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PENGE (/pɛndʒ/ ) is a suburb of south-east London, in the London Borough of Bromley
Bromley
. It has entered popular culture as the archetypal commuter suburb , but was a fashionable entertainment district in the 19th century and saw notorious murders in the 1870s. Notable residents have included Bill Wyman of The Rolling Stones , Prime Minister Bonar Law and painter Camille Pissarro
Camille Pissarro
.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Pensgreene and the Crooked Billet * 1.2 Expansion

* 2 Government

* 3 Geography

* 3.1 Nearby areas

* 4 Economy

* 5 Culture and community

* 5.1 Community facilities

* 6 Landmarks

* 6.1 Gallery

* 7 Transport

* 7.1 Rail * 7.2 Buses * 7.3 Road

* 8 Education * 9 Religious sites * 10 Sport * 11 Cultural references * 12 Notable residents * 13 References * 14 External links

HISTORY

Penge
Penge
was once a small town, which was recorded under the name Penceat in an Anglo-Saxon deed dating from 957. Most historians believe the name of the town is derived from the Celtic word Penceat, which means "edge of wood" and refers to the fact that the surrounding area was once covered in a dense forest. The original Celtic words of which the name was composed referred to "pen" ("head"), as in the Welsh "pen", and "ceat" ("wood"), similar to the Welsh "coed", as in the name of the town of Pencoed
Pencoed
in Wales.

PENSGREENE AND THE CROOKED BILLET

Penge
Penge
was an inconspicuous area with few residents before the arrival of the railways. A traveller passing through Penge
Penge
would have noticed the large green with a small inn on its boundary. Penge
Penge
Green appears as Pensgreene on Kip's 1607 map. The green was bounded to the north by Penge
Penge
Lane, the west by Beckenham
Beckenham
Road and the southeast by the Crooked Billet. On a modern map that is a very small area, but the modern-day Penge
Penge
Lane and Crooked Billet are not in their original locations, and Beckenham
Beckenham
Road would have been little more than a cart track following the property line on the west side of Penge
Penge
High Street. Penge
Penge
Lane was the road from Penge
Penge
to Sydenham
Sydenham
which is now named St John's Road and Newlands Park Road. There was also an old footpath crossing the Green leading to Sydenham, that was known as Old Penge
Penge
Lane. After the London, Chatham and Dover Railway was built, Penge
Penge
Lane crossed the line by level crossing. When this crossing was closed, Penge
Penge
Lane was renamed and Old Penge
Penge
Lane became the present-day Penge
Penge
Lane.

The 1868 Ordnance Survey map shows the Old Crooked Billet located to the southeast of the current location. This earlier location was on the eastward side of Penge
Penge
Green, which disappeared as a result of the Penge
Penge
Enclosure Act, 1827 which enclosed the whole Green. This left the Crooked Billet with no frontage to Beckenham
Beckenham
Road; hence, new premises were constructed on the present site in 1827, and subsequently replaced in 1840 with a three-storey building. This was severely damaged by enemy action in the Second World War , and subsequently rebuilt. The Crooked Billet Pub in Penge
Penge

The Crooked Billet (pictured right) is by far the oldest public house in Penge. Peter Abbott states that it was there in 1601, and speculates that it might be much more ancient. In modern times it is particularly well known for lending its name to a bus route terminus. From 1914, General Omnibus routes 109 and 609 operated, along different paths, between Bromley
Bromley
Market and the Crooked Billet. The 109 was renumbered 227 by London Transport, and continued to terminate at the Crooked Billet. (Route 609 was shortened, terminating in Beckenham
Beckenham
). Around 1950, some services were extended past the Crooked Billet to Crystal Palace. Eventually nearly all buses travelled the extended route. The 354 buses now use the terminus, as do short-running buses on route 194 which carry the destination 'Penge High Street'.

William Hone wrote about a visit to the Crooked Billet in 1827 and included a detailed sketch of the last building on the original site.

EXPANSION

The London and Croydon Canal
Croydon Canal
was built across Penge Common along what is now the line of the railway through Penge West railway station , deviating to the south before Anerley railway station . There is a remnant at the northern corner of Betts Park , Anerley . Following the closure of the canal, the London and Croydon Railway
London and Croydon Railway
was built largely along the same course, opening in 1839. Isambard Kingdom Brunel
Brunel
built an atmospheric railway along this alignment as far as Croydon. The Crystal Palace pneumatic railway , which ran underground between the Sydenham
Sydenham
and Penge
Penge
entrances to Crystal Palace Park
Crystal Palace Park
, operated for a short while but proved not to be economically viable.

In the Victorian era, Penge
Penge
developed into a fashionable suburb because of the railway line and its proximity to the relocated Crystal Palace . It became a fashionable day out to visit the Crystal Palace during the day and to take the tram down the hill to one of the 'twenty-five pubs to the square mile' that Penge
Penge
was reputed to possess, or the two music halls—The King's Hall (later the Gaumont cinema) and, established in 1915, the Empire Theatre (later the Essoldo cinema).

By 1862, Stanford's map of London shows large homes had been constructed along Penge
Penge
New Road (now Crystal Palace Park
Crystal Palace Park
Road, Sydenham
Sydenham
and Penge
Penge
High Street), Thick Wood (now Thicket) Road and Anerley Road. This all came to an end in 1875 and 1877, with the notorious Penge
Penge
murders. In 1875 Frederick Hunt murdered his wife and children, then in 1877 a wealthy heiress, Harriet Staunton , together with her infant son, was starved to death by her husband and his associates. In 1934, Elizabeth Jenkins published the novel Harriet, based on the case, whilst Forbes Road was renamed to Mosslea Road because of its connection with the murders.

GOVERNMENT

Penge
Penge
formed a part of the parish of Battersea
Battersea
, with the historic county boundary between Kent and Surrey forming its eastern boundary. In 1855 both parts of the parish were included in the area of the Metropolitan Board of Works , with Penge
Penge
Hamlet Vestry electing six members to the Lewisham
Lewisham
District Board of Works. The Local Government Act 1888 abolished the Metropolitan Board, with its area becoming the County of London . However, the London Government Act 1899 subsequently made provision for Penge
Penge
to be removed from the County of London and annexed to either Surrey or Kent. Accordingly, an Order in Council transferred the hamlet to Kent in 1900, constituting it as Penge Urban District . The urban district was abolished in 1965 by the London Government Act 1963 , and its former area merged with that of other districts to form the London Borough of Bromley. With the creation of the Penge
Penge
Urban District, Penge
Penge
New Road (formerly the part of Beckenham
Beckenham
Road north of Kent House Road) was renamed Penge High Street. Inside the Crystal Palace concert hall 1857

From 1885, the Hamlet of Penge
Penge
was part of the Dulwich
Dulwich
parliamentary constituency , which was then in Surrey, and remained in that seat until 1918, when it was transferred to the new Bromley
Bromley
constituency . From 1950, it was part of the Beckenham
Beckenham
constituency . Since the 2010 general election , Penge
Penge
has formed part of the Lewisham
Lewisham
West and Penge
Penge
constituency . In local government, Penge
Penge
is contained in the Penge
Penge
and Cator ward, which had a population of 17,326 in 2011.

GEOGRAPHY

Penge
Penge
borders the London Borough of Lewisham
London Borough of Lewisham
. It lies west of Bromley
Bromley
and north east of Croydon
Croydon
, and is located 7.1 miles (11.4 km) southeast of Charing Cross . The largest amosite mine in the world, in South Africa, was named Penge
Penge
apparently because one of the British directors thought the two areas were similar in appearance.

NEARBY AREAS

* Crystal Palace * Sydenham
Sydenham
* Anerley * Beckenham
Beckenham
* Upper Norwood * South Norwood * Dulwich
Dulwich
* Catford
Catford

ECONOMY

Many residents commute into central London, or to Canary Wharf or other areas of Docklands. It is the only place in the London Borough of Bromley
Bromley
to have a London SE postcode covered completely by the London Borough of Bromley
London Borough of Bromley
(this includes Anerley).

CULTURE AND COMMUNITY

* Penge
Penge
is home to a number of taverns and public houses; indeed it was noted in Victorian times for its '25 pubs to the square mile'. The Crooked Billet is by far the oldest. * The Pawleyne Arms is currently the terminus for the 176 bus service. It was previously an intermediate turning point for short-running buses on the 12 , 75 and 194 bus services, becoming the southern terminus for route 12 between 1986 and 1988, when the route was again shortened. * The public houses in Maple Road have nearly all changed their names. The Dew Drop Inn was known as The Market Tavern (and featured in the television series The Bill as the Market Tavern in Canley Market) before its closure. The London Tavern became The Hop Exchange and then The Hop House. It was closed by 2006, and in 2009 it was undergoing conversion into residential accommodation. The Lord Palmerston has been delicensed and is now a pizza outlet. The King William IV became The Crown and is now The Maple Tree. Only The Golden Lion (now closed down) has retained its name, although it has extended its premises substantially; it was listed in every edition of the Good Beer Guide from 1976 to 1987. * Other public houses in the area include: Bridge House Tavern, Queen Adelaide Arms (closed 2010),The Goldsmiths and The Alexandra (reopened in 2017), Graces (formerly Dr W G Grace), Kent House Tavern (now closed), Robin Hood (closed, subsequently destroyed by fire in 2006 and demolished), Royal Oak (closed 2011), The Mitre, The Goat House (destroyed by fire and now demolished), The Waterman's Arms (now Superdrug), The Anchor (closed circa 1910), The General Simpson (closed), The General Jackson (closed), The Retreat (closed), The Cornish Arms (closed), The Railway Bell (closed), The Thicket Tavern and Hollywood East (closed down) (formerly The Park Tavern). The last-named was the venue for the 1877 inquest into the murder of Harriet Staunton. * Penge
Penge
also has several clubs including a Conservative Club. The Penge
Penge
& District Trade Union ">

Waterman's Square Almhouses in 1890 *

Waterman's Square Almshouses in 2017 *

Waterman's Square Almshouses in 2017 *

Former Police Station in Penge
Penge

TRANSPORT

RAIL

Penge
Penge
is served by three rail stations. Penge
Penge
East and Kent House have frequent services to London Victoria and Orpington
Orpington
, and Thameslink operates a limited peak-hour service via St Pancras International to St Albans, Luton or Bedford (trains via St Pancras International generally start or terminate at Beckenham
Beckenham
Junction). There is also Penge
Penge
West , which has services to London Bridge and Caterham , as well as London Overground
London Overground
services to Dalston Junction / Highbury and Islington
Islington
and West Croydon
Croydon
.

BUSES

Penge
Penge
is served by many Transport for London bus routes, connecting it with areas including Beckenham
Beckenham
, Bromley
Bromley
, Catford
Catford
, Central London , Croydon
Croydon
, Crystal Palace , Dulwich
Dulwich
, Lewisham
Lewisham
, Orpington
Orpington
, Peckham , Shirley, West Wickham and Sydenham
Sydenham
.

ROAD

Three A roads , the A213 , A214 and A234 pass through the area. The A213 intersects with the A234 at the Pawleyne Arms and the A214 at the Robin Hood.

EDUCATION

St Johns C.E. Primary School was originally part of the Old Penge Chapel, which opened in 1837. Early in the 1850s, following the completion of St John the Evangelist, the school took over the entire old chapel building. The school's site was extended in 1977, and a new school building was opened in September 1978.

The Beckenham
Beckenham
and Penge
Penge
County Grammar School for boys , formerly the Beckenham
Beckenham
Technical Institute which opened in 1901, moved to a new site on Penge
Penge
High Street between Kent House Road and Kingsdale Road in 1931. It moved from Penge
Penge
to its present location in Eden Park , Beckenham
Beckenham
, in January 1969.

RELIGIOUS SITES

St John's Church, the parish church of Penge
Penge

St. John the Evangelist\'s Church, Penge
Penge
(pictured right) Beckenham Road, built 1850 to designs by Edwin Nash -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em; list-style-type: decimal;">

* ^ in Abbott, Peter (2002) Book of Penge, Anerley and Crystal Palace: The Community, Past Present and Future, p18 Halsgrove. ISBN 1-84114-210-7 * ^ Abbott, Peter (2002) Book of Penge, Anerley and Crystal Palace: The Community, Past Present and Future, p48 Halsgrove. ISBN 1-84114-210-7 * ^ Abbott, Peter (2002) Book of Penge, Anerley and Crystal Palace: The Community, Past Present and Future, p10 Halsgrove. ISBN 1-84114-210-7 * ^ "The Crooked Billet, on Penge
Penge
Common", The Every-day Book and Table Book; or, Everlasting Calendar of Popular Amusements, Sports, Pastimes, Ceremonies, Manners, Customs, and Events, Each of the Three Hundred and Sixty-Five Days, in Past and Present Times; Forming a Complete History of the Year, Months, and Seasons, and a Perpetual Key to the Almanac, Including Accounts of the Weather, Rules for Health and Conduct, Remarkable and Important Anecdotes, Facts, and Notices, in Chronology, Antiquities, Topography, biography, Natural History, Art, Science, and General Literature; Derived from the Most Authentic Sources, and Valuable Original Communication, with Poetical Elucidations, for Daily Use and Diversion. Vol III., ed. William Hone, (London: 1838) p 669-74. * ^ http://www.familygrowsontrees.com/research/betts/landscape.htm * ^ Abbott, Peter (2002) Book of Penge, Anerley and Crystal Palace: The Community, Past Present and Future, p114 Halsgrove. ISBN 1-84114-210-7 * ^ http://www.ideal-homes.org.uk/bromley/penge/empire-theatre.htm idealhomes.org.uk * ^ http://viewfinder.english-heritage.org.uk/search/reference.asp?index=565&main_query=&theme=&period=&county=&district=&place_name=London&imageUID=77020&=&JS=True viewfinder.english.heritage.org.uk * ^ http://www.mappalondon.com/london/south-east/map-london.htm mappalondon.com * ^ http://www.museumoflondon.org.uk/postcodes/places/SE20/stories/CAT122.html museumoflondon.org.uk * ^ The Penge
Penge
Murder, H. Sutherland, British Medical Journal v2 (766) 4 September 1875, 316–317 * ^ The Great Penge
Penge
Murder, Victorian Calendar 19 September 1877 http://victoriancalendar.blogspot.com.au/2011/09/september-19-1877-great-penge-murder.html * ^ Rachel Cooke (15 April 2012). "The Penge
Penge
Mystery: the terrible story of Harriet Staunton". The Observer. Retrieved 2014-03-08. * ^ British History Online – Battersea
Battersea
with Penge
Penge
Hamlet * ^ Kelly's Directory of Surrey, 1891 * ^ Hamlet of Penge, The Times, 27 February 1900 * ^ Quest for Justice, VOL 9/NO 3, JUL/SEP 2003, p219 * ^ A B Abbott, Peter, p114 * ^ Golden Lion Good Beer Guide
Good Beer Guide
listing * ^ http://www.pengegreengym.org.uk * ^ http://www.ideal-homes.org.uk/bromley/penge/royal-watermans.htm ideal-homes.org.uk * ^ A B C D John Newman. West Kent and the Weald. The "Buildings of England" Series, First Edition, Sir Nikolaus Pevsner
Nikolaus Pevsner
and Judy Nairn, eds. (London: Penguin, 1969), p.433. * ^ Housewife dies in Maple Road blast, 'BECKENHAM AND PENGE ADVERTISER\', 8 January 1959, p1. * ^ http://www.ideal-homes.org.uk/bromley/penge/police-station.htm ideal-homes.org.uk * ^ http://www.st-johnsprimary.co.uk/about-us * ^ The television transmitter is visible in the scene where they try to blow the doors off an armoured truck. * ^ "Map of Crystal Palace Park". Crystal Palace Park, Penge, South London. Cadillac Owners Club of Great Britain. Retrieved 29 May 2013. * ^ The Goon Show Scripts, Wobourne Press, 1972 * ^ Macmillan ISBN 0-330-29506-3 * ^ A B Abbott, Peter (2002), p93. * ^ 50 Things That Made the Modern Economy: S-Bend * ^ Abbott, Peter (2002), p94. * ^ Pullen, Doris E. (1990) Penge. self-published. ISBN 0-9504171-3-0 , p72 * ^ A B C D E F Pullen, Doris E. (1990), p72 * ^ Abbott, Peter (2002), p95 * ^ Famous watchmaker remembered with blue plaque, News Shopper (Bromley), 27 August 2014,

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