PAULO REGLUS NEVES FREIRE (/ˈfrɛəri/ , Portuguese: ; September 19, 1921 – May 2, 1997) was a Brazilian educator and philosopher who was a leading advocate of critical pedagogy . He is best known for his influential work, Pedagogy of the Oppressed , considered to be one of the foundational texts of the critical pedagogy movement.
* 1 Biography
* 2 Theoretical contributions
* 2.1 Banking model of education * 2.2 Culture of silence
* 3 Global impact
* 3.1 Recognition
* 4 Bibliography * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 Further reading * 9 External links
Freire was born September 19, 1921 to a middle-class family in Recife
, Brazil. Freire became familiar with poverty and hunger during the
Great Depression of the 1930s. In 1931, the family moved to the less
expensive city of
Jaboatão dos Guararapes
Freire enrolled in law school at the University of
In 1946, Freire was appointed Director of the Department of Education
and Culture of the Social Service in the state of
In 1961, he was appointed director of the Department of Cultural
In 1964, a military coup put an end to Freire's literacy effort. He
was imprisoned as a traitor for 70 days. After a brief exile in
Based on the positive reception of his work, Freire was offered a
visiting professorship at
After a year in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, Freire moved to
Geneva, Switzerland to work as a special education advisor to the
World Council of Churches
In 1979, he was able to return to Brazil and moved back in 1980.
Freire joined the Workers\' Party (PT) in the city of
Freire died of heart failure on May 2, 1997 in São Paulo.
* Anti-oppressive education * Anti-bias curriculum * Multicultural education * Educational inequality * Curriculum studies * Teaching for social justice * Humanitarian education * Inclusion * Student-centered learning * Public sphere pedagogy * Popular education * Feminist composition * Ecopedagogy * Queer pedagogy * Critical literacy * Critical reading * Critical consciousness * Critical Theory of Maker Education
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"There is no such thing as a neutral education process. Education
either functions as an instrument which is used to facilitate the
integration of generations into the logic of the present system and
bring about conformity to it, or it becomes the 'practice of freedom',
the means by which men and women deal critically with reality and
discover how to participate in the transformation of their world."
— Richard Shaull, drawing on
In Pedagogy of the Oppressed (1970), Freire, reprising the oppressors–oppressed distinction , differentiates between the positions in an unjust society: the oppressor and the oppressed. Freire makes no direct reference to his biggest influence for the distinction, which stems back at least as far as Hegel in 1802.
Freire champions that education should allow the oppressed to regain their sense of humanity, in turn overcoming their condition. Nevertheless, he acknowledges that for this to occur, the oppressed individual must play a role in their liberation. As he states:
No pedagogy which is truly liberating can remain distant from the oppressed by treating them as unfortunates and by presenting for their emulation models from among the oppressors. The oppressed must be their own example in the struggle for their redemption.
Likewise, the oppressors must be willing to rethink their way of life and to examine their own role in oppression if true liberation is to occur: "those who authentically commit themselves to the people must re-examine themselves constantly".
Freire believed education could not be divorced from politics; the act of teaching and learning are political acts in themselves. Freire defined this connection as a main tenet of critical pedagogy. Teachers and students must be made aware of the "politics" that surround education. The way students are taught and what they are taught serves a political agenda. Teachers, themselves, have political notions they bring into the classroom.
Freire believed that "education makes sense because women and men learn that through learning they can make and remake themselves, because women and men are able to take responsibility for themselves as beings capable of knowing—of knowing that they know and knowing that they don't".
BANKING MODEL OF EDUCATION
In terms of pedagogy, Freire is best known for his attack on what he
called the "banking" concept of education, in which the student was
viewed as an empty account to be filled by the teacher. He notes that
"it transforms students into receiving objects. It attempts to control
thinking and action, leads men and women to adjust to the world, and
inhibits their creative power." The basic critique was not new —
CULTURE OF SILENCE
According to Freire, the system of dominant social relations creates a 'culture of silence' that instills a negative, silenced and suppressed self-image into the oppressed. The learner must develop a critical consciousness in order to recognize that this culture of silence is created to oppress. A culture of silence can also cause the "dominated individuals lose the means by which to critically respond to the culture that is forced on them by a dominant culture."
Social domination of race and class are interlaced into the conventional education system, through which the "culture of silence" eliminates the "paths of thought that lead to a language of critique."
Freire's major exponents in North America are
Henry Giroux , Peter
Donaldo Macedo ,
Antonia Darder ,
Joe L. Kincheloe , Carlos
Alberto Torres ,
Ira Shor , and
Shirley R. Steinberg . One of
McLaren's edited texts, Paulo Freire: A Critical Encounter, expounds
upon Freire's impact in the field of critical education . McLaren has
also provided a comparative study concerning
In South Africa Freire's ideas and methods were central to the Black
Consciousness Movement , often associated with the figure of Steve
Biko , in the 1970s. There is a
In 1991, the
Since the publication of the English edition in 1970,
Pedagogy of the
Oppressed has achieved near-iconic status in America's
teacher-training programs, according to Sol Stern. Stern is a social
commentator critical of the entry of Freire's Marxist-inspired
teachings into the mainstream curriculum. Connections of Freire's
non-dualism theory and pedagogy has also recently been made with
eastern philosophical traditions such as the
In 1999 PAULO, a national training organisation named in honour of Freire, was established in the United Kingdom. This agency was approved by the New Labour Government to represent some 300,000 community-based education practitioners working across the UK. PAULO was given formal responsibility for setting the occupational training standards for people working in this field.
The Pedagogy and Theatre of the Oppressed Conference is held each spring and is guided by the theory and practice of Freire and Augusto Boal . The conference networks a wide variety of people with interests in these two liberatory thinkers—liberatory education and theatre, community organizing, community-based analysis, TIE, race/gender/class/sexual orientation/geography analysis, performance/performance art, comparative education models, etc.
The Paulo and Nita Freire Project for International Critical Pedagogy
was founded at
In 2012 a group of educators in Western Massachusetts received
permission from the state to found the
At his death, Freire was working on a book of ecopedagogy , a platform of work carried on by many of the Freire Institutes and Freirean Associations around the world today. It has been influential in helping to develop planetary education projects such as the Earth Charter as well as countless international grassroots campaigns in the spirit of Freirean popular education generally.
Freirean literacy methods have been adopted throughout the developing world. In the Philippines, Catholic "basal Christian communities" adopted Freire's methods in community education . Papua New Guinea, Freirean literacy methods were used as part of the World Bank funded Southern Highlands Rural Development Program's Literacy Campaign. Freirean approaches also lie at the heart of the "Dragon Dreaming" approach to community programs that have spread to 20 countries by 2014.
King Baudouin International Development Prize 1980. Paulo Freire
was the first person to receive this prize. He was nominated by Dr.
Mathew Zachariah, Professor of Education at the University of Calgary.
* Prize for Outstanding Christian Educators with his wife Elza
UNESCO Prize for Peace Education 1986
* Honorary Doctorate, the University of Nebraska at Omaha, 1996,
along with Augusto Boal, during their residency at the Second Pedagogy
Theatre of the Oppressed Conference in Omaha.
* An independent public high school in
Freire wrote and co-wrote over 20 books on education, pedagogy and related themes.
Some of his works include:
* Freire, P. (1970a).
Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York,
* Freire, P. (1970b). Cultural action for freedom. , Harvard
* Freire, P. (1973). Education for critical consciousness. New York,
* Freire, P. (1975).
Conscientization . Geneva, World Council of
* Freire, P. (1976). Education, the practice of freedom. London,
Writers and Readers Publishing Cooperative.
* Freire, P. (1978).
Pedagogy in Process: The letters to
Guinea-Bissau. New York, A Continuum Book: The Seabury Press.
* Freire, P. (1985). The politics of education: culture, power, and
liberation. South Hadley, Mass., Bergin & Garvey.
* Freire, P. and D.P. Macedo (1987). Literacy: reading the word &
the world. South Hadley, Mass., Bergin & Garvey Publishers.
* Freire, P. and I. Shor (1987). Freire for the classroom: a
sourcebook for liberators teaching.
* Freire, P. and H. Giroux & P. McLaren (1988). Teachers as
intellectuals: towards a critical pedagogy of learning.
* Freire, P. and I. Shor (1988). Cultural wars: School and society
in the conservative restoration 1969–1984.
* Freire, P. (1993).
Pedagogy of the Oppressed . New York,
* Freire, P. (1993).
Pedagogy of the city. New York, Continuum.
* Faundez, Antonion, and
Clodomir Santos de Morais
* Landless Workers\' Movement
* ^ "The New Observer" (PDF). Justinwyllie.net. Retrieved
* ^ Sima Barmania (2011-10-26). "Why Paulo Freire\'s "
the Oppressed" is just as relevant today as ever".
Blogs.independent.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-11-12.
* ^ "
* Mann, Bernhard , The Pedagogical and Political Concepts of Mahatma Gandhi and Paulo Freire. In: Claußen, B. (Ed.) International Studies in Political Socialization and ion. Bd. 8. Hamburg 1996. ISBN 3-926952-97-0 * Aronowitz, Stanley (1993). Paulo Freire\'s radical democratic humanism. In P. McLaren & P. Leonard. (Eds.), Paulo Freire: A critical encounter (pp. 9-) * Kincheloe, Joe L. (2008). Critical Pedagogy. 2nd Ed. New York: Peter Lang.
* Coben, Diana (1998), Radical heroes. Gramsci, Freire and the
Politics of Adult Education, New York: Garland Press.
* Darder, Antonia (2002), Reinventing Paulo Freire: A
Love, Boulder: Westview.
* Darder, Antonia (2015), Freire Greer, Brian; Sriraman,Bharath
(eds.), "Critical Issues in Mathematics Education", The Mathematics
Enthusiast : Monograph Series in Mathematics Education, Information
Age Publishing ; Charolotte, NC, ISBN 978-1-60752-039-9
* Freire, Nita. Vittoria, Paolo "Dialogue on Paulo Freire".
Interamerican Journal of Education for Democracy.Vol. 1. no. 1
* Freire, Paulo (1997) "Mentoring the mentor: a critical dialogue
with Paulo Freire", Counterpoints: Studies in the Postmodern Theory of
Education, Vol 60, 1997, ISBN 0-8204-3798-0
* Gadotti, Moacir (1994), Reading Paulo Freire. His Life and Work,
Albany: SUNY Press.
* Gibson, Rich (2004), "The Promethean Literacy." Unpublished
* Gottesman, Isaac (2016), "The Critical Turn in Education: From
* Biography portal * Brazil portal * Education portal
Find more aboutPAULO FREIREat's sister projects
* Media from Commons * Quotations from Wikiquote * Data from Wikidata
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Issues in Freirian pedagogy