Peerages in the United Kingdom
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The peerage in the United Kingdom is a legal system comprising both hereditary and lifetime
titles A title is one or more words used before or after a person's name, in certain contexts. It may signify either generation, an official position, or a professional or academic qualification. In some languages, titles may be inserted between the firs ...
, composed of various noble ranks, and forming a constituent part of the
British honours system The British honours system is a means of rewarding individuals' personal bravery, achievement, or service to the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,U ...
. The term ''peerage'' can be used both collectively to refer to the entire body of
nobles Nobility is a social class normally ranked immediately below royalty and found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy Aristocracy ( grc-gre, ἀριστοκρατία , from 'excellent', and , 'rule') is a form of governme ...
(or a subdivision thereof), and individually to refer to a specific title (modern
English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading language of international discourse in the 21st centu ...
-style using an initial capital in the latter case but not the former). British peerage title holders are termed
peers of the Realm Peers may refer to: People * Donald Peers * Edgar Allison Peers, English academician * Gavin Peers * John Peers, Australian tennis player * Kerry Peers * Mark Peers * Michael Peers * Steve Peers * Teddy Peers (1886–1935), Welsh internation ...
. The peerage's fundamental roles are ones of government, peers being eligible (although formerly ''entitled'') to a seat in the
House of Lords The House of Lords is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Membership is by appointment, heredity or official function. Like the House of Commons of the United Kingdom, House of Commons, it meets in the Palace of Westminster ...

House of Lords
, and of meritocracy, the receiving of any peerage being the highest of British honours (with the receiving of a more traditional hereditary peerage naturally holding more weight than that of a more modern, and less highly regarded, ''life'' peerage). Peerages are created by the
British monarch The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) o ...
, like all Crown honours, being affirmed by
letters patent upLetters patent transferring a predecessor of the Nancy Nancy may refer to: Places France * Nancy, France, a city in the northeastern French department of Meurthe-et-Moselle and formerly the capital of the duchy of Lorraine ** Arrondiss ...
affixed with the
Great Seal of the Realm An impression in wax of the Great Seal of the Realm (1953) The Great Seal of the Realm or Great Seal of the United Kingdom (known prior to the Treaty of Union 1707, Treaty of Union of 1707 as the Great Seal of England; and from then until the Ac ...
.
Her Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom The Government of the United Kingdom, domestically referred to as Her Majesty's Government, is the central government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
makes recommendations to the Sovereign concerning who should be elevated to the peerage, after external vetting by the
House of Lords Appointments Commission The House of Lords Appointments Commission is an independent advisory non-departmental public bodyIn the United Kingdom, non-departmental public body (NDPB) is a classification applied by the Cabinet Office, HM Treasury, Treasury, the Scottish Gover ...
. Under present custom, the only new hereditary peerages granted are to members of the
royal family A royal family is the immediate family of kings/ queens, emirs/emiras, sultans/ sultanas, or raja/ rani and sometimes their extended family. The term imperial family appropriately describes the family of an emperor or emperor, empress, and the ...
; the last non-royal awardees of hereditary titles were in the Thatcher era. Since then, ruling parties have refrained from recommending any others to be elevated although there is nothing preventing future governments from doing so.
Labour Labour or labor may refer to: * Childbirth Childbirth, also known as labour or delivery, is the ending of pregnancy where one or more babies leaves the uterus by passing through the vagina or by Caesarean section. In 2015, there were about 13 ...
, elected to power in 1997, sought to remove all of the seats in the
House of Lords The House of Lords is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Membership is by appointment, heredity or official function. Like the House of Commons of the United Kingdom, House of Commons, it meets in the Palace of Westminster ...

House of Lords
reserved for hereditary peers, but Prime Minister
Tony Blair Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born 6 May 1953) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1997 to 2007 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1994 to 2007. On his resignation he was appointed Special Envoy ...

Tony Blair
relented by allowing 92 members to remain by legislation enacted in 1999. The House of Lords' purpose is now that of a revising legislative chamber, scrutinising and potentially changing proposed Parliamentary Bills before their enactment. Its membership for the most part comprises
life peer In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer ...
s, created under the
Life Peerages Act 1958 The Life Peerages Act 1958 established the modern standards for the creation of life peers by the British monarchy, Sovereign of the United Kingdom. Background This Act was made during the Conservative Government 1957–1964, Conservative governme ...
, which includes those who can add value in specific areas of expertise in parliamentary debates, as well as former MPs and other political appointees from respective political parties. The
Sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is borrowed from Old French ''souverain'', which is ultimately derived from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the It ...
, traditionally the
fount of honourThe fount of honour ( la, fons honorum) is a person, who, by virtue of his or her official position, has the exclusive right of conferring legitimate nobility, titles of nobility and orders of chivalry on other persons. Origin During the High Mid ...
, cannot hold a British peerage (although the
British Sovereign The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the monarch exercises authority in accordance with a written or ...
, whether male or female, is informally accorded the style of '
Duke of Lancaster The Duke of Lancaster is the titular owner of the estates of the Duchy of Lancaster and head of the County Palatine of Lancaster. It is also an ancient title that is informally used within Lancaster to describe Elizabeth II Elizabeth ...

Duke of Lancaster
'). All British subjects who were neither Royal nor Peers of the Realm were previously termed Commoners, regardless of wealth or other social factors, thus all members of a peer's family, with the exception of a wife or unmarried widow, are (technically) commoners too; the British system thus differs fundamentally from continental European versions, where entire families, rather than individuals, were
ennobled Nobility is a social class normally ranked immediately below Royal family, royalty and found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy (class), aristocracy. Nobility has often been an Estates of the realm, estate of the realm that p ...
. Nobility in Britain is based on title rather than bloodline, and correspondingly
The Princess Royal (Princess Anne)
The Princess Royal (Princess Anne)
who enjoys Royal status as daughter of The Queen, opted for her children to be Commoners by refusing offers of titles, despite their being grandchildren of the Sovereign (''qv.''
Peter Phillips Peter Mark Andrew Phillips (born 15 November 1977) is a member of the British royal family The British royal family comprises Queen Elizabeth II and her close relations. There is no strict legal or formal definition of who is or is not a ...

Peter Phillips
and
Zara Tindall Zara Anne Elizabeth Tindall (née Phillips; born 15 May 1981) is a member of the British royal family The British royal family comprises Queen Elizabeth II and her close relations. There is no strict legal or formal definition of who is o ...
). Certain personal privileges are afforded to all peers and peeresses, but the main distinction of a peerage nowadays, apart from access to the House of Lords for life peers and some hereditary peers, is the title and style thereby accorded. Succession claims to existing hereditary peerages are regulated by the House of Lords
Committee for Privileges and Conduct The Committee for Privileges and Conduct is a Select committee (United Kingdom), select committee of the House of Lords in the Parliament of the United Kingdom. The committee considers issues relating to the privileges of the House of Lords and its ...
and administered by The Crown Office.


Baronage evolution

The modern-day parliamentary peerage is a continuation of the renamed medieval
baronage {{English Feudalism King John signs '' Runnymede.html"_;"title="Magna_Carta''_at_Runnymede">Magna_Carta''_at_Runnymede_in_1215,_surrounded_by_his_baronage._Illustration_from_''Cassell's_History_of_England'',_1902. The_''baronage''_is_the_collectiv ...
system which existed in
feudal Feudalism, also known as the feudal system, was a combination of the legal, economic, military, and cultural customs that flourished in Medieval Europe between the 9th and 15th centuries. Broadly defined, it was a way of structuring society arou ...
times. The requirement of attending Parliament was both a liability and a privilege for those who held land as a
tenant-in-chief In Middle Ages, medieval and early modern Europe, the term ''tenant-in-chief'' (or ''vassal-in-chief'') denoted a person who held his lands under various forms of feudal land tenure directly from the king or territorial prince to whom he did Homa ...
from the
King of the King of the Romans (variant used in the early modern period) File:Nezahualpiltzintli.jpg">Aztec King Nezahualpiltzintli of Texcoco King is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen ...

King
''per baroniam'' – that is to say, under the feudal contract wherein a King's
Baron Baron is a rank of nobility Nobility is a social class normally ranked immediately below Royal family, royalty and found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy (class), aristocracy. Nobility has often been an Estates of the ...

Baron
was responsible for raising knights and troops for the royal military service. Certain other
office-holders
office-holders
such as senior
cleric Clergy are formal leaders within established religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religious behaviour, behaviors and practices, morality, morals, beliefs, worldviews, religious text, texts, shrine, sa ...
s and Freemen of the
Cinque Ports The Confederation of Cinque Ports () is a historic group of coastal towns in Kent, Sussex and Essex. The name is Old French, meaning "five harbours". It was originally formed for military and trade purposes, but is now entirely ceremonial. Th ...
were deemed barons. This right, entitlement or "title" began to be granted by decree in the form of a
Writ In common law In law, common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is the body of law created by judges and similar quasi-judicial tribunals by virtue of being stated in written opinions. ''Black's Law Dictionary ...

Writ
of Summons from 1265 and by
Letters Patent upLetters patent transferring a predecessor of the Nancy Nancy may refer to: Places France * Nancy, France, a city in the northeastern French department of Meurthe-et-Moselle and formerly the capital of the duchy of Lorraine ** Arrondiss ...
from 1388. Additionally, many holders of smaller fiefdoms ''per baroniam'' ceased to be summoned to
parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative body of government. Generally, a modern parliament has three functions: Representation (politics), representing the Election#Suffrage, electorate, making laws and overseeing the g ...
, resulting in
baronial status
baronial status
becoming personal rather than territorial. Feudal baronies had always been hereditable by
primogeniture Primogeniture ( ) is the right, by law or custom, of the firstborn legitimate child to inheritance, inherit the parent's entire or main estate (law), estate in preference to shared inheritance among all or some children, any illegitimate child o ...
, but on condition of payment of a fine, termed "
relief Relief is a sculptural technique where the sculpted elements remain attached to a solid background of the same material. The term ''wikt:relief, relief'' is from the Latin verb ''relevo'', to raise. To create a sculpture in relief is to give the ...
", derived from the Latin verb ''levo'' to lift up, meaning a "re-elevation" to a former position of honour. Baronies and other titles of nobility became unconditionally hereditable on the abolition of feudal tenure by the Tenures Abolition Act of 1660, and non-hereditable titles began to be created in 1876 for Law Lords, and in 1958 for Life Peers.


Peerage divisions

In the UK, five
peerage A peerage is a legal system historically comprising various hereditary titles (and sometimes Life peer, non-hereditary titles) in a number of countries, and composed of assorted noble ranks. Peerages include: Belgium * Belgian nobility Canada * ...
s co-exist, namely: * The
Peerage of England The Peerage of England comprises all peerages created in the Kingdom of England before the Act of Union 1707, Act of Union in 1707. In that year, the Peerages of England and Peerage of Scotland, Scotland were replaced by one Peerage of Great B ...
– titles created by the Kings and Queens of
England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. En ...

England
before the Act of Union in 1707. * The
Peerage of Scotland The Peerage of Scotland ( gd, Moraireachd na h-Alba, sco, Peerage o Scotland) is the section of the Peerage A peerage is a legal system historically comprising various hereditary titles (and sometimes Life peer, non-hereditary titles) in a n ...
– titles created by the Kings and Queens of
Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba ) is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. Covering the northern third of the island of Great Britain, mainland Scotland has a 96-mile (154 km) Anglo-Scottish bo ...

Scotland
before 1707. * The
Peerage of Ireland The Peerage of Ireland consists of those Peerage, titles of nobility created by the Monarchy of Ireland, English monarchs in their capacity as Lordship of Ireland, Lord or Monarchy of Ireland, King of Ireland, or later by monarchs of the Uni ...
– titles created for the
Kingdom of Ireland The Kingdom of Ireland ( Classical Irish: '; Irish language#An Caighdeán Oifigiúil, Modern Irish: ' ()) was a client state of Kingdom of England, England and then of Kingdom of Great Britain, Great Britain that existed from 1542 until 1800 in ...

Kingdom of Ireland
before the Act of Union of 1801, and some titles created later. * The
Peerage of Great Britain The Peerage of Great Britain comprises all extant peerage A peerage is a legal system historically comprising various hereditary titles (and sometimes Life peer, non-hereditary titles) in a number of countries, and composed of assorted noble ...
– titles created for the
Kingdom of Great Britain The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called Great Britain,"After the political union of England and Scotland in 1707, the nation's official name became 'Great Britain'", ''The American Pageant, Volume 1'', Cengage Learning (2012) was a so ...

Kingdom of Great Britain
between 1707 and 1801. * The
Peerage of the United Kingdom The Peerage of the United Kingdom comprises most peerages created in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland after the Acts of Union 1800, Acts of Union in 1801, when it replaced the Peerage of Great Britain. New peers continued to be c ...
– most titles created since 1801 to the present.


Ranks

Peers are of five ranks, in descending order of hierarchy: *
Duke Duke is a male title either of a monarch ruling over a duchy, or of a member of Royal family, royalty, or nobility. As rulers, dukes are ranked below emperors, kings, grand princes, grand dukes, and sovereign princes. As royalty or nobility, th ...

Duke
comes from the
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the ...

Latin
''dux'', meaning 'leader'. The first duke in a peerage of the British Isles was created in 1337. The feminine form is Duchess. *
Marquess A marquess (; french: marquis, ) is a nobleman of high hereditary rank in various European peerages and in those of some of their former colonies. The term is also used to translate equivalent Asian styles, as in Imperial China The ea ...
comes from the French ''
marquis A marquess (; french: marquis ), es, marqués, pt, marquês. is a nobleman Nobility is a social class normally ranked immediately below Royal family, royalty and found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy (class), aristo ...
'', which is a derivative of ''marche'' or march. This is a reference to the borders ('
marches In medieval Europe In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted from the 5th to the late 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire The fall of the Western Roman Empire (also called th ...
') between England, Scotland, and Wales, a relationship more evident in the feminine form, Marchioness. The first marquess in a peerage of the British Isles was created in 1385. *
Earl Earl () is a rank of the nobility in Britain. The title originates in the Old English word ''eorl'', meaning "a man of noble birth or rank". The word is cognate with the Scandinavia Scandinavia, Sami languages, Sami: ''Skadesi-suolu''/''S ...

Earl
comes from the
Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventu ...
or Anglo-Saxon ''eorl'', meaning a military leader. The meaning may have been affected by the
Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian is a stage of development of North Germanic languages, North Germanic dialects before their final divergence into separate Nordic languages. Old Norse was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and th ...
''jarl'', meaning a free-born warrior or nobleman, during the
Danelaw The Danelaw (, also known as the Danelagh; ang, Dena lagu; da, Danelagen) was the part of England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and ...
, thus giving rise to the modern sense. Since there was no feminine Old English or Old Norse equivalent for the term, 'Countess' is used (an Earl is analogous to the
Continental Continental may refer to: Places * Continent * Continental, Arizona, a small community in Pima County, Arizona, US * Continental, Ohio, a small town in Putnam County, US Arts and entertainment * Continental (album), ''Continental'' (album), an alb ...

Continental
'
count Count (feminine: countess) is a historical title of nobility Nobility is a social class normally ranked immediately below Royal family, royalty and found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy (class), aristocracy. Nobility ...

count
'), from the Latin ''comes''. The rank was created circa 800–1000. *
Viscount A viscount ( , for male) or viscountess (, for female) is a Title#Aristocratic titles, title used in certain European countries for a nobility, noble of varying status. In many countries a viscount, and its historical equivalents, was a non-her ...
comes from the Latin ''vicecomes'', meaning 'vice-count'. The rank was created in 1440. The feminine form is Viscountess. *
Baron Baron is a rank of nobility Nobility is a social class normally ranked immediately below Royal family, royalty and found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy (class), aristocracy. Nobility has often been an Estates of the ...

Baron
comes from the Old Germanic ''baro'', meaning 'freeman'. The rank was created in 1066. In the Peerage of Scotland alone, a holder of the fifth rank is not called a 'Baron' but rather a '
Lord of Parliament A Lord of Parliament ( sco, Laird o Pairlament) was the holder of the lowest form of peerage, entitled as of right to take part in sessions of the pre-Act of Union 1707, Union Parliament of Scotland. Since that Union in 1707, it has been the low ...
'.
Barons in Scotland In Scotland, a baron is the head of a feudal barony, also known as a prescriptive barony. This used to be attached to a particular piece of land on which was situated the ''caput'' (Latin for "head") or essence of the barony, normally a building ...
were traditionally holders of feudal dignities, not peers, but they are considered minor barons and are recognized by the crown as noble. The feminine form is Baroness. The title of Baron is the only possible rank of a ''life'' peerage, a life peerage being a considerably lesser honour than a hereditary peerage.
Baronet Image:BaronetUK.jpg, 190px, Neck decoration for baronets of the United Kingdom, depicting the Red Hand of Ulster A baronet ( or ; abbreviated Bart or Bt) or the rare female equivalent, a baronetess (, , or ; abbreviation Btss), is the holder of ...

Baronet
s, while holders of
hereditary title Hereditary titles, in a general sense, are nobility Nobility is a social class normally ranked immediately below Royal family, royalty and found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy (class), aristocracy. Nobility has often bee ...
s, are not
peer Peer may refer to: Sociology * Peer, an equal in age, education or social class; see Peer group * Peer, a member of the peerage Computing * Peer, one of several functional units in the same layer of a network; See Peer group (computer networking) ...
s since baronetcies have never conferred noble status, although socially they are regarded as part of the aristocracy.
Knight A knight is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a head of state (including the pope) or representative for service to the monarch, the christian denomination, church or the country, especially in a military capacity. Knighthood ...

Knight
s,
dame ''Dame'' is an honorific title and the feminine form of address for the honour of damehood in many Christian chivalric orders, as well as the Orders, decorations, and medals of the United Kingdom, British honours system and those of several other ...
s and holders of other British non-hereditary chivalric orders, decorations, and medals are likewise not peers.


Form of title

The titles of peers are in the form of "(Rank) (TitleName)" or "(Rank) of (TitleName)". The name of the title can either be a
place name Place may refer to: Geography * Place (United States Census Bureau)The United States Census Bureau defines a place as a concentration of population which has a name, is locally recognized, and is not part of any other place. A place typically ha ...
or a
surname In some cultures, a surname, family name, or last name is the portion of one's personal name that indicates their family, tribe or community. Practices vary by culture. The family name may be placed at either the start of a person's full nam ...
or a combination of both (e.g. The Duke of Norfolk or The Earl Spencer). The precise usage depends on the rank of the peerage and on certain other general considerations. For instance, Dukes always use "''of"''. Marquesses and Earls whose titles are based on Toponymy, place names normally use "''of"'' (e.g. Marquess of Bute, The Marquess of Bute and Marquess of Ailsa, The Marquess of Ailsa), while those whose titles are based on Surname, surnames normally do not (e.g. Viscount Scarsdale, The Marquess Curzon of Kedleston and Earl Alexander of Tunis, The Earl Alexander of Tunis). Viscounts, Barons and Lords of Parliament generally do not use "''of"''. However, there are several exceptions to the rule. For instance, Scottish vicecomital titles theoretically include "''of"'', though in practice it is usually dropped (e.g. "The Viscount of Falkland" is commonly known as the "Viscount Falkland".)


Multiple, compound and other names

While Surname, surnames and Toponymy, place names have been commonly used for peerage titles, it is also possible to create other forms of title. For instance, existing Double-barrelled name, double-barrelled surnames have been used for titles (e.g. Angela Burdett-Coutts, 1st Baroness Burdett-Coutts, The Baroness Burdett-Coutts and Clementine Churchill, The Baroness Spencer-Churchill) and other double-barrelled surnames have been created for peerages themselves (e.g. George Brown, Baron George-Brown, The Lord George-Brown). In a similar way, some peerage titles have been invented by combining surnames (e.g. Viscount Leverhulme, The Viscount Leverhulme was invented by William Lever, 1st Viscount Leverhulme, William Lever by combining his and his wife's surname of Hulme) or combining other names (e.g. Viscount Alanbrooke, The Viscount Alanbrooke which was created by Alan Brooke, 1st Viscount Alanbrooke, Alan Brooke by combining his first and last names). ''"Multiple"'' and "''compound"'' peerage titles have also evolved. A single individual can accumulate, by achievements or by inheritance, more than one peerage (of the same rank) and be known by a 'compound' of these titles (e.g. "The ''Duke of Buccleuch and Queensberry'"'' even though these peerages were originally created separately (i.e. the Duke of Buccleuch, Dukedom of Buccleuch (created in 1663) and the Duke of Queensberry, Dukedom of Queensberry (created in 1684) but unified in the person of Henry Scott, 3rd Duke of Buccleuch, Henry Scott, 3rd Duke of Buccleuch and 5th Duke of Queensberry and his descendants). On the other hand, a "''compound"'' peerage refers to a title ''specifically created'' as a compound of two or more names, such as Baron Saye and Sele (created in 1440) and Baron Brougham and Vaux (created in 1830). The last hereditary compound titles to be created (for each rank) were the Duke of Clarence and Avondale (created in 1890), the Marquess of Aberdeen and Temair (created in 1916), the Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne (created in 1937), the Viscount Newry and Mourne (created in 1822) and the Baron Dalling and Bulwer (created in 1871).


Geographic association

A territorial designation is often added to the main peerage title, especially in the case of barons and viscounts: for instance, ''Margaret Thatcher, The Baroness Thatcher, of Kesteven in the County of Lincolnshire'', or ''Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, The Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, of Hindhead in the County of Surrey''. Any designation after the comma does not form a part of the main title. Territorial designations in titles are not updated with local government in the United Kingdom, local government reforms, but new creations do take them into account. Thus there is ''Viscount Knollys, The Baron Knollys, of Caversham, Berkshire, Caversham in the Oxfordshire, County of Oxford'' (created in 1902), and ''Jill Pitkeathley, Baroness Pitkeathley, The Baroness Pitkeathley, of Caversham, Berkshire, Caversham in the Berkshire, Royal County of Berkshire'' (created in 1997). It was once the case that a peer administered the place associated with his title (such as an earl administering a county as high sheriff or main landowner), but lordships by tenure have not been commonplace since the early Norman period. The only remaining peerages with certain associated land law, rights over land are the Duchy of Cornwall (place), which appertains to the Dukedom of Cornwall, held by the eldest son and heir to the Sovereign, and the Duchy of Lancaster (place), which regular income (revenue) appertains to the Dukedom of Lancaster, held by the Sovereign whose government owns the capital and all capital gains on disposals. In both cases due to the particular function of bona vacantia in these areas, these titles afford rights encompassing the whole territorial designation of the holder, donated by the holder now to registered charities. Separate estates, smaller than counties, form the bulk of the two duchies.


Types of peers


Hereditary peers

A hereditary peer is a peer of the realm whose dignity may be inherited; those able to inherit it are said to be "in remainder". Hereditary peerage dignities may be created with Hereditary peer#Writs of summons, writs of summons or by
letters patent upLetters patent transferring a predecessor of the Nancy Nancy may refer to: Places France * Nancy, France, a city in the northeastern French department of Meurthe-et-Moselle and formerly the capital of the duchy of Lorraine ** Arrondiss ...
; the former method is now obsolete. Writs of summons summon an individual to Parliament, in the old feudal tradition, and merely ''implied'' the existence or creation of an hereditary peerage dignity, which is automatically inherited, presumably according to the traditional medieval rules (male-preference
primogeniture Primogeniture ( ) is the right, by law or custom, of the firstborn legitimate child to inheritance, inherit the parent's entire or main estate (law), estate in preference to shared inheritance among all or some children, any illegitimate child o ...
, like the succession of the British crown until 2011). Letters patent explicitly create a dignity and specify its course of inheritance (usually agnatic primogeniture, agnatic succession, like the Salic Law). Some hereditary titles can pass through and vest in female heirs in a system called coparcenary. Once created, a peerage dignity continues to exist as long as there are surviving legitimate descendants (or legitimate agnatic descendants) of the first holder, unless a contrary method of descent is specified in the letters patent. Once the heirs of the original peer die out, the peerage dignity becomes extinct. In former times, peerage dignities were often ''forfeit'' by Acts of Parliament, usually when peers were found guilty of treason. Often, however, the felonious peer's descendants successfully petitioned the Sovereign to restore the dignity to the family. Some dignities, such as the Duke of Norfolk, Dukedom of Norfolk, have been forfeit and restored several times. Under the Peerage Act 1963 an individual can Disclaimer of interest, disclaim his peerage dignity for his own lifetime within one year of inheriting it. When the holder of a peerage succeeds to the throne, the dignity "merges in the Crown" and ceases to exist. All hereditary peers in the Peerages of England, Scotland, Great Britain, and the United Kingdom were entitled to sit in the House of Lords, subject only to qualifications such as age and citizenship, but under section 1 of the House of Lords Act 1999 they lost this right. The Act provided that 92 hereditary peers — the Lord Great Chamberlain and the Earl Marshal, along with 90 others exempted through Rules of order, standing orders of the House — would remain in the House of Lords in the interim, pending any reform of the membership to the House. Standing Order 9 provides that those exempted are 75 hereditary peers elected by other peers from and by respective party groups in the House in proportion to their numbers, and fifteen chosen by the whole House to serve as officers of the House.


Representative peers

From 1707 until 1963, Peerage of Scotland, Scottish peers elected 16 representative peers to sit in the House of Lords. Since 1963, they have had the same rights as Peers of the United Kingdom. From 1801 until 1922, Peerage of Ireland, Irish peers elected 28 representative peers to sit in the House of Lords. Since 1922, when the Irish Free State became a separate country, no Irish representative peers have been elected, though sitting members retained their seats for life.


Life peers

Apart from hereditary peerages, there exist peerages that may be held for life and whose title cannot be passed onto someone else by inheritance. The Appellate Jurisdiction Act 1876 and the
Life Peerages Act 1958 The Life Peerages Act 1958 established the modern standards for the creation of life peers by the British monarchy, Sovereign of the United Kingdom. Background This Act was made during the Conservative Government 1957–1964, Conservative governme ...
authorise the regular creation of life peerages, with the right to sit in the House of Lords. Life peers created under both acts are of baronial rank and are always created under letters patent. Since the loss of the right of hereditary peers to sit in the House of Lords as a result of the House of Lords Act 1999, the majority of the House of Lords is made up of life peers. There is no limit on the number of peerages the sovereign may create under the Life Peerages Act. Normally life peerages are granted to individuals nominated by political parties or by the House of Lords Appointments Commission, and in order to honour retiring politicians, current senior judges, and senior members of the armed forces. Until the formal opening of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom on 1 October 2009, life peers created under the Appellate Jurisdiction Act were known as "Lords of Appeal in Ordinary" or in common parlance "Law Lords". They performed the judicial functions of the House of Lords and served on the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. They remained peers for life, but ceased to receive judicial salaries at the age of 75. Under the terms of the Act, there may be no more than 12 Lords of Appeal in Ordinary under the age of 75 at one time. However, after the transfer of the judicial functions of the Lords to the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom, the Act ceased to have meaningful effect. Under the House of Lords Reform Act 2014 and the House of Lords (Expulsion and Suspension) Act 2015 a life peer may lose membership of the House of Lords permanently in one of four ways: * Resignation or retirement effected by writing to the Clerk of the Parliaments; * Automatic expulsion through failing to attend a single sitting of the House throughout a whole session of more than six months duration without leave of absence, being suspended for that session or being exempted by the House for special circumstances; * Automatic expulsion through conviction of a criminal offence where the punishment is imprisonment for more than one year; * Expulsion by resolution of the House. While these provide for non-membership of the House of Lords, they do not allow a life peer to disclaim their peerage in the same way that a hereditary peer can disclaim theirs.


Styles and titles

Dukes use ''His Grace'', Marquesses use ''The Most Honourable'' and other peers use ''The Right Honourable''. Peeresses (whether they hold peerages in their own right or are wives of peers) use equivalent styles. In speech, any peer or peeress except a Duke or Duchess is referred to as ''Lord X'' or ''Lady X''. The exception is a ''suo jure'' baroness (that is, one holding the dignity in her own right, usually a life peeress), who may also be called ''Baroness X'' in normal speech, though ''Lady X'' is also common usage. Hence, Margaret Thatcher, The Baroness Thatcher, a ''suo jure'' life peeress, was referred to as either "Baroness Thatcher" or "Lady Thatcher". "Baroness" is incorrect for female holders of Scottish Lordships of Parliament, who are not Baronesses; for example, the Flora Fraser, 21st Lady Saltoun, 21st Lady Saltoun is known as "Lady Saltoun", not "Baroness Saltoun". A peer is referred to by his peerage even if it is the same as his surname, thus the David Owen, Baron Owen is "Lord Owen" not "Lord David Owen", though such erroneous forms are commonly used. Some peers, particularly life peers who were well known before their ennoblement, do not use their peerage titles. Others use a combination: for example, the author John Julius Norwich was John Julius Cooper, 2nd Viscount Norwich. Individuals who use the style ''Lord'' or ''Lady'' are not necessarily peers. Children of peers use special titles called courtesy titles. The heir apparent of a duke, a marquess, or an earl generally uses his father's highest lesser peerage dignity as his own. Hence, Duke of Devonshire, The Duke of Devonshire's son is called the Marquess of Hartington. Such an heir apparent is called a ''courtesy peer'', but is a commoner until such time as he inherits (unless summoned by a writ in acceleration). Younger sons of dukes and marquesses prefix ''Lord'' to their first names as courtesy titles while daughters of dukes, marquesses and earls use ''Lady''. Younger sons of earls and children of viscounts, barons and lords of Parliament use ''The Honourable''.


Precedence

Peers are entitled to a special order of precedence, precedence because of their ranks. Wives and children of peers are also entitled to a special precedence because of their station. The Sovereign may, as
fount of honourThe fount of honour ( la, fons honorum) is a person, who, by virtue of his or her official position, has the exclusive right of conferring legitimate nobility, titles of nobility and orders of chivalry on other persons. Origin During the High Mid ...
, vary the precedence of the peers or of any other people. For example, Elizabeth II granted her husband, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, precedence immediately following her; otherwise, he would have ranked along with the other dukes of the peerage of the United Kingdom.Velde, François R. (2007)
"Order of Precedence in England and Wales."
Retrieved on 2007-10-19.


General precedence

In England and Wales, the Sovereign ranks first, followed by the Royal Family. Then follow the Archbishop of Canterbury, Archbishops of Canterbury and Archbishop of York, York, the Great Officers of State and other important state functionaries such as the Prime Minister. Thereafter, dukes precede marquesses, who precede earls, who precede viscounts, who precede bishops, who precede barons and lords of Parliament. Within the members of each rank of the peerage, peers of England precede peers of Scotland. English and Scottish peers together precede peers of Great Britain. All of the aforementioned precede peers of Ireland created before 1801. Last come peers of Ireland created after 1801 and peers of the United Kingdom. Among peers of the same rank and Peerage, precedence is based on the creation of the title: those whose titles were created earlier precede those whose titles were created later. But in no case would a peer of a lower rank precede one of a higher rank. For example, the Duke of Fife, the last non-royal to be created a duke, would come before the Marquess of Winchester, though the latter's title was created earlier and is in a more senior peerage (the peerage of England). The place of a peer in the order for gentlemen is taken by his wife in the order for ladies, except that a Dowager peeress of a particular title precedes the present holder of the same title. Children of peers (and ''suo jure'' peeresses) also obtain a special precedence. The following algorithm may be used to determine their ranks: * Eldest sons of peers of rank X go after peers of rank X−1 * Younger sons of peers of rank X go after eldest sons of peers of rank X−1 * Wives have a precedence corresponding to those of their husbands * Daughters of peers of rank X go after wives of eldest sons of peers of rank X Over time, however, various offices were inserted at different points in the order, thereby varying it. Eldest sons of dukes rank after marquesses; eldest sons of marquesses and then younger sons of dukes rank after earls; eldest sons of earls and then younger sons of marquesses rank after viscounts. Eldest sons of viscounts, younger sons of earls, and then eldest sons of barons, in that order, follow barons, with the Treasurer of the Household, the Comptroller of the Household, the Vice-Chamberlain of the Household and Secretaries of State being interpolated between them and the barons. Younger sons of viscounts, and then younger sons of barons, come after the aforesaid eldest sons of barons, with Knights of the Order of the Garter and Order of the Thistle, Privy councillors and senior judges being intercalated between them and eldest sons of barons. Children of the eldest son of a peer also obtain a special precedence. Generally, the eldest son of the eldest son of a peer comes immediately before his uncles, while the younger sons of the eldest son of a peer come after them. Therefore, eldest sons of eldest sons of dukes come before younger sons of dukes, and younger sons of eldest sons of dukes come after them, and so forth for all the ranks. Below the younger sons of barons are baronets, knights, circuit judges and companions of the various orders of Chivalry, followed by the eldest sons of younger sons of peers. Wives of all of the aforementioned have precedence corresponding to their husbands', unless otherwise entitled to a higher precedence, for instance by virtue of holding a certain office. An individual's daughter takes precedence after the wife of that individual's eldest son and before the wives of that individual's younger sons. Therefore, daughters of peers rank immediately after wives of eldest sons of peers; daughters of eldest sons of peers rank immediately after wives of eldest sons of eldest sons of peers; daughters of younger sons of peers rank after wives of eldest sons of younger sons of peers. Such a daughter keeps her precedence if marrying a commoner (unless that marriage somehow confers a higher precedence), but rank as their husband if marrying a peer.


Precedence within Parliament

The order of precedence used to determine seating in the House of Lords chamber is governed by the House of Lords Precedence Act 1539. Precedence as provided by the Act is similar to, but not the same as, the order outside Parliament. The Sovereign, however, does not have the authority to change the precedence assigned by the Act. Lords Temporal assume precedence similar to precedence outside Parliament. One difference in the precedence of peers relates to the positions of the Great Officers of State and the officers of the Sovereign's Household. Some Great Officers—the Lord Chancellor, the Lord High Treasurer, the Lord President of the Council and the Lord Privy Seal—provided they are peers, rank before all other peers except those who are of the Blood Royal (no precedence is accorded if they are not peers). The positions of the other Great Officers—the Lord Great Chamberlain, the Lord High Constable of England, Lord High Constable, the Earl Marshal and the Admiralty (United Kingdom), Lord High Admiral—and the officers of the Household—the Lord Steward and the Lord Chamberlain—are based on their respective ranks. Thus, if the Lord Steward were a duke, he would precede all dukes, if a marquess, he would precede all marquesses, and so on. If two such officers are of the same rank, the precedence of the offices (reflected by the order in which they are mentioned above) is taken into account: if the Lord Great Chamberlain and Earl Marshal were both marquesses, for example, then the Great Chamberlain would precede the Earl Marshal, as the former office precedes the latter. In practice, however, the Act is obsolete, as the Lords do not actually sit according to strict precedence; instead, peers sit with their political parties.


Privilege of peerage

The privilege of peerage is the body of Privilege (legal ethics), privileges that belongs to peers, their wives and their unremarried widows. The privilege is distinct from parliamentary privilege, and applies to all peers, not just members of the House of Lords. It still exists, although "occasions of its exercise have now diminished into obscurity."''Companion to the standing orders and guide to the proceedings of the House of Lords'' (2007). House of Lords: The Stationery Office, p. 202-203. Although the extent of the privilege has been ill-defined, three features survived to the 20th century: the right to be tried by fellow peers in the Lord High Steward's Court and in the House of Lords (abolished in 1948); the personal right of access to the Sovereign at any time, but this privilege has long been obsolete; and the right to be exempt from civil arrest (a privilege that has been used only twice since 1945). All privileges of a peerage are lost if a peer disclaims his or her peerage under the Peerage Act 1963.


Vestments


Robes

Peerage robes are currently worn in the United Kingdom on ceremonial occasions. They are of two varieties: parliament robes, worn in the House of Lords on occasions such as at a peer's Introduction (House of Lords), introduction or state opening of parliament, and coronation robes, worn at the Coronation of the British monarch, coronations of monarchs. The details of the fur on these robes differs according to a peer's rank. Since the early Middle Ages, robes have been worn as a sign of nobility. At first, these seem to have been bestowed on individuals by the monarch or feudal lord as a sign of special recognition; but in the fifteenth century the use of robes became formalised with peers all wearing robes of the same basic design, though varied according to the rank of the wearer.Mansfield, A., ''Ceremonial Costume''. London: A & C Black 1980


Coronets and headgear

In the United Kingdom, a peer wears his or her coronet on only one occasion: for the Coronation of the British monarch, monarch's coronation, when it is worn along with coronation robes. *The coronet of a duke or duchess has eight strawberry leaves; *The coronet of a marquess or marchioness has four strawberry leaves and four silver balls (known as "pearls"); *The coronet of an earl or countess has eight strawberry leaves and eight "pearls" raised on stalks; *The coronet of a viscount or viscountess has sixteen "pearls" touching one another; *The coronet of a baron or baroness, or lord or lady of parliament in the Scots peerage, has six "pearls", and a plain circlet lacking the gem-shaped Repoussé and chasing, chasing of the other coronets. The robes and coronets used at Elizabeth II's coronation in 1953 cost about £1,250 (roughly £ in present-day terms). (Peers under the rank of an Earl, however, were allowed in 1953 to wear a cheaper "cap of estate" in place of a coronet, as were peeresses of the same rank, for whom a simpler robe was also permitted (a one-piece gown with wrap-around fur cape, designed by Norman Hartnell)). With the Parliament robe, a black hat was customarily worn. The State Opening of Parliament#Origins, Wriothesley Garter Book provides a contemporary illustration of the 1523 State Opening of Parliament: the two dukes present are shown wearing coronets with their parliament robes, but the other Lords Temporal are all wearing black hats. The Lords Spiritual are wearing mitres with their distinctive robes. Mitres ceased to be worn after the Reformation, and the wearing of hats in Parliament ceased, for the most part, when wigs came into fashion. They survive today only as part of the dress of Lords Commissioners, when they are worn with the parliamentary robe: a bicorn hat for men (of black beaver, edged with silk grosgrain ribbon) and a tricorne-like hat for women. (The use of these hats at Introductions of peers to the House was discontinued in 1998.)


Heraldry

Peers are generally entitled to use certain coats of arms, heraldic devices. Atop the arms, a peer may display a coronet. Dukes were the first individuals authorised to wear coronets. Marquesses acquired coronets in the 15th century, earls in the 16th and viscounts and barons in the 17th. Until the barons received coronets in 1661, the coronets of earls, marquesses and dukes were engraving, engraved while those of viscounts were plain. After 1661, however, viscomital coronets became engraved, while baronial coronets were plain. Coronets may not bear any precious or semi-precious stones. Generally, only peers may use the coronets corresponding to their ranks. The Bishop of Durham, however, may use a duke's coronet atop the arms as a reference to the historical temporal authority of the Prince-Bishops of Durham. Peers wear their coronets at coronations. Otherwise, coronets are seen only in heraldic representations, atop a peer's arms. Coronets include a silver gilding, gilt chaplet and a base of Ermine (heraldry), ermine fur. The coronet varies with the rank of the peer. A member of the Royal Family uses a royal coronet instead of the coronet he or she would use as a peer or peeress. Ducal coronets include eight strawberry leaves atop the chaplet, five of which are displayed in heraldic representations. Marquesses have coronets with four strawberry leaves alternating with four silver balls, of which three leaves and two balls are displayed. Coronets for earls have eight strawberry leaves alternating with eight silver balls (called "pearls" even though they are not) raised on spikes, of which five silver balls and four leaves are displayed. Coronets for viscounts have 16 silver balls, of which seven are displayed. Finally, baronial coronets have six silver balls, of which four are displayed. Peeresses use equivalent designs, but in the form of a circlet, which encircles the head, rather than a coronet, which rests atop the head. Peers are entitled to the use of supporters in their achievements of arms. Hereditary supporters are normally limited to hereditary peers, certain members of the Royal Family, chiefs of Scottish Clans, Scottish feudal barons whose baronies predate 1587. Non-hereditary supporters are granted to life peers, Order of the Garter, Knights of the Garter, Order of the Thistle, Knights of the Thistle, Order of the Bath, Knights and Dames Grand Cross of the Bath, Order of St Michael and St George, Knights and Dames Grand Cross of St Michael and St George, Royal Victorian Order, Knights and Dames Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order, Order of the British Empire, Knights and Dames Grand Cross of the British Empire, and Knight banneret, knights banneret. Peers, like most other armigers, may display helmet#Heraldry, helms atop their arms. Helms of peers are depicted in silver and facing the viewer's left. The helm is garnished in gold and the closed visor has gold bars, normally numbering five. Along with the helm, peers use a mantling, one side of which is red and the other a representation of the heraldic fur ermine. The mantling of peers is emblazoned ''gules, doubled ermine''. Peeresses and other female armigers do not bear helms or mantlings.For all this section see, for example, Sir Bernard Burke's ''General Armoury'' (1884) pp. xv–xx.


History

When William I of England, William of Normandy conquered England, he divided the nation into many "Lord of the manor, manors", the owners of which came to be known as barons; those who held many manors were known as "greater barons", while those with fewer manors were the "lesser barons". When Kings summoned their barons to Royal Councils, the greater barons were summoned individually by the Sovereign, lesser barons through sheriffs. In 1254, the lesser barons ceased to be summoned, and the body of greater barons evolved into the House of Lords. Since the Crown was itself a hereditary dignity, it seemed natural for seats in the upper House of Parliament to be so as well. By the beginning of the 14th century, the hereditary characteristics of the Peerage were well developed. The first peer to be created by patent was John de Beauchamp, 1st Baron Beauchamp (fourth creation), Lord Beauchamp of Holt in the reign of Richard II of England, Richard II. The modern peerage system is a vestige of the custom of English kings in the 12th and 13th centuries; in the late 14th century, this right (or "title") began to be granted by decree, and titles also became inherited with the rest of an estate under the system of
primogeniture Primogeniture ( ) is the right, by law or custom, of the firstborn legitimate child to inheritance, inherit the parent's entire or main estate (law), estate in preference to shared inheritance among all or some children, any illegitimate child o ...
. Non-hereditary positions began to be created again in 1867 for Law Lords, and 1958 generally. The ranks of baron and earl date to feudal, and perhaps Anglo-Saxon England, Anglo-Saxon, times. The ranks of duke and marquess were introduced in the 14th century, and that of viscount in the 15th century. While peerages for life were often created in the early days of the peerage, their regular creation was not provided for by Act of Parliament until the Appellate Jurisdiction Act 1876.


Counterparts

Other feudal monarchies equally held a similar system, grouping high nobility of different rank titles under one term, with common privileges and/or in an assembly, sometimes legislative and/or judicial. Itō Hirobumi and the other Meiji period, Meiji leaders deliberately modeled the Japanese House of Peers on the
House of Lords The House of Lords is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Membership is by appointment, heredity or official function. Like the House of Commons of the United Kingdom, House of Commons, it meets in the Palace of Westminster ...

House of Lords
, as a counterweight to the popularly elected House of Representatives of Japan, House of Representatives (''Shūgiin''). In France, the system of Peerage of France, pairies (peerage) existed in two different versions: the exclusive 'old' in the French kingdom, in many respects an inspiration for the English and later British practice, and the very prolific Chambre des Pairs under the Bourbon Restoration (1814–1848). In Spain and Portugal, the closest equivalent title was Grandee; in Hungary, Magnat. In the Kingdom of Sicily a peerage was instituted in 1812 in connection with the abolition of feudalism: peers were nominated based on the taxable incomes of their formerly feudal estates. In the Holy Roman Empire, instead of an exclusive aristocratic assembly, the legislative body was the Imperial Diet (Holy Roman Empire), Imperial Diet, membership of which, expressed by the title Prince of the Holy Roman Empire, was granted to allied princely families (and various minor ones), as well as to Princes of the Church (parallel to the Lords Spiritual) and in some cases was restricted to a collective 'curiate' vote in a 'bench', such as the Count, Grafenbank. In the medieval Irish nobility, Gaelic nobles were those presented with the White Wand or ''slat'' in a formal ceremony, and presented it by another noble. It was the primary symbol of lordship and effectively reserved only for the three tiers of kings (provincial, regional, local) and for those princely and comital families descending from them in control of significant territories. The total number was between 100 and 150 at any time.


See also

* List of courtesy titles in the peerages of Britain and Ireland * Aristocracy * Australian peers * Baronies created by error * British Honours System, British honours system * British nobility * Cash for Honours * Canadian peers and baronets, Canadian Peers and Baronets * Canadian titles debate * False titles of nobility * Forms of address in the United Kingdom * History of the Peerage *
House of Lords The House of Lords is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Membership is by appointment, heredity or official function. Like the House of Commons of the United Kingdom, House of Commons, it meets in the Palace of Westminster ...

House of Lords
* Landed gentry * List of British Jewish nobility and gentry * List of Irish representative peers * List of law life peerages (Appellate Jurisdiction Act, 1876) * List of life peerages (Life Peerages Act, 1958) * List of spiritual peers * Orders, decorations, and medals of New Zealand * Peerage law *
Peerage of England The Peerage of England comprises all peerages created in the Kingdom of England before the Act of Union 1707, Act of Union in 1707. In that year, the Peerages of England and Peerage of Scotland, Scotland were replaced by one Peerage of Great B ...
*
Peerage of Ireland The Peerage of Ireland consists of those Peerage, titles of nobility created by the Monarchy of Ireland, English monarchs in their capacity as Lordship of Ireland, Lord or Monarchy of Ireland, King of Ireland, or later by monarchs of the Uni ...
*
Peerage of Scotland The Peerage of Scotland ( gd, Moraireachd na h-Alba, sco, Peerage o Scotland) is the section of the Peerage A peerage is a legal system historically comprising various hereditary titles (and sometimes Life peer, non-hereditary titles) in a n ...
* Substantive title * Upper class * Welsh peers and baronets


References


Sources

* {{cite book, title=Commentaries on the Laws of England, url=http://www.lonang.com/exlibris/blackstone/, date=1765, last=Blackstone, first=W., location=Oxford, publisher=Clarendon Press * Bush, Michael L. ''The English Aristocracy: a Comparative Synthesis''. Manchester University Press, 1984. Concise comparative historical treatment.
Farnborough, T. E. May, 1st Baron. (1896). ''Constitutional History of England since the Accession of George the Third'', 11th ed. London: Longmans, Green and Co.
* ''Hilfswörterbuch für Historiker'' (in German) * Paul, James Balfour (ed.). ''The Scots Peerage Founded on . . . Sir Robert Douglas’s Peerage of Scotland''. 9v. Edinburgh: David Douglas, 1904–14. * "Peerage." (1911). ''Encyclopædia Britannica'', 11th ed. London: Cambridge University Press.
Peerage Act 1963. (1963 c. 48). London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.
* Plowden. Alison. ''Lords of the Land''. Michael Joseph, 1984. * John Langton Sanford, Sanford, John Langton and Meredith Townsend. ''The Great Governing Families of England''. 2v. Blackwood & Sons, 1865 (Books for Libraries Press, 1972).


External links


Burke's Peerage & Gentry

Cracroft's Peerage

Fake titles
Peerages in the United Kingdom,