PAX ROMANA ( Latin for "Roman peace ") was the long period of relative peacefulness and minimal expansion by the Roman military force experienced by the Roman Empire after the end of the Final War of the Roman Republic and before the beginning of the Crisis of the Third Century . During this time, the Roman empire reached its peak land mass area and its population grew up to 70 million people. Since it was established by Augustus , it is sometimes called PAX AUGUSTA. Its span was approximately 206 years (27 BC to AD 180), from the time of Augustus becoming emperor to the death of Emperor Marcus Aurelius .
* 1 Overview
* 2 Similar terms generic notion
* 2.1 In fiction
* 3 References * 4 External links
The Pax Romana is said to have been a "miracle " because prior to it there had never been peace for so many centuries in a given period of history. However, Walter Goffart wrote: "The volume of the _Cambridge Ancient History_ for the years A.D. 70–192 is called 'The Imperial Peace', but peace is not what one finds in its pages". Arthur M. Eckstein writes that the period must be seen in contrast to the much more frequent warfare in the Roman Republic in the 4th and 3rd centuries BC. Eckstein also notes that the incipient Pax Romana appeared during the Republic, and that its temporal span varied with geographical region as well: "Although the standard textbook dates for the Pax Romana, the famous “Roman Peace” in the Mediterranean , are 31 BC to AD 250, the fact is that the Roman Peace was emerging in large regions of the Mediterranean at a much earlier date: Sicily after 210 ; peninsular Italy after 200 ; the Po Valley after 190 ; most of Spain after 133 ; North Africa after 100 ; and for ever longer stretches of time in the Greek East ."
The first known record of the term _Pax Romana_ appears in a writing by Seneca the Younger in 55 AD. The concept was highly influential, and the subject of theories and attempts to copy it in subsequent ages. Arnaldo Momigliano noted that "_Pax Romana_ is a simple formula for propaganda , but a difficult subject for research ." In fact, the "Pax Romana" was broken by the First Jewish–Roman War , the Kitos War (also in Judea, 115–117), the Bar Kokhba Revolt (also known as the Third Jewish–Roman War), the Roman–Parthian War of 58–63 , Trajan's Roman–Parthian War of 113, and Boudica 's war in Britain in AD 60 or 61.
The Pax Romana began when Octavian (Augustus) defeated Mark Antony and Cleopatra in the Battle of Actium on 2 September 31 BC and became the Roman emperor. He became princeps , or _first citizen_. Lacking a good precedent of successful one-man rule, Augustus created a junta of the greatest military magnates and stood as the front man. By binding together these leading magnates in a coalition, he eliminated the prospect of civil war . The Pax Romana was not immediate, despite the end of the civil wars, because fighting continued in Hispania and in the Alps . Nevertheless, Augustus closed the Gates of Janus (a ceremony indicating that Rome was at peace) three times, first in 29 BC and again in 25 BC. The third closure is undocumented, but Inez Scott Ryberg (1949) and Gaius Stern (2006) have persuasively dated the third closure to 13 BC with the commissioning of the Ara Pacis . At the time of the Ludi Saeculares in 17 BC the concept of Peace was publicized, and in 13 BC was proclaimed when Augustus and Agrippa jointly returned from pacifying the provinces. The order to construct the Ara Pacis was no doubt part of this announcement.
Augustus faced a problem making peace an acceptable mode of life for the Romans , who had been at war with one power or another continuously for 200 years. Romans regarded peace not as an absence of war, but the rare situation which existed when all opponents had been beaten down and lost the ability to resist. Augustus' challenge was to persuade Romans that the prosperity they could achieve in the absence of warfare was better for the Empire than the potential wealth and honor acquired when fighting a risky war. Augustus succeeded by means of skillful propaganda . Subsequent emperors followed his lead, sometimes producing lavish ceremonies to close the Gates of Janus , issuing coins with Pax on the reverse, and patronizing literature extolling the benefits of the Pax Romana.
SIMILAR TERMS GENERIC NOTION
See also: List of periods of regional peace
The prominence of the concept of the _Pax Romana_ led to historians coining variants of the term to describe other systems of relative peace that have been established, attempted, or argued to have existed. Such times have been credited to the British Empire during the 19th century. Some variants include:
More generically, the concept has been referred to as _pax imperia_, (sometimes spelled as _pax imperium_ ) meaning _imperial peace_, or—less literally—_hegemonic peace_. Raymond Aron notes that imperial peace—peace achieved through hegemony —sometimes, but not always—can become civil peace . As an example, the German Empire 's imperial peace of 1871 (over its internal components like Saxony ) slowly evolved into the later German state. As a counter-example, the imperial peace of Alexander the Great 's empire dissolved because the Greek city states maintained their political identity and more importantly, embrios of their own armed forces. Aron notes that during the Pax Romana, the Jewish war was a reminder that the overlapping of the imperial institutions over the local ones did not erase them and the overlap was a source of tension and flare-ups. Aron summarizes that, "In other words, _imperial peace_ becomes civil peace insofar as the memory of the previously independent political units are effaced, insofar as individuals within a pacified zone feel themselves less united to the traditional or local community and more to the conquering state."
The concept of Pax Romana was highly influential, and attempts to imitate it occurred in the Byzantine Empire , and in the Christian West , where it morphed into the Peace and Truce of God (_pax Dei_ and _treuga Dei_). A theoretician of the imperial peace during the Middle Ages was Dante Aligheri . Dante's works on the topic were analyzed at the beginning of the 20th century by William Mitchell Ramsay in the book _The Imperial Peace; An Ideal in European History_ (1913).
* Isaac Asimov 's fictional _Galactic Empire _ and _Foundation _ series refer to _Pax Trantorica_ and _Pax Imperium_. * _ Pax Soprana _ is the sixth episode of the HBO original series _ The Sopranos _. * In _Magi: The Labyrinth of Magic _, _Reim's Peace_ is the Reim Empire's version of Pax Romana, established about 200 years prior to the series by Empress Scherazade. Reim is a nation based on the Roman Empire. * In Fallout: New Vegas Caesar aims to use his Roman-style army to create a new Pax Romana across the wasteland.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "The Pax Romana". _www.ushistory.org_. Retrieved 2017-02-10. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Pax Romana". Britannica Online Encyclopedia. * ^ Walter Goffart (1989). _Rome\'s Fall and After_. Hambledon Press. p. 111. ISBN 978-1-85285-001-2 . * ^ Arthur M. Eckstein (2011) . "Conceptualizing Roman Imperial Expansion under the Republic: An Introduction". In Nathan Rosenstein and Robert Morstein-Marx. _A Companion to the Roman Republic_. John Wiley & Sons. p. 574. ISBN 978-1-4443-5720-2 . CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link ) * ^ Ali Parchami (2009). _Hegemonic Peace and Empire: The Pax Romana, Britannica and Americana_. Routledge. p. 25. ISBN 978-1-134-00704-2 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Momigliano, Arnaldo (1942). "The Peace of the Ara Pacis" (PDF). _Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes_. 5: 228–231. JSTOR 750454 . doi :10.2307/750454 . * ^ Davis, Paul K. (1999). _100 Decisive Battles from Ancient Times to the Present: The World’s Major Battles and How They Shaped History_. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 63. ISBN 1-5760-7075-1 .
* ^ Augustus states in _Res Gestae_ 13 that he closed the Gates three times, a fact documented by many other historians (See Gates of Janus ). * ^ Scott Ryberg, Inez (1949). "The Procession of the Ara Pacis"_. Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome_. 19: 77,79–101. doi :10.2307/4238621 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Stern, Gaius (2010) . _Women, children, and senators on the Ara Pacis Augustae: A study of Augustus\' vision of a new world order in 13 BCE._ ProQuest. ISBN 978-0-549-83411-3 . * ^ Sir Ronald Syme had suggested a later date (but Rome was then at war). * ^ Tatah Mentan (2010). _The State in Africa: An Analysis of Impacts of Historical Trajectories of Global Capitalist Expansion and Domination in the Continent_. African Books Collective. p. 153. ISBN 978-9956-616-12-1 . * ^ Hyo-Dong Lee (2013). _Spirit, Qi, and the Multitude: A Comparative Theology for the Democracy of Creation_. Oxford University Press. p. 12. ISBN 978-0-8232-5501-6 . * ^ Stephen Ross (2004). _Conrad and Empire_. University of Missouri Press. p. 76. ISBN 978-0-8262-1518-5 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Raymond Aron (2003). _ Peace and War: A Theory of International Relations_. Transaction Publishers. pp. 151–152. ISBN 978-0-7658-0504-1 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ David Gress (1985). _ Peace and Survival: West Germany, The Peace Movement & European Security_. Hoover Press. pp. 96–99. ISBN 978-0-8179-8093-1 . * ^ Ali Parchami (2009). _Hegemonic Peace and Empire: The Pax Romana, Britannica and Americana_. Routledge. p. 31. ISBN 978-1-134-00704-2 . * ^ James Brown Scott (2002) . _Law, the State, and the International Community_. The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd. pp. 223–224. ISBN 978-1-58477-178-4 . * ^ "The imperial peace; an ideal in European history". _Internet Archive_.
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