HOME
The Info List - Peloponnesian League


--- Advertisement ---



The Peloponnesian League was an alliance in the Peloponnesus
Peloponnesus
from the 6th to the 4th centuries BC, dominated by Sparta. It is known mainly for being one of the two rivals in the Peloponnesian War
Peloponnesian War
(431–404 BC), against the Delian League, which was dominated by Athens.

Contents

1 Early history 2 League organization 3 Later history of the League 4 External links

Early history[edit] By the end of the 7th century BC Sparta
Sparta
had become the most powerful city-state in the Peloponnese and was the political and military hegemon over Argos, the next most powerful city-state. Sparta
Sparta
acquired two powerful allies, Corinth
Corinth
and Elis
Elis
(also city-states), by ridding Corinth
Corinth
of tyranny, and helping Elis
Elis
secure control of the Olympic Games. Sparta
Sparta
continued to aggressively use a combination of foreign policy and military intervention to gain other allies. Sparta
Sparta
suffered an embarrassing loss to Tegea
Tegea
in a frontier war and eventually offered them a permanent defensive alliance; this was the turning point for Spartan foreign policy. Many other states in the central and provincial northern Peloponnese joined the league, which eventually included all Peloponnesian states except Argos
Argos
and Achaea. League organization[edit] The league was organized with Sparta
Sparta
as the hegemon, and was controlled by the council of allies which was composed of two bodies: the assembly of Spartiates and the Congress of Allies. Each allied state had one vote in the Congress, regardless of that state's size or geopolitical power. No tribute was paid except in times of war, when one third of the military of a state could be requested. Only Sparta could call a Congress of the League. All alliances were made with Sparta
Sparta
only, so if they so wished, member states had to form separate alliances with each other. And although each state had one vote, League resolutions were not binding on Sparta. Thus, the Peloponnesian League was not an "alliance" in the strictest sense of the word (nor was it wholly Peloponnesian for the entirety of its existence). The league provided protection and security to its members. It was a conservative alliance which supported Oligarchies and opposed tyrannies and democracies. Later history of the League[edit] After the Persian Wars
Persian Wars
the League was expanded into the Hellenic League and included Athens
Athens
and other states. The Hellenic League was led by Pausanias and, after he was recalled, by Cimon
Cimon
of Athens. Sparta
Sparta
withdrew from the Hellenic League, reforming the Peloponnesian League with its original allies. The Hellenic League then turned into the Athenian-led Delian League. This might have been caused by Sparta and its allies' unease over Athenian efforts to increase their power. The two Leagues eventually came into conflict with each other in the Peloponnesian War. Under Spartan leadership, the League defeated Athens
Athens
and its allies in 404 BC. Following the disastrous Spartan defeat by Thebes at the Battle of Leuktra in 371 BC, Elis
Elis
and the Arcadian states seized the opportunity to throw off the yoke of Spartan hegemony; the Arcadians formed themselves into their own league to preserve their independence. The size of the Peloponnesian League was then further reduced by the Theban liberation of Messenia
Messenia
from Spartan control in 369 BC. The states of the north-eastern Peloponnese, including Corinth, Sicyon
Sicyon
and Epidauros, adhered to their Spartan allegiance, but as the war continued in the 360s BC, many joined the Thebans or took a neutral position, though Elis
Elis
and some of the Arcadian states realigned themselves with Sparta. In 338 BC, the Peloponnesian League was disbanded when Philip II of Macedon, father of Alexander the Great, formed the League of Corinth
Corinth
after defeating Thebes and Athens, incorporating all the Peloponnesian states except Sparta. External links[edit]

Livius: Peloponnesian League

.