The Info List - Peace Corps

The Peace Corps
Peace Corps
is a volunteer program run by the United States government. The stated mission of the Peace Corps
Peace Corps
includes providing technical assistance, helping people outside the United States to understand American culture, and helping Americans to understand the cultures of other countries. The work is generally related to social and economic development. Each program participant, a Peace Corps Volunteer, is an American citizen, typically with a college degree, who works abroad for a period of two years after three months of training. Volunteers work with governments, schools, non-profit organizations, non-government organizations, and entrepreneurs in education, business, information technology, agriculture, and the environment. After 24 months of service, volunteers can request an extension of service.[2] The program was established by Executive Order 10924, issued by President John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
on March 1, 1961, announced by televised broadcast March 2, 1961, and authorized by Congress on September 21, 1961, with passage of the Peace Corps
Peace Corps
Act (Pub.L. 87–293). The act declares the program's purpose as follows:

To promote world peace and friendship through a Peace Corps, which shall make available to interested countries and areas men and women of the United States qualified for service abroad and willing to serve, under conditions of hardship if necessary, to help the peoples of such countries and areas in meeting their needs for trained manpower.

From 1961 to 2015, nearly 220,000 Americans have joined the Peace Corps and served in 141 countries.[3] The Peace Corps
Peace Corps
shows "the willingness of Americans to work at the grassroots level in order to help underdeveloped countries meet their needs". The Peace Corps
Peace Corps
has affected the way people of other countries view Americans, how Americans view other countries, and how Americans view their own country.[4]


1 History

1.1 1950–1959 1.2 1960–1969 1.3 1970–1999 1.4 2000–present

2 International presence 3 Application Process 4 Initiatives

4.1 Eradicating malaria in Africa 4.2 Environment 4.3 Peace Corps
Peace Corps
Response 4.4 Education and languages

5 Laws governing the Peace Corps

5.1 Executive orders 5.2 Laws 5.3 Code of Federal Regulations 5.4 Limitations on former volunteers 5.5 Time limits on employment

6 Union representation 7 Leadership

7.1 Directors 7.2 Inspector General

8 In the news 9 Criticism 10 In popular culture 11 See also 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External links

History[edit] 1950–1959[edit]

John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
greets volunteers on August 28, 1961

Following the end of World War II, various members of the United States Congress proposed bills to establish volunteer organizations in developing countries. In December 1951 Representative John F. Kennedy (D-Massachusetts) suggested to a group that "young college graduates would find a full life in bringing technical advice and assistance to the underprivileged and backward Middle East ... In that calling, these men would follow the constructive work done by the religious missionaries in these countries over the past 100 years."[5]:337–338 In 1952 Senator Brien McMahon
Brien McMahon
(D-Connecticut) proposed an "army" of young Americans to act as "missionaries of democracy".[6] Privately funded nonreligious organizations began sending volunteers overseas during the 1950s. While Kennedy is credited with the creation of the Peace Corps
Peace Corps
as president, the first initiative came from Senator Hubert H. Humphrey, Jr.
Hubert H. Humphrey, Jr.
(D-Minnesota), who introduced the first bill to create the Peace Corps
Peace Corps
in 1957—three years before the University of Michigan speech. In his autobiography The Education of a Public Man, Humphrey wrote,

There were three bills of particular emotional importance to me: the Peace Corps, a disarmament agency, and the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. The President, knowing how I felt, asked me to introduce legislation for all three. I introduced the first Peace Corps
Peace Corps
bill in 1957. It did not meet with much enthusiasm. Some traditional diplomats quaked at the thought of thousands of young Americans scattered across their world. Many senators, including liberal ones, thought it silly and an unworkable idea. Now, with a young president urging its passage, it became possible and we pushed it rapidly through the Senate. It is fashionable now to suggest that Peace Corps
Peace Corps
Volunteers gained as much or more, from their experience as the countries they worked. That may be true, but it ought not demean their work. They touched many lives and made them better.[7]

Peace Corps
Peace Corps
headquarters at 1111 20th Street, NW in downtown Washington, D.C.

Only in 1959, however, did the idea receive serious attention in Washington when Congressman Henry S. Reuss of Wisconsin
proposed a "Point Four Youth Corps". In 1960, he and Senator Richard L. Neuberger of Oregon
introduced identical measures calling for a nongovernmental study of the idea's "advisability and practicability". Both the House Foreign Affairs Committee and the Senate Foreign Relations Committee endorsed the study, the latter writing the Reuss proposal into the pending Mutual Security legislation. In this form it became law in June 1960. In August the Mutual Security Appropriations Act was enacted, making available US$10,000 for the study, and in November ICA contracted with Maurice Albertson, Andrew E. Rice, and Pauline E. Birky of Colorado State University
Colorado State University
Research Foundation[8] for the study.[9][10] 1960–1969[edit] John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
was the first to announce the idea for such an organization during the 1960 presidential campaign, on October 14, 1960, at a late-night speech at the University of Michigan
University of Michigan
in Ann Arbor on the steps of the Michigan Union.[11] He later dubbed the proposed organization the "Peace Corps." A brass marker commemorates the place where Kennedy stood. In the weeks after the 1960 election, the study group at Colorado State University
Colorado State University
released their feasibility a few days before Kennedy's Presidential Inauguration in January 1961.[12] Critics opposed the program. Kennedy's opponent, Richard M. Nixon, predicted it would become a "cult of escapism" and "a haven for draft dodgers."[13][14][15] Others doubted whether recent graduates had the necessary skills and maturity for such a task. The idea was popular among students, however, and Kennedy pursued it, asking respected academics such as Max Millikan and Chester Bowles
Chester Bowles
to help him outline the organization and its goals. During his inaugural address, Kennedy again promised to create the program: "And so, my fellow Americans: ask not what your country can do for you—ask what you can do for your country".[16] President Kennedy in a speech at the White House on June 22, 1962, "Remarks to Student Volunteers Participating in Operation Crossroads Africa", acknowledged that Operation Crossroads for Africa was the basis for the development of the Peace Corps. "This group and this effort really were the progenitors of the Peace Corps
Peace Corps
and what this organization has been doing for a number of years led to the establishment of what I consider to be the most encouraging indication of the desire for service not only in this country but all around the world that we have seen in recent years".[17] The Peace Corps
Peace Corps
website answered the question "Who Inspired the Creation of the Peace Corps?", acknowledging that the Peace Corps
Peace Corps
were based on Operation Crossroads Africa founded by Rev. James H. Robinson.[18]

Executive Order 10924

Establishment of the Peace Corps

John F. Kennedy's announcement of the establishment of the Peace Corps

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On March 1, 1961, Kennedy signed Executive Order 10924 that officially started the Peace Corps. Concerned with the growing tide of revolutionary sentiment in the Third World, Kennedy saw the Peace Corps as a means of countering the stereotype of the "Ugly American" and "Yankee imperialism," especially in the emerging nations of post-colonial Africa and Asia.[19][20] Kennedy appointed his brother-in-law, Sargent Shriver, to be the program's first director. Shriver fleshed out the organization with the help of Warren Wiggins and others.[8] Shriver and his think tank outlined the organization's goals and set the initial number of volunteers. The Peace Corps
Peace Corps
began recruiting in July 1962; Bob Hope
Bob Hope
cut radio and television announcements hailing the program. A leading Peace Corps
Peace Corps
critic was U.S. Representative
U.S. Representative
Otto Passman
Otto Passman
of Louisiana's 5th congressional district, based about Monroe. Critics called Passman "Otto the Terrible" for trying to thwart the program by reducing its funding to minimal levels. Ultimately, it would be President Nixon, who despite his previous skepticism rescued the Peace Corps after 1969 from Passman's congressional knife.[21] Until about 1967, applicants had to pass a placement test of "general aptitude" (knowledge of various skills needed for Peace Corps assignments) and language aptitude.[citation needed] After an address from Kennedy, who was introduced by Rev. Russell Fuller of Memorial Christian Church, Disciples of Christ, on August 28, 1961, the first group of volunteers left for Ghana
and Tanzania, known as Tanganyika at the time[22]. The program was formally authorized by Congress on September 22, 1961, and within two years over 7,300 volunteers were serving in 44 countries. This number increased to 15,000 in June 1966, the largest number in the organization's history.[23] The organization experienced controversy in its first year of operation. On October 13, 1961, a postcard from a volunteer named Margery Jane Michelmore in Nigeria
to a friend in the U.S. described her situation in Nigeria
as "squalor and absolutely primitive living conditions."[24][25] However, this postcard never made it out of the country.[25] The University of Ibadan
University of Ibadan
College Students Union demanded deportation and accused the volunteers of being "America's international spies" and the project as "a scheme designed to foster neocolonialism."[26] Soon the international press picked up the story, leading several people in the U.S. administration to question the program.[27] Nigerian students protested the program, while the American volunteers sequestered themselves and eventually began a hunger strike.[25] After several days, the Nigerian students agreed to open a dialogue with the Americans.

Fragment of a 1965 in-country identification card.

1970–1999[edit] In July 1971, President Richard Nixon, an opponent of the program,[13][14][15] brought the Peace Corps
Peace Corps
under the umbrella agency ACTION. President Jimmy Carter, an advocate of the program, said that his mother, who had served as a nurse in the program, had "one of the most glorious experiences of her life" in the Peace Corps.[28] In 1979, he made it fully autonomous in an executive order. This independent status was further secured by 1981 legislation making the organization an independent federal agency. In 1976, Deborah Gardner was found murdered in her home in Tonga, where she was serving in the Peace Corps. Dennis Priven, a fellow Peace Corps
Peace Corps
worker, was later charged with the murder by the Tonga government.[29] He was found not guilty by reason of insanity, and was sentenced to serve time in a mental institution in Washington D.C. Privan was never admitted to any institution, and the handling of the case has been heavily criticized. The main criticism has been that the Peace Corps
Peace Corps
seemingly worked to keep one of its volunteers from being found guilty of murder, due to the reflection it would have on the organization.[30] 2000–present[edit] Although the earliest volunteers were typically thought of as generalists, the Peace Corps
Peace Corps
had requests for technical personnel from the start. For example, geologists were among the first volunteers requested by Ghana, an early volunteer host. An article in Geotimes (a trade publication) in 1963, reviewed the program, with a follow-up history of Peace Corps
Peace Corps
geoscientists appearing in that publication in 2004.[31] During the Nixon Administration the Peace Corps
Peace Corps
included foresters, computer scientists, and small business advisors among its volunteers. In 1982, President Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
appointed director Loret Miller Ruppe, who initiated business-related programs. For the first time, a significant number of conservative and Republican volunteers joined the Corps, as the organization continued to reflect the evolving political and social conditions in the United States. Funding cuts during the early 1980s reduced the number of volunteers to 5,380, its lowest level since the early years. Funding increased in 1985, when Congress began raising the number of volunteers, reaching 10,000 in 1992.

Peace Corps
Peace Corps
trainees swearing in as volunteers in Madagascar, April 26, 2006.

After the 2001 September 11 attacks, which alerted the U.S. to growing anti-U.S. sentiment in the Middle East, President George W. Bush pledged to double the size of the organization within five years as a part of the War on Terrorism. For the 2004 fiscal year, Congress increased the budget to US$325 million, US$30 million above that of 2003 but US$30 million below the President's request. As part of an economic stimulus package in 2008, President Barack Obama proposed to double the size of the Peace Corps.[32] However, as of 2010[update], the amount requested was insufficient to reach this goal by 2011. In fact, the number of applicants to the Peace Corps
Peace Corps
has declined steadily from a high of 15,384 in 2009 to 10,091 in 2012.[33] Congress raised the 2010 appropriation from the US$373 million requested by the President to US$400 million, and proposed bills would raise this further for 2011 and 2012.[34] According to former director Gaddi Vasquez, the Peace Corps
Peace Corps
is trying to recruit more diverse volunteers of different ages and make it look "more like America".[35] A Harvard International Review article from 2007 proposes to expand the Peace Corps, revisit its mission and equip it with new technology.[36] In 1961 only 1% of volunteers were over 50, compared with 5% today. Ethnic minorities currently comprise 19% of volunteers.[37] 35% of the U.S. population are Hispanic or non-White.[38] In 2009, Casey Frazee, who was sexually assaulted while serving in South Africa, created First Response Action, an advocacy group for a stronger Peace Corps
Peace Corps
response for volunteers who are survivors or victims of physical and sexual violence.[39][40] In 2010, concerns about the safety of volunteers were illustrated by a report, compiled from official public documents, listing hundreds of violent crimes against volunteers since 1989.[41] In 2011, a 20/20 investigation found that "more than 1,000 young American women have been raped or sexually assaulted in the last decade while serving as Peace Corps volunteers in foreign countries."[42] International presence[edit]

  Countries served by Peace Corps
Peace Corps
Volunteers as of 2009[update].[43]   Countries formerly served.[44]

Prime Minister George Cadle Price
George Cadle Price
and a Peace Corps
Peace Corps
volunteer, Belize, 1976

During its history, Peace Corps
Peace Corps
Volunteers have worked in the following countries:[45] Latin America and the Caribbean

(1992–1994)   Belize
(since 1962)   Bolivia
(1962–1971, 1990–2008)   Brazil
(1962–1981)   Chile
(1961–1982, 1991–1998)   Colombia
(1961–1981, since 2010)   Costa Rica
Costa Rica
(since 1963)   Dominica
(since 1961)   Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
(since 1962)   Ecuador
(since 1962)   El Salvador
El Salvador
(1962–1980, 1993–2016)[46]   Grenada
(since 1961)   Guatemala
(since 1963)   Guyana
(1966–1971, since 1995)   Haiti
(1982–1987, 1990–1991, 1996–2005)   Honduras
(1962–2012)[47]   Jamaica
(since 1962)   Mexico
(since 2004)   Nicaragua
(1968–1979, since 1991)   Panama
(1963–1971, since 1990)   Paraguay
(since 1966)   Peru
(1962–1974, since 2002)   Saint Lucia
Saint Lucia
(since 1961)   Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
(since 1961)  Surinam (1995–2013)   Uruguay
(1963–1973, 1991–1997)   Venezuela

Europe and central Asia

(1992–1997, since 2003)   Armenia
(since 1992)   Azerbaijan
(2003–2016)  Bosnia-Herzegovina (2000–2002)   Bulgaria
(1991–2013)   Cyprus
(1962–1964)   Czech Republic
Czech Republic
(1990–1997)   Estonia
(1992–2002)  Georgia (since 2001)   Hungary
(1990–1997)   Kazakhstan
(1993–2011)   Latvia
(1992–2002)   Lithuania
(1992–2002)   Kyrgyzstan
(since 1993)   Kosovo
(since 2014)  Macedonia (since 1996)   Malta
(1970–1975, 1990–1998)   Moldova
(since 1993)   Poland
(1990–2001)   Romania
(1991–2013)   Russia
(1992–2003)   Slovakia
(1990–2002)   Turkmenistan
(1993–2013)   Turkey
(1962–1971)   Uzbekistan
(1992–2005)   Ukraine
(since 1992)[48]

Middle East and north Africa

(1974–1979)   Iran
(1962–1976)   Jordan
(1997–2002, 2004–2015)[49]   Libya
(1966–1969)   Morocco
(since 1963)   Oman
(1973–1983)   Tunisia
(1962–1996, 2013)   Yemen

Subsaharan Africa

(since 1968)   Botswana
(1966–1997, since 2003)   Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso
(1967–1987, 1995-2017[50])   Burundi
(1983–1993)   Cape Verde
Cape Verde
(1988–2013)   Cameroon
(since 1962)   Chad
(1966–1979, 1987–1998, 2003–2006)   Comoros
(1988–1995, since 2015)  Congo (1991–1997)   Central African Republic
Central African Republic
(1972–1996)  Democratic Republic of the Congo
Republic of the Congo
(1970–1991)   Equatorial Guinea
Equatorial Guinea
(1988–1993)   Eritrea
(1995–1998)   Ethiopia
(1962–1977, 1995–1999, since 2007)   Gabon
(1963–1968, 1973–2005)  Gambia (since 1967)   Ghana
(since 1961)   Guinea
(1963–1966, 1969–1971, since 1985)   Guinea-Bissau
(1988–1998)   Ivory Coast
Ivory Coast
(1962–1981, 1990–2003)   Kenya
(since 1964)   Lesotho
(since 1967)   Liberia
(1962–1990, since 2008)   Madagascar
(since 1993)   Malawi
(1963–1976, since 1978)   Mali
(1971–2012, 2014–2015)   Mauritius
(1969–1976)   Mauritania
(1966–1967, 1971–2011)   Mozambique
(since 1998)   Namibia
(since 1990)   Niger
(1962–2011)   Nigeria
(1961–1976, 1992–1995)   Rwanda
(1975–1993, since 2008)   São Tomé and Príncipe
São Tomé and Príncipe
(1990–1996)   Senegal
(since 1963)   Seychelles
(1974–1995)   Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone
(1962–1994, since 2010)   Somalia
(1962–1970)   South Africa
South Africa
(since 1997)   Sudan
(1984–1986)   Swaziland
(1969–1996, since 2003)   Tanzania
(1961–1969, since 1979)   Togo
(since 1962)   Uganda
(1964–1972, 1991–1999, since 2001)   Zambia
(since 1994)   Zimbabwe


(1962–1979)   Bangladesh
(1998–2006)   Cambodia
(since 2007)   China
(since 1993)   East Timor
East Timor
(2002–2006, since 2015)   India
(1961–1976)   Indonesia
(1963–1965, since 2010)   Malaysia
(1962–1983)   Mongolia
(since 1991)   Myanmar
(since 2016)     Nepal
(1962–2004, since 2012)   Pakistan
(1961–1967, 1988–1991)   Philippines
(1961–1990, since 1992)   South Korea
South Korea
(1966–1981)   Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
(1962–1964, 1967–1970, 1983–1998)   Thailand
(since 1962)[48]


(1968–1998, since 2003)   Cook Islands
Cook Islands
(1982–1995)   Marshall Islands
Marshall Islands
(1966–1996)   Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
(1971–2000)   Kiribati
(1974–2008)  Micronesia (since 1966)   Niue
(1994–2002)  Papua New Guinea
(1981–2001)   Samoa
(since 1967)   Tonga
(since 1967)   Tuvalu
(1977–1997)   Vanuatu
(since 1990)[48]

Application Process[edit] The application for the Peace Corps
Peace Corps
takes up to one hour unless one talks to a recruiter and the applicant must be at least 18 years old and a U.S. citizen, and must apply 9 to 12 months before they want to leave. They must go through an interview.[51] Initiatives[edit] The Peace Corps
Peace Corps
aims to educate community members on the different illnesses that are present in developing countries as well as what treatments exist in order prevent these illnesses from spreading. Volunteers are also often there in order to teach community members about modern agricultural techniques in order for them to more effectively produce food for themselves and each other (Peace Corps). The Corps is also a proponent of equal education and moves to allow for equal education opportunities for girls in countries like Liberia and Ethiopia
(USAID). Volunteers are often educators and experts in other fields so as better to help the people of the community learn and grow (Peace Corps). “Let Girls Learn” U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), 05 August 2016, Accessed: 13 November 2016 https://www.usaid.gov/letgirlslearn Peace Corps, Peace Corps, 2016, https://www.peacecorps.gov/ Accessed 10 November 2016 Eradicating malaria in Africa[edit] The Corps launched its initiative to engage volunteers in malaria control efforts in 2011. The initiative, which grew out of malaria prevention programs in Peace Corps
Peace Corps
Senegal, now includes volunteers in 24 African countries.[52][53] Environment[edit] The Corps offers a variety of environmental programs. Needs assessments determine which programs apply to each country. Programs include effective and efficient forms of farming, recycling, park management, environmental education, and developing alternative fuel sources.[54] Volunteers must have some combination of academic degrees and practical experience. The three major programs are Protected-Areas Management, Environment Education or Awareness, and Forestry. In Protected areas management, volunteers work with parks or other programs to teach resource conservation. Volunteer activities include technical training, working with park staff on wildlife preservation, organizing community-based conservation programs for sustainable use of forests or marine resources, and creating activities for raising revenue to protect the environment. Environment Education or Awareness focuses on communities that have environmental issues regarding farming and income. Programs include teaching in elementary and secondary schools; environmental education to youth programs; creation of environmental groups; support forest and marine resource sustainability; ways of generating money; urban sanitation management; and educating farmers about soil conservation, forestry, and vegetable gardening.[55] Forestry programs help communities conserve natural resources through projects such as soil conservation, flood control, creation of sustainable fuels, agroforestry (e.g., fruit and vegetable production), alley cropping, and protection of biodiversity.[56] Peace Corps
Peace Corps
Response[edit] Peace Corps
Peace Corps
Response, formerly named the Crisis Corps, was created by Peace Corps
Peace Corps
Director Mark Gearan in 1996.[57] Gearan modeled the Crisis Corps
Crisis Corps
after the National Peace Corps
Peace Corps
Association's successful Emergency Response Network (ERN) of Returned Peace Corps
Peace Corps
Volunteers willing to respond to crises when needed. ERN emerged in response to the 1994 Rwandan genocide.[58] On November 19, 2007 Peace Corps Director Ronald Tschetter changed Crisis Corps's name to Peace Corps Response.[59] The change to Peace Corps
Peace Corps
Response allowed Peace Corps
Peace Corps
to include projects that did not rise to the level of a crisis. The program deploys former volunteers on high-impact assignments that typically range from three to twelve months in duration. Peace Corps
Peace Corps
Response volunteers generally receive the same allowances and benefits as their Peace Corps
Peace Corps
counterparts, including round-trip transportation, living and readjustment allowances, and medical care. Minimum qualifications include completion of at least one year of Peace Corps
Peace Corps
service, including training, in addition to medical and legal clearances. The Crisis Corps
Crisis Corps
title was retained as a unique branch within Peace Corps
Peace Corps
Response, designed for volunteers who are deployed to true “crisis” situations, such as disaster relief following hurricanes, earthquakes, floods, volcanic eruptions and other catastrophes. Education and languages[edit] Peace Corps
Peace Corps
has created resources for teachers in the US and abroad to teach 101 languages.[60][61] Resources vary by language, and include text, recordings, lesson plans and teaching notes. Laws governing the Peace Corps[edit] Executive orders[edit] Peace Corps
Peace Corps
was originally established by Executive Order, and has been modified by several subsequent executive orders including:

1961 – 10924 – Establishment and administration of the Peace Corps in the Department of State (Kennedy)[62] 1962 – 11041 – Continuance and administration of the Peace Corps in the Department of State (Kennedy)[63] 1963 – 11103 – Providing for the appointment of former Peace Corps volunteers to the civilian career services (Kennedy)[64] 1971 – 11603 – Assigning additional functions to the Director of ACTION (Nixon) 1979 – 12137 – The Peace Corps
Peace Corps

Laws[edit] Federal laws governing the Peace Corps
Peace Corps
are contained in Title 22 of the United States Code – Foreign Relations and Intercourse, Chapter 34 – The Peace Corps.[66] Public laws are passed by Congress and the President and create or modify the U.S. Code. The first public law establishing Peace Corps
Peace Corps
in the US Code was The Peace Corps
Peace Corps
Act passed by the 87th Congress and signed into law on September 22, 1961. Several public laws have modified the Peace Corps
Peace Corps
Act, including:

Pub.L. 87–293, 75 Stat. 612, enacted September 22, 1961 – The Peace Corps
Peace Corps
Act Pub.L. 88–200, 77 Stat. 359, enacted December 13, 1963 Pub.L. 89–134, 79 Stat. 549, enacted August 24, 1965 Pub.L. 89–554, 80 Stat. 378, enacted September 6, 1966 Pub.L. 89–572, 80 Stat. 764, enacted September 13, 1966 Pub.L. 91–99, 83 Stat. 166, enacted October 29, 1969 Pub.L. 91–352, 84 Stat. 464, enacted July 24, 1970 Pub.L. 94–130, 89 Stat. 684, enacted November 14, 1975 – Bill to carry into effect certain provisions of the Patent Cooperation Treaty, and for other purposes.[67] Pub.L. 95–331, 92 Stat. 414, enacted August 2, 1978 – Peace Corps
Peace Corps
Act Amendments[68] Pub.L. 96–465, 94 Stat. 2071, enacted October 17, 1980 – The Foreign Service Act of 1980[69] Pub.L. 97–113, 95 Stat. 1519, enacted December 29, 1981 – International Security and Development Cooperation Act of 1981[70] Pub.L. 99–83, 99 Stat. 190, enacted August 8, 1985 – International Security and Development Cooperation Act of 1985[71] Pub.L. 99–514, 100 Stat. 2085, enacted October 22, 1986 – Tax Reform Act of 1986[72] Pub.L. 102–565, 106 Stat. 4265, enacted October 28, 1992 – A bill to amend the Peace Corps
Peace Corps
Act to authorize appropriations for the Peace Corps
Peace Corps
for FY1993 and to establish Peace Corps foreign exchange fluctuations account, and for other purposes.[73] Pub.L. 105–12, 111 Stat. 23, enacted April 30, 1997 – The Assisted Suicide Funding Restriction Act of 1997[74] Pub.L. 106–30, 113 Stat. 55, enacted May 21, 1999 – Peace Corps
Peace Corps
Act, FY2002, 2003 Authorization Bill[75] Peace Corps
Peace Corps
Reauthorization Act of 2008 at Congress.gov

Code of Federal Regulations[edit] The Peace Corps
Peace Corps
is subject to Federal Regulations as prescribed by public law and executive order and contained in Title 22 of the Code of Federal Regulations under Chapter 3. Limitations on former volunteers[edit] Former members of the Peace Corps
Peace Corps
may not be assigned to military intelligence duties for a period of 4 years following Peace Corps service. Furthermore, they are forever prohibited from serving in a military intelligence posting to any country in which they volunteered.[76] Time limits on employment[edit] Peace Corps
Peace Corps
employees receive time-limited appointments, and most employees are limited to a maximum of five years of employment. This time limit was established to ensure that Peace Corps' staff remain fresh and innovative. A related rule specifies that former employees cannot be re-employed until after the same amount of time that they were employed. Volunteer service is not counted for the purposes of either rule.[77] Union representation[edit] Non-supervisory domestic employees are represented by the American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees (AFSCME) Local 3548. The Federal Labor Relations Agency certified the Union on May 11, 1983. About 500 domestic employees are members. The current collective bargaining agreement became effective on April 21, 1995. Leadership[edit] Directors[edit]

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On January 3, 2018, President Donald Trump
Donald Trump
nominated Josephine "Jody" Olson as the 20th director of the Peace Corps. [78]. Olson has a long history with the agency, serving as Acting Director in 2009, Deputy Director from 2002-2009, Chief of Staff from 1989-1992, Regional Director, North Africa Near East, Asia, Pacific from 1981-1984, and Country Director in Togo
from 1979-1981. Olsen also served as a Peace Corps volunteer in Tunisia
from 1966-1968.

Director Service Dates Appointed by Notes

1 R. Sargent Shriver 1961–1966 Kennedy President Kennedy appointed Shriver three days after signing the executive order. Volunteers arrived in five countries during 1961. In just under six years, Shriver developed programs in 55 countries with more than 14,500 volunteers.

2 Jack Vaughn 1966–1969 Johnson Vaughn improved marketing, programming, and volunteer support as large numbers of former volunteers joined the staff. He also promoted volunteer assignments in conservation, natural resource management, and community development.

3 Joseph Blatchford 1969–1971 Nixon Blatchford served as head of the new ACTION agency, which included the Corps. He created the Office of Returned Volunteers to help volunteers serve in their communities at home, and initiated New Directions, a program emphasizing volunteer skills.

4 Kevin O'Donnell 1971–1972 Nixon O'Donnell's appointment was the first for a former Peace Corps
Peace Corps
country director (Korea, 1966–70). He fought budget cuts, and believed strongly in a non-career Peace Corps.

5 Donald Hess 1972–1973 Nixon Hess initiated training of volunteers in the host country where they would eventually serve, using host country nationals. The training provided more realistic preparation, and costs dropped for the agency. Hess also sought to end the down-sizing of the Peace Corps.

6 Nicholas Craw 1973–1974 Nixon Craw sought to increase the number of volunteers in the field and to stabilize the agency's future. He introduced a goal-setting measurement plan, the Country Management Plan, which gained increased Congressional support and improved resource allocation across the 69 participating countries.

7 John Dellenback 1975–1977 Ford Dellenback improved volunteer health care available. He emphasized recruiting generalists. He believed in committed applicants even those without specific skills and instead training them for service.

8 Carolyn R. Payton 1977–1978 Carter Payton was the first female director and the first African American. She focused on improving volunteer diversity.

9 Richard F. Celeste 1979–1981 Carter Celeste focused on the role of women in development and increased women and minority participation, particularly for staff positions. He invested heavily in training, including the development of a worldwide core curriculum.

10 Loret Miller Ruppe 1981–1989 Reagan Ruppe was the longest-serving director and championed women in development roles. She launched the Competitive Enterprise Development program, the Caribbean Basin Initiative, the Initiative for Central America and the African Food Systems Initiative.

11 Paul Coverdell 1989–1991 G.H.W. Bush Coverdell established two programs with a domestic focus. World Wise Schools enabled U.S. students to correspond with overseas volunteers. Fellows/USA assisted Returned Peace Corps
Peace Corps
volunteers in pursuing graduate studies while serving local communities.

12 Elaine Chao 1991–1992 G.H.W. Bush Chao was the first Asian American director. She expanded Peace Corps' presence in Eastern Europe and Central Asia by establishing the first Peace Corps
Peace Corps
programs in Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, and other newly independent countries.

13 Carol Bellamy 1993–1995 Clinton Bellamy was the first RPCV (Returned Peace Corps
Peace Corps
volunteer) (Guatemala 1963–65) to be director. She reinvigorated relations with former volunteers and launched the Corps' web site.

14 Mark D. Gearan 1995–1999 Clinton Gearan established the Crisis Corps, a program that allows former volunteers to help overseas communities recover from natural disasters and humanitarian crises. He supported expanding the corps and opened new volunteer programs in South Africa, Jordan, Bangladesh
and Mozambique.

15 Mark L. Schneider 1999–2001 Clinton Schneider was the second RPCV (El Salvador, 1966–68) to head the agency. He launched an initiative to increase volunteers' participation in helping prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS in Africa, and also sought volunteers to work on information technology projects.

16 Gaddi Vasquez 2002–2006 G.W. Bush Gaddi H. Vasquez was the first Hispanic American director. His focus was to increase volunteer and staff diversity. He also led the establishment of a Peace Corps
Peace Corps
program in Mexico.

17 Ron Tschetter September 2006 – 2008 G.W. Bush The third RPCV to head the agency, Tschetter served in India
in the mid-1960s. He launched an initiative known as the "50 and Over," to increase the participation of older men and women.

18 Aaron S. Williams August 2009 – September 2012 Obama Aaron S. Williams became director on August 24, 2009. Mr. Williams is the fourth director to have served as a volunteer. Williams cited personal and family considerations as the reason for his stepping down as Peace Corps
Peace Corps
Director on September 17, 2012.[79]

19 Carrie Hessler-Radelet September 2012 – 2017 Obama Carrie Hessler-Radelet
Carrie Hessler-Radelet
became acting Director of the Peace Corps
Peace Corps
in September 2012. Previously, Hessler-Radelet served as deputy director of the Peace Corps
Peace Corps
from June 23, 2010, until her appointment as acting Director.[80] From 1981–83, she served as a Peace Corps
Peace Corps
volunteer in Western Samoa
with her husband, Steve. She was confirmed as Director on June 5, 2014.

20 Josephine K. Olsen February 2018 – Trump Jody Olsen was confirmed Director of the Peace Corps
Peace Corps
on February 27, 2018. Olsen previously served the Peace Corps
Peace Corps
as Acting Director in 2009, Deputy Director from 2002-2009, Chief of Staff from 1989-1992, Regional Director, North Africa Near East, Asia, Pacific from 1981-1984, and Country Director in Togo
from 1979-1981. Olsen also served as a Peace Corps
Peace Corps
volunteer in Tunisia
from 1966-1968.

Inspector General[edit] The Peace Corps
Peace Corps
Office of Inspector General is authorized by law to review all programs and operations of the Peace Corps. The OIG is an independent entity within the Peace Corps. The inspector general (IG) reports directly to the Peace Corps
Peace Corps
Director. In addition, the IG reports to Congress semiannually with data on OIG activities. The OIG serves as the law enforcement arm of the Peace Corps
Peace Corps
and works closely with the Department of State, the Department of Justice, and other federal agencies OIG has three sections to conduct its functions:

Audit – Auditors review functional activities of the Peace Corps, such as contract compliance and financial and program operations, to ensure accountability and to recommend improved levels of economy and efficiency; Evaluations – Evaluators analyze the management and program operations of the Peace Corps
Peace Corps
at both overseas posts and domestic offices. They identify best practices and recommend program improvements and ways to accomplish Peace Corps' mission and strategic goals. Investigations – Investigators respond to allegations of criminal or administrative wrongdoing by Peace Corps
Peace Corps
Volunteers, Peace Corps personnel, including experts and consultants, and by those who do business with the Peace Corps, including contractors.[81]

From 2006–07, H. David Kotz was the Inspector General.[82] In the news[edit] At a meeting of the House Foreign Affairs Committee in 2011, Peace Corps volunteers shared their experiences of violence and sexual assault. At this meeting, it was found that between 2000–2009 there have been several cases of rape or attempted rape, and about 22 women are sexually assaulted each year. The case of murdered Peace Corps volunteer Kate Puzey was discussed. The Peace Corps
Peace Corps
has gained attention in the media and their directors have been attacked for how they handled this situation. Kate Puzey's mother was one of those to make a comment at the meeting about how badly the situation with her daughter had been handled. One woman claimed that her country's director had blamed her for getting raped, while other victims have also been similarly blamed.[83] Criticism of how Peace Corps
Peace Corps
has responded to sexual assaults against volunteers culminated in the appointment of Kellie Green as the agency's first Director of the Office Of Victims Advocacy in 2011. Green was eventually pushed out of her position in April 2015 for purportedly "creating a hostile work environment". Greene maintains that Peace Corps
Peace Corps
retaliated against her for pressing agency officials to fully comply with their responsibilities towards volunteers who have been victims of sexual assault. A Change.org petition demanding that Green be reinstated began circulating among former volunteers in December 2015.[84] In 2009, the most recent year reported, 69% of Peace Corps
Peace Corps
crime victims were women, 88% were under 30, and 82% were Caucasian. Worldwide, there were 15 cases of rape/attempted rape and 96 cases of sexual assault reported for a total of 111 sexual crimes committed against female Peace Corps
Peace Corps
volunteers. This was all shared on ABC news 20/20. The majority of women who join the Peace Corps
Peace Corps
are in their mid-twenties. In 62% of the more than 2,900 assault cases since 1990, the victim was identified as being alone. In 59% of assault cases, the victim was identified as a woman in her 20s. At that time the media began to report all these numbers and facts.[85] The Peace Corps
Peace Corps
has also been in the media for the topic of abortion. Women who have been raped in foreign countries while volunteering have wanted to get abortions. They then realize that Peace Corps
Peace Corps
had no program that would help them. Peace Corps
Peace Corps
volunteers get paid $200 to $350 a month. Abortions can typically cost around $470. This makes it difficult for women who want an abortion.[86] Since 1979, it has been prohibited for federal funds to cover abortion costs for Peace Corps
Peace Corps
volunteers. Even in instances of life endangerment, rape and incest, volunteers are not financially covered. 433 Peace Corps
Peace Corps
volunteers were interviewed and it was reported that many thought the funding ban on abortion coverage should be removed. This was a two-month interview with no eligibility restrictions. Abortion is such a controversial topic that this just made it much more difficult for the Peace Corps
Peace Corps
to handle. Volunteers do receive health care, including prescription medications, routine examinations, and emergency care, free of charge. These services are provided in-country through a Peace Corps
Peace Corps
Medical Officer. Peace Corps volunteers don't make much money, which adds to this issue in the news. The abortion topic is very active in the Peace Corps, because when volunteers become pregnant for any reason, they can no longer be volunteers, and a significant number of them want to remain volunteers. Many volunteers have the same or very similar story.[87] Criticism[edit] Critics and criticisms of Peace Corps
Peace Corps
include Robert L. Strauss of Foreign Policy,[88] an article by a former volunteer describing assaults on volunteers from 1992 to 2010,[89] an ABC news report on 20/20,[90] a Huffington Post
Huffington Post
article on former Peace Corps
Peace Corps
volunteers speaking out on rapes,[91] and About.com's article on rape and assault in the Peace Corps. [92] In the Reagan Administration, in 1986, an article in the Multinational Monitor looked critically at the Peace Corps.[93] On a positive note, the writer praises the Corps for aspects saying that it is "not in the business of transferring massive economic resources. Rather it concentrates on increasing productivity and encouraging self-reliance in villages that are often ignored by large-scale development agencies," and notes the "heavy emphasis on basic education" by the Corps. "Many returned volunteers complain that the Peace Corps
Peace Corps
does little to promote or make use of their rich experiences once they return...[A] Peace Corps
Peace Corps
volunteer is sent in...[to] relieve...the local government from having to develop policies that assure equitable distribution of health care...During the early years there were many failures in structure and programming...Some critics charge that the Peace Corps
Peace Corps
is only a somewhat ineffective attempt to counter damage done to the U.S. image abroad by its aggressive military and its unscrupulous businesses...Many observers and some returned volunteers charge that, in addition to public relations for the United States, Peace Corps
Peace Corps
programs serve to legitimize dictators...When he began evaluating the Corps in the 1960s, Charlie Peters found "they were training volunteers to be junior diplomats. Giving them a course in American studies, world affairs and communism...Although it seems unlikely that the Peace Corps
Peace Corps
is used in covert operations, wittingly or not it is often used in conjunction with U.S. military interests...In a review of the Peace Corps
Peace Corps
in March the House Select Committee on Hunger praised the agency for effective work in the areas of agriculture and conservation, while recommending that the Corps expand its African Food Systems Initiative, increase the number of volunteers in the field, recruit more women, and move to depoliticize country dictatorships." The author suggests that "the poor should be encouraged to organize a power base to gain more leverage with the powers-that-be" by the Peace Corps and that "The Peace Corps
Peace Corps
is the epitome of Kennedy's Camelot mythology. It is a tall order to expect a small program appended to an immense superpower, to make a difference, but it is a goal worth striving for." In December 2003, a report by the Brookings Institution
Brookings Institution
praised the Peace Corps
Peace Corps
but proposed changes.[94] These include relabeling Peace Corps volunteers in certain countries, greater host country ownership, reverse volunteers (have volunteers from the host country in the U.S.), and multilateral volunteers. The Brookings Institution
Brookings Institution
wrote that a "one-year service commitment [for the Baby Boom generation] could make the Peace Corps
Peace Corps
more attractive to older Americans, possibly combined with the option of returning to the same site or country after a three-month break" and customized placement to a specific country would increase the number of people volunteering. In a critique by The Future of Freedom Foundation,[95] James Bovard mixes history of the Peace Corps
Peace Corps
with current interpretations. He writes that in the 1980s, "The Peace Corps’s world-saving pretensions were a joke on American taxpayers and Third World
Third World
folks who expected real help." He goes on to criticize the difference in rhetoric and action of Peace Corps
Peace Corps
volunteers, even attacking its establishment as "the epitome of emotionalism in American politics." Using snippets of reports, accounts of those in countries affected by the Peace Corps
Peace Corps
and even concluded that at one point "some Peace Corps agricultural efforts directly hurt Third World
Third World
poor." At the end of the article, Bovard noted that all Peace Corps
Peace Corps
volunteers he had talked with conceded they have not helped foreigners ... but he acknowledges that "Some Peace Corps
Peace Corps
volunteers, like some Americans who volunteer for religion missions abroad, have truly helped foreigners." BoingBoing editor Xeni Jardin describes criticism of the agency's response to assault: "A growing number of ex- Peace Corps
Peace Corps
volunteers are speaking out about having survived rape and other forms of sexual assault while assigned overseas. They say the agency ignored their concerns for safety or requests for relocation, and tried to blame rape victims for their attacks. Their stories, and support from families and advocates, are drawing attention from lawmakers and promises of reform from the agency". Among 8,655 volunteers there are on average 22 Peace Corps
Peace Corps
women reported being the victims of rape or attempted rape each year.[96][97] In popular culture[edit] Frank Zappa
Frank Zappa
and The Mothers of Invention
The Mothers of Invention
have a song named "Who Needs the Peace Corps?" on their 1968 album We're Only in It for the Money. In popular culture, the Peace Corps
Peace Corps
has been used as a comedic plot device in such movies as Airplane!, Christmas with the Kranks, Shallow Hal, and Volunteers or used to set the scene for a historic era, as when Frances "Baby" Houseman tells the audience she plans to join the Peace Corps
Peace Corps
in the introduction to the movie Dirty Dancing. The Peace Corps
Peace Corps
has also been documented on film and examined more seriously and in more depth. The 2006 documentary film Death of Two Sons, directed by Micah Schaffer, juxtaposes the deaths of Amadou Diallo, a Guinean-American who was gunned down by four New York City policemen with 41 bullets, and Peace Corps
Peace Corps
volunteer Jesse Thyne who lived with Amadou's family in Guinea
and died in a car crash there.[98] Jimi Sir, released in 2007, is a documentary portrait of volunteer James Parks' experiences as a high school science, math and English teacher during the last 10 weeks of his service in Nepal.[99] James speaks Nepali fluently and shows a culture where there are no roads, vehicles, electricity, plumbing, telephone or radio.[99] The movie El Rey, directed and written by Antonio Dorado in 2004, attacks corrupt police, unscrupulous politicians and half-hearted revolutionaries but also depicts the urban legend of Peace Corps Volunteers "training" native Colombians how to process coca leaves into cocaine.[100] In the 1969 film, Yawar Mallku/Sangre de cóndor/Blood of the Condor, Bolivian director Jorge Sanjinés portrayed Peace Corps
Peace Corps
volunteers in the camp as arrogant, ethnocentric, and narrow-minded imperialists out to destroy Indian culture. One particularly powerful scene showed Indians attacking a clinic while the volunteers inside sterilized Indian women against their will. The film is thought to be at least partially responsible for the expulsion of the Peace Corps
Peace Corps
from Bolivia
in 1971. Peace Corps
Peace Corps
volunteer Fred Krieger who was serving in Bolivia
at the time said, "It was an effective movie – emotionally very arousing – and it directly targeted Peace Corps
Peace Corps
volunteers. I thought I would be lynched before getting out of the theatre. To my amazement, people around me smiled courteously as we left, no one commented, it was just like any other movie."[101] In 2016, Peace Corps
Peace Corps
partnered with jewelry retailer Alex and Ani to create cord bracelets to raise money for the Peace Corps' Let Girls Learn Fund.[102] See also[edit]

List of notable Peace Corps
Peace Corps
Volunteers AmeriCorps Language education List of Language Self-Study Programs Peace Corps
Peace Corps
Memorial Provincial Reconstruction Team United States Cultural Exchange Programs British Romanian Educational Exchange CUSO Doctors Without Borders EU Aid Volunteers European Voluntary Service Fredskorpset International Voluntary Services JICA
(Japan International Cooperation Agency) Korea International Cooperation Agency United Nations Volunteers Voluntary Service Overseas World Vision


^ [1] Retrieved 2017-12-12. ^ "MS 281 COMPLETION OF SERVICE DATE ADVANCEMENT AND EXTENSION OF SERVICE" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on October 15, 2011. Retrieved October 16, 2011.  ^ "Fact Sheet" (PDF). files.peacecorps.gov. 30 September 2015. Retrieved 2016-04-29.  ^ Hall, Michael R. "The Impact of the U.S. Peace Corps
Peace Corps
at Home and Abroad". search.proquest.com. ProQuest. Retrieved 2016-10-26.  ^ Leamer, Laurence (2001). The Kennedy Men: 1901–1963. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-688-16315-7.  ^ "POINT FOUR 'HOE ARMY' SOUGHT BY M'MAHON". The New York Times. January 26, 1952. Retrieved March 19, 2012.  ^ Humphrey, Hubert H (1991). "The Education of a Public Man". ISBN 9780816618972.  ^ a b Gerber, Anna (February 27, 2015). "Tops in Peace Corps Volunteers, again". SOURCE, Colorado State University. Retrieved December 10, 2015.  ^ New Frontiers for American Youth: Perspective on the Peace Corps. Public Affairs Press. 1961.  ^ "Guide too the Peace Corps
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Collections. Retrieved 22 February 2015.  ^ "Remarks of Senator John F. Kennedy". Peace Corps. November 20, 2013 [1960]. Retrieved 2015-08-03.  ^ Albertson, Maurice L., Pauline E. Birky, and Andrew E. Rice. 1961. The Peace Corps
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Final Report. Colorado State University
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Research Foundation, Fort Collins. January, 1961. ^ a b "Teaching With Documents: Founding Documents of the Peace Corps." National Archives and Records Administration. ^ a b Megan Gibson. "Top 10 Things You Didn't Know About the Peace Corps" (September 22, 2011). Time. ^ a b James Tobin. "JFK at the Union: The Unknown Story of the Peace Corps Speech." National Peace Corps
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Association/University of Michigan. ^ The Avalon Project (1997). "Inaugural Address of John F. Kennedy". The Avalon Project at Yale Law School. Archived from the original on May 14, 2007. Retrieved May 11, 2007.  ^ June 22, 1962 Remarks to Student Volunteers Participating in Operation Crossroads Africa. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=8730 ^ (2005) "Who Inspired the Creation of the Peace Corps". Peace Corps Online. ^ "Executive Order 10924: Establishment of the Peace Corps. (1961)". Ourdocuments.gov. Retrieved October 16, 2011.  ^ "Organization of American Historians". Historycooperative.org. June 1, 2000. Archived from the original on June 29, 2012. Retrieved October 16, 2011.  ^ Billy Hathorn, "Otto Passman, Jerry Huckaby, and Frank Spooner: The Louisiana Fifth Congressional District Campaign of 1976", Louisiana History: The Journal of the Louisiana Historical Association, Vol. LIV, No. 3 (Summer 2013), p. 337 ^ http://www.vpo.go.tz/document_storage/historical_overview.pdf ^ "US History – The Peace Corps". Peace Corps
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Online. Retrieved January 19, 2011.  ^ " Peace Corps
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Girl Stirs Anger In Nigeria
by Alleging 'Squalor'". New York Times. October 16, 1961. p. 10.  ^ a b c "The infamous Peace Corps
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to Friend Reporting 'Primitive Living' Leads to Protest by Students". New York Times. October 16, 1961. p. 10.  ^ "RIFT ON PEACE CORPS HEALING IN NIGERIA". New York Times. November 7, 1961. p. 7.  ^ Yee, Daniel (2005). " Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
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as a nurse when she was 70 years old "was one of the most glorious experiences of her life."". Peace Corps
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Online. Retrieved May 11, 2007.  ^ [2],. ^ Weiss, Philip (May 21, 2005). "Deborah Gardner's death – Murder in the Peace Corps
Peace Corps
– Dennis Priven". Nymag.com. Retrieved October 16, 2011.  ^ Hastings, David, ed., 2004. Geoscientists in the Peace Corps. Geotimes, August 2004. ^ "Microsoft Word - Fact Sheet National Service 070408 FINAL.doc" (PDF). Retrieved January 19, 2011.  ^ http://feed.vocativ.com/peace-corps-applications-lowest-in-a-decade-doing-good-is-great-but-young-people-want-jobs/ ^ "The Obameter: Double the Peace Corps
Peace Corps
– Obama promise No. 221:". PolitiFact. Retrieved January 19, 2011.  ^ Boston – AP (March 4, 2006). " Peace Corps
Peace Corps
eyes recruitment of minorities, older Americans, peace, corps, percent – Regional News – WRGB CBS 6 Albany". 42.652579;-73.756232: Cbs6albany.com. Retrieved January 19, 2011.  ^ "The Technologies of Peace – Harvard International Review". Hir.harvard.edu. May 2, 2007. Retrieved January 19, 2011.  ^ "Fast Facts What Is Peace Corps? Learn About Peace Corps
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Peace Corps". Retrieved January 22, 2009.  ^ "United States – Selected Population Profile in the United States (White alone, not Hispanic or Latino)". 2009 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved December 13, 2010.  ^ Eden Stiffman (April 8, 2011). " Peace Corps
Peace Corps
Under Fire". First Response Action. Retrieved May 10, 2011.  ^ "History". Michigan Review. Retrieved May 10, 2011.  ^ Mike Sheppard (2011). "Violent Crimes Against Peace Corps Volunteers". Retrieved June 5, 2015.  ^ " Peace Corps
Peace Corps
Gang Rape: Volunteer Says U.S. Agency Ignored Warnings". ABC News. Retrieved May 10, 2011.  ^ peacecorpswiki.org – wiki page last substantially updated at 26 October 2009 ^ peacecorpswiki.org/Category:Country – Peace Corps' sorted list that includes all countries served and formerly served ^ "Countries". Peace Corps. Retrieved 28 February 2017.  ^ "Cuerpos de Paz de EE.UU. se van por la inseguridad" (in Spanish). elsalvador.com. January 11, 2016. Archived from the original on December 20, 2016. Retrieved December 7, 2016.  ^ "US Peace Corps
Peace Corps
cuts Honduras
role amid security fears". London: BBC. 22 December 2011. Retrieved 7 December 2016.  ^ a b c d e f "Countries". Peace Corps. Retrieved 7 December 2016.  ^ Stout, David. "The U.S. Peace Corps
Peace Corps
Has Suspended Operations in Jordan". Time. Time Inc. Retrieved 7 December 2016.  ^ https://www.peacecorps.gov/news/library/peace-corps-burkina-faso-volunteers-evacuated-safely/ ^ "One must be 18 years old and a U.S. Citizen to apply". Peacecorps. Retrieved 8 October 2016.  ^ Hessler-Radelet, Carrie; Ziemer, Tim; (2013-04-24)"Peace Corps Volunteers Extend Malaria
Efforts to Villages and Towns Across Africa", Huffington Post. Retrieved 2013-05-10. ^ "Africa: Prevention Focus of Peace Corps' World Malaria
Day Events", AllAfrica.com. 2013-04-26. Retrieved 2013-05-10. ^ "Environment What Do Volunteers Do? Peace Corps". Peacecorps.gov. Retrieved October 5, 2017.  ^ "Environment Education or Awareness What Do Volunteers Do? Peace Corps". Peacecorps.gov. September 30, 2010. Retrieved January 19, 2011.  ^ "Forestry What Do Volunteers Do? Peace Corps". Peacecorps.gov. September 30, 2010. Retrieved January 19, 2011.  ^ Peace Corps
Peace Corps
Hotline. "Crisis Corps: Opportunity to serve again" by Melinda Bridges. November 1, 2002. (PDF) Archived November 27, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Arnold, David. "Helping Rwanda." WorldView, Spring 1995, Vol. 8, No. 2. pg. 21 ^ " Peace Corps
Peace Corps
" Peace Corps
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Press Release" November 19, 2007". Peacecorps.gov. November 19, 2007. Retrieved October 16, 2011.  ^ " Peace Corps
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Language Courses". www.livelingua.com. Retrieved 2017-10-10.  ^ Streit, Eric. "The Peace-Corps Courses". fsi-languages.yojik.eu. Retrieved 2017-10-10.  ^ Peters, Gerhard; Woolley, John T. "John F. Kennedy: "Executive Order 10924 – Establishment and Administration of the Peace Corps
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in the Department of State," March 1, 1961". The American Presidency Project. University of California – Santa Barbara. Retrieved 7 October 2013.  ^ Peters, Gerhard; Woolley, John T. "John F. Kennedy: "Executive Order 11041," August 6, 1962". The American Presidency Project. University of California – Santa Barbara. Retrieved 7 October 2013.  ^ "Executive Orders". Archives.gov. Retrieved January 19, 2011.  ^ "Executive Orders". Archives.gov. Retrieved January 19, 2011.  ^ 22 U.S.C. §§ 2501–2523 ^ "Bill Summary & Status – 94th Congress (1975–1976) – H.R.6334 – THOMAS (Library of Congress)". Thomas.loc.gov. Retrieved January 19, 2011.  ^ "Bill Summary & Status – 95th Congress (1977–1978) – H.R.11877 – THOMAS (Library of Congress)". Thomas.loc.gov. Retrieved January 19, 2011.  ^ "Bill Summary & Status – 96th Congress (1979–1980) – H.R.6790 – THOMAS (Library of Congress)". Thomas.loc.gov. Retrieved January 19, 2011.  ^ "Bill Summary & Status – 97th Congress (1981–1982) – S.1196 – THOMAS (Library of Congress)". Thomas.loc.gov. Retrieved January 19, 2011.  ^ "Bill Summary & Status – 99th Congress (1985–1986) – S.960 – THOMAS (Library of Congress)". Thomas.loc.gov. Retrieved January 19, 2011.  ^ "Bill Summary & Status – 99th Congress (1985–1986) – H.R.3838 – THOMAS (Library of Congress)". Thomas.loc.gov. Retrieved January 19, 2011.  ^ "Bill Summary & Status – 102nd Congress (1991–1992) – S.3309 – THOMAS (Library of Congress)". Thomas.loc.gov. October 28, 1992. Retrieved January 19, 2011.  ^ http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=105_cong_public_laws&docid=f:publ12.pdf ^ http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=106_cong_public_laws&docid=f:publ030.pdf ^ "Enlisted Assignments and Utilization Management, Army Regulation 614–200" (PDF). Department of the Army. February 26, 2009. Retrieved August 1, 2009.  ^ "United States Code: Browse Titles Page". Frwebgate.access.gpo.gov. Retrieved January 19, 2011.  ^ https://www.peacecorps.gov/news/library/president-donald-j-trump-nominates-jody-olsen-be-director-peace-corps/ ^ Peace Corps. " Aaron S. Williams to Step Down as Peace Corps Director". peacecorps.gov. Retrieved September 6, 2015.  ^ Peace Corps. "Director". peacecorps.gov. Archived from the original on February 16, 2014. Retrieved September 6, 2015.  ^ Office of the Inspector General. "Major Functions of OIG". Retrieved February 12, 2014. ^ " H. David Kotz Named New Inspector General at SEC (SEC)". U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. December 5, 2007. Retrieved February 10, 2013.  ^ Graves, Lucia. "The Huffington Post".  ^ Rein, Lisa (2016-01-11). " Peace Corps
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Volunteer – ABC News". ABC News. Retrieved September 6, 2015.  ^ Graves, Lucia (May 11, 2011). " Peace Corps
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Volunteers Speak Out on Rape". The New York Times. May 10, 2011.  ^ " Peace Corps
Peace Corps
volunteers speak out against "gross mismanagement of sexual assault complaints"". Boing Boing. Retrieved September 6, 2015.  ^ New York Daily News. "Disappointed Diallo ma" by Nicole Bode. November 27, 2006. The original link is dead. An archival link is available here. ^ a b ""Jimi Sir an American Peace Corps
Peace Corps
volunteer in Nepal" December 18, 2004". Jimisir.com. Retrieved October 16, 2011.  ^ Miami Herald. "Popular film revives Peace Corps
Peace Corps
rumors: The top movie in Colombia
is about the origins of the cocaine trade with an unexpected villain: the U.S. Peace Corps." by Steven Dudley. November 6, 2004. Archive link. ^ Amigos de Bolivia
y Peru. "Sacrificial Llama? The Expulsion of the Peace Corps
Peace Corps
from Bolivia
in 1971" by James F. Siekmeier. The original story is a dead link. An archival copy is available here. ^ http://www.peacecorps.gov/media/forpress/press/2631/

Further reading[edit]

Czernek, Andrew (2012). Summary of studies done of returned Peace Corps volunteers (RPCVs) In March 2011, the VOA Special
English service of the Voice of America broadcast a 15-minute program on the Peace Corps
Peace Corps
and its 50th anniversary. A transcript and MP3 of the program, intended for English learners, can be found at " Peace Corps
Peace Corps
at 50: Same Mission of Aid, Just Smaller".

External links[edit]

Official website Records of the Peace Corps
Peace Corps
in the National Archives (Record Group 490)

v t e

John F. Kennedy

35th President of the United States
President of the United States
(1961–1963) U.S. Senator from Massachusetts
(1953–1960) U.S. Representative
U.S. Representative
for MA-11 (1947–1953)

Presidency (timeline)

Presidential Office: Inauguration Cabinet Judicial appointments

Supreme Court

Presidential pardons

Domestic policy: Clean Air Act Communications Satellite Act Community Mental Health Act Equal Pay Act Federal affirmative action Federal housing segregation ban Fifty-mile hikes Food for Peace New Frontier Pilot Food Stamp Program Space policy Status of Women (Presidential Commission) University of Alabama integration Voter Education Project

Foreign policy: Alliance for Progress Arms Control and Disarmament Agency

Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

Flexible response Kennedy Doctrine Peace Corps Trade Expansion Act USAID Vietnam War Cuba: Bay of Pigs Invasion Cuban Project Cuban Missile Crisis


Soviet Union: Berlin Crisis Moscow–Washington hotline Vienna summit

White House: Presidential limousine Presidential yacht Resolute desk Situation Room

Presidential speeches

Inaugural address American University speech "We choose to go to the Moon" Report to the American People on Civil Rights "Ich bin ein Berliner" "A rising tide lifts all boats"


U.S. States House of Representatives elections, 1946 1948 1950 U.S. Senate election in Massachusetts, 1952 1958 1960 Presidential primaries 1960 Presidential campaign Democratic National Convention 1956 1960 U.S. presidential election, 1960


Personal life

Birthplace and childhood home Kennedy Compound US Navy service PT-109

Biuku Gasa and Eroni Kumana Arthur Evans PT-59 Castle Hot Springs

Hammersmith Farm Coretta Scott King phone call Rocking chair "Happy Birthday, Mr. President"


Why England Slept
Why England Slept
(1940) Profiles in Courage
Profiles in Courage
(1956) A Nation of Immigrants
A Nation of Immigrants



timeline reactions in popular culture

State funeral

Riderless horse attending dignitaries

Gravesite and Eternal Flame


John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
Presidential Library and Museum (Boston) 1964 Civil Rights Act Apollo 11
Apollo 11
Moon landing Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Kennedy Space Center
Kennedy Space Center
(Florida) Kennedy Round U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development VISTA Cultural depictions

films Kennedy half dollar U.S. postage stamps U.S. five cent stamp Lincoln–Kennedy coincidences

Operation Sail

Memorials, namesakes

Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts (Washington, D.C.) John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
International Airport (New York) John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
Memorial (London) John Fitzgerald Kennedy Memorial
John Fitzgerald Kennedy Memorial
(Dallas) John Fitzgerald Kennedy Memorial
John Fitzgerald Kennedy Memorial
(Portland, Oregon) John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
Memorial (Runnymede, Britain) John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
Memorial Bridge (Kentucky–Indiana) John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
School of Government (Harvard Univ.) John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
Warfare Center and School (Fort Bragg, North Carolina) John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
University (California) John Kennedy College (Mauritius) Kennedy Expressway
Kennedy Expressway
(Chicago) MV John F. Kennedy USS John F. Kennedy (CV-67) USS John F. Kennedy (CVN-79) Yad Kennedy
Yad Kennedy


Jacqueline Bouvier (wife) Caroline Kennedy
Caroline Kennedy
(daughter) John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy

son plane crash

Patrick Bouvier Kennedy
Patrick Bouvier Kennedy
(son) Jack Schlossberg
Jack Schlossberg
(grandson) Rose Schlossberg
Rose Schlossberg
(granddaughter) Tatiana Schlossberg (granddaughter) Joseph P. Kennedy Sr.
Joseph P. Kennedy Sr.
(father) Rose Fitzgerald (mother) Joseph P. Kennedy Jr.
Joseph P. Kennedy Jr.
(brother) Rosemary Kennedy
Rosemary Kennedy
(sister) Kathleen Cavendish, Marchioness of Hartington
Kathleen Cavendish, Marchioness of Hartington
(sister) Eunice Kennedy Shriver
Eunice Kennedy Shriver
(sister) Patricia Kennedy Lawford
Patricia Kennedy Lawford
(sister) Robert F. Kennedy
Robert F. Kennedy
(brother) Jean Kennedy Smith
Jean Kennedy Smith
(sister) Ted Kennedy
Ted Kennedy
(brother) P. J. Kennedy
P. J. Kennedy
(grandfather) John F. Fitzgerald
John F. Fitzgerald

← Dwight D. Eisenhower Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson


Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 167877081 ISNI: 0000 0001 2288 911X GND: 117456-3 SN