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The Penghu
Penghu
or Pescadores Islands are an archipelago of 90 islands and islets in the Taiwan
Taiwan
Strait. The largest city is Magong, located on the largest island, which is also named Magong. Covering an area of 141 square kilometers (54 sq mi), the archipelago collectively forms Penghu
Penghu
County of the Republic of China
Republic of China
(Taiwan), and is the second smallest county, after Lienchiang.[a]

Contents

1 Name 2 History

2.1 Ming dynasty 2.2 Qing dynasty 2.3 Empire of Japan 2.4 Republic of China

3 Government

3.1 Administrative divisions 3.2 Politics

4 Political dispute 5 Economy 6 Demographics 7 Education 8 Energy 9 Tourism 10 Transport 11 See also 12 Notes 13 References

13.1 Citations 13.2 Works cited

14 Further reading 15 External links

Name[edit] The traditional English name of the islands, the Pescadores, comes from the Portuguese name Ilhas dos Pescadores ("Fishermen Islands"). The Modern European Portuguese
European Portuguese
pronunciation is [pɨʃkɐˈðoɾɨʃ] but, in English, it is typically closer to Classical Portuguese's: /ˌpɛskəˈdɔːrɪz, -iːz/. The islands have also been called Pehoe.[1] Pescadores was also the name given by the Spanish expedition of Hernando de Grijalva in 1537 to the Micronesian atoll Kapingamarangi. History[edit] Finds of fine red cord-marked pottery indicate that Penghu
Penghu
was visited by people from southwestern Taiwan
Taiwan
around 5,000 years ago, though not settled permanently.[2] Han Chinese
Han Chinese
from southern Fujian
Fujian
began to establish fishing communities on the islands in the 9th and 10th centuries,[2] and representatives were intermittently stationed there by the Southern Song and Yuan governments from around 1170.[3] Wang Dayuan gave a detailed first-hand account of the islands in his Daoyi Zhilüe (1349).[4] Ming dynasty[edit] Further information: Sino–Dutch conflicts In the 15th century, the Ming ordered the evacuation of the islands as part of their maritime ban. When these restrictions were removed in the late 16th century, legal fishing communities were re-established on the islands. These fishermen worshipped at the Mazu Temple that gave Magong
Magong
its name and themselves gave rise to the Portuguese and English name Pescadores.[3] The Ming established a military presence in 1603.[5] At this time, the Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
was trying to force China to open a port in Fujian
Fujian
to Dutch trade and expel the Portuguese from Macau.[6][7][8] When the Dutch were defeated by the Portuguese at the Battle of Macau
Macau
in 1622, they seized Penghu, built a fort there, and threatened raids on Chinese ports and shipping unless the Chinese allowed trading with them on Penghu
Penghu
and that China
China
not trade with Manila.[9] In response, the Chinese governor of Fujian
Fujian
demanded that the Dutch withdraw from Penghu
Penghu
to Taiwan, where the Chinese would permit them to engage in trade.[10][11] The Dutch continued to raid the Fujian
Fujian
coast between October 1622 and January 1624 to force their demands, but were unsuccessful.[12] In 1624, the new governor of Fujian
Fujian
sent a fleet of 40–50 warships with 5,000 troops to Penghu and expelled the Dutch, who moved to Fort Zeelandia on Taiwan.[13][14] Qing dynasty[edit] For a period in the mid-17th century, Taiwan
Taiwan
and the archipelago were ruled by the Koxinga
Koxinga
kingdom (Kingdom of Tungning), which was overthrown by the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
in 1683 after the Battle of Penghu. The Penghu
Penghu
archipelago was captured by the French in March 1885, in the closing weeks of the Sino-French War, and evacuated four months later. The Pescadores Campaign
Pescadores Campaign
was the last campaign of Admiral Amédée Courbet, whose naval victories during the war had made him a national hero in France. Courbet was among several French soldiers and sailors who succumbed to cholera during the French occupation of Penghu. He died aboard his flagship Bayard in Makung
Makung
harbour on 11 June 1885.[15] Empire of Japan[edit]

Hōko Prefecture
Hōko Prefecture
Government building

Towards the end of the First Sino-Japanese War, having defeated the Qing in northern China, Japan
Japan
sought to ensure that it obtained Penghu and Taiwan
Taiwan
in the final settlement. In March 1895, the Japanese defeated the Chinese garrison on the islands and occupied Makung. The Japanese occupation of Penghu, with its fine harbor, gave the Imperial Japanese Navy an advanced base from which their short-range coal-burning ships could control the Taiwan
Taiwan
Straits and thus prevent more Chinese troops from being sent to Taiwan. This action persuaded the Chinese negotiators at Shimonoseki that Japan
Japan
was determined to annex Taiwan, and, after Penghu, Taiwan
Taiwan
and the Liaodong Peninsula
Liaodong Peninsula
had been ceded to Japan
Japan
in the Sino-Japanese Treaty of Shimonoseki
Treaty of Shimonoseki
in April, helped to ensure the success of the Japanese invasion of Taiwan in May.[16] Penghu
Penghu
County was then called the Hōko Prefecture
Hōko Prefecture
by the Japanese government of Taiwan. During World War II, Makō (Makung) was a major base for the Imperial Japanese Navy
Imperial Japanese Navy
and the embarkation point for the invasion of the Philippines. Republic of China[edit] In the Cairo Declaration of 1943, the United States, the United Kingdom and China
China
stated it to be their purpose that "all the territories that Japan
Japan
has stolen from the Chinese, such as Formosa and The Pescadores, shall be restored to the Republic of China". On 26 July 1945, the three governments issued the Potsdam Declaration, declaring that "the terms of the Cairo Declaration shall be carried out". However, the United States and the United Kingdom regard the aforementioned documents as merely wartime statements of intention with no binding force in law. Following the surrender of Japan
Japan
on 2 September 1945, Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers
Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers
Douglas MacArthur issued General Order No. 1, which directed Japanese forces to surrender to the Allied Powers and facilitate the occupation of Japanese territories by the Allied Powers. In the Treaty of San Francisco, signed in 1951 and coming into effect in 1952, Japan renounced sovereignty over Taiwan
Taiwan
and Penghu, but left their final disposition unsettled. The archipelago has been administered by the Republic of China
Republic of China
since 1945. Boat people from Vietnam
Vietnam
who were taken in by Taiwan's ships in the South China
China
Sea were sent to the Pescadores.[17] On 25 May 2002, China
China
Airlines Flight 611, a Boeing 747-200
Boeing 747-200
aircraft flying from Taipei
Taipei
to Hong Kong, disintegrated and exploded over the Islands. The wreckage slammed into the Taiwan
Taiwan
Strait, a couple of miles off the coast. All 225 passengers and crew on board were killed.[18] Government[edit]

Penghu
Penghu
County Hall

Main article: Penghu
Penghu
County Government Penghu
Penghu
County is administered by Penghu County Government
Penghu County Government
headed by Magistrate Chen Kuang-fu
Chen Kuang-fu
of the Democratic Progressive Party
Democratic Progressive Party
and headquartered at the Penghu
Penghu
County Hall. Administrative divisions[edit]

Subdivisions of Penghu
Penghu
County

Penghu
Penghu
County is divided into 1 city, 5 rural townships. It is further divided into 97 villages. Together with Lienchiang County, Penghu County has no urban township. The county seat is located at Magong City where it houses the Penghu
Penghu
County Hall and Penghu
Penghu
County Council.

Name (Hanyu Pinyin) Hanzi Wade-Giles Tongyong Pinyin Taiwanese (POJ) Hakka Pha̍k-fa-sṳ English translation

City

Magong
Magong
City 馬公市 Ma-kung Magong Má-king Mâ-kûng originally Matsu Palace

Rural township

Huxi Township 湖西鄉 Hu-hsi Husi Ô͘-sai Fù-sî Lake West / West of Penghu

Baisha Township 白沙鄉 Pai-sha Baisha Pe̍h-soa Pha̍k-sâ White Sand

Xiyu Township 西嶼鄉 Hsi-yü Siyu Sai-sū Sî-yí Western Isle

Qimei Township 七美鄉 Ch'i-mei Cimei Chhit-bí Tshit-mî Seven Beauties

Wang'an Township 望安鄉 Wang-an Wang-an Bāng-oaⁿ Mong-ôn Hope Safe

The main islands of Magong
Magong
City/Huxi Township, Baisha Township, and Xiyu Township are the three most populous islands and are connected via bridges. Two shorter bridges connect Huxi and Baisha. The bridge connecting Baisha and Xiyu is the longest bridge in the Republic of China
China
and is called the Penghu
Penghu
Great Bridge. Politics[edit] The county elects a single representative to the Legislative Yuan. In the 2016 Republic of China
Republic of China
legislative election, this seat was won by the Democratic Progressive Party
Democratic Progressive Party
with 55.4% of the vote.[19] Political dispute[edit] Despite the controversy over the political status of Taiwan, both the Republic of China
Republic of China
and the People's Republic of China
Republic of China
agree that Penghu is a county in (their own respective) " Taiwan
Taiwan
Province" (Taiwan Province, Republic of China
Republic of China
and Taiwan
Taiwan
Province, People's Republic of China). However, geographically, the island of Taiwan
Taiwan
does not include Penghu, although it is closer to Taiwan
Taiwan
than mainland China. Thus, Penghu
Penghu
is listed separately from "Taiwan" in some contexts, e.g. the Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, and Matsu (the official WTO name for the Republic of China) in the Treaty of Shimonoseki, the Cairo Declaration, and the Treaty of San Francisco (see above). Economy[edit] Due to its restricting geographical environment, fisheries has been the main industry for Penghu.[20] The Agriculture and Fisheries Bureau of Penghu County Government
Penghu County Government
governs matters related to agriculture and fisheries in Penghu. Since 2016, the bureau placed a ban on the harvesting of sea urchins due to their declining population. However, the ban was lifted a year later in 2017 but catches are limited only to those species larger than 8 cm in diameter.[21] Demographics[edit]

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1985 102,282 —    

1990 95,932 −6.2%

1995 90,937 −5.2%

2000 89,496 −1.6%

2005 91,785 +2.6%

2010 96,918 +5.6%

2015 102,304 +5.6%

Source:"Populations by city and country in Taiwan". Ministry of the Interior Population Census. 

Education[edit]

National Penghu
Penghu
University of Science and Technology

Education-related matters in Penghu
Penghu
County are administered under the Education Department of Penghu
Penghu
County Government. The county houses the National Penghu
Penghu
University of Science and Technology. Energy[edit]

Chienshan Power Plant

Penghu
Penghu
is powered up by its Chienshan Power Plant, a 140 MW fuel-fired power plant commissioned in 2001 and also Hujing Power Plant on Table Island. On 24 December 2010, the Taiwan- Penghu
Penghu
Undersea Cable Project of Taipower
Taipower
was approved by the Executive Yuan
Executive Yuan
to connect the electrical grid in Taiwan
Taiwan
Island to Penghu.[22] Under a wind power development project approved in 2002 by the Executive Yuan, the ROC government plans to set up a total of 200 wind turbines in Penghu
Penghu
within 10 years. However, only 14 turbines have been set up as of 2015[update]. On 1 October 2015, Taipower
Taipower
announced the construction of another 11 new wind turbines across the island, in which 6 will be constructed in Huxi Township and 5 in Baisha Township.[23] The current total desalination capacity of the county to provide clean water to its residents is 15,500 m3 per day. To reduce its groundwater use, in November 2015 the county secured a contract of building an additional desalination plant with 4,000 m3 capacity per day, which its construction is expected to be completed by May 2018.[24] Tourism[edit]

Original 1908 memorial to the cruiser Matsushima pictured. Modern park memorial in Magong
Magong
City, Penghu, Taiwan.

Double-Heart of Stacked Stones

The Penghu National Scenic Area
Penghu National Scenic Area
was established in the early 1990s, comprising most of the islands and islets of the archipelago. Tourism has since become one of the main sources of income of the county. Historical sites include Central Street, Mazu Temple, Four-eyed Well, Penghu
Penghu
Reclamation Hall, Qimei Lighthouse, Siyu Eastern Fort, Jinguitou Fortress
Jinguitou Fortress
and Siyu Western Fort. Museums in the county are Chuwan Crab Museum, Ocean Resources Museum, Chang Yu-sheng Memorial Museum and Penghu
Penghu
Living Museum. Other attractions on the county include the Double-Heart of Stacked Stones, Little Taiwan, Whale Cave, Xiaomen Geology Gallery and South Penghu
Penghu
Marine National Park.[25] Since 1 January 2015, tourists from Mainland China
Mainland China
can directly apply for the Exit & Entry Permit upon arrival in Penghu. This privilege also applies to Kinmen
Kinmen
and Matsu Islands
Matsu Islands
as a means to boost tourism in the outlying islands of Taiwan.[26] Transport[edit]

Qimei Airport

Penghu
Penghu
is served by its domestic Magong
Magong
Airport built in Magong
Magong
City and Qimei Airport
Qimei Airport
built in Qimei Township. Both airports were opened in 1977. Magong
Magong
Harbor hosts ferry connections with Kaohsiung, Tainan, Chiayi and Kinmen. See also[edit]

Taiwan
Taiwan
portal Islands portal

Administrative divisions of the Republic of China List of cities in Taiwan

Notes[edit]

^ a b All of the territory controlled by the ROC, including Penghu, is claimed by China.

References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ Campbell, William (1903). "Explanatory Notes". Formosa under the Dutch: described from contemporary records, with explanatory notes and a bibliography of the island. London: Kegan Paul. p. 546. OCLC 644323041.  ^ a b " Penghu
Penghu
Reclamation Hall".  ^ a b Wills (2006), p. 86. ^ Thompson (1964), pp. 167–168. ^ Wills (2006), p. 87. ^ Cooper (1979), p. 658. ^ Freeman (2003), p. 132. ^ Thomson (1996), p. 39. ^ Shepherd (1993), p. 49. ^ Covell (1998), p. 70. ^ Wright (1908), p. 817. ^ Wills (1998), pp. 368–369. ^ Wills (1998), p. 369. ^ Wills (2010), p. 70. ^ Loir (1886), pp. 291–317. ^ Takekoshi (1907), pp. 80–82. ^ KAMM, HENRY (August 5, 1981). "DESPITE PERILS AFLOAT, VIETNAMESE CONTINUE TO FLEE". The New York Times. CAMP ONE MAKUNG, Pescadores, Aug. 1.  ^ Barron, Lisa (28 May 2002). " China
China
Airlines safety record in the spotlight". Cable News Network LP, LLLP. Archived from the original on 25 October 2010. Retrieved 25 October 2010.  ^ "2016 The 14th Presidential and Vice Presidential Election and The 9th Legislator Election".  ^ http://island.giee.ntnu.edu.tw/ISISA2004/ISISA8/107%204-2-C-4%20Liu%20Yin%20Yuh.pdf ^ Chen, Chi-ching; Lin, Ko (11 May 2017). "Ban on sea urchin harvesting temporarily lifted in Penghu". Focus Taiwan. Retrieved 12 May 2017.  ^ " Taiwan
Taiwan
power company- Taipower
Taipower
Events".  ^ " Taipower
Taipower
to help build Penghu
Penghu
into low-carbon county".  ^ " Penghu
Penghu
chief seeks support for desalination plant expansion".  ^ http://focustaiwan.tw/news/asoc/201605290018.aspx ^ "Annual ridership on Kinmen- Fujian
Fujian
ferry services tops 1.5 million". 

Works cited[edit]

Cooper, J. P., ed. (1979). The New Cambridge Modern History IV: The Decline of Spain and the Thirty Years War, 1609–59. 4 (reprint ed.). CUP Archive. ISBN 978-0-521-29713-4. OCLC 655601868.  Covell, Ralph R. (1998). Pentecost of the Hills in Taiwan: The Christian Faith Among the Original Inhabitants (illustrated ed.). Hope Publishing House. ISBN 978-0-93-272-790-9. OCLC 833099470.  Freeman, Donald B. (2003). Straits of Malacca: Gateway or Gauntlet?. McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP. ISBN 978-0-7735-2515-3. OCLC 2004401056.  Loir, Maurice (1886). L'escadre de l'amiral Courbet. Paris: Berger-Levrault. LCCN 03013530. OCLC 23421595.  Shepherd, John Robert (1993). Statecraft and Political Economy on the Taiwan
Taiwan
Frontier, 1600–1800 (illustrated ed.). Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-2066-3. OCLC 25025794.  Takekoshi, Yosaburō (1907). Japanese rule in Formosa. London, New York, Bombay and Calcutta: Longmans, Green, and co. OCLC 753129. OL 6986981M.  Thompson, Lawrence G. (1964). "The earliest eyewitness accounts of the Formosan aborigines". Monumenta Serica. 23: 163–204. JSTOR 40726116.  Thomson, Janice E. (1996). Mercenaries, Pirates, and Sovereigns: State-Building and Extraterritorial Violence in Early Modern Europe (reprint ed.). Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-1-4008-2124-2. OCLC 860392554.  Wills, John E., Jr. (1998). "Relations with maritime Europeans, 1514–1662". In Twitchett, Denis C.; Mote, Frederick W. The Cambridge History of China: Volume 8, The Ming Dynasty, 1368–1644, Part 2. Cambridge University Press. pp. 333–375. ISBN 978-0-521-24333-9.  —— (2006). "The Seventeenth-century Transformation: Taiwan
Taiwan
under the Dutch and the Cheng Regime". In Rubinstein, Murray A. Taiwan: A New History. M.E. Sharpe. pp. 84–106. ISBN 978-0-7656-1495-7. OL 8055024M.  —— (2010). "Maritime Europe and the Ming". In Wills, John E., Jr. China
China
and Maritime Europe, 1500–1800: Trade, Settlement, Diplomacy, and Missions. Cambridge University Press. pp. 24–77. ISBN 978-0-521-43260-3. OL 24524224M.  Wright, Arnold (1908). Cartwright, H. A., ed. Twentieth century impressions of Hongkong, Shanghai, and other treaty ports of China: their history, people, commerce, industries, and resources, Volume 1. Lloyds Greater Britain publishing company. OL 13518413M. 

Further reading[edit]

Cook, Harold John (2007). Matters of Exchange: Commerce, Medicine, and Science in the Dutch Golden Age. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-13492-4.  Deng, Gang (1999). Maritime Sector, Institutions, and Sea Power of Premodern China. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-313-30712-1.  Idema, Wilt Lukas, ed. (1981). Leyden Studies in Sinology: Papers Presented at the Conference Held in Celebration of the Fiftieth Anniversary of the Sinological Institute of Leyden University, December 8-12, 1980. Volume 15 of Sinica Leidensia. Rijksuniversiteit te Leiden. Sinologisch instituut (illustrated ed.). BRILL. ISBN 978-90-04-06529-1.  Li, Qingxin (2006). Maritime Silk Road. Translated by William W. Wang. China
China
Intercontinental Press. ISBN 978-7-5085-0932-7.  Parker, Edward Harper, ed. (1917). China, Her History, Diplomacy, and Commerce: From the Earliest Times to the Present Day (2nd ed.). J. Murray. LCCN 17030891. OL 6603922M. 

External links[edit]

Find more aboutPenghuat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Learning resources from Wikiversity

Penghu
Penghu
travel guide from Wikivoyage Penghu County Government
Penghu County Government
(in English) Penghu
Penghu
Tour Official Website 澎湖研究學術研討會 第1-8屆論文輯全球資訊網-歷屆論文 (Traditional Chinese) Living Museum (Copyright © 2012 Culture Taiwan)

v t e

Administrative divisions of Taiwan

Special
Special
municipalities (6)

Kaohsiung New Taipei Taichung Tainan Taipei Taoyuan

Provincial cities (3)

Chiayi Hsinchu Keelung

Counties (13)

Changhua Chiayi Hsinchu Hualien Kinmen Lienchiang Miaoli Nantou Penghu Pingtung Taitung Yilan Yunlin

Free area of the Republic of China Streamlined Provinces

Taiwan Fujian

List of administrative divisions of Taiwan

v t e

Administrative divisions of outlying islands of Taiwan

Kaohsiung

Qijin ( Pratas Islands
Pratas Islands
and Taiping Island)

Kinmen

Jincheng3 Jinhu Jinsha Jinning Lieyu Wuqiu

Lienchiang1

Nangan3 Beigan Dongyin Juguang

Penghu

Magong3 Baisha Huxi Qimei Xiyu Wang'an

Pingtung

Liuqiu

Taitung

Lanyu Lüdao

Yilan

Toucheng (Guishan Island and Diaoyutai Islands2)

1 Lienchiang County
Lienchiang County
commonly known as Matsu. 2Diaoyutai Islands are controlled by Japan, (called Senkaku Islands). 3Seat of the outlying islands' counties

v t e

Territorial disputes in East, South, and Southeast Asia

Land Islands and waters

Bhutanese enclaves
Bhutanese enclaves
( ) Bolshoy Ussuriysky/Heixiazi Island1 ( ) Kashmir2 ( ) Khao Phra Wihan1 ( ) Kalapani Korean Peninsula
Korean Peninsula
( )

Mainland China
Mainland China
( ) North Borneo (Sabah)1 ( ) Sixty-Four Villages East of the River1 ( ) South Tibet / Arunachal Pradesh ( ) Tannu Tuva
Tuva
( ) Mongolia1 ( ) Jiangxinpo / Northern Kachin1 ( )

Kuril ( ) Liancourt Rocks ( ) Noktundo1 ( ) Paracels ( ) Senkaku ( ) Scarborough Shoal ( )

Sir Creek1 ( ) Spratlys2 ( ) Taiwan
Taiwan
Area ( ) Bạch Long Vĩ island1 ( ) Pedra Branca, Middle Rocks and South Ledge ( )

1: Inactive dispute 2: Divided among

.