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Pediatrics
Pediatrics
(also spelled paediatrics or pædiatrics) is the branch of medicine that involves the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents. The American Academy of Pediatrics
American Academy of Pediatrics
recommends people be under pediatric care up to the age of 21.[1] A medical doctor who specializes in this area is known as a pediatrician, or paediatrician. The word pediatrics and its cognates mean "healer of children"; they derive from two Greek words: παῖς (pais "child") and ἰατρός (iatros "doctor, healer"). Pediatricians work both in hospitals, particularly those working in its subspecialties such as neonatology, and as primary care physicians.

Contents

1 History 2 Differences between adult and pediatric medicine 3 Education Requirements 4 Training of pediatricians 5 Subspecialties 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links

History[edit]

Part of Great Ormond Street Hospital
Hospital
in London, United Kingdom, which was the first pediatric hospital in the English-speaking world.

Already Hippocrates, Aristotle, Celsus, Soranus, and Galen
Galen
understood the differences in growing and maturing organisms that necessitated different treatment: Ex toto non sic pueri ut viri curari debent ( "In general, boys should not be treated in the same way as men." Celsus[2]).[3] Some of the oldest traces of pediatrics can be discovered in Ancient India where children's doctors were called kumara bhrtya.[3] Sushruta Samhita an ayurvedic text, composed during the sixth century BC contains the text about pediatrics.[4] Another ayurvedic text from this period is Kashyapa Samhita.[5][6] A second century AD manuscript by the Greek physician and gynecologist Soranus of Ephesus dealt with neonatal pediatrics.[7] Byzantine physicians Oribasius, Aëtius of Amida, Alexander Trallianus, and Paulus Aegineta
Paulus Aegineta
contributed to the field.[3] The Byzantines also built brephotrophia (crêches).[3] Islamic writers served as a bridge for Greco-Roman and Byzantine medicine and added ideas of their own, especially Haly Abbas, Serapion, Avicenna, and Averroes. The Persian philosopher and physician al-Razi (865–925) published a monograph on pediatrics titled Diseases in Children
Children
as well as the first definite description of smallpox as a clinical entity.[8][9] Also among the first books about pediatrics was Libellus [Opusculum] de aegritudinibus et remediis infantium 1472 ("Little Book
Book
on Children Diseases and Treatment"), by the Italian pediatrician Paolo Bagellardo.[10] In sequence came Bartholomäus Metlinger's Ein Regiment der Jungerkinder 1473, Cornelius Roelans (1450–1525) no title Buchlein, or Latin compendium, 1483, and Heinrich von Louffenburg (1391–1460) Versehung des Leibs written in 1429 (published 1491), together form the Pediatric Incunabula, four great medical treatises on children's physiology and pathology.[3] The Swedish physician Nils Rosén von Rosenstein
Nils Rosén von Rosenstein
(1706–1773) is considered to be the founder of modern pediatrics as a medical specialty,[11][12] while his work The diseases of children, and their remedies (1764) is considered to be "the first modern textbook on the subject".[13] Pediatrics
Pediatrics
as a specialized field of medicine continued to develop in the mid-19th century; German physician Abraham Jacobi (1830–1919) is known as the father of American pediatrics because of his many contributions to the field.[14][15] He received his medical training in Germany
Germany
and later practiced in New York City. The first generally accepted pediatric hospital is the Hôpital des Enfants Malades (French: Hospital
Hospital
for Sick Children), which opened in Paris in June 1802 on the site of a previous orphanage.[16] From its beginning, this famous hospital accepted patients up to the age of fifteen years,[17] and it continues to this day as the pediatric division of the Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital, created in 1920 by merging with the physically contiguous Necker Hospital, founded in 1778. In other European countries, the Charité
Charité
(a hospital founded in 1710) in Berlin
Berlin
established a separate Pediatric Pavilion in 1830, followed by similar institutions at Sankt Petersburg
Sankt Petersburg
in 1834, and at Vienna
Vienna
and Breslau
Breslau
(now Wrocław), both in 1837. In 1852 Britain's first pediatric hospital, the Hospital
Hospital
for Sick Children, Great Ormond Streets.[16] The first Children's hospital
Children's hospital
in Scotland opened in 1860 in Edinburgh.[18] In the US, the first similar institutions were the Children's Hospital
Hospital
of Philadelphia, which opened in 1855, and then Boston Children's Hospital
Hospital
(1869).[19] Subspecialties in pediatrics were created at the Harriet Lane Home at Johns Hopkins Hospital
Hospital
by Edwards A. Park.[20] Differences between adult and pediatric medicine[edit] The body size differences are paralleled by maturation changes. The smaller body of an infant or neonate is substantially different physiologically from that of an adult. Congenital defects, genetic variance, and developmental issues are of greater concern to pediatricians than they often are to adult physicians. A common adage is that children are not simply "little adults". The clinician must take into account the immature physiology of the infant or child when considering symptoms, prescribing medications, and diagnosing illnesses. A major difference between the practice of pediatric and adult medicine is that children, in most jurisdictions and with certain exceptions, cannot make decisions for themselves. The issues of guardianship, privacy, legal responsibility and informed consent must always be considered in every pediatric procedure. Pediatricians often have to treat the parents and sometimes, the family, rather than just the child. Adolescents
Adolescents
are in their own legal class, having rights to their own health care decisions in certain circumstances. The concept of legal consent combined with the non-legal consent (assent) of the child when considering treatment options, especially in the face of conditions with poor prognosis or complicated and painful procedures/surgeries, means the pediatrician must take in to account the desires of many people, in addition to those of the patient. Education Requirements[edit] Aspiring medical students will need 4 years of undergraduate courses at a college or university, which will get them a BS, BA, or other bachelor's degree. After completing college future pediatricians will need to attend 4 years of medical school and later do 3 more years of residency training, the first year of residency is formerly called "Internship." After completing the 3 years of residency, physicians are eligible to become certified in pediatrics by passing a rigorous test that deals with medical conditions related to young children. In high school, future pediatricians are required to take basic science classes, such as, biology, chemistry, physics, algebra, geometry, and calculus and also foreign language class, preferably Spanish, and get involved in high school organizations and extracurricular activities. After high school, college students simply need to fulfill the basic science course requirements that most medical schools recommend and will need to prepare to take the MCAT (Medical College Admission Test) their junior or early senior year in college. Once attending medical school, students courses will focus on basic medical sciences, like human anatomy, physiology, chemistry, etc., for the first three years. The second year is when medical students start to get "hands-on" experience with patients.[21] Training of pediatricians[edit]

Pediatrics

Occupation

Names

Pediatrician Paediatrician

Specialty

Activity sectors

Medicine

Description

Education required

Doctor of Medicine Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS/MBChB)

Fields of employment

Hospitals, Clinics

The training of pediatricians varies considerably across the world. Depending on jurisdiction and university, a medical degree course may be either undergraduate-entry or graduate-entry. The former commonly takes five or six years, and has been usual in the Commonwealth. Entrants to graduate-entry courses (as in the US), usually lasting four or five years, have previously completed a three- or four-year university degree, commonly but by no means always in sciences. Medical graduates hold a degree specific to the country and university in and from which they graduated. This degree qualifies that medical practitioner to become licensed or registered under the laws of that particular country, and sometimes of several countries, subject to requirements for "internship" or "conditional registration". Pediatricians must undertake further training in their chosen field. This may take from four to eleven or more years, (depending on jurisdiction and the degree of specialization). In the United States, a medical school graduate wishing to specialize in pediatrics must undergo a three-year residency composed of outpatient, inpatient, surgical, and critical care rotations. Specialties within pediatrics require further training in the form of 3-year fellowships. Specialties include critical care, gastroenterology, neurology, infectious disease, hematology/oncology, rheumatology, pulmonology, child abuse, emergency medicine, endocrinology, neonatology, and others.[22] In most jurisdictions, entry-level degrees are common to all branches of the medical profession, but in some jurisdictions, specialization in pediatrics may begin before completion of this degree. In some jurisdictions, pediatric training is begun immediately following completion of entry-level training. In other jurisdictions, junior medical doctors must undertake generalist (unstreamed) training for a number of years before commencing pediatric (or any other) specialization. Specialist training is often largely under the control of pediatric organizations (see below) rather than universities, and depend on jurisdiction. Subspecialties[edit] Subspecialties of pediatrics include: (not an exhaustive list)

Adolescent
Adolescent
medicine Child
Child
abuse pediatrics Clinical informatics Developmental-behavioral pediatrics Electrophysiology Genetics Headache
Headache
medicine Hospice
Hospice
& palliative care Neonatology Pain
Pain
medicine Pediatric allergy and immunology Pediatric cardiology Pediatric critical care Pediatric emergency medicine Pediatric endocrinology Pediatric gastroenterology Pediatric hematology Pediatric infectious disease Pediatric nephrology Pediatric oncology

Pediatric neuro-oncology

Pediatric pulmonology Pediatric rheumatology Sleep
Sleep
medicine Social pediatrics Sports medicine Transplant hepatology

Other specialties that care for children include:

Child
Child
neurology, a specialty in its own right

Epilepsy Neurocritical Care Pediatric neuro-oncology

Child
Child
psychiatry, subspecialty of psychiatry Pediatric anesthesiology, subspecialty of anesthesiology Pediatric dermatology, subspecialty of dermatology Pediatric neurosurgery, subspecialty of neurosurgery Pediatric ophthalmology, subspecialty of ophthalmology Pediatric orthopedic surgery, subspecialty of orthopedic surgery Pediatric otolaryngology, subspecialty of otolaryngology Pediatric rehabilitation medicine, subspecialty of physical medicine and rehabilitation Pediatric surgery, subspecialty of general surgery Pediatric urology, subspecialty of urology

See also[edit]

Children's hospital Pain
Pain
in babies American Academy of Pediatrics American Osteopathic Board of Pediatrics Royal College of Paediatrics and Child
Child
Health Center on Media and Child
Child
Health (CMCH) Pediatric Oncall Medical specialty

References[edit]

^ "Age limits of pediatrics". Pediatrics. 81 (5): 736. May 1988. PMID 3357740. Retrieved 18 April 2017.  ^ Celsus, De Medicinâ, Book
Book
3, Chapter 7, § 1. ^ a b c d e Colón, A. R.; Colón, P. A. (January 1999). Nurturing children: a history of pediatrics. Greenwood Press. ISBN 9780313310805. Retrieved 20 October 2012.  ^ John G. Raffensperger. Children's Surgery: A Worldwide History. McFarland. p. 21.  ^ David Levinson; Karen Christensen. Encyclopedia of modern Asia. 4. Charles Scribner's Sons. p. 116.  ^ Desai, A.B. Textbook Of Paediatrics. Orient blackswan. p. 1.  ^ P.M. Dunn, " Soranus of Ephesus (circa AD 98–138) and perinatal care in Roman times", Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal and Neonatal Edition, 1995 July; 73(1): F51–F52.[1] ^ Elgood, Cyril (2010). A Medical History of Persia and The Eastern Caliphate (1st ed.). London: Cambridge. pp. 202–203. ISBN 978-1-108-01588-2. By writing a monograph on 'Diseases in Children' he may also be looked upon as the father of paediatrics.  ^ U.S. National Library of Medicine, "Islamic Culture and the Medical Arts, Al-Razi, the Clinician" [2] ^ "Achar S Textbook Of Pediatrics
Pediatrics
(Third Edition)". A. B. Desai (ed.) (1989). p.1. ISBN 81-250-0440-8 ^ Lock, Stephen; John M. Last; George Dunea (2001). The Oxford illustrated companion to medicine. Oxford University Press US. p. 173. ISBN 978-0-19-262950-0. Retrieved 9 July 2010.  ^ Roberts, Michael (2003). The Age of Liberty: Sweden 1719–1772. Cambridge University Press. p. 216. ISBN 978-0-521-52707-1. Retrieved 9 July 2010.  ^ Dallas, John. "Classics of Child
Child
Care". Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh. Retrieved 9 July 2010. [permanent dead link] ^ "Broadribb's Introductory Pediatric Nursing". Nancy T. Hatfield (2007). p.4. ISBN 0-7817-7706-2 ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2006-04-18. Retrieved 2006-04-06.  ^ a b Ballbriga, Angel (1991). "One century of pediatrics in Europe (section: development of pediatric hospitals in Europe)". In Nichols, Burford L.; et al. History of Paediatrics 1850–1950. Nestlé Nutrition Workshop Series. 22. New York: Raven Press. pp. 6–8. ISBN 0-88167-695-0.  ^ official history site (in French) of nineteenth century paediatric hospitals in Paris ^ Young, D.G. (August 1999). "The Mason Brown Lecture: Scots and paediatric surgery". Journal of the Royal College of surgeons Edinburgh. 44: 211–5. Archived from the original on 2014-07-14.  ^ Pearson, Howard A. (1991). " Pediatrics
Pediatrics
in the United States". In Nichols, Burford L.; et al. History of Paediatrics 1850–1950. Nestlé Nutrition Workshop Series. 22. New York: Raven Press. pp. 55–63. ISBN 0-88167-695-0.  ^ ""Commentaries: Edwards A Park"". Pediatrics. American Academy of Pediatrics. 44: 897–901. 1969.  ^ "What Education Is Required to Be a Pediatrician?". Retrieved 2017-06-14.  ^ http://www.pedsubs.org/subDes/index.cfm

Further reading[edit]

Contemporary Pediatrics
Pediatrics
– a monthly magazine Clinical Pediatrics
Pediatrics
– a peer-reviewed journal Consultant for Pediatricians – a peer-reviewed journal

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Paediatrics.

Wikibooks has a book on the topic of: Pediatrics

Look up Paediatrics or Pediatrics
Pediatrics
in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

American Academy of Pediatrics Canadian Paediatric Society Academia Mexicana de Pediatria Pediatric Collection by the BMJ – Collection of Pediatric papers published in the British Medical Journal. Health-EU Portal
Portal
– Babies' and Children's health in the EU Paediatrics.info New York University Pediatrics
Pediatrics
Video Lectures Infant
Infant
Feeders Collection – A historical collection of infant feeding devices from the UBC Library Digital Collections Pediatric Oncall
Pediatric Oncall
Child
Child
Health Care website for doctors and parents

v t e

Medicine

Outline History

Specialties and subspecialties

Surgery

Cardiac surgery Cardiothoracic surgery Colorectal surgery Eye surgery General surgery Neurosurgery Oral and maxillofacial surgery Orthopedic surgery Hand surgery Otolaryngology
Otolaryngology
(ENT) Pediatric surgery Plastic surgery Reproductive surgery Surgical oncology Thoracic surgery Transplant surgery Trauma surgery Urology

Andrology

Vascular surgery

Internal medicine

Allergy
Allergy
/ Immunology Angiology Cardiology Endocrinology Gastroenterology

Hepatology

Geriatrics Hematology Hospital
Hospital
medicine Infectious disease Nephrology Oncology Pulmonology Rheumatology

Obstetrics
Obstetrics
and gynaecology

Gynaecology Gynecologic oncology Maternal–fetal medicine Obstetrics Reproductive endocrinology and infertility Urogynecology

Diagnostic

Radiology

Interventional radiology Nuclear medicine

Pathology

Anatomical pathology Clinical pathology Clinical chemistry Clinical immunology Cytopathology Medical microbiology Transfusion medicine

Other specialties

Addiction medicine Adolescent
Adolescent
medicine Anesthesiology Dermatology Disaster medicine Diving medicine Emergency medicine

Mass-gathering medicine

Family medicine General practice Hospital
Hospital
medicine Intensive-care medicine Medical genetics Neurology

Clinical neurophysiology

Occupational medicine Ophthalmology Oral medicine Pain
Pain
management Palliative care Pediatrics

Neonatology

Physical medicine and rehabilitation
Physical medicine and rehabilitation
(PM&R) Preventive medicine Psychiatry Public health Radiation oncology Reproductive medicine Sexual medicine Sleep
Sleep
medicine Sports medicine Transplantation medicine Tropical medicine

Travel medicine

Venereology

Medical education

Medical school Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery Bachelor of Medical Sciences Master of Medicine Master of Surgery Doctor of Medicine Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine MD–PhD

Related topics

Allied health

Dentistry Podiatry Physiotherapy

Nanomedicine Molecular oncology Personalized medicine Veterinary medicine Physician

Chief physician

History of medicine

Book

v t e

Infants and their care

Main Article

Infant

Health

Baby food Birth weight Breast pump Breastfeeding Breastfeeding
Breastfeeding
and medications Bottle feeding Colic Immunizations Cradle cap Cross eyed Failure to thrive Immunization Infant
Infant
and toddler safety Infant
Infant
bathing Infant
Infant
food safety Infant
Infant
formula Infant
Infant
massage Infant
Infant
food safety Infant
Infant
nutrition Infant
Infant
respiratory distress syndrome infant sleep training Neo-natal intensive care unit Oral rehydration therapy/Pedialyte Newborn care and safety Pediatrician Preterm birth Shaken baby syndrome Soy formula Sudden infant death syndrome

Development

Attachment parenting Baby-led weaning Baby talk Babbling Childbirth Congential disorder Crawling Infant
Infant
visual development Diaper
Diaper
rash Gestational age Infant
Infant
cognitive development Kangaroo care Mother Nursery Rhyme Object permanence Parent Parenting Peekaboo Play Prenatal development Prenatal development
Prenatal development
table Teething Types of crying Walking Weaning

Socialization and Culture

Attachment Babysitting Child
Child
abuse Child
Child
custody Child's rights UN Child
Child
rights Circumcision Daycare Foster care Grandparent visitation Infant
Infant
swimming Milk bank Nanny Wet nurse

Infant
Infant
care and equipment

Baby bouncer Baby gate Baby monitor/Hidden camera Baby powder Baby shampoo Baby toy Baby walker Bib baby swing Baby transport Bassinet Child
Child
safety seat/Car seat safety Cloth diaper Cradle board Diaper Diaper
Diaper
bag Baby wipes Haberman Feeder Highchair Infant
Infant
bed (American 'crib' and 'cradle', British 'cot') Infant
Infant
carrier Infant
Infant
clothing Pacifier Playpen Stroller Supplemental nursing system Swaddling Swim diaper Baby teether Travel cot

Other topics

Baby shower Babywearing Child
Child
neglect Closed adoption Cry room Infant
Infant
ear piercing Open adoption Prenatal cocaine exposure Neonatal withdrawal
Neonatal withdrawal
syndrome Parental child abduction Parental rights Parenting
Parenting
plan Paternity fraud Paternity

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