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Paul the Apostle
Paul the Apostle
(Latin: Paulus; Greek: Παῦλος, translit. Paulos, Coptic: ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ; c. 5 – c. 67), commonly known as Saint
Saint
Paul and also known by his Jewish name Saul of Tarsus (Hebrew: שאול התרסי‎, translit. Sha'ul ha-Tarsi; Greek: Σαῦλος Ταρσεύς, translit. Saulos Tarseus),[4][5][6] was an apostle (though not one of the Twelve Apostles) who taught the gospel of the Christ
Christ
to the first century world.[7] Paul is generally considered one of the most important figures of the Apostolic Age[8][9] and in the mid-30s to the mid-50s AD he founded several churches in Asia Minor and Europe. He took advantage of his status as both a Jew
Jew
and a Roman citizen
Roman citizen
to minister to both Jewish and Roman audiences. According to writings in the New Testament
New Testament
and prior to his conversion, Paul was dedicated to persecuting the early disciples of Jesus
Jesus
in the area of Jerusalem.[10] In the narrative of the Acts of the Apostles
Apostles
(often referred to simply as Acts), Paul was traveling on the road from Jerusalem
Jerusalem
to Damascus
Damascus
on a mission to "arrest them and bring them back to Jerusalem" when the resurrected Jesus
Jesus
appeared to him in a great light. He was struck blind, but after three days his sight was restored by Ananias of Damascus
Ananias of Damascus
and Paul began to preach that Jesus
Jesus
of Nazareth is the Jewish Messiah and the Son of God.[11] Approximately half of the book of Acts deals with Paul's life and works. Thirteen of the twenty-seven books in the New Testament
New Testament
have traditionally been attributed to Paul.[12] Seven of the epistles are undisputed by scholars as being authentic, with varying degrees of argument about the remainder. Pauline authorship of the Epistle
Epistle
to the Hebrews is not asserted in the Epistle
Epistle
itself and was already doubted in the 2nd and 3rd centuries.[13] It was almost unquestioningly accepted from the 5th to the 16th centuries that Paul was the author of Hebrews,[14] but that view is now almost universally rejected by scholars.[15] The other six are believed by some scholars to have come from followers writing in his name, using material from Paul's surviving letters and letters written by him that no longer survive.[7][8][16] Other scholars argue that the idea of a pseudonymous author for the disputed epistles raises many problems.[17] Today, Paul's epistles continue to be vital roots of the theology, worship and pastoral life in the Catholic and Protestant traditions of the West, as well as the Orthodox traditions of the East.[18] Paul's influence on Christian thought and practice has been characterized as being as "profound as it is pervasive", among that of many other apostles and missionaries involved in the spread of the Christian faith.[7] Augustine of Hippo
Augustine of Hippo
developed Paul's idea that salvation is based on faith and not "works of the law". Martin Luther's interpretation of Paul's writings influenced Luther's doctrine of sola fide.

Contents

1 Available sources 2 Names 3 Biblical narrative

3.1 Early life 3.2 Conversion 3.3 Post-conversion 3.4 Early ministry 3.5 First missionary journey 3.6 Interval at Antioch 3.7 Council of Jerusalem 3.8 Incident at Antioch 3.9 Second missionary journey 3.10 Interval in Corinth 3.11 Third missionary journey 3.12 Journey from Rome
Rome
to Spain 3.13 Visits to Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in Acts and the epistles 3.14 Last visit to Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and arrest 3.15 Two years in Rome

4 Death

4.1 Remains

5 Writings

5.1 Basic message 5.2 Authorship 5.3 Atonement 5.4 Relationship with Judaism 5.5 World to come 5.6 Role of women 5.7 Views on homosexuality

6 Influence on Christianity

6.1 Modern theology

7 Church tradition 8 Muslim views 9 Jewish views 10 Literary analysis

10.1 Writing styles 10.2 Other views

11 Physical appearance 12 See also 13 Further reading 14 References

14.1 Citations 14.2 Bibliography

15 External links

Available sources Further information: Historical reliability of the Acts of the Apostles

The Conversion of Saul, fresco by Michelangelo, 1542–45

The main source for information about Paul's life is the material found in his epistles and in Acts. However, the epistles contain little information about Paul's past. The book of Acts recounts more information but leaves several parts of Paul's life out of its narrative, such as his probable but undocumented execution in Rome.[19] Some scholars believe Acts also contradicts Paul's epistles on multiple accounts, in particular concerning the frequency of Paul's visits to the church in Jerusalem.[20] Sources outside the New Testament
New Testament
that mention Paul include:

Clement of Rome's epistle to the Corinthians (late 1st/early 2nd century); Ignatius of Antioch's letter To the Romans (early 2nd century); Polycarp's letter to the Philippians
Polycarp's letter to the Philippians
(early 2nd century);

Names It has been popularly assumed that Saul's name was changed when he became a follower of Jesus
Jesus
Christ, but that is not the case.[5][21] His Jewish name was "Saul" (Hebrew: שָׁאוּל‬, Modern Sha'ul, Tiberian Šāʼûl, "asked for, prayed for, borrowed"), perhaps after the biblical King Saul, a fellow Benjamite and the first king of Israel. According to the Book
Book
of Acts, he inherited Roman citizenship
Roman citizenship
from his father.[citation needed] As a Roman citizen, he also bore the Latin name of "Paul" – in biblical Greek: Παῦλος (Paulos),[22] and in Latin: Paulus.[23][Acts 16:37][22:25–28] It was quite usual for the Jews of that time to have two names, one Hebrew, the other Latin or Greek.[24][25][26] Jesus
Jesus
called him "Saul, Saul"[27] in "the Hebrew tongue" in the book of Acts, when he had the vision which led to his conversion on the Road to Damascus.[28] Later, in a vision to Ananias of Damascus, "the Lord" referred to him as "Saul, of Tarsus".[6] When Ananias came to restore his sight, he called him "Brother Saul".[29] In Acts 13:9, Saul is called "Paul" for the first time on the island of Cyprus–much later than the time of his conversion. The author (Luke) indicates that the names were interchangeable: "Saul, who also is called Paul." He thereafter refers to him as Paul, apparently Paul's preference since he is called Paul in all other Bible
Bible
books where he is mentioned, including those that he authored. Adopting his Roman name was typical of Paul's missionary style. His method was to put people at their ease and to approach them with his message in a language and style to which they could relate, as in 1 Cor 9:19–23.[5] Biblical narrative Early life

Geography relevant to Paul's life, stretching from Jerusalem
Jerusalem
to Rome

The two main sources of information by which we have access to the earliest segments of Paul's career are the Bible's Book
Book
of Acts and the autobiographical elements of Paul's letters to the early church communities. Paul was likely born between the years of 5 BC and 5 AD.[30] The Book
Book
of Acts indicates that Paul was a Roman citizen
Roman citizen
by birth, more affirmatively describing his father as such,[citation needed] but Helmut Koester takes issue with the evidence presented by the text.[31][Acts 16:37][Acts 22:25–29] He was from a devout Jewish family[32] in the city of Tarsus–one of the largest trade centers on the Mediterranean coast.[33] It had been in existence several hundred years prior to his birth. It was renowned for its university. During the time of Alexander the Great, who died in 323 BC, Tarsus was the most influential city in Asia Minor.[32] Paul referred to himself as being "of the stock of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, a Hebrew of the Hebrews; as touching the law, a Pharisee".[Phil. 3:5] The Bible
Bible
reveals very little about Paul's family. Paul's nephew, his sister's son, is mentioned in Acts 23:16. Acts also quotes Paul referring to his father by saying he, Paul, was "a Pharisee, the son of a Pharisee" (Acts 23:6). In Romans 16:7 he states that his relatives, Andronicus and Junia, were Christians before he was and were prominent among the apostles. The family had a history of religious piety ( 2 Timothy
2 Timothy
1:3) [34] Apparently the family lineage had been very attached to Pharisaic traditions and observances for generations.[ Philippians
Philippians
3:5–6] Acts says that he was in the tent-making profession.[Acts 18:1–3] This was to become an initial connection with Priscilla and Aquila
Priscilla and Aquila
with whom he would partner in tentmaking[Acts 18:3] and later become very important teammates as fellow missionaries.[Rom. 16:4] While he was still fairly young, he was sent to Jerusalem
Jerusalem
to receive his education at the school of Gamaliel,[Acts 22:3] one of the most noted rabbis in history. The Hillel school was noted for giving its students a balanced education, likely giving Paul broad exposure to classical literature, philosophy, and ethics.[35] Some of his family may have resided in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
since later the son of one of his sisters saved his life there.[Acts 23:16] Nothing more is known of his background until he takes an active part in the martyrdom of Stephen.[Acts 7:58–60; 22:20] Paul confesses that "beyond measure" he persecuted the church of God prior to his conversion.[Gal. 1:13–14] [Phil. 3:6] [Acts 8:1–3] Although we know from his biography and from Acts that Paul could speak Hebrew, modern scholarship suggests that Koine Greek
Koine Greek
was his first language.[36][37] In his letters, Paul drew heavily on his knowledge of Stoic philosophy, using Stoic terms and metaphors to assist his new Gentile converts in their understanding of the revealed word of God.[38] He also owed much to his training in the law and the prophets, utilizing this knowledge to convince his Jewish countrymen of the unity of past Old Testament
Old Testament
prophecy and covenants with the fulfilling of these in Jesus
Jesus
Christ. His wide spectrum of experiences and education gave the "Apostle to the Gentiles"[Rom. 1:5] [11:13] [Gal. 2:8] the tools which he later would use to effectively spread the Gospel
Gospel
and to establish the church in the Roman Empire.[35] Conversion Main article: Conversion of Paul the Apostle

Conversion on the Way to Damascus
Conversion on the Way to Damascus
(1601), by Caravaggio

Paul's conversion can be dated to 31–36[39][40][41] by his reference to it in one of his letters. In Galatians 1:16 Paul writes that God "was pleased to reveal his son to me." In 1 Corinthians
1 Corinthians
15:8, as he lists the order in which Jesus
Jesus
appeared to his disciples after his resurrection, Paul writes, "last of all, as to one untimely born, He appeared to me also." According to the account in Acts, it took place on the road to Damascus, where he reported having experienced a vision of the resurrected Jesus. The account says that "he fell to the earth, and heard a voice saying unto him, Saul, Saul, why persecutest thou me?" Saul replied, "Who art thou, Lord? And the Lord said, I am Jesus
Jesus
whom thou persecutest: [it is] hard for thee to kick against the pricks (goads)."[Acts 9:4–5] According to the account in Acts 9:1–22, he was blinded for three days and had to be led into Damascus
Damascus
by the hand. During these three days, Saul took no food or water and spent his time in prayer to God. When Ananias of Damascus
Ananias of Damascus
arrived, he laid his hands on him and said: "Brother Saul, the Lord, [even] Jesus, that appeared unto thee in the way as thou camest, hath sent me, that thou mightest receive thy sight, and be filled with the Holy Ghost."[Acts 9:17] His sight was restored, he got up and was baptized.[Acts 9:18] This story occurs only in Acts, not in the Pauline epistles.[42] The author of Acts of the Apostles
Apostles
may have learned of Paul's conversion from the church in Jerusalem, or from the church in Antioch, or possibly from Paul himself.[43] Post-conversion

Caravaggio
Caravaggio
(1571–1610), The Conversion of Saint
Saint
Paul, 1600

Paul the Apostle, by Rembrandt Harmensz van Rijn
Rembrandt Harmensz van Rijn
c. 1657

And immediately he proclaimed Jesus
Jesus
in the synagogues, saying, “He is the Son of God.” And all who heard him were amazed and said, “Is not this the man who made havoc in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
of those who called upon this name? And has he not come here for this purpose, to bring them bound before the chief priests?” But Saul increased all the more in strength, and confounded the Jews who lived in Damascus
Damascus
by proving that Jesus
Jesus
was the Christ. — Acts 9:20–22

In the opening verses of Romans 1, Paul provides a litany of his own apostolic appointment to preach among the Gentiles[Gal. 1:16] and his post-conversion convictions about the risen Christ.[8]

Paul described himself as

a servant of Jesus
Jesus
Christ; having experienced an unforeseen, sudden, startling change, due to all-powerful grace – not the fruit of his reasoning or thoughts;[Gal. 1:12–15] [1 Cor. 15:10] having seen Christ
Christ
as did the other apostles when Christ
Christ
appeared to him[1 Cor. 15:8] as he appeared to Peter, to James, to the Twelve, after his Resurrection;[1 Cor. 9:1] called to be an apostle; set apart for the gospel of God.

Paul described Jesus
Jesus
as

having been promised by God beforehand through his prophets in the holy Scriptures; being the true messiah and the Son of God; having biological lineage from David
David
("according to the flesh");[Rom. 1:3] having been declared to be the Son of God in power according to the Spirit of holiness by his resurrection from the dead; being Jesus
Jesus
Christ
Christ
our Lord; the One through whom we have received grace and apostleship to bring about the obedience of faith for the sake of his name among all the nations, "including you who are called to belong to Jesus
Jesus
Christ".

Jesus

lives in heaven; is God's Son; would soon return.[8]

The Cross

he now believed Jesus' death was a voluntary sacrifice that reconciled sinners with God.[Rom. 5:6–10] [Phil. 2:8]

The Law

he now believed the law only reveals the extent of people's enslavement to the power of sin – a power that must be broken by Christ.[Rom. 3:20b] [7:7–12]

Gentiles

he had believed Gentiles were outside the covenant that God made with Israel; he now believed Gentiles and Jews were united as the people of God in Christ
Christ
Jesus.[Gal. 3:28]

Circumcision

had believed circumcision was the rite through which males became part of Israel, an exclusive community of God's chosen people;[Phil. 3:3–5] he now believed that neither circumcision nor uncircumcision means anything, but that the new creation is what counts in the sight of God,[Gal. 6:15] and that this new creation is a work of Christ
Christ
in the life of believers, making them part of the church, an inclusive community of Jews and Gentiles reconciled with God through faith.[Rom. 6:4]

Persecution

had believed his violent persecution of the church to be an indication of his zeal for his religion;[Phil. 3:6] he now believed Jewish hostility toward the church was sinful opposition that would incur God's wrath;[1 Thess. 2:14–16] [7]:236 he believed he was halted by Christ
Christ
when his fury was at its height;[Acts 9:1–2] It was "through zeal" that he persecuted the Church,[ Philippians
Philippians
3:6] and he obtained mercy because he had "acted ignorantly in unbelief".[1 Tim. 1:13][34]

The Last Days

had believed God's messiah would put an end to the old age of evil and initiate a new age of righteousness; he now believed this would happen in stages that had begun with the resurrection of Jesus, but the old age would continue until Jesus returns.[Rom. 16:25] [1 Cor. 10:11] [Gal. 1:4] [7]:236

Paul is critical both theologically and empirically of claims of moral or lineal superiority [Rom. 2:16–26] of Jews while conversely strongly sustaining the notion of a special place for the Children of Israel.[9-11] There are debates as to whether Paul understood himself as commissioned to take the gospel to the Gentiles at the moment of his conversion.[44] Early ministry

The house believed to be of Ananias of Damascus
Ananias of Damascus
in Damascus

Bab Kisan, believed to be where Paul escaped from persecution in Damascus

After his conversion, Paul went to Damascus, where Acts 9
Acts 9
states he was healed of his blindness and baptized by Ananias of Damascus.[45] Paul says that it was in Damascus
Damascus
that he barely escaped death.[2 Cor. 11:32] Paul also says that he then went first to Arabia, and then came back to Damascus.[Gal. 1:17][46] Paul's trip to Arabia is not mentioned anywhere else in the Bible, and some suppose he actually traveled to Mount Sinai
Mount Sinai
for meditations in the desert.[47][48] He describes in Galatians how three years after his conversion he went to Jerusalem. There he met James and stayed with Simon Peter for 15 days.[Gal. 1:13–24] Paul located Mount Sinai
Mount Sinai
in Arabia in Galatians 4:24–25. Paul asserted that he received the Gospel
Gospel
not from man, but directly by "the revelation of Jesus
Jesus
Christ".[Gal 1:11–16] He claimed almost total independence from the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
community[3]:316–20 (possibly in the Cenacle), but agreed with it on the nature and content of the gospel.[Gal 1:22–24] He appeared eager to bring material support to Jerusalem
Jerusalem
from the various growing Gentile churches that he started. In his writings, Paul used the persecutions he endured to avow proximity and union with Jesus
Jesus
and as a validation of his teaching. Paul's narrative in Galatians states that 14 years after his conversion he went again to Jerusalem.[Gal. 2:1–10] It is not known what happened during this time, but both Acts and Galatians provide some details.[49] At the end of this time, Barnabas
Barnabas
went to find Paul and brought him back to Antioch. [Acts 11:26] When a famine occurred in Judea, around 45–46,[50] Paul and Barnabas journeyed to Jerusalem
Jerusalem
to deliver financial support from the Antioch community.[51] According to Acts, Antioch
Antioch
had become an alternative center for Christians following the dispersion of the believers after the death of Stephen. It was in Antioch
Antioch
that the followers of Jesus were first called "Christians".[Acts 11:26] First missionary journey The author of Acts arranges Paul's travels into three separate journeys. The first journey,[Acts 13–14] led initially by Barnabas,[52] took Paul from Antioch
Antioch
to Cyprus
Cyprus
then into southern Asia Minor (Anatolia), and finally returning to Antioch. In Cyprus, Paul rebukes and blinds Elymas
Elymas
the magician[Acts 13:8–12] who was criticizing their teachings. From this point on, Paul is described as the leader of the group.[citation needed] They sail to Perga
Perga
in Pamphylia. John Mark
John Mark
leaves them and returns to Jerusalem. Paul and Barnabas
Barnabas
go on to Pisidian Antioch. On Sabbath they go to the synagogue. The leaders invite them to speak. Paul reviews Israelite history from life in Egypt to King David. He introduces Jesus
Jesus
as a descendant of David
David
brought to Israel by God. He said that his team came to town to bring the message of salvation. He recounts the story of Jesus' death and resurrection. He quotes from the Septuagint[53] to assert that Jesus
Jesus
was the promised Christos who brought them forgiveness for their sins. Both the Jews and the "God-fearing" Gentiles invited them to talk more next Sabbath. At that time almost the whole city gathered. This upset some influential Jews who spoke against them. Paul used the occasion to announce a change in his mission which from then on would be to the Gentiles.[Acts 13:13–48] Interval at Antioch Antioch
Antioch
served as a major Christian center for Paul's evangelism,[3] and he remained there for "a long time with the disciples"[54] at the conclusion of his first journey. The exact duration of Paul's stay in Antioch
Antioch
is unknown, with estimates ranging from nine months to as long as eight years.[55] Council of Jerusalem Main article: Council of Jerusalem See also: Circumcision controversy in early Christianity A vital meeting between Paul and the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
church took place some time in the years 50–51,[56] described in Acts 15:2 and usually seen as the same event mentioned by Paul in Galatians 2:1.[19] The key question raised was whether Gentile converts needed to be circumcised.[56][57] At this meeting, Paul states in his letter to the Galatians that Peter, James, and John accepted Paul's mission to the Gentiles. The Jerusalem
Jerusalem
meetings are mentioned in Acts, and also in Paul's letters.[58] For example, the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
visit for famine relief[Acts 11:27–30] apparently corresponds to the "first visit" (to Peter and James only).[Gal. 1:18–20][58] F. F. Bruce suggested that the "fourteen years" could be from Paul's conversion rather than from his first visit to Jerusalem.[59] Incident at Antioch Main article: Incident at Antioch Despite the agreement achieved at the Council of Jerusalem, Paul recounts how he later publicly confronted Peter in a dispute sometimes called the "Incident at Antioch", over Peter's reluctance to share a meal with Gentile Christians in Antioch
Antioch
because they did not strictly adhere to Jewish customs.[56] Writing later of the incident, Paul recounts, "I opposed [Peter] to his face, because he was clearly in the wrong", and says he told Peter, "You are a Jew, yet you live like a Gentile and not like a Jew. How is it, then, that you force Gentiles to follow Jewish customs?"[Gal. 2:11–14] Paul also mentions that even Barnabas, his traveling companion and fellow apostle until that time, sided with Peter.[56] The final outcome of the incident remains uncertain. The Catholic Encyclopedia suggests that Paul won the argument, because "Paul's account of the incident leaves no doubt that Peter saw the justice of the rebuke".[56] However Paul himself never mentions a victory and L. Michael White's From Jesus
Jesus
to Christianity
Christianity
draws the opposite conclusion: "The blowup with Peter was a total failure of political bravado, and Paul soon left Antioch
Antioch
as persona non grata, never again to return".[60] The primary source account of the Incident at Antioch
Incident at Antioch
is Paul's letter to the Galatians.[Gal. 2:11–14] Second missionary journey

Saint
Saint
Paul delivering the Areopagus sermon
Areopagus sermon
in Athens, by Raphael, 1515. This sermon addressed early issues in Christology.[61][62]

Paul left for his second missionary journey from Jerusalem, in late Autumn 49,[63] after the meeting of the Council of Jerusalem
Council of Jerusalem
where the circumcision question was debated. On their trip around the Mediterranean sea, Paul and his companion Barnabas
Barnabas
stopped in Antioch where they had a sharp argument about taking John Mark
John Mark
with them on their trips. The book of Acts said that John Mark
John Mark
had left them in a previous trip and gone home. Unable to resolve the dispute, Paul and Barnabas
Barnabas
decided to separate; Barnabas
Barnabas
took John Mark
John Mark
with him, while Silas
Silas
joined Paul. Paul and Silas
Silas
initially visited Tarsus (Paul's birthplace), Derbe and Lystra. In Lystra, they met Timothy, a disciple who was spoken well of, and decided to take him with them. The Church kept growing, adding believers, and strengthening in faith daily.[Acts 16:5] In Philippi, Paul cast a spirit of divination out of a servant girl, whose masters were then unhappy about the loss of income her soothsaying provided (Acts 16:16–24). They turned the city against the missionaries, and Paul and Silas
Silas
were put in jail. After a miraculous earthquake, the gates of the prison fell apart and Paul and Silas
Silas
could have escaped but remained; this event led to the conversion of the jailor (Acts 16:25–40). They continued traveling, going by Berea and then to Athens, where Paul preached to the Jews and God-fearing Greeks in the synagogue and to the Greek intellectuals in the Areopagus. Paul continued from Athens
Athens
to Corinth. Interval in Corinth Around 50–52, Paul spent 18 months in Corinth. The reference in Acts to Proconsul Gallio helps ascertain this date (cf. Gallio Inscription).[19] In Corinth, Paul met Priscilla and Aquila
Priscilla and Aquila
(Acts 18:2), who became faithful believers and helped Paul through his other missionary journeys. The couple followed Paul and his companions to Ephesus, and stayed there to start one of the strongest and most faithful churches at that time (Acts 18:18–21). In 52, departing from Corinth, Paul stopped at the nearby village of Cenchreae to have his hair cut off, because of a vow he had earlier taken.[64] It is possible this was to be a final haircut prior to fulfilling his vow to become a Nazirite for a defined period of time.[65] With Priscilla and Aquila, the missionaries then sailed to Ephesus[66] and then Paul alone went on to Caesarea
Caesarea
to greet the Church there. He then traveled north to Antioch, where he stayed for some time (Greek: ποιησας χρονον, perhaps about a year), before leaving again on a third missionary journey.[citation needed] Some New Testament
New Testament
texts[67] suggest that he also visited Jerusalem during this period for one of the Jewish feasts, possibly Pentecost.[68] Textual critic Henry Alford and others consider the reference to a Jerusalem
Jerusalem
visit to be genuine[69] and it accords with Acts 21:29, according to which Paul and Trophimus the Ephesian had previously been seen in Jerusalem. Third missionary journey

The Preaching of Saint
Saint
Paul at Ephesus
Ephesus
by Eustache Le Sueur
Eustache Le Sueur
(1649)

According to Acts, Paul began his third missionary journey by travelling all around the region of Galatia
Galatia
and Phrygia
Phrygia
to strengthen, teach and rebuke the believers. Paul then traveled to Ephesus, an important center of early Christianity, and stayed there for almost three years, probably working there as a tentmaker,[70] as he had done when he stayed in Corinth. He is claimed to have performed numerous miracles, healing people and casting out demons, and he apparently organized missionary activity in other regions.[19] Paul left Ephesus after an attack from a local silversmith resulted in a pro-Artemis riot involving most of the city.[19] During his stay in Ephesus, Paul wrote four letters to the church in Corinth.[71] Paul went through Macedonia into Achaea
Achaea
(Acts 20:1–2) and stayed in Greece, probably Corinth, for three months (Acts 20:1–2) during 56–57 AD.[19] Commentators generally agree that Paul dictated his Epistle to the Romans
Epistle to the Romans
during this period.[72] He then made ready to continue on to Syria, but he changed his plans and traveled back through Macedonia because of some Jews who had made a plot against him. In Romans 15:19 Paul wrote that he visited Illyricum, but he may have meant what would now be called Illyria Graeca,[73] which was at that time a division of the Roman province of Macedonia.[74] On their way back to Jerusalem, Paul and his companions visited other cities such as Philippi, Troas, Miletus, Rhodes, and Tyre. Paul finished his trip with a stop in Caesarea, where he and his companions stayed with Philip the Evangelist
Philip the Evangelist
before finally arriving at Jerusalem.[Acts 21:8–10] [21:15] Journey from Rome
Rome
to Spain Among the writings of the early Christians, Pope Clement I
Pope Clement I
said that Paul was "Herald (of the Gospel
Gospel
of Christ) in the West", and that "he had gone to the extremity of the west".[75] John Chrysostom
John Chrysostom
indicated that Paul preached in Spain: "For after he had been in Rome, he returned to Spain, but whether he came thence again into these parts, we know not".[76] Cyril of Jerusalem
Cyril of Jerusalem
said that Paul, "fully preached the Gospel, and instructed even imperial Rome, and carried the earnestness of his preaching as far as Spain, undergoing conflicts innumerable, and performing Signs and wonders".[77] The Muratorian fragment mentions "the departure of Paul from the city [of Rome] [5a] (39) when he journeyed to Spain".[78] Visits to Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in Acts and the epistles This table is adapted from White, From Jesus
Jesus
to Christianity.[58] Note that the matching of Paul's travels in the Acts and the travels in his Epistles is done for the reader's convenience and is not approved of by all scholars.

Acts Epistles

First visit to Jerusalem[Acts 9:26–27]

"after many days" of Damascus
Damascus
conversion preaches openly in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
with Barnabas meets apostles

First visit to Jerusalem[Gal. 1:18–20]

three years after Damascus
Damascus
conversion[Gal. 1:17–18] sees only Cephas (Peter) and James

Second visit to Jerusalem[Acts 11:29–30] [12:25]

for famine relief

There is debate over whether Paul's visit in Galatians 2 refers to the visit for famine relief[Acts 11:30, 12:25] or the Jerusalem Council.[Acts 15] If it refers to the former, then this was the trip made "after an interval of fourteen years".[Gal. 2:1]

Third visit to Jerusalem[Acts 15:1–19]

with Barnabas "Council of Jerusalem" followed by confrontation with Barnabas
Barnabas
in Antioch[Acts 15:36–40]

Another[79] visit to Jerusalem[Gal. 2:1–10]

14 years later (after Damascus
Damascus
conversion?) with Barnabas
Barnabas
and Titus possibly the "Council of Jerusalem" Paul agrees to "remember the poor" followed by confrontation with Peter and Barnabas
Barnabas
in Antioch[Gal. 2:11–14]

Fourth visit to Jerusalem[Acts 18:21–22]

to "greet the church"

Apparently unmentioned.

Fifth visit to Jerusalem[Acts 21:17ff]

after an absence of several years[Acts 24:17] to bring gifts for the poor and to present offerings Paul arrested

Another[80] visit to Jerusalem[81]

to deliver the collection for the poor

Last visit to Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and arrest

Saint
Saint
Paul arrested, early 1900s Bible
Bible
illustration

In 57, upon completion of his third missionary journey, Paul arrived in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
for his fifth and final visit with a collection of money for the local community. Acts reports that he initially was warmly received. However, Acts goes on to recount how Paul was warned by James and the elders that he was gaining a reputation for being against the Law, saying "they have been told about you that you teach all the Jews who are among the Gentiles to forsake Moses, telling them not to circumcise their children or walk according to our customs". Paul underwent a purification ritual in order to give the Jews no grounds to bring accusations against him for not following their law.[Acts 21:17–26] After seven days in Jerusalem, some "Jews from Asia" (most likely from Roman Asia) accused Paul of defiling the temple by bringing gentiles into it. He was seized and dragged out of the temple by an angry mob. He narrowly escaped being killed by surrendering to a group of Roman centurions, who arrested him, put him in chains and took him to the tribune.[Acts 21:27–36] When a plot to kill Paul on his way to an appearance before the Jews was discovered, he was transported by night to Caesarea
Caesarea
Maritima. He was held as a prisoner there for two years, until a new governor reopened his case in 59. When the governor suggested that he be sent back to Jerusalem
Jerusalem
for further trial, Paul exercised his right as a Roman citizen
Roman citizen
to "appeal unto Caesar".[19] Finally, Paul and his companions sailed for Rome
Rome
where Paul was to stand trial for his alleged crimes.[82] Acts recounts that on the way to Rome
Rome
for his appeal as a Roman citizen to Caesar, Paul was shipwrecked on "Melita" (Malta),[Acts 27:39–44] where the islanders showed him "unusual kindness" and where he was met by Publius.[Acts 28:1–10] From Malta, he travelled to Rome
Rome
via Syracuse, Rhegium and Puteoli.[Acts 28:11–14] Two years in Rome He finally arrived in Rome
Rome
around 60, where he spent another two years under house arrest.[82] The narrative of Acts ends with Paul preaching in Rome
Rome
for two years from his rented home while awaiting trial.[Acts 28:30–31] Irenaeus
Irenaeus
wrote in the 2nd century that Peter and Paul had been the founders of the church in Rome
Rome
and had appointed Linus as succeeding bishop.[83] Paul was not a bishop of Rome, nor did he bring Christianity
Christianity
to Rome
Rome
since there were already Christians in Rome
Rome
when he arrived there.[Acts 28:14–15] Also, Paul wrote his letter to the church at Rome
Rome
before he had visited Rome.[Romans 1:1,7,11–13;15:23–29] Paul only played a supporting part in the life of the church in Rome.[84]

The Beheading of Saint
Saint
Paul by Enrique Simonet, 1887

Death The New Testament
New Testament
does not say when or how Paul died. The date of Paul's death is believed to have occurred after the Great Fire of Rome in July 64, but before the last year of Nero's reign, in 68. Paul's death is described in a number of sources:

I Clement
I Clement
(95–96 AD) suggests that both Paul and Peter were martyred.[85] There is an early tradition found in the writing of Ignatius, probably around 110 AD, that Paul was martyred.[86] Dionysius of Corinth, in a letter to the Romans (166–174 AD), stated that Paul and Peter were martyred in Italy.[87] Eusebius
Eusebius
also cites the Dionysius passage.[88] The Acts of Paul, an apocryphal work written around 160, describes the martyrdom of Paul. According to the Acts of Paul, Nero
Nero
condemned Paul to death by decapitation.[89] Tertullian
Tertullian
in his Prescription Against Heretics (200 AD) writes that Paul had a similar death to that of John the Baptist, who was beheaded.[90] Eusebius of Caesarea
Eusebius of Caesarea
in his Church History (320 AD) testifies that Paul was beheaded in Rome
Rome
and Peter crucified. He wrote that the tombs of these two apostles, with their inscriptions, were extant in his time; and quotes as his authority a holy man of the name of Caius.[91] Lactantius
Lactantius
wrote that Nero
Nero
"crucified Peter, and slew Paul" (318 AD).[92] Jerome
Jerome
in his De Viris Illustribus (On Illustrious Men) (392 AD) states that Paul was beheaded at Rome.[93] John Chrysostom
John Chrysostom
(c. 349–407) wrote that Nero
Nero
knew Paul personally and had him killed.[94] Sulpicius Severus
Sulpicius Severus
says Nero
Nero
killed Peter and Paul. (403 AD)[95]

A legend later[when?] developed that his martyrdom occurred at the Aquae Salviae, on the Via Laurentina. According to this legend, after Paul was decapitated, his severed head rebounded three times, giving rise to a source of water each time that it touched the ground, which is how the place earned the name "San Paolo alle Tre Fontane" ("St Paul at the Three Fountains").[96][97] Also according to legend, Paul's body was buried outside the walls of Rome, at the second mile on the Via Ostiensis, on the estate owned by a Christian woman named Lucina. It was here, in the fourth century, that the Emperor Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
built a first church. Then, between the fourth and fifth centuries it was considerably enlarged by the Emperors Valentinian I, Valentinian II, Theodosius I, and Arcadius. The present-day Basilica
Basilica
of Saint
Saint
Paul Outside the Walls was built there in 1800.[96] Remains Caius in his Disputation Against Proclus (198 AD) mentions this of the places in which the remains of the apostles Peter and Paul were deposited: "I can point out the trophies of the apostles. For if you are willing to go to the Vatican or to the Ostian Way, you will find the trophies of those who founded this Church".[98] Jerome
Jerome
in his De Viris Illustribus (392 AD) writing on Paul's biography, mentions that "Paul was buried in the Ostian Way at Rome".[93] In 2002, an 8 foot long marble sarcophagus, inscribed with the words "PAULO APOSTOLO MART" ("Paul apostle martyr") was discovered during excavations around the Basilica
Basilica
of Saint
Saint
Paul Outside the Walls on the Via Ostiensis. Vatican archaeologists declared this to be the tomb of Paul the Apostle
Paul the Apostle
in 2005.[99] In June 2009, Pope
Pope
Benedict XVI announced excavation results concerning the tomb. The sarcophagus was not opened but was examined by means of a probe, which revealed pieces of incense, purple and blue linen, and small bone fragments. The bone was radiocarbon-dated to the 1st or 2nd century. According to the Vatican, these findings support the conclusion that the tomb is Paul's.[100][101] Writings

Part of a series of articles on

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Pastoral epistles

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Philemon Hebrews

Authorship

Paul the Apostle

Related literature

Lost epistles Apocalypse of Paul

Coptic Apocalypse of Paul

Corinthians to Paul Acts of Paul

Paul and Thecla Peter and Paul

Prayer of Paul

See also

Apostle (Christian) Pauline Christianity

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Statue of St. Paul in the Archbasilica of St. John Lateran
Archbasilica of St. John Lateran
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Of the 27 books in the New Testament, 14 have been attributed to Paul; 7 of these are widely considered authentic and Paul's own, while the authorship of the other 7 is disputed.[102][103][104] The undisputed letters are considered the most important sources since they contain what everyone agrees to be Paul's own statements about his life and thoughts. Theologian Mark Powell writes that Paul directed these 7 letters to specific occasions at particular churches. As an example, if the Corinthian church had not experienced problems concerning its celebration of the Lord's Supper,[1 Cor. 11:17–34] today we would not know that Paul even believed in that observance or had any opinions about it one way or the other. He asks if we might be ignorant of other matters simply because no crises arose that prompted Paul to comment on them.[7]:234 Although approximately half of Acts deals with Paul's life and works, the Book
Book
of Acts does not refer to Paul writing letters. Historians believe that the author of Acts did not have access to any of Paul's letters. One piece of evidence suggesting this is that Acts never directly quotes from the Pauline epistles. Discrepancies between the Pauline epistles
Pauline epistles
and Acts would further support the conclusion that the author of Acts did not have access to those epistles when composing Acts.[105][106] In Paul's writings, he provides the first written account of what it is to be a Christian and thus a description of Christian spirituality. His letters have been characterized as being the most influential books of the New Testament
New Testament
after the Gospels of Matthew and John.[8]

Paul ... only occasionally had the opportunity to revisit his churches. He tried to keep up his converts' spirit, answer their questions, and resolve their problems by letter and by sending one or more of his assistants (especially Timothy and Titus). Paul's letters reveal a remarkable human being: dedicated, compassionate, emotional, sometimes harsh and angry, clever and quick-witted, supple in argumentation, and above all possessing a soaring, passionate commitment to God, Jesus
Jesus
Christ, and his own mission. Fortunately, after his death one of his followers collected some of the letters, edited them very slightly, and published them. They constitute one of history's most remarkable personal contributions to religious thought and practice.[8]

Basic message Paul's writings emphasized the crucifixion, Christ's resurrection and the Parousia or second coming of Christ.[107] E. P. Sanders finds three major emphases in Paul's writings:[8]

His strongest emphasis was on the death, resurrection, and lordship of Jesus
Jesus
Christ. He preached that one's faith in Jesus
Jesus
assures that person a share in Jesus' life (salvation). He saw Jesus' death as being for the believers' benefit, not a defeat. Jesus
Jesus
died so that believers' sins would be forgiven. The resurrection of Jesus
Jesus
was of primary importance to Paul, as may be seen in his first letter to the Thessalonians,[1 Thes. 1:9–10] which is the earliest surviving account of conversion to Christianity.[8] The resurrection brought the promise of salvation to believers. Paul taught that, when Christ
Christ
returned, those who had died believing in Christ
Christ
as the saviour of mankind would be brought back to life, while those still alive would be "caught up in the clouds together with them to meet the Lord in the air".[1 Thes. 4:14–18]

Sanders concludes that Paul's writings reveal what he calls the essence of the Christian message:

God sent his Son. The Son was crucified for the sins of humanity. After being dead three days, the Son was raised from the dead, defeating death. The Son would soon return. Those in Christ
Christ
will live with him forever. Followers are urged to live by a set apart (sanctified) standard – "And the very God of peace sanctify you wholly; and I pray God your whole spirit and soul and body be preserved blameless unto the coming of our Lord Jesus
Jesus
Christ".[1 Thes. 5:23]

Authorship

Paul Writing His Epistles, painting attributed to Valentin de Boulogne, 17th century

Main article: Authorship of the Pauline epistles Seven of the 13 letters that bear Paul's name – Romans, 1 Corinthians, 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Philippians, 1 Thessalonians and Philemon – were until recently almost universally accepted as being entirely authentic (dictated by Paul himself).[8][102][103][104] They are considered the best source of information on Paul's life and especially his thought.[8] Four of the letters (Ephesians, 1 and 2 Timothy
2 Timothy
and Titus) are widely considered pseudepigraphical, while the authorship of the other two is subject to debate.[102] Colossians and 2 Thessalonians are thought by some to be "Deutero-Pauline" meaning they may have been written by Paul's followers after his death. Similarly, 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, and Titus may be "Trito-Pauline" meaning they may have been written by members of the Pauline school a generation after his death. According to their theories, these disputed letters may have come from followers writing in Paul's name, often using material from his surviving letters. These scribes also may have had access to letters written by Paul that no longer survive.[8] The authenticity of Colossians has been questioned on the grounds that it contains an otherwise unparalleled description (among his writings) of Jesus
Jesus
as "the image of the invisible God", a Christology
Christology
found elsewhere only in John's gospel.[108] However, the personal notes in the letter connect it to Philemon, unquestionably the work of Paul. Internal evidence shows close connection with Philippians.[109] Ephesians is a letter that is very similar to Colossians, but is almost entirely lacking in personal reminiscences. Its style is unique. It lacks the emphasis on the cross to be found in other Pauline writings, reference to the Second Coming
Second Coming
is missing, and Christian marriage is exalted in a way which contrasts with the reference in 1 Cor. 7:8–9. Finally, according to R.E. Brown, it exalts the Church in a way suggestive of a second generation of Christians, "built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets" now past.[110] The defenders of its Pauline authorship argue that it was intended to be read by a number of different churches and that it marks the final stage of the development of Paul's thinking. It has been said, too, that the moral portion of the Epistle, consisting of the last two chapters, has the closest affinity with similar portions of other Epistles, while the whole admirably fits in with the known details of Paul's life, and throws considerable light upon them.[109]

Russian Orthodox
Russian Orthodox
icon of the Apostle Paul, 18th century (Iconostasis of Transfiguration Church, Kizhi
Kizhi
Monastery, Karelia, Russia)

Three main reasons have been advanced by those who question Paul's authorship of 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, and Titus – also known as the Pastoral Epistles.

First, they have found a difference in these letters' vocabulary, style, and theology from Paul's acknowledged writings. Defenders of the authenticity say that they were probably written in the name and with the authority of the Apostle by one of his companions, to whom he distinctly explained what had to be written, or to whom he gave a written summary of the points to be developed, and that when the letters were finished, Paul read them through, approved them, and signed them.[109] Second, some believe there is a difficulty in fitting them into Paul's biography as we have it.[111] They, like Colossians and Ephesians, were written from prison but suppose Paul's release and travel thereafter.[109] Third, 2 Thessalonians, like Colossians, is questioned by some on stylistic grounds, with some noting, among other peculiarities, a dependence on 1 Thessalonians – yet a distinctiveness in language from the Pauline corpus. This, again, is explainable by the possibility that Paul requested one of his companions to write the letter for him under his dictation.[109]

Atonement Main article: Atonement in Christianity Paul wrote down much of the theology of atonement.[112] Paul taught that Christians are redeemed from sin by Jesus' death and resurrection. His death was an expiation as well as a propitiation, and by Christ's blood peace is made between God and man.[112] By grace, through faith,[113] a Christian shares in Jesus' death and in his victory over death, gaining as a free gift a new, justified status of sonship.[114] Relationship with Judaism Main article: Paul the Apostle
Paul the Apostle
and Judaism Some scholars see Paul (or Saul) as completely in line with 1st-century Judaism (a Pharisee and student of Gamaliel
Gamaliel
as presented by Acts),[115] others see him as opposed to 1st-century Judaism (see Marcionism), while the majority see him as somewhere in between these two extremes, opposed to "Ritual Laws" (for example the circumcision controversy in early Christianity) but in full agreement on "Divine Law". These views of Paul are paralleled by the views of Biblical law in Christianity.

‘‘Paul redefined the people of Israel, those he calls the "true Israel" and the "true circumcision" as those who had faith in the heavenly Christ, thus excluding those he called "Israel after the flesh" from his new covenant (Galatians 6:16; Philippians
Philippians
3:3). He also held the view that the Torah given to Moses
Moses
was valid "until Christ
Christ
came," so that even Jews are no longer "under the Torah," nor obligated to follow the commandments or mitzvot as given to Moses (Galatians 3-4).’’

— Professor James D. Tabor for the Huffington Post
Huffington Post
[116]

Paul's theology of the gospel accelerated the separation of the messianic sect of Christians from Judaism, a development contrary to Paul's own intent. He wrote that faith in Christ
Christ
was alone decisive in salvation for Jews and Gentiles alike, making the schism between the followers of Christ
Christ
and mainstream Jews inevitable and permanent. He argued that Gentile converts did not need to become Jews, get circumcised, follow Jewish dietary restrictions, or otherwise observe Mosaic laws to be saved.[19] Nevertheless, in Romans he insisted on the positive value of the Law, as a moral guide. E. P. Sanders' publications[117] have since been taken up by Professor James Dunn who coined the phrase "The New Perspective on Paul".[118] N.T. Wright,[119] the Anglican Bishop
Bishop
of Durham, notes a difference in emphasis between Galatians and Romans, the latter being much more positive about the continuing covenant between God and his ancient people than the former. Wright also contends that performing Christian works is not insignificant but rather proof of having attained the redemption of Jesus
Jesus
Christ
Christ
by grace (free gift received by faith).[Rom. 2:13ff] He concludes that Paul distinguishes between performing Christian works which are signs of ethnic identity and others which are a sign of obedience to Christ.[119] World to come See also: Christian eschatology, Second Coming, End times, and World to Come Paul believed that Jesus
Jesus
would return within his lifetime.[120] Paul expected that Christians who had died in the mean time would be resurrected to share in God's kingdom, and he believed that the saved would be transformed, assuming supernatural bodies.[citation needed] Paul's teaching about the end of the world is expressed most clearly in his letters to the Christians at Thessalonica. He assures them that the dead will rise first and be followed by those left alive.[1 Thes. 4:16ff] This suggests an imminent end but he is unspecific about times and seasons, and encourages his hearers to expect a delay.[121] The form of the end will be a battle between Jesus
Jesus
and the man of lawlessness[2 Thess. 2:3][34] whose conclusion is the triumph of Christ. Role of women

Paul the Apostle, (16th-century) attributed to Lucas van Leyden

Main article: Paul the Apostle
Paul the Apostle
and women See also: 1 Timothy 2:12 ("I suffer not a woman") The second chapter of the first letter to Timothy – one of the six disputed letters – is used by many churches to deny women a vote in church affairs, reject women from serving as teachers of adult Bible
Bible
classes, prevent them from serving as missionaries, and generally disenfranchise women from the duties and privileges of church leadership.[122]

9 In like manner also, that women adorn themselves in modest apparel, with shamefacedness and sobriety; not with broided hair, or gold, or pearls, or costly array; 10 But (which becometh women professing godliness) with good works. 11 Let the woman learn in silence with all subjection. 12 But I suffer not a woman to teach, nor to usurp authority over the man, but to be in silence. 13 For Adam
Adam
was first formed, then Eve. 14 And Adam
Adam
was not deceived, but the woman being deceived was in the transgression. 15 Notwithstanding she shall be saved in childbearing, if they continue in faith and charity and holiness with sobriety.

— 1 Timothy 2:9–15

The KJV translation of this passage taken literally says that women in the churches are to have no leadership roles vis-à-vis men.[123] Fuller Seminary theologian J. R. Daniel Kirk[124] finds evidence in Paul's letters of a much more inclusive view of women. He writes that Romans 16 is a tremendously important witness to the important role of women in the early church. Paul praises Phoebe for her work as a deaconess and Junia
Junia
who is described by Paul in Scripture
Scripture
as being respected among the Apostles.[Romans 16:7] It is Kirk's observation that recent studies have led many scholars to conclude that the passage in 1 Corinthians 14 ordering women to "be silent" during worship was a later addition, apparently by a different author, and not part of Paul's original letter to the Corinthians. Other scholars, such as Giancarlo Biguzzi, believe that Paul's restriction on women speaking in 1 Corinthians 14 is genuine to Paul but applies to a particular case where there were local problems of women – who were not allowed in that culture to become educated – asking questions or chatting during worship services. He does not believe it to be a general prohibition on any woman speaking in worship settings since in 1 Corinthians
1 Corinthians
Paul affirms the right (responsibility) of women to prophesy.[1 Cor. 11][125]

Biblical prophecy is more than "fore-telling": two-thirds of its inscripturated form involves "forth-telling", that is, setting the truth, justice, mercy, and righteousness of God against the backdrop of every form of denial of the same. Thus, to speak prophetically was to speak boldly against every form of moral, ethical, political, economic, and religious disenfranchisement observed in a culture that was intent on building its own pyramid of values vis-a-vis God's established system of truth and ethics.[126]

There were women prophets in the highly patriarchal times throughout the Old Testament.[126] The most common term for prophet in the Old Testament is nabi in the masculine form, and nebiah in the Hebrew feminine form, is used six times of women who performed the same task of receiving and proclaiming the message given by God. These women include Miriam, Aaron and Moses' sister,[Exod 15:20] Deborah,[Judges 4:4] the prophet Isaiah's wife,[Isa. 8:3] and Huldah, the one who interpreted the Book
Book
of the Law discovered in the temple during the days of Josiah.[2 Kings 22:14] [2 Chron. 34:22] There were false prophetesses just as there were false prophets. The prophetess Noadiah was among those who tried to intimidate Nehemiah.[Neh 6:14] Apparently they held equal rank in prophesying right along with Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Moses, Elisha, Aaron, and Samuel.[126] Kirk's third example of a more inclusive view is Galatians 3:28:

There is neither Jew
Jew
nor Gentile, neither slave nor free, nor is there male and female, for you are all one in Christ
Christ
Jesus. — Galatians 3:28

In pronouncing an end within the church to the divisions which are common in the world around it, he concludes by highlighting the fact that "there were New Testament
New Testament
women who taught and had authority in the early churches, that this teaching and authority was sanctioned by Paul, and that Paul himself offers a theological paradigm within which overcoming the subjugation of women is an anticipated outcome".[127] Classicist Evelyn Stagg and theologian Frank Stagg believe that Paul was attempting to "Christianize" the societal household or domestic codes that significantly oppressed women and empowered men as the head of the household. The Staggs present a serious study of what has been termed the New Testament
New Testament
domestic code, also known as the Haustafel.[128] The two main passages that explain these "household duties" are Paul's letters to the Ephesians 5:22 – 6:5 and to the Colossians 3:18–4:1. An underlying Household Code is also reflected in four additional Pauline letters and 1 Peter: 1 Timothy 2:1ff., 8ff.; 3:1ff., 8ff.; 5:17ff.; 6:1f.; Titus 2:1–10 and 1 Peter 2:13–3:9. Biblical scholars have typically treated the Haustafel in Ephesians as a resource in the debate over the role of women in ministry and in the home.[129] Margaret MacDonald argues that the Haustafel, particularly as it appears in Ephesians, was aimed at "reducing the tension between community members and outsiders".[130] E. P. Sanders has labeled the Apostle's remark in 1 Cor. 14:34–36 about women not making any sound during worship as "Paul's intemperate outburst that women should be silent in the churches".[117] Women, in fact, played a very significant part in Paul's missionary endeavors:

He became a partner in ministry with the couple Priscilla and Aquila who are specifically named seven times in the New Testament – always by their couple name and never individually. Of the seven times they are named in the New Testament, Priscilla's name appears first in five of those instances, suggesting to some scholars that she was the head of the family unit.[131] They lived, worked, and traveled with the Apostle Paul, becoming his honored, much-loved friends and coworkers in Christ
Christ
Jesus.[132] In Romans 16:3–4, thought to have been written in 56 or 57, Paul sends his greetings to Priscilla and Aquila and proclaims that both of them "risked their necks" to save Paul's life. Chloe was an important member of the church in Corinth[1 Cor. 1:11] Phoebe was a "deacon" and a "benefactor" of Paul and others[Rom. 16:1–2] Romans 16 names eight other women active in the Christian movement, including Junia
Junia
("prominent among the apostles"), Mary ("who has worked very hard among you"), and Julia Women were frequently among the major supporters of the new Christian movement[8]

Views on homosexuality See also: Homosexuality in the New Testament Most Christian traditions[133][134][135][136] say Paul clearly portrays homosexuality as sinful in two specific locations: Romans 1:26–27, and 1 Corinthians
1 Corinthians
6:9–10. Another passage addresses the topic more obliquely: 1 Timothy 1:8–11. Since the nineteenth century, however, most scholars have concluded that 1 Timothy, along with 2 Timothy
2 Timothy
and Titus, are not original to Paul, but rather an unknown Christian writing in Paul's name some time in the late-first-to-mid-2nd century.[137][138] Influence on Christianity

Statue of St. Paul (1606) by Gregorio Fernández

Main article: Pauline Christianity Paul's influence on Christian thinking arguably has been more significant than any other New Testament
New Testament
author.[8] Paul declared that " Christ
Christ
is the end of the law",[139] exalted the Christian church as the body of Christ, and depicted the world outside the Church as under judgment.[19] Paul's writings include the earliest reference to the "Lord's Supper",[140] a rite traditionally identified as the Christian communion or Eucharist. In the East, church fathers attributed the element of election in Romans 9 to divine foreknowledge.[19] The themes of predestination found in Western Christianity
Christianity
do not appear in Eastern theology. Augustine's foundational work on the gospel as a gift (grace), on morality as life in the Spirit, on predestination, and on original sin all derives from Paul, especially Romans.[19] Modern theology See also: Pauline Christianity
Christianity
and Jesuism In his commentary The Epistle to the Romans
Epistle to the Romans
(Ger. Der Römerbrief; particularly in the thoroughly re-written second edition of 1922) Karl Barth argued that the God who is revealed in the cross of Jesus challenges and overthrows any attempt to ally God with human cultures, achievements, or possessions. Some theologians believe this work to be the most important theological treatise since Friedrich Schleiermacher's On Religion: Speeches to its Cultured Despisers.[citation needed] In addition to the many questions about the true origins of some of Paul's teachings posed by historical figures as noted above, some modern theologians also hold that the teachings of Paul differ markedly from those of Jesus
Jesus
as found in the Gospels.[141] Barrie Wilson states that Paul differs from Jesus
Jesus
in terms of the origin of his message, his teachings and his practices.[142] Some have even gone so far as to claim that, due to these apparent differences in teachings, that Paul was actually no less than the "second founder" of Christianity
Christianity
( Jesus
Jesus
being its first).[143][144]

‘‘Visit any church service, Roman Catholic, Protestant or Greek Orthodox, and it is the apostle Paul and his ideas that are central – in the hymns, the creeds, the sermons, the invocation and benediction, and of course, the rituals of baptism and the Holy Communion or Mass. Whether birth, baptism, confirmation, marriage or death, it is predominantly Paul who is evoked to express meaning and significance.’’

— Professor James D. Tabor for the Huffington post
Huffington post
[145]

Robert M. Price, in his book The Amazing Colossal Apostle: The Search for the Historical Paul, says "the Pauline epistles
Pauline epistles
reveal themselves to the discerning reader to have exactly the same sort of limitation as the Gospels do: both are collections of fragments and pericopae contributed and fabricated by authors and communities of very different theological leanings".[146] As in the Eastern tradition in general, Western humanists interpret the reference to election in Romans 9 as reflecting divine foreknowledge.[19] Church tradition Various Christian writers have suggested more details about Paul's life. 1 Clement, a letter written by the Roman bishop Clement of Rome
Rome
around the year 90, reports this about Paul:[147]

By reason of jealousy and strife Paul by his example pointed out the prize of patient endurance. After that he had been seven times in bonds, had been driven into exile, had been stoned, had preached in the East and in the West, he won the noble renown which was the reward of his faith, having taught righteousness unto the whole world and having reached the farthest bounds of the West; and when he had borne his testimony before the rulers, so he departed from the world and went unto the holy place, having been found a notable pattern of patient endurance.

Commenting on this passage, Raymond Brown writes that while it "does not explicitly say" that Paul was martyred in Rome, "such a martyrdom is the most reasonable interpretation".[148] Eusebius
Eusebius
of Caesarea, who wrote in the 4th century, states that Paul was beheaded in the reign of the Roman Emperor Nero.[149] This event has been dated either to the year 64, when Rome
Rome
was devastated by a fire, or a few years later, to 67. According to one tradition, the church of San Paolo alle Tre Fontane marks the place of Paul's execution. A Roman Catholic liturgical solemnity of Peter and Paul, celebrated on June 29, commemorates his martyrdom, and reflects a tradition (preserved by Eusebius) that Peter and Paul were martyred at the same time.[150] The Roman liturgical calendar for the following day now remembers all Christians martyred in these early persecutions; formerly, June 30 was the feast day for St. Paul.[151] Persons or religious orders with special affinity for St. Paul can still celebrate their patron on June 30.[152] The apocryphal Acts of Paul
Acts of Paul
and the apocryphal Acts of Peter
Acts of Peter
suggest that Paul survived Rome
Rome
and traveled further west. Some think that Paul could have revisited Greece and Asia Minor after his trip to Spain, and might then have been arrested in Troas, and taken to Rome and executed.[2 Tim. 4:13][34] A tradition holds that Paul was interred with Saint Peter
Saint Peter
ad Catacumbas by the via Appia until moved to what is now the Basilica
Basilica
of Saint
Saint
Paul Outside the Walls in Rome. Bede, in his Ecclesiastical History, writes that Pope Vitalian
Pope Vitalian
in 665 gave Paul's relics (including a cross made from his prison chains) from the crypts of Lucina to King Oswy of Northumbria, northern Britain. Paul is considered the patron saint of London. The Feast of the Conversion of Saint Paul
Feast of the Conversion of Saint Paul
is celebrated on January 25.[153] Muslim views Muslims have long believed that Paul purposefully corrupted the original revealed teachings of Jesus,[154][155][156] through the introduction of such elements as paganism,[157] the making of Christianity
Christianity
into a theology of the cross,[158] and introducing original sin and the need for redemption.[159] Sayf ibn Umar claimed that certain rabbis persuaded Paul to deliberately misguide early Christians by introducing what Ibn Hazm viewed as objectionable doctrines into Christianity.[160][161] Ibn Hazm repeated Sayf's claims.[162] Rabbi Jacob Qirqisani also believed that Paul created Christianity
Christianity
by introducing the doctrine of Trinity.[160] Paul has been criticized by some modern Muslim thinkers. Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas wrote that Paul misrepresented the message of Jesus,[154] and Rashid Rida
Rashid Rida
accused Paul of introducing shirk (polytheism) into Christianity.[163] Mohammad Ali Jouhar quoted Adolf von Harnack's critical writings of Paul.[164] In Sunni
Sunni
Muslim polemics, Paul plays the same role (of deliberately corrupting the early teachings of Jesus) as a later Jew, Abdullah ibn Saba', would play in seeking to destroy the message of Islam from within (by introducing proto-Shi'ite beliefs).[165][166][161] Among those who supported this view were scholars Ibn Taymiyyah
Ibn Taymiyyah
(who believed while Paul ultimately succeeded, Ibn Saba failed) and Ibn Hazm (who claimed that the Jews even admitted to Paul's sinister purpose).[167] Jewish views Main article: Paul the Apostle
Paul the Apostle
and Judaism See also: Messianic Judaism Jewish interest in Paul is a recent phenomenon. Before the positive historical reevaluations of Jesus
Jesus
by some Jewish thinkers in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, he had hardly featured in the popular Jewish imagination and little had been written about him by the religious leaders and scholars. Arguably, he is absent from the Talmud
Talmud
and rabbinical literature, although he makes an appearance in some variants of the medieval polemic Toledot Yeshu (as a spy for the rabbis).[168] However, with Jesus
Jesus
no longer regarded as the paradigm of gentile Christianity, Paul's position became more important in Jewish historical reconstructions of their religion's relationship with Christianity. He has featured as the key to building barriers (e.g. Heinrich Graetz
Heinrich Graetz
and Martin Buber) or bridges (e.g. Isaac
Isaac
Mayer Wise and Claude G. Montefiore) in interfaith relations,[169] as part of an intra-Jewish debate about what constitutes Jewish authenticity (e.g. Joseph Klausner
Joseph Klausner
and Hans Joachim Schoeps),[170] and on occasion as a dialogical partner (e.g. Richard L. Rubenstein and Daniel Boyarin).[171] He features in an oratorio (by Felix Mendelssohn), a painting (by Ludwig Meidner) and a play (by Franz Werfel),[172] and there have been several novels about Paul (by Shalom Asch
Shalom Asch
and Samuel
Samuel
Sandmel).[173] Jewish philosophers (including Baruch Spinoza, Leo Shestov, and Jacob Taubes)[174] and Jewish psychoanalysts (including Sigmund Freud
Sigmund Freud
and Hanns Sachs)[175] have engaged with the apostle as one of the most influential figures in Western thought. Scholarly surveys of Jewish interest in Paul include those by Hagner (1980),[176] Meissner (1996),[177] and Langton (2010, 2011).[178][179][180] Literary analysis

A statue of Paul holding a scroll (symbolising the Scriptures) and the sword (symbolising his martyrdom)

Writing styles British Jewish scholar Hyam Maccoby contended that the Paul as described in the book of Acts and the view of Paul gleaned from his own writings are very different people. Some difficulties have been noted in the account of his life. Paul as described in the Book
Book
of Acts is much more interested in factual history, less in theology; ideas such as justification by faith are absent as are references to the Spirit, according to Maccoby. He also pointed out that there are no references to John the Baptist
John the Baptist
in the Pauline Epistles, although Paul mentions him several times in the book of Acts. Others have objected that the language of the speeches is too Lukan in style to reflect anyone else's words. Moreover, George Shillington writes that the author of Acts most likely created the speeches accordingly and they bear his literary and theological marks.[181] Conversely, Howard Marshall writes that the speeches were not entirely the inventions of the author and while they may not be accurate word-for-word, the author nevertheless records the general idea of them.[182] F. C. Baur (1792–1860), professor of theology at Tübingen in Germany, the first scholar to critique Acts and the Pauline Epistles, and founder of the Tübingen School
Tübingen School
of theology, argued that Paul, as the "Apostle to the Gentiles", was in violent opposition to the original 12 Apostles. Baur considers the Acts of the Apostles
Apostles
were late and unreliable. This debate has continued ever since, with Adolf Deissmann (1866–1937) and Richard Reitzenstein (1861–1931) emphasising Paul's Greek inheritance and Albert Schweitzer
Albert Schweitzer
stressing his dependence on Judaism. Other views

Saint
Saint
Paul, Byzantine ivory relief, 6th – early 7th century (Musée de Cluny)

In the second (and possibly) late first century, Gnosticism
Gnosticism
was a competing religious tradition to Christianity
Christianity
which shared some elements of theology. Elaine Pagels, professor of religion at Princeton University
Princeton University
and an authority on Gnosticism, declined to judge (in her book The Gnostic Paul) whether Paul was actually a Gnostic. Instead, she concentrated on how the Gnostics interpreted Paul's letters and how evidence from gnostic sources may challenge the assumption that Paul wrote his letters to combat "gnostic opponents" and to repudiate their statement that they possess secret wisdom.[183] Professor Robert Eisenman
Robert Eisenman
of California State University, Long Beach argues that Paul was a member of the family of Herod the Great.[184] Eisenman makes a connection between Paul and an individual identified by Josephus as "Saulus", a "kinsman of Agrippa".[185] Another oft-cited element of the case for Paul as a member of Herod's family is found in Romans 16:11 where Paul writes, "Greet Herodion, my kinsman". According to Timo Eskola, early Christian theology
Christian theology
and discourse was influenced by the Jewish Merkabah tradition.[186] Similarly, Alan Segal and Daniel Boyarin regard Paul's accounts of his conversion experience and his ascent to the heavens as the earliest first person accounts we have of a Merkabah mystic in Jewish or Christian literature. Conversely, Timothy Churchill has argued that Paul's Damascus
Damascus
road encounter does not fit the pattern of Merkabah.[187] Among the critics of Paul the Apostle
Paul the Apostle
was Thomas Jefferson, a Deist, who wrote that Paul was the "first corrupter of the doctrines of Jesus."[188] Christian anarchists, such as Leo Tolstoy[189] and Ammon Hennacy,[190] take a similar view. F.F. Powell argues that Paul, in his epistles, made use of many of the ideas of the Greek philosopher Plato, sometimes even using the same metaphors and language.[191] For example, in Phaedrus, Plato
Plato
has Socrates
Socrates
saying that the heavenly ideals are perceived as though "through a glass dimly",[192] Paul's language closely mirrors this phrase 1 Corinthians
1 Corinthians
13. The latest research into the life of Paul disputes his claim of conversion. In 2015, independent researchers P.J. Gott and Logan Licht reported evidence they discovered[clarification needed] that suggests the books of the New Testament
New Testament
were written in "enigmatical modes of expression," the method Philo the Alexandrian Jew
Jew
attributes to the Essene sect of Judaism.[193] Josephus the Jewish historian writes, "The Essenes also, as we call a sect of ours … live the same kind of life as do those whom the Greeks call Pythagoreans …"[194] The Greek historian Plutarch ties "Pythagoreans" and "enigmatical modes of expression" together: "Pythagoras greatly admired the Egyptian priests, and, copying their symbolism and secret teachings, incorporated his doctrines in enigmas."[195] After testing Philo's "Essene" method as reconstructed by heresy-hunters in the 17th century, they conclude that Acts' "Paulus also known as Saulus" was the same "Saulus" Josephus blames for the events that led to the destruction of the Temple in 70.[196] Physical appearance The New Testament
New Testament
offers little if any information about the physical appearance of Paul, but several descriptions can be found in apocryphal texts. In the Acts of Paul[197] he is described as "A man of small stature, with a bald head and crooked legs, in a good state of body, with eyebrows meeting and nose somewhat hooked".[198] In the Latin version of the Acts of Paul
Acts of Paul
and Thecla
Thecla
it is added that he had a red, florid face.[198] In The History of the Contending of Saint
Saint
Paul his countenance is actually described as "ruddy with the ruddiness of the skin of the pomegranate".[199] The Acts of Saint Peter
Saint Peter
confirms that Paul had a bald and shining head, with red hair.[200] As summarised by Barnes,[201] Chrysostom
Chrysostom
records that Paul's stature was low, his body crooked and his head bald. Lucian, in his Philopatris, describes Paul as "corpore erat parvo (he was small), contracto (contracted), incurvo (crooked), tricubitali (of three cubits, or four feet six)".[202] Nicephorus claims that Paul was a little man, crooked, and almost bent like a bow, with a pale countenance, long and wrinkled, and a bald head. Pseudo- Chrysostom
Chrysostom
echoes Lucian's height of Paul, referring to him as "the man of three cubits".[202] Paul at one point compares himself as one who is like "a miscarried/aborted child".[203][not in citation given] This however probably does not suggest some kind of deformity such as being crooked or hunch-backed, that tormented him,[204] but rather his view of his worthiness to become an apostle. See also

Book: Apostle (Christian)

Saints portal

Achaichus Collegiate Parish Church of St Paul's Shipwreck Old Testament: Christian views of the Law Persecution of Christians in the New Testament Persecution of religion in ancient Rome Peter and Paul Psychagogy St. Paul's Cathedral

Further reading

Bart D. Ehrman. Peter, Paul and Mary Magdalene: The Followers of Jesus in History and Legend; 304 pages, Oxford University Press (March, 2008) Bart D. Ehrman. The New Testament: A Historical Introduction to the Early Christian Writings; 608 pages, Oxford University Press (July, 2011); ISBN 978-0-19-975753-4 Efrain Agosto. Servant Leadership: Jesus
Jesus
and Paul; Chalice Press (November, 2012); ISBN 978-0-8272-3506-9 Hyam MacCoby. The Mythmaker: Paul and the Invention of Christianity; 238 pages, Barnes & Noble Books (1998); ISBN 978-0-7607-0787-6 Hans Joachim Schoeps. Paul: The Theology of the Apostle in the Light of Jewish Religious History (Library of Theological Translations); 34 pages, Lutterworth Press (July, 2002); ISBN 978-0-227-17013-7 Pinchas Lapide, Peter Stuhlmacher. Paul: Rabbi and Apostle; 77 pages, Augsburg Publishing House; (December 1984) Pinchas Lapide, Leonard Swidler, Jurgen Moltmann. Jewish Monotheism and Christian Trinitarian Doctrine; 94 pages, Wipf & Stock Publishers (May, 2002)

References Citations

^ In the Footsteps of Paul. PBS. Retrieved 2010-11-19. ^ Acts 22:3 ^ a b c d Harris, Stephen L. Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield. 1985. ISBN 978-1-55934-655-9 ^ "" Saint
Saint
Paul, the Apostle." Encyclopædia Britannica Online Academic Edition". global.britannica.com. Retrieved 12 August 2016.  ^ a b c "Why did God change Saul's name to Paul?". Catholic Answers. Archived from the original on 30 October 2012. Retrieved 31 August 2014.  ^ a b Acts 9:11 This is the place where the expression "Saul of Tarsus" comes from. ^ a b c d e f Powell, Mark A. Introducing the New Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic. 2009. ISBN 978-0-8010-2868-7 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Sanders, E. P. " Saint
Saint
Paul, the Apostle". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online Academic Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2013. Web. 08 Jan. 2013. ^ The Canon Debate, McDonald & Sanders editors, 2002, chapter 32, p. 577, by James D. G. Dunn: "James, the brother of Jesus, and Paul, the two other most prominent leading figures (besides Peter) in first-century Christianity" ^ Acts 8:1 "at Jerusalem"; Acts 9:13 "at Jerusalem"; Acts 9:21 "in Jerusalem"; Acts 26:10 "in Jerusalem". ^ Acts 9:20 And straightway he preached Christ
Christ
in the synagogues, that he is the Son of God. Acts 9:21 But all that heard him were amazed, and said; Is not this he that destroyed them which called on this name in Jerusalem, and came hither for that intent, that he might bring them bound unto the chief priests? ^ Brown, Raymond E. (1997), An Introduction to the New Testament, p. [407]. Doubleday ^ Tertullian
Tertullian
knew the Letter to the Hebrews as being "under the name of Barnabas" (De Pudicitia, chapter 20 where T. quotes Heb. 6:4–8); Origen, in his now lost Commentary on the Epistle
Epistle
to the Hebrews, is reported by Eusebius
Eusebius
(Hist. Eccl. 6, 25, 13f.) as having written ". . if any Church holds that this epistle is by Paul, let it be commended for this. For not without reason have the ancients handed it down as Paul's. But who wrote the epistle, in truth, God knows. The statement of some who have gone before us is that Clement, bishop of the Romans, wrote the epistle, and of others, that Luke, the author of the Gospel and the Acts, wrote it ^ The New Jerome
Jerome
Biblical Commentary, publ. Geoffrey Chapman, 1989, chapter 60:2 (at p. 920, col.2) ^ Chapman, Geoffrey (1989). The New Jerome
Jerome
Biblical Commentary. p. 920 column 2 (Chapter 60). That Paul is neither directly nor indirectly the author is now the view of scholars almost without exception. For details, see Kümmel, I[ntroduction to the] N[ew] T[estament, Nashville, 1975] 392–94, 401–03  ^ Paul's undisputed epistles are 1st Thessalonians, Galatians, 1st and 2nd Corinthians, Romans, Philippians, and Philemon. The six letters believed by some but not all to have been written by Paul are Ephesians, Colossians, 2 Thessalonians, 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, and Titus. Paul and His Influence in Early Christianity
Christianity
(United Methodist Church) ^ Carson, D.A.; Moo, D.G. An Introduction to the New Testament. Nottingham: Apollos/Inter-Varsity Press. 2005 ISBN 978-1-84474-089-5 ^ Aageson, James W. Paul, the Pastoral Epistles, and the Early Church. Hendrickson Publishers, 2008. ISBN 978-1-59856-041-1 p. 1 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Paul, St", Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005 ^ Martin, Dale B. (2009). "Introduction to the New Testament
New Testament
History and Literature – 5. The New Testament
New Testament
as History". Open Yale Courses. Yale University.  ^ Marrow, Stanley B. (1 Jan 1986). Paul: His Letters and His Theology: An Introduction to Paul's Epistles. Paulist Press. pp. 5, 7. ISBN 978-0809127443. Retrieved 31 August 2014.  ^ Greek lexicon G4569 Σαύλος (Saul) Greek lexicon G3972 Παύλος (Paul) Hebrew lexicon H7586 שׁאוּל (Shaul/Saul) ^ Paulus autem et Barnabas
Barnabas
demorabantur Antiochiae docentes et evangelizantes cum aliis pluribus verbum Domini ^  Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1911). "St. Paul". Catholic Encyclopedia. 11. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  ^ Oxford University Lewis and Short Latin Dictionary, ISBN 0198642016, entry for Paulus: "a Roman surname (not a praenomen;" ^ "The Letter of Paul to the Galatians: An Introduction". books.google.se. Retrieved 14 Dec 2014.  ^ Acts 9:4;22:7;26:14 ^ Acts 26:14 Note: This is the only place in the Bible
Bible
where the reader is told what language Jesus
Jesus
was speaking. ^ Acts 9:17; 22:13 ^ White (2007), pp. 145–47 ^ Koester, Helmut (2000). Introduction to the New Testament
New Testament
(2 ed.). New York: de Gruyter. p. 107. ISBN 3110149702. Retrieved 14 June 2013.  ^ a b Wright, G. Ernest, Great People of the Bible
Bible
and How They Lived, (Pleasantville, New York: The Reader's Digest Association, Inc., 1974). ^ Montague, George T. The Living Thought Of St. Paul Milwaukee: Bruce Publishing Co. 1966. ^ a b c d 1st Timothy, 2nd Timothy, and Titus may be "Trito-Pauline", meaning they may have been written by members of the Pauline school a generation after his death. ^ a b Wallace, Quency E. "The Early Life and Background of Paul the Apostle". The American Journal of Biblical Theology. ^ Frederick Fyvie Bruce (1977), Paul, Apostle of the Heart Set Free, p. 43 ^ Dale Martin 2009. Introduction to New Testament
New Testament
History and Literature, lecture 14 "Paul as Missionary". Yale University. ^ Kee, Howard and Franklin W. Young, Understanding The New Testament, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, Prentice Hall, Inc. 1958, p. 208. ISBN 978-0139365911 ^ Bromiley, Geoffrey William (1979). International Standard Bible Encyclopedia: A–D (International Standard Bible
Bible
Encyclopedia (Wbeerdmans)). Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. p. 689. ISBN 0-8028-3781-6.  ^ Barnett, Paul (2002). Jesus, the Rise of Early Christianity: A History of New Testament
New Testament
Times. InterVarsity Press. p. 21. ISBN 0-8308-2699-8.  ^ L. Niswonger, Richard (1993). New Testament
New Testament
History. Zondervan Publishing Company. p. 200. ISBN 0-310-31201-9.  ^ Aslan, Reza (2013). Zealot (Paperback ed.). New York: Random House. p. 184. ISBN 978-0-8129-8148-3.  ^ McRay (2007), p. 66 ^ Horrell, David
David
G (2006). An Introduction to the Study of Paul. New York: T&T Clark. p. 30. ISBN 0-567-04083-6.  ^ Hengel, Martin and Anna Maria Schwemer, trans. John Bowden. Paul Between Damascus
Damascus
and Antioch: The Unknown Years Westminster John Knox Press, 1997. ISBN 0-664-25736-4 ^ Kirsopp Lake, The earlier Epistles of St. Paul, their motive and origin ( London
London
1911), pp. 320–23. ^ N.T. Wright, "Paul, Arabia and Elijah" (PDF) Archived 2011-04-29 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Martin Hengel, "Paul in Arabia" (PDF) Bulletin for Biblical Research 12.1 (2002) pp. 47–66. ^ Barnett, Paul The Birth Of Christianity: The First Twenty Years (Eerdmans Publishing Co. 2005) ISBN 0-8028-2781-0 p. 200 ^ Ogg, George, Chronology of the New Testament
New Testament
in Peake's Commentary on the Bible
Bible
(Nelson, 1963) ^ Barnett p. 83 ^ The only indication as to who is leading is in the order of names. At first, the two are referred to as Barnabas
Barnabas
and Paul, in that order. Later in the same chapter the team is referred to as Paul and his companions. ^ "His quotations from Scripture, which are all taken, directly or from memory, from the Greek version, betray no familiarity with the original Hebrew text (..) Nor is there any indication in Paul's writings or arguments that he had received the rabbinical training ascribed to him by Christian writers (..)""Paul, the Apostle of the Heathen". JewishEncyclopedia.com. Retrieved 2012-02-10.  ^ Acts 14:28 ^ Spence Jones, Donald; Exell, Joseph S., eds. (2013). "Acts". The Complete Pulpit Commentary. Volume 8: Act to Philippians. Harrington, Delaware: Delmarva Publications.  ^ a b c d e Herbermann, Charles George, ed. (1910). "Judaizers". The Catholic Encyclopedia: An International Work of Reference on the Constitution, Doctrine, Discipline, and History of the Catholic Church. 8: Infamy–Lapparent. New York: Robert Appleton Company. pp. 537–38.  ^ Acts 15:2ff; Galatians 2:1ff ^ a b c White (2007), pp. 148–49 ^ Paul: Apostle of the Free Spirit, F. F. Bruce, Paternoster 1980, p. 151 ^ White (2007), p. 170 ^ Christianity: an introduction by Alister E. McGrath 2006 ISBN 1-4051-0901-7, pp. 137–41 ^ Mercer Commentary on the New Testament
New Testament
by Watson E. Mills 2003 ISBN 0-86554-864-1 pp. 1109–10 ^ Andreas J. Köstenberger, L. Scott Kellum and Charles Quarles (2009). The Cradle, the Cross, and the Crown: An Introduction to the New Testament. Nashville, Tennessee, B&H Publishing Group. p. 400 ^ Acts 18:18 ^ Caldwell, Kenneth M. Catholic Encyclopedia: Nazarite. newadvent.org. Retrieved 15 June 2017.  ^ Acts 18:19–21 ^ This clause is not found in some major sources: Codex Sinaiticus, Codex Alexandrinus, Codex Vaticanus
Codex Vaticanus
or Codex Laudianus ^ Acts 18:21 ^ Pulpit Commentary on Acts 18 http://biblehub.com/commentaries/pulpit/acts/18.htm accessed 4 October 2015 ^ Acts 20:34 ^ McRay (2007), p. 185 ^ Ellicott's Commentary for Modern Readers on Romans 1, accessed 7 October 2016 ^ Burton, Ernest De Witt (1977). A critical and exegetical commentary on the Epistle
Epistle
to the Galatians. ISBN 978-0-567-05029-8. Retrieved 2010-11-19.  ^ Catholic Encyclopedia: Durazzo (Albania). Newadvent.org (1909–05–01). Retrieved 2010–11–19. ^ 1st Clement – Lightfoot translation 1 Clem 5:5 "By reason of jealousy and strife Paul by his example pointed out the prize of patient endurance. After that he had been seven times in bonds, had been driven into exile, had been stoned, had preached in the East and in the West, he won the noble renown which was the reward of his faith, [5:6] having taught righteousness unto the whole world and having reached the farthest bounds of the West; and when he had borne his testimony before the rulers, so he departed from the world and went unto the holy place, having been found a notable pattern of patient endurance". Where Lightfoot has "had preached" above, the Hoole translation has "having become a herald". See also the endnote(#3) by Arthur Cleveland Coxe
Arthur Cleveland Coxe
on the last page of wikisource 1st Clement regarding Paul's preaching in Britain. ^ Chrysostom
Chrysostom
on 2 Tim.4:20 (Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Series I Volume XIII) ^ Cyril on Paul and gifts of the Holy Ghost (Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Series II Volume VII, Lecture 17, para.26) ^ The Muratorian Fragment lines 38–39 ^ Paul does not exactly say that this was his second visit. In Galatians, he lists three important meetings with Peter, and this was the second on his list. The third meeting took place in Antioch. He does not explicitly state that he did not visit Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in between this and his first visit. ^ Note that Paul only writes that he is on his way to Jerusalem, or just planning the visit. There might or might not have been additional visits before or after this visit, if he ever got to Jerusalem. ^ Romans 15:25,2 Corinthians 8–9, 1 Corinthians 16:1–3 ^ a b Capes, David
David
B.; Reeves, Rodney; Richards, E. Randolph (2007). "The imprisoned Paul: letters to churches". Rediscovering Paul: An Introduction to His World, Letters and Theology. Downers Grove, Illinois: IVP Academic. p. 203. ISBN 978-0-8308-3941-4.  ^ Irenaeus
Irenaeus
Against Heresies 3.3.2: the "...Church founded and organized at Rome
Rome
by the two most glorious apostles, Peter and Paul; as also [by pointing out] the faith preached to men, which comes down to our time by means of the successions of the bishops. ... The blessed apostles, then, having founded and built up the Church, committed into the hands of Linus the office of the episcopate". ^ MaGee Greg. "The Origins of the Church at Rome". bible.org Accessed 18 Mar 2013. ^ McDowell, Sean (2016-03-09). The Fate of the Apostles. pp. 67–70. ISBN 9781317031901.  ^ Ignatius of Antioch, Letter to the Ephesians, Chapter XII ^ of Corinth, Dionysius. "Fragments from a Letter to the Roman Church Chapter III". earlychristianwritings.com. Retrieved 1 June 2015.  "Therefore you also have by such admonition joined in close union the churches that were planted by Peter and Paul, that of the Romans and that of the Corinthians: for both of them went to our Corinth, and taught us in the same way as they taught you when they went to Italy; and having taught you, they suffered martyrdom at the same time." ^ Eusebius
Eusebius
of Caesarea. "Church History Book
Book
II Chapter 25:8". newadvent.org. Retrieved 1 June 2015.  ^ James, Montague Rhodes
Rhodes
(1924). "The Acts of Paul". The Apocryphal New Testament. Oxford: Clarendon Press.  ^ Quintus Septimius Florens, Tertullian. "Prescription Against Heretics Chapter XXXVI". ccel.org. Retrieved 1 June 2015.  "Since, moreover, you are close upon Italy, you have Rome, from which there comes even into our own hands the very authority (of apostles themselves). How happy is its church, on which apostles poured forth all their doctrine along with their blood; where Peter endures a passion like his Lord's; where Paul wins his crown in a death like John's[the Baptist]; where the Apostle John was first plunged, unhurt, into boiling oil, and thence remitted to his island-exile." ^ of Caesarea, Eusebius. "Church History Book
Book
II Chapter 25:5–6". newadvent.org. Retrieved 1 June 2015.  ^ Lactantius, Of the Manner in Which the Persecutors Died, addressed to Donatus Chapter II ^ a b saint, Jerome. "On Illustrious Men Chapter 5". Retrieved 3 June 2015.  ^ John Chrysostom. Concerning Lowliness of Mind 4 ^ Sulpicius Severus, Chronica II.28–29. ^ a b Ratzinger, Joseph Aloisius (2009). General Audience of 4 February 2009: St Paul's martyrdom and heritage. Paul VI Audience Hall, Rome: Libreria Editrice Vaticana. Retrieved 2016-04-01.  ^ Serena De Leonardis and Stefano Masi (1999). Art and history: Rome and the Vatican. Casa Editrice Bonechi. p. 21 ^ presbyter, Caius (Gaius). "Dialogue or Disputation Against Proclus (198 AD) in Eusebius, Church History Book
Book
II Chapter 25:6–7". newadvent.org. Retrieved 1 June 2015.  ^ Silver, Sandra Sweeny (2013). "Catacombs". Footprints in parchment: Rome
Rome
versus Christianity
Christianity
30–313 AD. Bloomington, Indiana: AuthorHouse. p. 18. ISBN 978-1-4817-3373-1. [self-published source] ^ St Paul's tomb unearthed in Rome
Rome
from BBC
BBC
News (2006-12-08); Vatican to open Apostle Paul's tomb ^ "Remains of St. Paul confirmed". Washington Times. June 29, 2009.  ^ a b c The Blackwell Companion to The New Testament
New Testament
by David
David
E. Aune ISBN 1405108258 p. 9 "While seven of the letters attributed to Paul are almost universally accepted as authentic (Romans, 1 and 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Philippians, 1 Thessalonians, Philemon), four are just as widely judged to be pseudepigraphical, i.e., written by unknown authors under Paul's name: Ephesians and the Pastorals (1 and 2 Timothy
2 Timothy
and Titus). ^ a b Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible
Bible
by James D. G. Dunn (Nov 19, 2003) ISBN 0802837115 p. 1274 "There is general scholarly agreement that seven of the thirteen letters bearing Paul's name are authentic, but his authorship of the other six cannot be taken for granted ... Romans, 1 and 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Philippians, 1 Thessalonians and Philemon are certainly Paul's own". ^ a b Pheme Perkins, Reading the New Testament: An Introduction (Paulist Press, 1988), ISBN 0809129396 pp. 4–7. ^ Peter, Paul, and Mary Magdelene: the followers of Jesus
Jesus
in history and legend By Bart Ehrman, pp. 98–100 ^ A commentary on the Acts of the Apostles
Apostles
by Charles Stephan Conway Williams, pp. 22, 240 ^ Bromiley, Geoffrey William (2009). "Paul the Apostle". International Standard Bible
Bible
Encyclopedia. Michigan: W.B. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802837844.  ^ MacDonald, Margaret Y. Sacra Pagina: Colossians and Ephesians. Liturgical Press, 2000. ISBN 978-0-8146-5819-2 ^ a b c d e " Epistle to the Colossians
Epistle to the Colossians
– Catholic Encyclopedia". Newadvent.org. Retrieved 2010-11-19.  ^ Brown, R.E., The Churches the Apostles
Apostles
Left Behind p. 48. ^ Barrett, C.K. the Pastoral Epistles
Pastoral Epistles
pp. 4ff. ^ a b "Atonement". Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian Church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005 ^ Ephesiahs 2:8–9 ^ Galatians 4:4–7 ^ The International Standard Bible
Bible
Encyclopaedia (1915), Volume 4, p. 2276 edited by James Orr ^ "Paul the Jew
Jew
as Founder of Christianity?". Huffington post. Retrieved August 28, 2017.  ^ a b Paul and Palestinian Judaism in 1977; Paul, the Law, and the Jewish People in 1983 ^ J.D.G. Dunn's Manson Memorial Lecture (4.11.1982): 'The New Perspective on Paul' BJRL 65(1983), 95–122. ^ a b "New Perspectives on Paul". Ntwrightpage.com. 2003-08-28. Retrieved 2010-11-19.  ^ Ehrman, Bart. Peter, Paul, and Mary Magdalene: The Followers of Jesus
Jesus
in History and Legend. Oxford University Press, USA. 2006. ISBN 0-19-530013-0 ^ Rowlands, Christopher. Christian Origins (SPCK 1985) p. 113 ^ Kroeger, Richard C. and Catherine C. I Suffer Not a Woman. Baker Book
Book
House, 1992. ISBN 0-8010-5250-5 ^ Wright, N.T. "The Biblical Basis for Women's Service in the Church". Web: Dec. 16, 2009 ^ Kirk, J. R. Daniel. "Faculty – Fuller". fuller.edu. Archived from the original on 2012-04-24.  ^ Giguzzi, Giancarlo "Paolo, un apostolo contro le donne?" in Credere Oggi: in dialogo con San Paolo e le sue lettere no. 124, Edizioni Messaggero Padova, 2004, pp. 95–107. at credereoggi.it ^ a b c "Prophet, Prophetess, Prophecy". Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology. ^ Kirk, J.R. Daniel. Jesus
Jesus
I Have Loved. But Paul? Baker, 2011. ISBN 978-1-4412-3625-8 ^ Stagg, Evelyn and Frank Stagg. Woman in the World of Jesus. Westminster Press, 1978. ISBN 0-664-24195-6 ^ Gombis, Timothy. "(PDF) A Radically Different New Humanity: The Function of the Haustafel in Ephesians". Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society. 48/2 (June 2005) 317–30. Accessed 14 February 2013. ^ MacDonald, Margaret. The Pauline Churches: A Socio-historical Study of Institutionalization in the Pauline and Deutero-Pauline Writings. SNTSMS 60; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988. p109 ^ Achtenmeier, P.J. HarperCollins Bible
Bible
Dictionary (revised ed.). HarperCollins. pp. 882. ISBN 0-06-060037-3. ^ Keller, Marie Noël. Priscilla and Aquila: Paul's Coworkers in Christ
Christ
Jesus. Liturgical Press, 2010. ISBN 978-0-8146-5284-8. ^ "Catechism of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
– Article 6: The sixth commandment". vatican.va. January 10, 1951.  ^ http://archives.umc.org/interior.asp?mid=1728[permanent dead link] ^ http://www.coptic.net/articles/OnHomosexuality.txt ^ " Christianity
Christianity
and Homosexuality". CARM – The Christian Apologetics & Research Ministry.  ^ Ehrman, Bart. The New Testament: A Historical Introduction to the Early Christian Writings. Oxford University Press. 2003. p. 393 ISBN 0-19-515462-2. "... when we come to the Pastoral epistles, there is greater scholarly unanimity. These three letters are widely regarded by scholars as non-Pauline." ^ Collins, Raymond F. 1 & 2 Timothy
2 Timothy
and Titus: A Commentary. Westminster John Knox
John Knox
Press. 2004. p. 4 ISBN 0-664-22247-1. "By the end of the twentieth century New Testament
New Testament
scholarship was virtually unanimous in affirming that the Pastoral Epistles
Pastoral Epistles
were written some time after Paul's death. ... As always some scholars dissent from the consensus view." ^ Romans 10:4 ^ 1 Corinthians
1 Corinthians
10:14–17, 11:17–34 ^ Maccoby, Hyam, The Mythmaker: Paul and the Invention of Christianity (Harpercollins, October 1987), p. 14. ^ Wilson, Barrie A. (2008). How Jesus
Jesus
Became Christian. New York, Toronto: St. Martin's Press. pp. chapters 9, 10, 12.  ^ Dwyer, John C., Church History: Twenty Centuries of Catholic Christianity
Christianity
(Paulist Press, July 1985 ), p. 27. ^ Wrede, William, Paul (trans. Edward Lummis; London: Philip Green, 1907), p. 179. ^ " Christianity
Christianity
Before Paul". Huffington post. Retrieved August 27, 2017.  ^ Robert M. Price, The Amazing Colossal Apostle, (Signature books, 2012), p. viii. ISBN 978-1-56085-216-2 ^ The First Epistle of Clement
First Epistle of Clement
to the Corinthians, 5:5–6, translated by J.B. Lightfoot in Lightfoot, Joseph Barber (1890). The Apostolic Fathers: A Revised Text with Introductions, Notes, Dissertations, and Translations. Macmillan. p. 274. ISBN 0-8010-5612-8. OCLC 54248207.  ^ Brown, Raymond Edward; John Paul Meier (1983). Antioch
Antioch
and Rome: New Testament Cradles of Catholic Christianity. Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press. p. 124. ISBN 0-8091-2532-3.  ^ Hist. Eccl., II.25 - ^ Eusebius, Hist. Eccl., II.25, where he quotes Dionysius of Corinth to this effect ^ " Saint
Saint
Paul, the Apostle. June 30. Rev. Alban Butler. 1866. Volume VI: June. The Lives of the Saints". bartleby.com.  ^ "June 30 – St. Paul The Apostle". paulines.ph.  ^ "Chambers' The Book
Book
of Days". 1869. Retrieved 2012-02-09.  ^ a b Peter G. Riddell (2001). Islam and the Malay-Indonesian World: Transmission and Responses (illustrated ed.). University of Hawaii Press. p. 235. ISBN 9780824824730.  ^ Ed Hindson; Ergun Caner (1 May 2008). The Popular Encyclopedia of Apologetics: Surveying the Evidence for the Truth of Christianity. Harvest House Publishers. p. 280. ISBN 9780736936354.  ^ James De Young (9 Dec 2004). Terrorism, Islam, and Christian Hope: Reflections on 9-11 and Resurging Islam. Wipf and Stock Publishers. p. 60. ISBN 9781597520058.  ^ Waardenburg, Jacques, ed. (19 Aug 1999). Muslim Perceptions of Other Religions : A Historical Survey. Oxford University Press. p. 276. ISBN 9780195355765.  ^ Waardenburg, Jacques, ed. (19 Aug 1999). Muslim Perceptions of Other Religions : A Historical Survey. Oxford University Press. p. 255. ISBN 9780195355765.  ^ James De Young (9 Dec 2004). Terrorism, Islam, and Christian Hope: Reflections on 9-11 and Resurging Islam. Wipf and Stock Publishers. p. 64. ISBN 9781597520058. How did the original truth regarding God (Allah) come to be distorted? The culprit is the apostle Paul. Paul's concepts of original sin and the need for redemption are wrong because they contradict the teaching of the Old Testament
Old Testament
(which denies that a son should suffer for the sins of his father; Deut. 24:16; Jer. 31:29-30; Ezek. 18:19-20); and they contradict the teaching of Jesus
Jesus
(John 9:1-3). Indeed, Paul's "revealed" version of Christianity
Christianity
was "fundamentally different from what the chosen disciples of Jesus
Jesus
knew to be the teaching of the Master, so that there was a serious conflict between Paul and the original followers of Christ" who never deviated from strict monotheism. [under 'Islam's Rejection of Christian Doctrine']  ^ a b Camilla Adang (1 Jan 1996). Muslim Writers on Judaism and the Hebrew Bible: From Ibn Rabban to Ibn Hazm. BRILL. pp. 105–06. ISBN 9789004100343.  ^ a b Sean Anthony (25 Nov 2011). The Caliph and the Heretic: Ibn Saba and the Origins of Shi'ism (illustrated ed.). BRILL. p. 68. ISBN 9789004209305.  ^ Ross Brann (21 Dec 2009). Power in the Portrayal: Representations of Jews and Muslims in Eleventh- and Twelfth-Century Islamic Spain. Princeton University
Princeton University
Press. pp. 65–66. ISBN 9781400825240.  ^ Waardenburg (1999), p. 276 ^ Waardenburg (1999), p. 255 ^ Ross Brann (21 Dec 2009). Power in the Portrayal: Representations of Jews and Muslims in Eleventh- and Twelfth-Century Islamic Spain. Princeton University
Princeton University
Press. pp. 65–6. ISBN 9781400825240.  ^ Zoltan Pall (31 Jan 2013). Lebanese Salafis Between the Gulf and Europe: Development, Fractionalization and Transnational Networks of Salafism in Lebanon. Amsterdam University Press. p. 55. ISBN 9789089644510.  ^ Camilla Adang (1 Jan 1996). Muslim Writers on Judaism and the Hebrew Bible: From Ibn Rabban to Ibn Hazm. BRILL. pp. 105–6. ISBN 9789004100343.  ^ Langton (2010), pp. 23–56 ^ Langton (2010), pp. 57–96 ^ Langton (2010), pp. 97–153 ^ Langton (2010), pp. 154–76 ^ Langton (2010), pp. 178–209 ^ Langton (2010), pp. 210–30 ^ Langton (2010), pp. 234–62 ^ Langton (2010), pp. 263–78 ^ Hagner, Donald (1980). Hagner, Donald, ed. Paul in Modern Jewish Thought in Pauline Studies. Exeter: Paternoster Press. pp. 143–65.  ^ Meissner, Stefan (1996). Die Heimholung des Ketzers. Tübingen: Mohr.  ^ Langton (2010) ^ Langton, Daniel (2011). Westerholm, Stephen, ed. Jewish Readings of Paul in Blackwell Companion to Paul. Blackwell. pp. 55–72.  ^ Langton, Daniel (2011). Levine, Amy-Jill, ed. Paul in Jewish Thought in The Jewish Annotated New Testament. Oxford University Press. pp. 585–87.  ^ Shillington, George (2007). Introduction to Luke-Acts. London: T & T Clark. p. 18. ISBN 0-567-03053-9.  ^ Marshall, I. Howard (1980). The Acts of the Apostles. Grand Rapids: W.B. Eerdmans Pub. Co. p. 42. ISBN 0-8028-1423-9.  ^ Pagels, Elaine. The Gnostic Paul: Gnostic Exegesis of the Pauline Letters. Continuum International Publishing, 1992. ISBN 978-1563380396 ^ See "Paul as Herodian", JHC 3/1 (Spring, 1996), 110–22. ^ Antiquities, Book
Book
XX, Chapter 9:4. at ccel.org ^ Timo Eskola. Messiah and the Throne: Jewish Merkabah Mysticism and Early Exaltation Discourse Tubingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2001. ^ Churchill, Timothy W. R. Divine Initiative and the Christology
Christology
of the Damascus
Damascus
Road Encounter, Eugene: Pickwick, 2010. ^ The Writings of Thomas Jefferson: Being his Autobiography, Correspondence, Reports, Messages, Addresses, and Other Writings, Official and Private. Published by the Order of the Joint Committee of Congress on the Library, from the Original Manuscripts, Deposited in the Department of State, With Explanatory Notes, Tables of Contents, and a Copious Index to Each Volume, as well as a General Index to the Whole, by the Editor H. A. Washington. Vol. VII. Published by Taylor Maury, Washington, D.C., 1854. ^ Tolsoy, Leo (1882). Church and State. This deviation begins from the time of the Apostle and especially after that hankerer after mastership Paul  ^ Hennacy, Ammon (1970). The Book
Book
of Ammon.  ^ Powell, F. F. " Saint
Saint
Paul's Homage to Plato". Retrieved 7 September 2013.  ^ Plato. Phaedrus 250b. Benjamin Jowett (trans.). For there is no light of justice or temperance or any of the higher ideas which are precious to souls in the earthly copies of them: they are seen through a glass dimly;  ^ P.J. Gott and Logan Licht, Following Philo: In Search of The Magdalene, The Virgin, The Men Called Jesus
Jesus
(Bolivar: Leonard Press, 2015),27. ^ William Whiston, trans. The New Complete Works of Josephus (Grand Rapids: Kregel Publications, 1999), Antiquities 15.10.4 (371), 521. ^ Plutarch. Isis and Osiris, "Introduction," (Loeb Classical Library, 1914, Babbit trans.); Gott and Licht (2015), 28. ^ Josephus, 1999, Antiquities 20.9.4 (214), 657 ^ Barnstone, Willis. 'The Acts of Paul' in The Other Bible. New York, NY: HarperCollins Publishers, 1984, p. 447. ^ a b Eisler, Robert. The Messiah Jesus
Jesus
and John the Baptist. London: Methuen & Co. Ltd., 1931, p. 448. ^ Budge, E.A. Wallis. 'The History of the Contending of Saint
Saint
Paul' in The Contendings of the Twelve Apostles: Being the Histories and the Lives and Martyrdomes and Deaths of the Twelve Apostles
Apostles
and Evangelists. Vol. 2. The English Translation. London: Henry Frowde, 1901, p. 531. ^ 'The Acts of Saint
Saint
Peter,' p. 501.[full citation needed] ^ Barnes, Albert. Notes, Explanatory and Practical, on The New Testament. Vol. 6. II. Corinthians and Galatians. Glasgow, Edinburgh and London: Blackie & Son, 1844, p. 212. ^ a b The Catholic Encyclopedia, http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/, s.v. Paul, Saint. ^ 1 Corinthians
1 Corinthians
15:8. ^ 2 Corinthians
2 Corinthians
12:7.

Bibliography

Aulén, Gustaf. Christus Victor (SPCK 1931) Brown, Raymond E. An Introduction to the New Testament. Anchor Bible Series, 1997. ISBN 0-385-24767-2 Brown, Raymond E. The Church the Apostles
Apostles
left behind (Chapman 1984) Bruce, F.F. "Is the Paul of Acts the Real Paul?" Bulletin John Rylands Library 58 (1976) 283–305 Bruce, F.F., Paul: Apostle of the Heart Set Free (ISBN 0-8028-4778-1) Carson, D.A.;Moo, D.J. An Introduction to the New Testament ISBN 978-1-84474-089-5 Conzelmann, Hans, The Acts of the Apostles
Apostles
– A Commentary on the Acts of the Apostles
Apostles
(Augsburg Fortress 1987) Davies, W.D. Paul and Rabbinic Judaism: Some Rabbinic Elements in Pauline Theology. S.P.C.K., 3rd ed., 1970. ISBN 0-281-02449-9 Davies, W.D. "The Apostolic Age
Apostolic Age
and the Life of Paul" in Matthew Black, ed. Peake's Commentary on the Bible. London: T. Nelson, 1962. ISBN 0-8407-5019-6 Dunn, James D.G., Jesus, Paul, and the Gospels (Grand Rapids (MI), Wm. B. Eerdmans, 2011) Dunn, James D.G., Jesus, Paul and the Law Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox
John Knox
Press, 1990. ISBN 0-664-25095-5 Hanson, Anthony T. Studies in Paul's Technique and Theology. Eerdmans, 1974. ISBN 0-8028-3452-3 Holzbach, Mathis Christian, Die textpragmat. Bedeutung d. Kündereinsetzungen d. Simon Petrus u.d. Saulus Paulus im lukan. Doppelwerk, in: Jesus
Jesus
als Bote d. Heils. Stuttgart 2008, 166–72. Horrell, David
David
G. "An Introduction to the Study of Paul". T&T Clark Approaches to Biblical Studies. 2nd edition. London: T&T Clark, 2006 Irenaeus, Against Heresies Kim, Yung Suk. A Theological Introduction to Paul's Letters. Eugene, Oregon: Cascade Books, 2011. ISBN 978-1-60899-793-0 Langton, Daniel R. (2010). The Apostle Paul in the Jewish Imagination. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-51740-9.  Maccoby, Hyam. The Mythmaker: Paul and the Invention of Christianity. New York: Harper & Row, 1986. ISBN 0-06-015582-5 MacDonald, Dennis Ronald, 1983. The Legend and the Apostle: The Battle for Paul in Story and Canon Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1983. ISBN 978-0664244644 McRay, John (2007). Paul: His Life and Teaching. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic. ISBN 978-1441205742.  Murphy-O'Connor, Jerome, Jesus
Jesus
and Paul: Parallel lives (Collegeville, Minn.: Liturgical Press, 2007) ISBN 0-8146-5173-9 Murphy-O'Connor, Jerome, Paul the Letter-Writer: His World, His Options, His Skills (Collegeville, Minn.: Liturgical Press, 1995) ISBN 0-8146-5845-8 Murphy-O'Connor, Jerome, Paul: A Critical Life (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996) ISBN 0-19-826749-5 Ogg, George. "Chronology of the New Testament". Matthew Black, ed. Peake's Commentary on the Bible. Nelson, 1962. ISBN 0-8407-5019-6 Rashdall, Hastings, The Idea of Atonement in Christian Theology (1919) Ruef, John, Paul's First letter to Corinth
Corinth
(Penguin 1971) Sanders, E. P., Paul and Palestinian Judaism (1977) Segal, Alan F. Paul, the Convert, (New Haven/London, Yale University Press, 1990) ISBN 0-300-04527-1 Segal, Alan F., "Paul, the Convert and Apostle" in Rebecca's Children: Judaism and Christianity
Christianity
in the Roman World (Harvard University Press 1986) ISBN 978-0674750760 Spong, John Shelby, "The Man From Tarsus", in Rescuing the Bible
Bible
From Fundamentalism, reprint ed. (New York: HarperCollins, 1992). Waardenburg, Jacques, ed. (1999). Muslim Perceptions of Other Religions: A Historical Survey. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-535576-5.  White, L. Michael (2007). From Jesus
Jesus
to Christianity. San Francisco, CA: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-081610-4. 

External links

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Paul of Tarsus

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Paul of Tarsus.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original works written by or about: Paul

Look up Pauline conversion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

St Paul on In Our Time at the BBC. Lecture on Paul of Tarsus s by Dr. Henry Abramson Jewish Encyclopedia: Saul of Tarsus (known as Paul, the Apostle of the Heathen) Catholic Encyclopedia: Paul of Tarsus Documentary film on Apostle Paul  Bartlet, James Vernon (1911). "Paul, the Apostle". Encyclopædia Britannica. 20 (11th ed.).  Novena to Saint
Saint
Paul Apostle Paul's mission and letters From PBS Frontline series on the earliest Christians. Representations of Saint
Saint
Paul " Saint
Saint
Paul, the Apostle". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 2009. The Apostle and the Poet: Paul and Aratus Dr. Riemer Faber The Apostle Paul's Shipwreck: An Historical Examination of Acts 27
Acts 27
and 28 Works by or about Paul the Apostle
Paul the Apostle
in libraries ( WorldCat
WorldCat
catalog) Why Paul Went West: The Differences Between the Jewish Diaspora Biblical Archaeology Review Santiebeati: Saint
Saint
Paul Catholic Online: Saint
Saint
Paul

v t e

Acts of the Apostles

Bible

Acts 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28

Places

Achaea Alexandria Amphipolis Antioch
Antioch
of Pisidia Antioch
Antioch
of Syria Asia Assos Atalia Athens Berea Bithynia Caesarea Cenchrea Chios Cilicia Corinth Cos Creta Cyprus Derbe Ephesus Forum Appii Galatia Iconium Italy Jerusalem Lycaonia Lystra Macedonia Malta Mytilene Miletus Mysia Neapolis Paphos Pamphilia Patara Perga Philippi Phrygia Pisidia Pontus Ptolemais Puteoli Regium Rodos Rome Salamis Samos Samothrace Seleucia Syracuse Syria Thessalonica Thyatira Tyre Three Taverns Troas

People

Aeneas Agabus Agrippa Agrippa II Ananias (Judaea) Ananias (Damascus) Ananias ben Nebedeus Apollos Aquila Aristarchus Bar-jesus Barnabas Berenice Blastus Cornelius Demetrius Dionysius Dorcas Drusilla Ethiopian eunuch Eutychus Felix Festus Gallio Gamaliel James the Just Jason Joseph Barsabbas Judas Barsabbas Judas of Galilee Lucius Luke Lydia Lysias Manaen (John) Mark Mary mother of John Mark Matthias Nicanor Nicholas Parmenas Paul Paullus Peter Philip Priscilla Prochorus Publius Rhoda Sapphira Sceva Seven Deacons Silas/Silvanus Simeon Niger Simon the Sorcerer Sopater Stephen Theudas Timothy Titus Trophimus Tychicus

Other Events

Ascension Pentecost Conversion of Paul Peter's vision Peter's liberation Council of Jerusalem Areopagus
Areopagus
sermon Book
Book
burning at Ephesus

Sources

Greek Text Latin Vulgate Wycliffe Version King James Version American Standard Version World English Version

←  Gospel
Gospel
of John (chapter 21) Epistle to the Romans
Epistle to the Romans
(chapter 1) →

v t e

First Journey of Paul the Apostle

1. Antioch 2. Seleucia 3. Cyprus 3a. Salamis 3b. Paphos 4. Perga 5. Antioch
Antioch
of Pisidia

6. Konya
Konya
(Iconium) 7. Derbe 8. Lystra 9. Antalya 10. Antioch
Antioch
(returns to beginning of journey)

v t e

Second Journey of Paul the Apostle

1. Cilicia 2. Derbe 3. Lystra 4. Phrygia 5. Galatia 6. Mysia
Mysia
( Alexandria
Alexandria
Troas) 7. Samothrace 8. Neapolis 9. Philippi 9. Amphipolis 10. Apollonia 11. Thessalonica 12. Beroea 13. Athens 14. Corinth 15. Cenchreae 16. Ephesus 17. Syria 18. Caesarea 19. Jerusalem 20. Antioch

v t e

Third Journey of Paul the Apostle

1. Galatia 2. Phrygia 3. Ephesus 4. Macedonia 5. Corinth 6. Cenchreae 7. Macedonia (again) 8. Troas 9. Assos 10. Mytilene 11. Chios 12. Samos 13. Miletus 14. Cos 15. Rhodes 16. Patara 17. Tyre 18. Ptolemais 19. Caesarea 20. Jerusalem

v t e

New Testament
New Testament
people

Jesus
Jesus
Christ

In Christianity Historical Life in the New Testament

Gospels

Individuals

Alphaeus Anna the Prophetess Annas Barabbas Bartimaeus Blind man (Bethsaida) Caiaphas Man born blind ("Celidonius") Cleopas Clopas Devil Penitent thief
Penitent thief
("Dismas") Elizabeth Gabriel Impenitent thief
Impenitent thief
("Gestas") Jairus' daughter Joanna John the Baptist Joseph Joseph of Arimathea Joses Jude Lazarus Legion Luke Lysanias Malchus Martha Mary, mother of Jesus Mary Magdalene Mary, mother of James Mary of Bethany Mary of Clopas Naked fugitive Son of Nain's widow Nathanael Nicodemus ( Nicodemus
Nicodemus
ben Gurion) Salome Samaritan woman Satan Simeon Simon, brother of Jesus Simon of Cyrene Simon the Leper Simon the Pharisee Susanna Syrophoenician woman Theophilus Zacchaeus Zebedee Zechariah

Groups

Angels Jesus's brothers Demons Disciples Evangelists Female disciples of Jesus God-fearers Herodians Magi Myrrhbearers Nameless Pharisees Proselytes Sadducees Samaritans Sanhedrin Scribes Seventy disciples Shepherds Zealots

Apostles

Andrew Bartholomew James of Alphaeus (James the Less) James of Zebedee John

Evangelist Patmos "Disciple whom Jesus
Jesus
loved"

Judas Iscariot Jude Thaddeus Matthew Philip Simon Peter Simon the Zealot Thomas

Acts

Aeneas Agabus Ananias (Damascus) Ananias (Judaea) Ananias son of Nedebeus Apollos Aquila Aristarchus Barnabas Blastus Cornelius Demetrius Dionysius Dorcas Elymas Egyptian Ethiopian eunuch Eutychus Gamaliel James, brother of Jesus Jason Joseph Barsabbas Judas Barsabbas Judas of Galilee Lucius Luke Lydia Manaen (John) Mark

Evangelist cousin of Barnabas

Mary, mother of (John) Mark Matthias Mnason Nicanor Nicholas Parmenas Paul Philip Priscilla Prochorus Publius Rhoda Sapphira Sceva Seven Deacons Silas / Silvanus Simeon Niger Simon Magus Sopater Sosthenes Stephen Theudas Timothy Titus Trophimus Tychicus Zenas

Romans Herod's family

Gospels

Antipas Archelaus Herod the Great Herodias Longinus Philip Pilate Pilate's wife Quirinius Salome Tiberius

Acts

Agrippa Agrippa II Berenice Cornelius Drusilla Felix Festus Gallio Lysias Paullus

Epistles

Achaicus Alexander Andronicus Archippus Aretas IV Carpus Claudia Crescens Demas Diotrephes Epaphras Epaphroditus Erastus Eunice Euodia and Syntyche Herodion Hymenaeus Jesus
Jesus
Justus John the Presbyter Junia Lois Mary Michael Nymphas Olympas Onesimus Onesiphorus Pudens Philemon Philetus Phoebe Quartus Sosipater Tertius

Revelation

Antipas Four Horsemen Apollyon Two witnesses Woman Beast Three Angels Whore of Babylon

v t e

Christianity

Jesus

Christ Jesus
Jesus
in Christianity Virgin birth Crucifixion Resurrection Son of God

Foundations

Church Creed Gospel New Covenant

Bible

Books Canon Old Testament New Testament

Theology

God Trinity

Father Son Holy Spirit

Apologetics Baptism Christology Ecclesiology History of theology Mission Salvation

History and tradition

Mary Apostles Peter Paul Fathers Early Constantine Ecumenical councils Augustine East–West Schism Crusades Aquinas Reformation Luther

Denomi- nations and traditions (list)

Western

Adventist Anabaptist Anglican Baptist Calvinist Catholic Charismatic Evangelical Holiness Lutheran Methodist Pentecostal Protestant

Eastern

Eastern Orthodox Oriental Orthodox (Miaphysite) Assyrian Church of the East
Assyrian Church of the East
("Nestorian") Eastern Catholic Churches

Nontrinitarian

Jehovah's Witnesses Latter Day Saint
Saint
movement Oneness Pentecostalism

Related topics

Art Criticism Culture Ecumenism Liturgy Music Other religions Prayer Sermon Symbolism

Category Christianity
Christianity
portal

v t e

History of Christianity

Centuries:1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th 13th 14th 15th 16th 17th 18th 19th 20th 21st

Ministry of Jesus and Apostolic Age

Jesus

Ministry Crucifixion Resurrection

Holy Spirit Leadership

Apostles Seventy disciples Paul the Apostle Council of Jerusalem

Great Commission New Testament

Background Gospels Acts Pauline epistles General epistles Revelation

Ante-Nicene Period

Judaism split Justin Martyr Ignatius Persecution Fathers Irenaeus Marcionism Canon Tertullian Montanism Origen

Late ancient

Constantine Monasticism Councils: Nicaea I Creed Athanasius Arianism Jerome Augustine Constantinople I Ephesus
Ephesus
I Chalcedon

Eastern Christianity

Eastern Orthodoxy Church of the East Oriental Orthodoxy Chrysostom Nestorianism Iconoclasm Great Schism Fall of Constantinople Armenia Georgia Greece Egypt Syria Ethiopia Bulgaria Ottoman Empire Russia America

Middle Ages

Pelagianism Gregory I Celtic Germanic Scandinavian Kievan Rus' Investiture Anselm Abelard Bernard of Clairvaux Bogomils Cathars Crusades Waldensians Inquisition Scholasticism Dominic Francis Bonaventure Aquinas Wycliffe Avignon Papal Schism Bohemian Reformation Hus Conciliarism

Catholicism

Primacy development Papacy Timeline Lateran IV Trent Counter-Reformation Thomas More Leo X Guadalupe Jesuits Jansenists Xavier Monastery dissolution Wars Teresa Vatican I and II Modernism

Reformation

Protestantism

Erasmus Five solae Eucharist Calvinist–Arminian debate Arminianism Dort Wars

Lutheranism

Martin Luther 95 Theses Diet of Worms Melanchthon Orthodoxy Eucharist Book
Book
of Concord

Calvinism

Zwingli Calvin Presbyterianism Scotland Knox TULIP Dort Three Forms of Unity Westminster

Anglicanism

Timeline Henry VIII Cranmer Settlement 39 Articles Common Prayer Puritans Civil War

Anabaptism

Radical Reformation Grebel Swiss Brethren Müntzer Martyrs' Synod Menno Simons Smyth

1640–1789

Revivalism English denominations Baptists Congregationalism First Great Awakening Methodism Millerism Pietism Neo- and Old Lutherans

1789–present

Camp meeting Holiness movement Independent Catholic denominations Second Great Awakening Restoration Movement Jehovah's Witnesses Mormonism Seventh-day Adventist Adventism Third Great Awakening Azusa Revival Fundamentalism Ecumenism Evangelicalism Jesus
Jesus
movement Mainline Protestant Pentecostalism Charismatics Liberation theology Christian right Christian left Genocide by ISIL

Timeline Missions Timeline Martyrs Theology Eastern Orthodoxy Oriental Orthodoxy Protestantism Catholicism

v t e

The Seven Virtues in Christian ethics

Great Commandment; "All the Law and the Prophets hang on these two commandments." – Matthew 22:35-40

Four Cardinal virtues

Prudence
Prudence
(Prudentia) Justice (Iustitia) Fortitude (Fortitudo) Temperance (Temperantia)

Sources: Plato

Republic, Book
Book
IV

Cicero Ambrose Augustine of Hippo Thomas Aquinas

Three Theological virtues

Faith (Fides) Hope (Spes) Love (Caritas)

Sources: Paul the Apostle

1 Corinthians
1 Corinthians
13

Seven deadly sins

Lust
Lust
(Luxuria) Gluttony
Gluttony
(Gula) Greed
Greed
(Avaritia) Sloth (Acedia) Wrath (Ira) Envy
Envy
(Invidia) Pride
Pride
(Superbia)

Source: Prudentius, Psychomachia

People: Evagrius Ponticus John Cassian Pope
Pope
Gregory I Dante Alighieri Peter Binsfeld

Related concepts

Ten Commandments Eschatology Sin

Original sin

Old Covenant Hamartiology

Christian ethics Christian philosophy Christianity
Christianity
portal Philosophy portal

v t e

Saints of the Catholic Church

Virgin Mary

Mother of God (Theotokos) Immaculate Conception Perpetual virginity Assumption Marian apparition

Guadalupe Laus Miraculous Medal Lourdes Fatima

Titles of Mary

Apostles

Andrew Barnabas Bartholomew James of Alphaeus James the Greater John Jude Matthew Matthias Paul Peter Philip Simon Thomas

Archangels

Gabriel Michael Raphael

Confessors

Anatolius Chariton the Confessor Edward the Confessor Maximus the Confessor Michael of Synnada Paphnutius the Confessor Paul I of Constantinople Salonius Theophanes the Confessor

Disciples

Apollos Mary Magdalene Priscilla and Aquila Silvanus Stephen Timothy Titus Seventy disciples

Doctors

Gregory the Great Ambrose Augustine of Hippo Jerome John Chrysostom Basil of Caesarea Gregory of Nazianzus Athanasius of Alexandria Cyril of Alexandria Cyril of Jerusalem John of Damascus Bede
Bede
the Venerable Ephrem the Syrian Thomas Aquinas Bonaventure Anselm of Canterbury Isidore of Seville Peter Chrysologus Leo the Great Peter Damian Bernard of Clairvaux Hilary of Poitiers Alphonsus Liguori Francis de Sales Peter Canisius John of the Cross Robert Bellarmine Albertus Magnus Anthony of Padua Lawrence of Brindisi Teresa of Ávila Catherine of Siena Thérèse of Lisieux John of Ávila Hildegard of Bingen Gregory of Narek

Evangelists

Matthew Mark Luke John

Church Fathers

Alexander of Alexandria Alexander of Jerusalem Ambrose
Ambrose
of Milan Anatolius Athanasius of Alexandria Augustine of Hippo Caesarius of Arles Caius Cappadocian Fathers Clement of Alexandria Clement of Rome Cyprian
Cyprian
of Carthage Cyril of Alexandria Cyril of Jerusalem Damasus I Desert Fathers Desert Mothers Dionysius of Alexandria Dionysius of Corinth Dionysius Ephrem the Syrian Epiphanius of Salamis Fulgentius of Ruspe Gregory the Great Gregory of Nazianzus Gregory of Nyssa Hilary of Poitiers Hippolytus of Rome Ignatius of Antioch Irenaeus
Irenaeus
of Lyons Isidore of Seville Jerome
Jerome
of Stridonium John Chrysostom John of Damascus Maximus the Confessor Melito of Sardis Quadratus of Athens Papias of Hierapolis Peter Chrysologus Polycarp
Polycarp
of Smyrna Theophilus of Antioch Victorinus of Pettau Vincent of Lérins Zephyrinus

Martyrs

Canadian Martyrs Carthusian Martyrs Forty Martyrs of England and Wales Four Crowned Martyrs Great Martyr The Holy Innocents Irish Martyrs Joan of Arc Lübeck martyrs Korean Martyrs Martyrology Martyrs of Albania Martyrs of China Martyrs of Japan Martyrs of Laos Martyrs of Natal Martyrs of Otranto Martyrs of the Spanish Civil War Maximilian Kolbe Perpetua and Felicity Saints of the Cristero War Stephen Three Martyrs of Chimbote Uganda Martyrs Vietnamese Martyrs

Patriarchs

Adam Abel Abraham Isaac Jacob Joseph Joseph (father of Jesus) David Noah Solomon Matriarchs

Popes

Adeodatus I Adeodatus II Adrian III Agapetus I Agatho Alexander I Anacletus Anastasius I Anicetus Anterus Benedict II Boniface I Boniface IV Caius Callixtus I Celestine I Celestine V Clement I Cornelius Damasus I Dionysius Eleuterus Eugene I Eusebius Eutychian Evaristus Fabian Felix I Felix III Felix IV Gelasius I Gregory I Gregory II Gregory III Gregory VII Hilarius Hormisdas Hyginus Innocent I John I John XXIII John Paul II Julius I Leo I Leo II Leo III Leo IV Leo IX Linus Lucius I Marcellinus Marcellus I Mark Martin I Miltiades Nicholas I Paschal I Paul I Peter Pius I Pius V Pius X Pontian Sergius I Silverius Simplicius Siricius Sixtus I Sixtus II Sixtus III Soter Stephen I Stephen IV Sylvester I Symmachus Telesphorus Urban I Victor I Vitalian Zachary Zephyrinus Zosimus

Prophets

Agabus Amos Anna Baruch ben Neriah David Dalua Elijah Ezekiel Habakkuk Haggai Hosea Isaiah Jeremiah Job Joel John the Baptist Jonah Judas Barsabbas Malachi Melchizedek Micah Moses Nahum Obadiah Samuel Seven Maccabees and their mother Simeon Zechariah (prophet) Zechariah (NT) Zephaniah

Virgins

Agatha of Sicily Agnes of Rome Bernadette Soubirous Brigid of Kildare Cecilia Clare of Assisi Eulalia of Mérida Euphemia Genevieve Kateri Tekakwitha Lucy of Syracuse Maria Goretti Mother Teresa Narcisa de Jesús Rose of Lima

See also

Military saints Virtuous pagan

Catholicism portal Saints portal

v t e

Coptic Orthodox Saints

Theotokos

Our Lady of Assiut Our Lady of Warraq Our Lady of Zeitoun

,

,

,

Seven Archangels

Michael Gabriel Raphael Suriel Zedekiel Sarathiel Aniel

Patriarchs

Abraham Isaac Jacob Joseph

Prophets

Moses Job Samuel David Hosea Amos Micah Joel Obadiah Jonah Nahum Habakkuk Zephaniah Haggai Zechariah Malachi Isaiah Jeremiah Baruch Ezekiel Daniel John the Baptist

Apostles

Andrew Bartholomew James, son of Alphaeus James, son of Zebedee John Jude Matthew Matthias Peter Philip Simon Thomas

Evangelists

Matthew Mark Luke John

Disciples

Apollos Barnabas Mary Magdalene Philemon Priscilla and Aquila Silvanus Stephen Timothy Titus Seventy disciples

Martyrs

21 martyrs in Libya Abāmūn Abāmūn Abanoub Abaskhiron Alexandrian Martyrs Apollonia Barbara Bashnouna Basilides Catherine Chiaffredo Theodore Stratelates Chrysanthus Colluthus Cyprian Cyrus Sarah Damian Daria Dasya George Demiana Dorothea Epimachus Faustus, Abibus and Dionysius Felix Gallicanus George el-Mozahem Gereon Theban Legion Varus Theodora and Didymus Hor, Besoy, and Daydara Otimus Memnon Rais Imbaba Martyrs John Moura John of Senhout Elias and four companions Justina Kosheh Martyrs Saint
Saint
Marina the Martyr Malati Maspero Martyrs Maurice Menas Mohrael Nah Hammadi Philotheos Potamiana Regula Sidhom Bishay Thecla Theoclia Veronica Wanas Wadamoun

Popes

Mark I Anianus Avilius Kedron Primus Justus Eumenes Markianos Celadion Agrippinus Julian Demetrius I Heraclas Dionysius Maximus Theonas Peter I Achillas Alexander I Athanasius I Peter II Timothy I Theophilus I Cyril I Dioscorus I Timothy II Peter III Athanasius II John I John II Dioscorus II Timothy III Theodosius I Peter IV Damian Anastasius Andronicus Benjamin I Agathon John III Isaac Simeon I Alexander II Cosmas I Theodore I Michael I Mina I John IV Mark II James Simeon II Joseph I Michael II Cosmas II Shenouda I Michael III Gabriel
Gabriel
I Cosmas III Macarius I Theophanes Mina II Abraham Philotheos Zacharias Shenouda II Christodolos Cyril II Michael IV Macarius II Gabriel
Gabriel
II Michael V John V Mark III John VI Cyril III Athanasius III John VII Gabriel
Gabriel
III John VII Theodosius III John VIII John IX Benjamin II Peter V Mark IV John X Gabriel
Gabriel
IV Matthew I Cyril VI Shenouda III Tawadros II (current)

Bishops

Abadiu of Antinoe Abraam of Faiyum Alexander of Jerusalem Amun of Scetes Athanasius of Beni Suef Basil of Caesarea Cyril of Jerusalem Epiphanius of Cyprus Eusebius
Eusebius
of Caesarea Gregory of Nyssa Gregory of Neocaesarea Hadra of Aswan Ignatius of Antioch Isidorus of Hermonpolis Jacob
Jacob
of Nisibis James of Cairo James of Jerusalem John of Nikiu John of Jerusalem Karas of California Macarius of Edkow Mikhaeil of Asyut Narcissus of Jerusalem Nicholas of Myra Paphnutius of Scetes Paphnutius of Thebes Peter Elrahawy of Gaza Pisentius of Qift Pisentius of Hermonthis Pisora of Masil Polycarp
Polycarp
of Smyrna Porphyry of Gaza Ptolemy of Minuf Psote
Psote
of Ebsay Sarapamon of Monufia Sarapamon of Niku Serapion of Thmuis Severian of Gabala Yousab el-Abah of Girga Timothy of Ansena Zacharias of Sakha

Anchorites

Annasimon Babnuda Balamon Elisa Ezekiel Ghalion Hedra Hermina Karas Keriakos Latsoun Mary Misael Olaghi Onuphrius Paphnutius Paul Pijimi Shenouda Silas Stephanos Stratios Timothy Thomas Yousab Zosimas

Monks

Ababius Abdel Messih El-Makari Abib and Apollo Abraham
Abraham
of Farshut Abraham
Abraham
of Scetes Amun Anthony the Great Awgin Bashnouna Hilarion Isaac
Isaac
of Nineveh Isidore of Pelusium John Climacus John the Dwarf Macarius of Alexandria Macarius of Egypt Moses
Moses
the Black Mother Irini Hospitius Nilus of Sinai Pachomius the Great Pambo Parsoma Paul of Thebes Paul of Tammah Paul the Simple Patapios of Thebes Pishoy Poemen Samuel
Samuel
the Confessor Saint Patapios
Saint Patapios
of Thebes Tekle Haymanot Clement of Alexandria Sisoes the Great Theodorus of Tabennese Theodora of Alexandria

Other Saints

Ambrose Didymus the Blind Euphrosyne Freig Candidus Simon the Tanner Verena

Oriental Orthodoxy
Oriental Orthodoxy
portal

Authority control

WorldCat
WorldCat
Identities VIAF: 100178828 LCCN: n79064565 ISNI: 0000 0001 2283 424X GND: 118641549 SELIBR: 207226 SUDOC: 052468844 BNF: cb119448523 (data) BIBSYS: 90052029 MusicBrainz: 587cd652-6b65-4305-ac2b-1d6b0dc9ad70 NLA: 35412391 NDL: 00621703 NKC: jn99240000845 RLS: 000008

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