. The capital of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
is Harrisburg . The legislature meets in the State Capitol there. Further information: Political party strength in Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania

For most of the second half of the 20th century and into the 21st century, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
has been a powerful swing state . It only supported the losing candidate in a presidential election twice from 1932 to 1988. Since 1992, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
has been trending Democratic in Presidential elections, voting for Bill Clinton twice by large margins, and slightly closer in 2000 for Al Gore. In the 2004 Presidential Election, Senator John F. Kerry beat President George W. Bush in Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
2,938,095 (50.92%) to 2,793,847 (48.42%). In the 2008 Presidential Election , Democrat Barack Obama
Barack Obama
defeated Republican John McCain
John McCain
in Pennsylvania, 3,184,778 (54%) to 2,584,088 (44%). Most recently, in the 2016 Presidential Election , Donald Trump
Donald Trump
became the first Republican candidate to win the state since 1988, winning the state 48.6% to 47.8%. The state holds 20 electoral votes.

In recent national elections, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
has leaned Democratic . The state voted for the Democratic ticket for president in every election between 1992 and 2012. During the 2008 election campaign a recruitment drive saw registered Democrats outnumber registered Republicans by 1.2 million. However, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
has a history of electing Republican senators. From 2009 to 2011, the state was represented by two Democratic senators for the first time since 1947. In 2010, Republicans recaptured a U.S. Senate seat as well as a majority of the state's congressional seats, control of both chambers of the state legislature and the governor's mansion. Democrats won back the governor's mansion 4 years later in the 2014 election . It was the first time since a governor became eligible to succeed himself that an incumbent governor had been defeated for reelection.

Historically, Democratic strength was concentrated in Philadelphia
Philadelphia
in the southeast, the Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
and Johnstown areas in the southwest, and Scranton / Wilkes-Barre in the northeast. Republican strength was concentrated in the Philadelphia
Philadelphia
suburbs, as well as the more rural areas in the central, northeastern, and western portions. The latter counties have long been among the most conservative areas in the nation. Since 1992, however, the Philadelphia
Philadelphia
suburbs have swung Democratic; the brand of Republicanism there was traditionally a moderate one. The Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
suburbs, historically a Democratic stronghold, have swung more Republican since the turn of the millennium.

Democratic political consultant James Carville once pejoratively described Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
as " Philadelphia
Philadelphia
in the east, Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
in the west and Alabama
Alabama
in the middle". Political analysts and editorials refer to central Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
as the "T" in statewide elections. Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, and Scranton/ Wilkes-Barre generally vote for Democratic candidates, while the majority of the counties in the central part of the state vote Republican. As a result, maps showing the results of statewide elections invariably form a "T" shape.

Governor

Main article: List of Governors of Pennsylvania Pennsylvania State Capitol in Harrisburg

The current Governor is Tom Wolf . The other elected officials composing the executive branch are the Lieutenant Governor Michael Stack , Attorney General Joshua Shapiro , Auditor General Eugene DePasquale , and Pennsylvania Treasurer Joe Torsella . Governor and Lieutenant Governor run as a ticket in the general election and are up for reelection in 2018. Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
will hold elections for Attorney General, Auditor General and Treasurer in 2016. See also: List of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
state agencies

General Assembly

Main article: Pennsylvania General Assembly

Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
has a bicameral legislature set up by Commonwealth's constitution in 1790. The original Frame of Government of William Penn had a unicameral legislature. The General Assembly includes 50 Senators and 203 Representatives . Joe Scarnati is currently President Pro Tempore of the State Senate, Dominic Pileggi the Majority Leader , and Jay Costa the Minority Leader . Sam Smith is Speaker of the House of Representatives, with Mike Turzai as Majority Leader and Frank Dermody as Minority Leader. As of the 2012 elections , the Republicans hold the majority in the State House and Senate.

Judiciary

Main article: Unified Judicial System of Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
is divided into 60 judicial districts, most of which (except Philadelphia
Philadelphia
) have magisterial district judges (formerly called district justices and justices of the peace), who preside mainly over preliminary hearings in felony and misdemeanor offenses, all minor (summary) criminal offenses, and small civil claims. Most criminal and civil cases originate in the Courts of Common Pleas, which also serve as appellate courts to the district judges and for local agency decisions. The Superior Court hears all appeals from the Courts of Common Pleas not expressly designated to the Commonwealth Court or Supreme Court. It also has original jurisdiction to review warrants for wiretap surveillance. The Commonwealth Court is limited to appeals from final orders of certain state agencies and certain designated cases from the Courts of Common Pleas. The Supreme Court of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
is the final appellate court. All judges in Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
are elected; the chief justice is determined by seniority.

Taxation

Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
has the 10th-highest tax burden in the United States. Residents pay a total of $83.7 billion in state and local taxes with a per capita average of $6,640 annually. Residents share 76% of the total tax burden. Many state politicians have tried to increase the share of taxes paid by out of state sources. Suggested revenue sources include taxing natural gas drilling as Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
is the only state without such a tax on gas drilling. Additional revenue prospects include trying to place tolls on interstate highways; specifically Interstate 80 which is used heavily by out of state commuters with high maintenance costs.

Sales tax provides 39% of Commonwealth's revenue; personal income tax 34%; motor vehicle taxes about 12%, and taxes on cigarettes and alcohol beverage 5%. Personal income tax is a flat 3.07%. An individual's taxable income is based on the following eight types of income: compensation (salary); interest; dividends; net profits from the operation of a business, profession or farm; net gains or income from the dispositions of property; net gains or income from rents, royalties, patents and copyrights; income derived through estates or trusts; and gambling and lottery winnings (other than Pennsylvania Lottery winnings).

Counties, municipalities, and school districts levy taxes on real estate. In addition, some local bodies assess a wage tax on personal income. Generally, the total wage tax rate is capped at 1% of income but some municipalities with home rule charters may charge more than 1%. Thirty-two of the Commonwealth's sixty-seven counties levy a personal property tax on stocks, bonds, and similar holdings.

With the exception of the city of Philadelphia
Philadelphia
, Pennsylvania municipalities and school districts are allowed to enact a local earned income tax within the purview of Act 32. Residents of these municipalities and school districts are required to file a local income tax return in addition to federal and state returns. This local return is filed with the local income tax collector, a private collection agency (e.g. Berkheimer , Keystone Collections , and Jordan Tax Service ) appointed by a particular county to collect the local earned income and local services tax (the latter a flat fee deducted from salaried employees working within a particular municipality or school district).

The City of Philadelphia
Philadelphia
has its own local income taxation system. Philadelphia-based employers are required to withhold the Philadelphia wage tax from the salaries of their employees. Residents of Philadelphia
Philadelphia
working for an employer are not required to file a local return as long as their Philadelphia
Philadelphia
wage tax is fully withheld by their employer. If their employer does not withhold the Philadelphia wage tax, residents are required to register with the Revenue Department and file an Earnings Tax return. Residents of Philadelphia with self-employment income are required to file a Net Profits tax (NPT) return, while those with business income from Philadelphia sources are required to obtain a Commercial Activity License (CAL) and pay the Business Income and Receipts tax (BIRT) and the NPT. Residents with unearned income (except for interest from checking and savings accounts) are required to file and pay the School Income tax
Income tax
(SIT).

The complexity of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
local tax filing system has been criticized by experts, who note that the outsourcing collections to private entities is akin to tax farming and that many new residents are caught off guard and end up facing "failure to file" penalties even if they did not have any tax due. Attempts to transfer local income tax collections to the state level (i.e. by having a separate local section on the state income tax return, currently the method used to collect local income taxes in New York , Maryland
Maryland
, Indiana
Indiana
, and Iowa
Iowa
) have been unsuccessful.

FEDERAL REPRESENTATION

Pennsylvania's two U.S. Senators are Bob Casey, Jr. and Pat Toomey .

Pennsylvania's current U.S. Representatives are Bob Brady
Bob Brady
(1st ), Dwight Evans (2nd ), Mike Kelly (3rd ), Scott Perry (4th ), Glenn "G.T." Thompson (5th ), Ryan Costello (6th ), Pat Meehan (7th ), Brian Fitzpatrick (8th ), Bill Shuster (9th ), Tom Marino (10th ), Lou Barletta (11th ), Keith Rothfus (12th ), Brendan Boyle (13th ), Mike Doyle (14th ), Charlie Dent (15th ), Lloyd Smucker (16th ), Matt Cartwright (17th ), Tim Murphy (18th ).

_See map of congressional districts_

MUNICIPALITIES

See also: List of counties in Pennsylvania , List of cities in Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
, List of towns and boroughs in Pennsylvania , List of townships in Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
, List of county seats in Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
(by population) , List of census-designated places in Pennsylvania , and List of populated places in Pennsylvania Allentown, Pennsylvania , 2010

Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
is divided into 67 counties . Counties are further subdivided into municipalities that are either incorporated as cities, boroughs , or townships . One county, Philadelphia
Philadelphia
County , is coterminous with the city of Philadelphia
Philadelphia
after it was consolidated in 1854 . The most populous county in Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
is Philadelphia, while the least populous is Cameron (5,085).

There are a total of 56 cities in Pennsylvania, which are classified, by population, as either first-, second-, or third-class cities. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania's largest city, has a population of 1,526,006 and is the state's only first-class city. Pittsburgh (305,704) and Scranton (76,089) are second-class and second-class 'A' cities, respectively.

The rest of the cities, like the third and fourth-largest—Allentown (118,032) and Erie
Erie
(101,786)—to the smallest—Parker with a population of only 840—are third-class cities. First- and second-class cities are governed by a "strong mayor" form of mayor–council government , whereas third-class cities are governed by either a "weak mayor" form of government or a council–manager government .

Boroughs are generally smaller than cities, with most Pennsylvania cities having been incorporated as a borough before being incorporated as a city. There are 958 boroughs in Pennsylvania, all of which governed by the "weak mayor" form of mayor–council government. The largest borough in Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
is State College (42,034) and the smallest is Centralia (10).

Townships are the third type of municipality in Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
and are classified as either first-class or second-class townships. There are 1,454 second-class townships and 93 first-class townships. Second-class township can become first-class townships if it has a population density greater than 300 inhabitants per square mile (120/km2) and a referendum is passed supporting the change. Pennsylvania's largest township is Upper Darby Township (82,795), and the smallest is East Keating Township (11).

There is one exception to the types of municipalities in Pennsylvania: Bloomsburg was incorporated as a town in 1870 and is, officially, the only town in the state. In 1975, McCandless Township adopted a home-rule charter under the name of "Town of McCandless", but is, legally, still a first-class township.

The total of 56 cities, 958 boroughs, 93 first-class townships, 1,454 second-class townships, and one town (Bloomsburg) is 2,562 municipalities. See also: List of municipalities in Pennsylvania

* v * t * e

Largest cities or towns in Pennsylvania Source:

RANK NAME COUNTY POP.

Philadelphia
Philadelphia

Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
1 Philadelphia
Philadelphia
Philadelphia
Philadelphia
1,560,297

Allentown

Erie
Erie

2 Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
Allegheny 305,412

3 Allentown Lehigh 119,104

4 Erie
Erie
Erie
Erie
99,452

5 Reading Berks 87,812

6 Scranton Lackawanna 75,281

7 Bethlehem Northampton 75,135

8 Lancaster Lancaster 59,302

9 Levittown Bucks 52,700

10 Harrisburg Dauphin 49,082

HEALTH

Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
has a mixed health record, and is ranked as the 29th-overall-healthiest state according to the 2013 United Health Foundation's Health Rankings.

EDUCATION

Main article: Education in Pennsylvania The University of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
quadrangle in Philadelphia
Philadelphia

Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
has 500 public school districts, thousands of private schools, publicly funded colleges and universities, and over 100 private institutions of higher education.

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION

In general, under state law, school attendance in Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
is mandatory for a child from the age of 8 until the age of 17, or until graduation from an accredited high school, whichever is earlier. As of 2005, 83.8% of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
residents age 18 to 24 have completed high school. Among residents age 25 and over, 86.7% have graduated from high school.

The following are the four-year graduation rates for students completing high school in 2015:

COHORT ALL STUDENTS MALE FEMALE WHITE HISPANIC BLACK ASIAN SPECIAL EDUCATION

% graduating 84.8 82.2 87.3 89.3 69.5 71.8 90.7 71.5

Additionally, 25.7% have gone on to obtain a bachelor's degree or higher. State students consistently do well in standardized testing. In 2007, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
ranked 14th in mathematics, 12th in reading, and 10th in writing for 8th grade students.

In 1988, the Pennsylvania General Assembly passed Act 169, which allows parents or guardians to homeschool their children as an option for compulsory school attendance. This law specifies the requirements and responsibilities of the parents and the school district where the family lives.

HIGHER EDUCATION

See also: List of colleges and universities in Pennsylvania

The Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education (PASSHE) is the public university system of the Commonwealth, with 14 state-owned schools. The Commonwealth System of Higher Education is an organizing body of the 4 state-related schools in Pennsylvania, these schools are independent institutions that receive some state funding. There are also 15 publicly funded two-year community colleges and technical schools that are separate from the PASSHE system. Additionally there are many private two- and four-year technical schools , colleges and universities.

Carnegie Mellon University , The Pennsylvania State University , the University of Pennsylvania
University of Pennsylvania
, and the University of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
, are members of the Association of American Universities , an invitation only organization of leading research universities. Lehigh University is also another renowned private research university located in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania.The Pennsylvania State University is the Commonwealth's Land-grant university , Sea Grant College and, Space Grant College . The University of Pennsylvania, located in Philadelphia, is considered the first university in the United States and established the country's first medical school . The University of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
is also the Commonwealth's only, and geographically the most southern, Ivy League school. The Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Academy of the Fine Arts is the first and oldest art school in the United States. Philadelphia
Philadelphia
College of Pharmacy , now a part of University of the Sciences in Philadelphia
Philadelphia
, was the first pharmacy school in the United States.

RECREATION

Dorney Park and Wildwater Kingdom\'s Steel Force
Steel Force
and Thunderhawk roller coasters in Allentown

Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
is home to the nation's first zoo, the Philadelphia
Philadelphia
Zoo . Other long-accredited AZA zoos include the Erie
Erie
Zoo and the Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
Zoo "> Map of Pennsylvania, showing major cities and roads See also: List of airports in Pennsylvania , List of public transit authorities in Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
, and List of Pennsylvania railroads Exterior Interior The Allegheny Mountain Tunnel is the longest of the five tunnels on the Pennsylvania Turnpike .

The Pennsylvania Department of Transportation , abbreviated as PennDOT, owns 39,861 miles (64,150 km) of the 121,770 miles (195,970 km) of roadway in the state, making it the fifth-largest state highway system in the United States. The Pennsylvania Turnpike system is 535 miles (861 km) long, with the mainline portion stretching from Ohio
Ohio
to Philadelphia
Philadelphia
and New Jersey. It is overseen by the Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission . Another major east–west route is Interstate 80 , which runs primarily in the northern tier of the state from Ohio
Ohio
to New Jersey
New Jersey
at the Delaware
Delaware
Water Gap . Interstate 90 travels the relatively short distance between Ohio
Ohio
and New York through Erie County , in the extreme northwestern part of the state. U.S. Route 220 as it passes through Lamar Township .

Primary north–south highways are Interstate 79 from its terminus in Erie
Erie
through Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
to West Virginia, Interstate 81 from New York through Scranton, Lackawanna County and Harrisburg to Maryland
Maryland
and Interstate 476
Interstate 476
, which begins 7 miles (11 km) north of the Delaware border, in Chester, Delaware
Delaware
County and travels 132 miles (212 km) to Clarks Summit, Lackawanna County , where it joins I-81. All but 20 miles (32 km) of I-476 is the Northeast Extension of the Pennsylvania Turnpike, while the highway south of the main line of the Pennsylvania Turnpike is officially called the "Veterans Memorial Highway", but is commonly referred to by locals as the "Blue Route".

The Southeastern Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Transportation Authority (SEPTA) is the sixth-largest transit agency in the United States
United States
and operates the commuter , heavy and light rail transit, and transit bus service in the Philadelphia
Philadelphia
metropolitan area. The Port Authority of Allegheny County is the 25th-largest transit agency and provides transit bus and light rail service in and around Pittsburgh.

Intercity passenger rail transit is provided by Amtrak
Amtrak
, with the majority of traffic occurring on the _ Keystone Service _ in the high-speed Keystone Corridor between Harrisburg and Philadelphia's 30th Street Station before heading north to New York City, as well as the _ Northeast Regional
Northeast Regional
_ providing frequent high speed service up and down the Northeast Corridor . the _Pennsylvanian _ follows the same route from New York City
New York City
to Harrisburg, but extends out to Pittsburgh. The _Capitol Limited _ also passes through Pittsburgh, as well as Connellsville , on its way from Chicago
Chicago
to Washington, D.C. Traveling between Chicago
Chicago
and New York City, the _ Lake Shore Limited _ passes through Erie
Erie
once in each direction. There are 67 short-line , freight railroads operating in Pennsylvania, the highest number in any U.S. state.

Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
has seven major airports: Philadelphia
Philadelphia
International , Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
International , Lehigh Valley
Lehigh Valley
International , Harrisburg International , Erie
Erie
International , University Park Airport and Wilkes-Barre/ Scranton International . A total of 134 public-use airports are located in the state. The port of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
is the second-largest inland port in the United States
United States
and the 18th-largest port overall; the Port of Philadelphia
Philadelphia
is the 24th-largest port in the United States. Pennsylvania's only port on the Great Lakes is located in Erie.

The Allegheny River Lock and Dam Two is the most-used lock operated by the United States
United States
Army Corps of Engineers of its 255 nationwide. The dam impounds the Allegheny River near Downtown Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
.

SPORTS

Main article: Sports in Pennsylvania Citizens Bank Park
Citizens Bank Park
in South Philadelphia
Philadelphia
, home of the Philadelphia
Philadelphia
Phillies

Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
is home to many major league professional sports teams; the Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
Steelers and Philadelphia
Philadelphia
Eagles of the National Football League , the Philadelphia
Philadelphia
Phillies and Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
Pirates of Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball
, the Philadelphia
Philadelphia
76ers of the National Basketball Association , the Philadelphia
Philadelphia
Flyers and Pittsburgh Penguins of the National Hockey League , and the Philadelphia
Philadelphia
Union of Major League Soccer . Among them, these teams have accumulated 7 World Series Championships (Pirates 5, Phillies 2), 16 National League Pennants (Pirates 9, Phillies 7), 3 pre- Super Bowl
Super Bowl
era NFL Championships (Eagles), 6 Super Bowl
Super Bowl
Championships (Steelers), 2 NBA Championships (76ers), and 7 Stanley Cups (Penguins 5, Flyers 2).

Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
also has minor league and semi-pro sports teams: the Triple-A baseball Lehigh Valley
Lehigh Valley
IronPigs and the Scranton/Wilkes-Barre RailRiders of the International League ; the Double-A baseball Altoona Curve , Erie
Erie
SeaWolves , Harrisburg Senators , and Reading Fightin Phils of the Eastern League ; the Class A-Short Season baseball State College Spikes and Williamsport Crosscutters of the New York–Penn League ; the independent baseball Lancaster Barnstormers and York Revolution of the Atlantic League of Professional Baseball ; the independent baseball Washington Wild Things of the Frontier League
Frontier League
; the Erie
Erie
BayHawks of the NBA G League ; the Lehigh Valley
Lehigh Valley
Phantoms , Wilkes-Barre/ Scranton Penguins , and Hershey Bears of the American Hockey League ; the Reading Royals and of the ECHL ; and the Philadelphia
Philadelphia
Soul of the Arena Football League . Among them, these teams have accumulated 12 triple and double A baseball league titles (RailRiders 1, Senators 6, Fightin Phils 4 Curve 1), 1 Arena Bowl Championship (Soul), and 11 Calder Cups (Bears).

Since 1959, the Little League World Series
World Series
is held each summer in South Williamsport , near where Little League Baseball was founded in Williamsport .

Also, the first World Series
World Series
between the Boston
Boston
Pilgrims (which became the Boston Red Sox ) and Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
Pirates was played in Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
in 1903.

Soccer is gaining popularity within the state of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
as well. With the addition of the Philadelphia
Philadelphia
Union in the MLS, the state now boasts three teams that are eligible to compete for the Lamar Hunt U.S. Open Cup annually. The other two teams are the Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
Riverhounds and the Harrisburg City Islanders , both of the United Soccer Leagues Second Division ( USL-2 ). Within the American Soccer Pyramid , the MLS takes the first tier, while the USL-2 claims the third tier. NASCAR
NASCAR
racing at Pocono Raceway in Long Pond

In motorsports, the Mario Andretti
Mario Andretti
dynasty of race drivers hails from Nazareth in the Lehigh Valley. Notable racetracks in Pennsylvania include the Jennerstown Speedway in Jennerstown , the Lake Erie Speedway in North East , the Mahoning Valley Speedway in Lehighton , the Motordome Speedway in Smithton , the Mountain Speedway in St. Johns , the Nazareth Speedway in Nazareth (closed); and the Pocono Raceway in Long Pond , which is home to two NASCAR
NASCAR
Cup Series races and an IndyCar Series race. The state is also home to Maple Grove Raceway, near Reading, which hosts major National Hot Rod Association sanctioned drag racing events each year.

There are also two motocross race tracks that host a round of the AMA Toyota Motocross Championships in Pennsylvania. High Point Raceway in located in Mt. Morris, Pennsylvania, and Steel City is located in Delmont, Pennsylvania.

Horse racing courses in Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
consist of The Meadows near Pittsburgh, Pocono Downs in Wilkes-Barre, and Harrah\'s Philadelphia in Chester, which offer harness racing , and Penn National Race Course in Grantville , Parx Racing (formerly Philadelphia
Philadelphia
Park) in Bensalem , and Presque Isle Downs near Erie, which offer thoroughbred racing . Smarty Jones , the 2004 Kentucky Derby and Preakness Stakes winner, had Philadelphia
Philadelphia
Park as his home course.

Arnold Palmer , one of the 20th century's most notable pro golfers, comes from Latrobe , while Jim Furyk , a current PGA member, grew up near in Lancaster . PGA tournaments in Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
include the 84 Lumber Classic, played at Nemacolin Woodlands Resort, in Farmington and the Northeast Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Classic, played at Glenmaura National Golf Club, in Moosic .

Philadelphia
Philadelphia
is home to LOVE Park , once a popular spot for skateboarding , and across from City Hall, host to ESPN
ESPN
's X Games in 2001 and 2002.

COLLEGE SPORTS

College football is popular in Pennsylvania. There are three colleges in Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
that play at the highest level of collegiate football competition, the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision . Two play in Power Five conferences , the Penn State University Nittany Lions of the Big Ten Conference and the University of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
Panthers of the Atlantic Coast Conference , while the Temple University Owls play in the American Athletic Conference . Penn State, claims two national championships (1982 "> Hershey Chocolate Factory

In his book _Yo Mama Cooks Like a Yankee_, author Sharon Hernes Silverman calls Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
the snack food capital of the world. It leads all other states in the manufacture of pretzels and potato chips. The Sturgis Pretzel House introduced the pretzel to America, and companies like Anderson Bakery Company, Intercourse Pretzel Factory, and Snyder\'s of Hanover are leading manufacturers in the Commonwealth. Two of the three companies that define the U.S. potato chip industry are based in Pennsylvania: Utz Quality Foods , which started making chips in Hanover, Pennsylvania in 1921, and Wise Foods which started making chips in Berwick in 1921 (the third, Lay\'s Potato Chips , is a Texas
Texas
company). Other companies such as Herr\'s Snacks , Martin's Potato Chips, Snyder's of Berlin (not associated with Snyder's of Hanover) and Troyer Farms Potato Products are popular chip manufacturers.

The U.S. chocolate industry is centered in Hershey, Pennsylvania , with Mars , Godiva , and Wilbur Chocolate Company nearby, and smaller manufacturers such as Asher's in Souderton , and Gertrude Hawk Chocolates of Dunmore . Other notable companies include Just Born in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania , makers of Hot Tamales , Mike and Ikes , the Easter favorite marshmallow Peeps , and Boyer Brothers of Altoona, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
, which is well known for its Mallo Cups. Auntie Anne\'s Pretzels began as a market-stand in Downingtown, Pennsylvania, and now has corporate headquarters in Lancaster City. Traditional Pennsylvania Dutch foods include chicken potpie, ham potpie, schnitz un knepp (dried apples, ham, and dumplings), fasnachts (raised doughnuts), scrapple, pretzels, bologna, chow-chow, and Shoofly pie
Shoofly pie
. Martin\'s Famous Pastry Shoppe, Inc. , headquartered in Chambersburg, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
, specializes in potato bread, another traditional Pennsylvania Dutch food . D.G. Yuengling ">_ Niagara_ (1813) in port

* MOTTO : "Virtue, liberty, and independence" * TREE : Eastern hemlock * STATE BIRD : Ruffed grouse * FLOWER : Mountain laurel * INSECT : Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
firefly * ANIMAL : White-tailed deer * DOG : Great Dane * FISH : Brook trout
Brook trout
* FOSSIL : _ Phacops rana _ * BEVERAGE : Milk
Milk
* SONG : " Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
" * SHIP : US Brig _Niagara_ * ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVE : GG1 4859 * STEAM LOCOMOTIVE : K4s 1361 and K4s 3750 * BEAUTIFICATION AND CONSERVATION PLANT : Penngift crown vetch

NICKNAMES

Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
has been known as the _Keystone_ _State_ since 1802, based in part upon its central location among the original Thirteen Colonies forming the United States, and also in part because of the number of important American documents signed in the state (such as the Declaration of Independence ). It was also a keystone state economically, having both the industry common to the North (making such wares as Conestoga wagons and rifles ) and the agriculture common to the South (producing feed, fiber, food, and tobacco).

Another one of Pennsylvania's nicknames is the _Quaker_ _State_; in colonial times, it was known officially as the _Quaker Province _, in recognition of Quaker William Penn
William Penn
's _First Frame of Government _ constitution for Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
that guaranteed liberty of conscience . He knew of the hostility Quakers
Quakers
faced when they opposed religious ritual, taking oaths, violence, war and military service, and what they viewed as ostentatious frippery.

"THE COAL STATE", "THE OIL STATE", "THE CHOCOLATE STATE", and "THE STEEL STATE" were adopted when those were the state's greatest industries.

"The State of Independence" currently appears on many road signs entering the state.

NOTABLE PEOPLE

Main article: List of people from Pennsylvania
List of people from Pennsylvania

SISTER REGIONS

* Matanzas Province , Cuba
Cuba
* Rhône-Alpes , France
France

SEE ALSO

* Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
portal

* Outline of Pennsylvania * Index of Pennsylvania-related articles

REFERENCES

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

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