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PAX ROMANA ( Latin
Latin
for "Roman peace ") was the long period of relative peacefulness and minimal expansion by the Roman military force experienced by the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
after the end of the Final War of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
and before the beginning of the Crisis of the Third Century . During this time, the Roman empire reached its peak land mass area and its population grew up to 70 million people. Since it was established by Augustus
Augustus
, it is sometimes called PAX AUGUSTA. Its span was approximately 206 years (27 BC to AD 180), from the time of Augustus
Augustus
becoming emperor to the death of Emperor Marcus Aurelius
Marcus Aurelius
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Overview

* 2 Similar terms generic notion

* 2.1 In fiction

* 3 References * 4 External links

OVERVIEW

Fresco
Fresco
of a relaxed seated woman from Stabiae
Stabiae
, 1st century AD

The Pax Romana
Pax Romana
is said to have been a "miracle " because prior to it there had never been peace for so many centuries in a given period of history. However, Walter Goffart wrote: "The volume of the Cambridge Ancient History for the years A.D. 70–192 is called 'The Imperial Peace', but peace is not what one finds in its pages". Arthur M. Eckstein writes that the period must be seen in contrast to the much more frequent warfare in the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
in the 4th and 3rd centuries BC. Eckstein also notes that the incipient Pax Romana appeared during the Republic, and that its temporal span varied with geographical region as well: "Although the standard textbook dates for the Pax Romana, the famous “Roman Peace” in the Mediterranean , are 31 BC to AD 250, the fact is that the Roman Peace
Peace
was emerging in large regions of the Mediterranean at a much earlier date: Sicily after 210 ; peninsular Italy after 200 ; the Po Valley
Po Valley
after 190 ; most of Spain after 133 ; North Africa
North Africa
after 100 ; and for ever longer stretches of time in the Greek East ."

The first known record of the term Pax Romana
Pax Romana
appears in a writing by Seneca the Younger
Seneca the Younger
in 55 AD. The concept was highly influential, and the subject of theories and attempts to copy it in subsequent ages. Arnaldo Momigliano noted that " Pax Romana
Pax Romana
is a simple formula for propaganda , but a difficult subject for research ." In fact, the "Pax Romana" was broken by the First Jewish–Roman War
First Jewish–Roman War
, the Kitos War (also in Judea, 115–117), the Bar Kokhba Revolt (also known as the Third Jewish–Roman War), the Roman–Parthian War of 58–63
Roman–Parthian War of 58–63
, Trajan's Roman–Parthian War of 113, and Boudica
Boudica
's war in Britain in AD 60 or 61.

The Pax Romana
Pax Romana
began when Octavian (Augustus) defeated Mark Antony and Cleopatra
Cleopatra
in the Battle of Actium
Battle of Actium
on 2 September 31 BC and became the Roman emperor. He became princeps , or first citizen. Lacking a good precedent of successful one-man rule, Augustus
Augustus
created a junta of the greatest military magnates and stood as the front man. By binding together these leading magnates in a coalition, he eliminated the prospect of civil war . The Pax Romana
Pax Romana
was not immediate, despite the end of the civil wars, because fighting continued in Hispania
Hispania
and in the Alps
Alps
. Nevertheless, Augustus
Augustus
closed the Gates of Janus (a ceremony indicating that Rome
Rome
was at peace) three times, first in 29 BC and again in 25 BC. The third closure is undocumented, but Inez Scott Ryberg (1949) and Gaius Stern (2006) have persuasively dated the third closure to 13 BC with the commissioning of the Ara Pacis
Ara Pacis
. At the time of the Ludi Saeculares in 17 BC the concept of Peace
Peace
was publicized, and in 13 BC was proclaimed when Augustus
Augustus
and Agrippa jointly returned from pacifying the provinces. The order to construct the Ara Pacis
Ara Pacis
was no doubt part of this announcement.

Augustus
Augustus
faced a problem making peace an acceptable mode of life for the Romans , who had been at war with one power or another continuously for 200 years. Romans regarded peace not as an absence of war, but the rare situation which existed when all opponents had been beaten down and lost the ability to resist. Augustus' challenge was to persuade Romans that the prosperity they could achieve in the absence of warfare was better for the Empire than the potential wealth and honor acquired when fighting a risky war. Augustus
Augustus
succeeded by means of skillful propaganda . Subsequent emperors followed his lead, sometimes producing lavish ceremonies to close the Gates of Janus , issuing coins with Pax on the reverse, and patronizing literature extolling the benefits of the Pax Romana.

After Augustus
Augustus
died in 14 AD many other Roman emperors ruled during this time. The last five emperors of the Pax Romana
Pax Romana
were considered the " Five Good Emperors
Five Good Emperors
".

SIMILAR TERMS GENERIC NOTION

See also: List of periods of regional peace

The prominence of the concept of the Pax Romana
Pax Romana
led to historians coining variants of the term to describe other systems of relative peace that have been established, attempted, or argued to have existed. Such times have been credited to the British Empire during the 19th century. Some variants include:

* Pax Britannica
Pax Britannica
* Pax Americana
Pax Americana
* Pax Europaea

* Pax Hispanica * Pax Mongolica
Pax Mongolica
* Pax Ottomana

* Pax Sinica * Pax Khazarica
Pax Khazarica
* Pax Syriana

* Pax Islamica
Pax Islamica
* Pax Sovietica
Pax Sovietica
* Pax Russica

* Pax Mafiosa

More generically, the concept has been referred to as pax imperia, (sometimes spelled as pax imperium ) meaning imperial peace, or—less literally—hegemonic peace. Raymond Aron
Raymond Aron
notes that imperial peace—peace achieved through hegemony —sometimes, but not always—can become civil peace . As an example, the German Empire
German Empire
's imperial peace of 1871 (over its internal components like Saxony
Saxony
) slowly evolved into the later German state. As a counter-example, the imperial peace of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
's empire dissolved because the Greek city states maintained their political identity and more importantly, embrios of their own armed forces. Aron notes that during the Pax Romana, the Jewish war was a reminder that the overlapping of the imperial institutions over the local ones did not erase them and the overlap was a source of tension and flare-ups. Aron summarizes that, "In other words, imperial peace becomes civil peace insofar as the memory of the previously independent political units are effaced, insofar as individuals within a pacified zone feel themselves less united to the traditional or local community and more to the conquering state."

The concept of Pax Romana
Pax Romana
was highly influential, and attempts to imitate it occurred in the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
, and in the Christian West , where it morphed into the Peace
Peace
and Truce of God (pax Dei and treuga Dei). A theoretician of the imperial peace during the Middle Ages was Dante Aligheri . Dante's works on the topic were analyzed at the beginning of the 20th century by William Mitchell Ramsay in the book The Imperial Peace; An Ideal in European History (1913).

IN FICTION

* Isaac Asimov
Isaac Asimov
's fictional Galactic Empire and Foundation series refer to Pax Trantorica and Pax Imperium. * Pax Soprana is the sixth episode of the HBO
HBO
original series The Sopranos . * In Magi: The Labyrinth of Magic , Reim's Peace
Peace
is the Reim Empire's version of Pax Romana, established about 200 years prior to the series by Empress Scherazade. Reim is a nation based on the Roman Empire. * In Fallout: New Vegas Caesar aims to use his Roman-style army to create a new Pax Romana
Pax Romana
across the wasteland.

REFERENCES

* ^ A B C "The Pax Romana". www.ushistory.org. Retrieved 2017-02-10. * ^ A B C "Pax Romana". Britannica Online Encyclopedia. * ^ Walter Goffart (1989). Rome\'s Fall and After. Hambledon Press. p. 111. ISBN 978-1-85285-001-2 . * ^ Arthur M. Eckstein (2011) . "Conceptualizing Roman Imperial Expansion under the Republic: An Introduction". In Nathan Rosenstein and Robert Morstein-Marx. A Companion to the Roman Republic. John Wiley & Sons. p. 574. ISBN 978-1-4443-5720-2 . CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link ) * ^ Ali Parchami (2009). Hegemonic Peace
Peace
and Empire: The Pax Romana, Britannica and Americana. Routledge. p. 25. ISBN 978-1-134-00704-2 . * ^ A B Momigliano, Arnaldo (1942). "The Peace
Peace
of the Ara Pacis" (PDF). Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes. 5: 228–231. JSTOR
JSTOR
750454 . doi :10.2307/750454 . * ^ Davis, Paul K. (1999). 100 Decisive Battles from Ancient Times to the Present: The World’s Major Battles and How They Shaped History. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 63. ISBN 1-5760-7075-1 . * ^ Augustus
Augustus
states in Res Gestae 13 that he closed the Gates three times, a fact documented by many other historians (See Gates of Janus ). * ^ Scott Ryberg, Inez (1949). "The Procession of the Ara Pacis". Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome. 19: 77,79–101. doi :10.2307/4238621 . * ^ A B C Stern, Gaius (2010) . Women, children, and senators on the Ara Pacis
Ara Pacis
Augustae: A study of Augustus\' vision of a new world order in 13 BCE. ProQuest. ISBN 978-0-549-83411-3 . * ^ Sir Ronald Syme had suggested a later date (but Rome
Rome
was then at war). * ^ Tatah Mentan (2010). The State in Africa: An Analysis of Impacts of Historical Trajectories of Global Capitalist Expansion and Domination in the Continent. African Books Collective. p. 153. ISBN 978-9956-616-12-1 . * ^ Hyo-Dong Lee (2013). Spirit, Qi, and the Multitude: A Comparative Theology for the Democracy of Creation. Oxford University Press. p. 12. ISBN 978-0-8232-5501-6 . * ^ Stephen Ross (2004). Conrad and Empire. University of Missouri Press. p. 76. ISBN 978-0-8262-1518-5 . * ^ A B Raymond Aron
Raymond Aron
(2003). Peace
Peace
and War: A Theory of International Relations. Transaction Publishers. pp. 151–152. ISBN 978-0-7658-0504-1 . * ^ A B C David Gress (1985). Peace