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Coordinates: 21°22′04″N 157°58′38″W / 21.3679°N 157.9771°W / 21.3679; -157.9771 Pearl Harbor
Harbor
is a lagoon harbor on the island of Oahu, Hawaii, west of Honolulu. It has been long visited by the Naval fleet of the United States, before it was acquired from the Hawaiian Kingdom
Hawaiian Kingdom
by the U.S. with the signing of the Reciprocity Treaty of 1875. Much of the harbor and surrounding lands is now a United States Navy
United States Navy
deep-water naval base. It is also the headquarters of the United States
United States
Pacific Fleet. The U.S. government first obtained exclusive use of the inlet and the right to maintain a repair and coaling station for ships here in 1887.[1] The attack on Pearl Harbor
Harbor
by the Empire of Japan
Empire of Japan
on December 7, 1941, was the immediate cause of the United States' entry into World War II.[2][3][4]

Contents

1 History

1.1 19th century 1.2 Naval presence (1899–present)

1.2.1 Post-World War II

2 See also 3 References 4 External links

History See also: History of Hawaii Pearl Harbor
Harbor
was originally an extensive shallow embayment called Wai Momi (meaning, “Waters of Pearl”)[5] or Puʻuloa (meaning, “long hill”) by the Hawaiians. Puʻuloa was regarded as the home of the shark goddess, Kaʻahupahau, and her brother (or son), Kahiʻuka, in Hawaiian legends. According to tradition, Keaunui, the head of the powerful Ewa chiefs, is credited with cutting a navigable channel near the present Puʻuloa saltworks, by which he made the estuary, known as "Pearl River," accessible to navigation. Making due allowance for legendary amplification, the estuary already had an outlet for its waters where the present gap is; but Keaunui is typically given the credit for widening and deepening it.[6] 19th century See also: Kingdom of Hawaii

Pearl Harbor
Harbor
in the 1880s.

During the early 19th century, Pearl Harbor
Harbor
was not used for large ships due to its shallow entrance. The interest of United States
United States
in the Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands
grew as a result of its whaling, shipping and trading activity in the Pacific. As early as 1820, an "Agent of the United States
United States
for Commerce and Seamen" was appointed to look after American business in the Port of Honolulu. These commercial ties to the American continent were accompanied by the work of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. American missionaries and their families became an integral part of the Hawaiian political body. Throughout the 1820s and 1830s, many American warships visited Honolulu. In most cases, the commanding officers carried letters from the U.S. Government giving advice on governmental affairs and of the relations of the island nation with foreign powers. In 1841, the newspaper Polynesian, printed in Honolulu, advocated that the U.S. establish a naval base in Hawaii
Hawaii
for protection of American citizens engaged in the whaling industry. The British Hawaiian Minister of Foreign Affairs Robert Crichton Wyllie, remarked in 1840 that "... my opinion is that the tide of events rushes on to annexation to the United States." From the conclusion of the Civil War, to the purchase of Alaska, to the increased importance of the Pacific states, the projected trade with countries in Asia and the desire for a duty-free market for Hawaiian staples, Hawaiian trade expanded. In 1865, the North Pacific Squadron was formed to embrace the western coast and Hawaii. Lackawanna in the following year was assigned to cruise among the islands, "a locality of great and increasing interest and importance." This vessel surveyed the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands
toward Japan. As a result, the United States
United States
claimed Midway Island. The Secretary of the Navy was able to write in his annual report of 1868, that in November 1867, 42 American flags flew over whaleships and merchant vessels in Honolulu to only six of other nations. This increased activity caused the permanent assignment of at least one warship to Hawaiian waters. It also praised Midway Island as possessing a harbor surpassing Honolulu's. In the following year, Congress approved an appropriation of $50,000 on March 1, 1869, to deepen the approaches to this harbor.

Astronaut photograph of Pearl Harbor
Harbor
from October 2009

After 1868, when the Commander of the Pacific Fleet visited the islands to look after American interests, naval officers played an important role in internal affairs. They served as arbitrators in business disputes, negotiators of trade agreements and defenders of law and order. Periodic voyages among the islands and to the mainland aboard U.S. warships were arranged for members of the Hawaiian royal family and important island government officials. When King Lunalilo died in 1873, negotiations were underway for the cession of Pearl Harbor
Harbor
as a port for the duty-free export of sugar to the U.S.[citation needed] With the election of King Kalākaua
Kalākaua
in March 1874, riots prompted landing of sailors from USS Tuscarora and Portsmouth. The British warship, HMS Tenedos, also landed a token force. During the reign of King Kalākaua
Kalākaua
the United States
United States
was granted exclusive rights to enter Pearl Harbor
Harbor
and to establish "a coaling and repair station." Although this treaty continued in force until August 1898, the U.S. did not fortify Pearl Harbor
Harbor
as a naval base. The shallow entrance constituted a formidable barrier against the use of the deep protected waters of the inner harbor as it had for 60 years. The United States
United States
and the Hawaiian Kingdom
Hawaiian Kingdom
signed the Reciprocity Treaty of 1875 as supplemented by Convention on December 6, 1884, the Reciprocity Treaty was made by James Carter and ratified it in 1887. On January 20, 1887, the United States
United States
Senate allowed the Navy to exclusive right to maintain a coaling and repair station at Pearl Harbor. (The US took possession on November 9 that year). The Spanish–American War
Spanish–American War
of 1898 and the desire for the United States
United States
to have a permanent presence in the Pacific both contributed to the decision. Naval presence (1899–present) Main article: Naval Station Pearl Harbor

USS Arizona, during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, December 7, 1941

Following the overthrow of the Hawaiian Kingdom, the United States Navy established a base on the island in 1899. On December 7, 1941, the base was attacked by the Imperial Japanese Navy
Imperial Japanese Navy
airplanes and midget submarines, causing the American entry into World War II. One of the main reasons that Pearl Harbor
Harbor
happened was because the United States had major communication breakdowns among several branches of the U.S. armed services and departments of the U.S. government. This led to the surprise Japanese attack at the Hawaiian air base.[7] There was no meaningful plan for the air defense of Hawaii, for American commanders had no understanding of the capabilities and proper employment of air power. As it was, had the Pacific Fleet acted on the war warnings it undoubtedly would have sortied and been at sea on December 7, where the major ships would have been sunk in deep water, making salvage impossible.[8] Shortly after the devastating Japanese surprise attack at Pearl Harbor
Harbor
two American military commanders, Lt. Gen. Walter Short
Walter Short
and Adm. Husband Kimmel were demoted of their full ranks. The two American commanders later sought to restore their reputations and full ranks.[9] Post-World War II Over the years, Pearl Harbor
Harbor
remained a main base for the US Pacific Fleet after World War II
World War II
along with Naval Base San Diego. In 2010, the Navy and the Air Force merged their two nearby bases; Pearl Harbor joined with Hickam Air Force Base to create Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam. On February 18, 2016, a tourist helicopter fell into Pearl Harbor, injuring four people; one person was missing.[10][11] In December 2016, Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe
Shinzo Abe
made a joint visit to Pearl Harbor
Harbor
with US President Barack Obama. This trip marked the 75 year anniversary of the attack, and was the first official visit by a sitting Japanese leader.[12] See also

Ford Island Admiral Clarey Bridge Pearl Harbor
Harbor
National Wildlife Refuge

References

^ http://www.history.navy.mil: The U.S. Navy in Hawaii, 1826-1945: An Administrative History ^ FDR Pearl Harbor
Harbor
Speech. December 8, 1941. Retrieved 2011-02-05. December 7th, 1941, a day that will live in infamy.  ^ Apple, Russell A.; Benjamin Levy (February 8, 1974). "Pearl Harbor" (pdf). National Register of Historic Places - Nomination and Inventory. National Park Service. Retrieved 25 May 2012.  ^ "Pearl Harbor" (pdf). Photographs. National Park Service. Retrieved 25 May 2012.  ^ "Places - The History of Pearl Harbor". National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior. Retrieved December 22, 2014.  ^ "Cold Spots - Pearl Harbor
Harbor
- Dread Central". Dread Central.  ^ Burtness, Paul; Warren, Ober (2013). "Communication Lapses Leading to the Pearl Harbor
Harbor
Disaster". 75 (4): 20.  ^ Smith, Dale (1997). "Pearl Harbor: A lesson in air power". Air Power History. 44 (1): 46–53.  ^ "Remember Pearl Harbor". Christian Science Monitor: 2. January 6, 1996.  ^ Molly Roecker. "Honolulu Tourist Helicopter Crashes in Pearl Harbor". NBC News.  ^ Steve Almasy, CNN (19 February 2016). "Pearl Harbor
Harbor
helicopter crash: 1 critically injured". CNN.  ^ Ito, Shingo (5 December 2016). "We did our jobs: Japanese participant remembers Pearl Harbor". www.atimes.com. Retrieved 7 December 2016. 

External links

Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
has media related to: Pearl Harbor
Harbor
(category)

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1921 Collier's Encyclopedia
Collier's Encyclopedia
article Pearl Harbor.

British Pathé Online archive of Pearl Harbor
Harbor
and related footage Pearl Harbor
Harbor
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Pearl Harbor
Harbor
on The History Channel

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 135657338 GND: 4044991-9 BNF: cb126501610 (d

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