Paul Dundes Wolfowitz (born December 22, 1943) is an American
political scientist and diplomat who served as the 10th President of
the World Bank,
United States Ambassador to Indonesia, U.S. Deputy
Secretary of Defense, and former dean of the Paul H. Nitze School of
Advanced International Studies at Johns Hopkins University. He is
currently a visiting scholar at the American Enterprise Institute,
working on issues of international economic development,
public-private partnerships, and chairman of the U.S.-Taiwan
He is considered to be a leading neoconservative. However,
Wolfowitz rejects the term and prefers to call himself a "Scoop
Jackson Republican", after Democratic U.S. Senator Henry M. Jackson
who was known for his hawkish views on foreign policy.
After serving two years, he resigned as president of the World Bank
Group due to scandals described by a
Reuters report as "a protracted
battle over his stewardship, prompted by his involvement in a
high-paying promotion for his companion".
1 Early life
1.1 University education
1.1.1 Cornell University
1.1.2 University of Chicago
2.1 Arms Control and Disarmament Agency
2.2 Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Regional Programs
2.3 State Department Director of Policy Planning
2.4 State Department Assistant Secretary for East Asian and Pacific
2.5 Ambassador to the Republic of Indonesia
2.6 Undersecretary of Defense for Policy
2.7 Johns Hopkins University
2.8 Deputy Secretary of Defense
2.9 President of the World Bank
3.1 Wolfowitz's relationship with Shaha Riza
3.2 Wolfowitz's leadership of the
World Bank Group
4 Recent activities
5 See also
7 Further reading
8 External links
The second child of
Jacob Wolfowitz (1910–1981) and Lillian Dundes,
Paul Wolfowitz was born in Brooklyn, New York, into a Polish Jewish
immigrant family, and grew up mainly in Ithaca, New York, where his
father was a professor of statistical theory at Cornell
University. Strongly influenced by his father, Paul Wolfowitz
became "a soft-spoken former aspiring-mathematician-turned-policymaker
... [whose] world views ... were forged by family history and in the
halls of academia rather than in the jungles of Vietnam or the
corridors of Congress ... [His father] ... left new country Poland
World War I
World War I and after 123 years of partitions. The rest of his
father's family perished in the Holocaust."
In the mid-1960s, while they were both undergraduate students at
Cornell residing at the Cornell Branch of the Telluride Association,
he met Clare Selgin, who later became an anthropologist. They married
in 1968, had three children and lived in Chevy Chase, Maryland. They
separated in 1999, and, according to some sources, became legally
separated in 2001 and divorced in 2002.
In late 1999, Wolfowitz began dating Shaha Riza. Their relationship
led to controversy later, during his presidency of the World Bank
Wolfowitz speaks five languages in addition to English: Arabic,
French, German, Hebrew, and Indonesian. He was reportedly the
model for a minor character named Philip Gorman in Saul Bellow's 2001
Cornell University in 1961. He lived in the
Telluride House in 1962 and 1963, while philosophy professor Allan
Bloom served as a faculty mentor living in the house. In August
1963, he and his mother participated in the civil-rights march on
Washington organized by Martin Luther King, Jr. Wolfowitz was a
member of the
Quill and Dagger
Quill and Dagger society. Wolfowitz graduated in 1965
with a B.A. in mathematics. Against his father's wishes, Wolfowitz
decided to go to graduate school to study political science.
Wolfowitz would later say that "one of the things that ultimately led
me to leave mathematics and go into political science was thinking I
could prevent nuclear war."
University of Chicago
In 1972, Wolfowitz received a Ph.D. in political science from the
University of Chicago, writing his doctoral dissertation on Nuclear
Proliferation in the Middle East: The Politics and Economics of
Proposals for Nuclear Desalting. At the University of Chicago,
Wolfowitz took two courses with Leo Strauss, who James Mann argues
influenced Wolfowitz's thinking and his belief in democratic ideals.
He completed his dissertation under Albert Wohlstetter.
Wohlstetter became Wolfowitz's "mentor". In the words of
Wolfowitz's future colleague Richard Perle: "Paul thinks the way
Albert thinks." In the summer of 1969, Wohlstetter arranged for
Wolfowitz, Perle and Peter Wilson to join the Committee to Maintain a
Prudent Defense Policy which was set up by
Cold War architects Paul
Nitze and Dean Acheson.
While finishing his dissertation, Wolfowitz taught in the department
of political science at
Yale University from 1970 to 1972; one of his
students was future colleague Scooter Libby.
Arms Control and Disarmament Agency
Main article: Team B
In the 1970s, Wolfowitz and Perle served as aides to
proto-neoconservative Democratic Senator Henry M. Jackson. A Cold War
liberal, Jackson supported higher military spending and a hard line
Soviet Union alongside more traditional Democratic causes,
such as social welfare programs, civil rights, and labor unions.
In 1972, US President Richard Nixon, under pressure from Senator
Jackson, dismissed the head of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency
(ACDA) and replaced him with Fred Ikle. Ikle brought in a new team
that included Wolfowitz. While at ACDA, Wolfowitz wrote research
papers and drafted testimony, as he had previously done at the
Committee to Maintain a Prudent Defense Policy. He traveled with Ikle
to strategic arms limitations talks in
Paris and other European
cities. He also helped dissuade
South Korea from reprocessing
plutonium that could be diverted into a clandestine weapons program.
Under President Gerald Ford, the American intelligence agencies came
under attack over their annually published National Intelligence
Estimate. According to Mann, "The underlying issue was whether the
C.I.A. and other agencies were underestimating the threat from the
Soviet Union, either by intentionally tailoring intelligence to
support Kissinger's policy of détente or by simply failing to give
enough weight to darker interpretations of Soviet intentions."
Attempting to counter these claims, Director of Central Intelligence
George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush formed a committee of anti-
Communist experts, headed
by Richard Pipes, to reassess the raw data. Based on the
recommendation of Perle, Pipes picked Wolfowitz for this committee,
which was later called Team B.
The team's 1976 report, which was leaked to the press, stated that
"all the evidence points to an undeviating Soviet commitment to what
is euphemistically called the 'worldwide triumph of socialism,' but in
fact connotes global Soviet hegemony", highlighting a number of key
areas where they believed the government's intelligence analysts had
failed. According to Jack Davis, Wolfowitz observed later:
The B-Team demonstrated that it was possible to construct a sharply
different view of Soviet motivation from the consensus view of the
[intelligence] analysts and one that provided a much closer fit to the
Soviets' observed behavior (and also provided a much better forecast
of subsequent behavior up to and through the invasion of Afghanistan).
The formal presentation of the competing views in a session out at
[CIA headquarters in] Langley also made clear that the enormous
experience and expertise of the B-Team as a group were formidable.
Team B's conclusions have faced criticism. They have been called
"worst-case analysis", ignoring the "political, demographic, and
economic rot" already eating away at the Soviet system. Wolfowitz
reportedly did not have a central role in Team B, mostly focused on
analyzing the role that medium-range missiles played in Soviet
Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Regional Programs
In 1977, during the Carter administration, Wolfowitz moved to the
Pentagon. He was US Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Regional
Programs for the US Defense Department, under US Secretary of Defense
In 1980, Wolfowitz resigned from the Pentagon and became a visiting
professor at the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International
Studies (SAIS) at Johns Hopkins University. Shortly thereafter, he
joined the Republican Party. According to The Washington Post: "He
said it was not he who changed his political philosophy so much as the
Democratic Party, which abandoned the hard-headed internationalism of
Harry Truman, Kennedy and Jackson."
State Department Director of Policy Planning
Following the 1980 election of President Ronald Reagan, the new
National Security Advisor
Richard V. Allen
Richard V. Allen formed the administration's
foreign policy advisory team. Allen initially rejected Wolfowitz's
appointment but following discussions, instigated by former colleague
John Lehman, Allen offered Wolfowitz the position of Director of
Policy Planning at the Department of State.
President Reagan's foreign policy was heavily influenced by the
Kirkpatrick Doctrine, as outlined in a 1979 article in Commentary by
Jeane Kirkpatrick entitled "Dictatorships and Double Standards".
Although most governments in the world are, as they always have been,
autocracies of one kind or another, no idea hold greater sway in the
mind of educated Americans than the belief that it is possible to
democratize governments, anytime, anywhere, under any circumstances...
(But) decades, if not centuries, are normally required for people to
acquire the necessary disciplines and habits.
Wolfowitz broke from this official line by denouncing Saddam Hussein
Iraq at a time when
Donald Rumsfeld was offering the dictator
support in his conflict with Iran. James Mann points out: "quite a few
neo-conservatives, like Wolfowitz, believed strongly in democratic
ideals; they had taken from the philosopher
Leo Strauss the notion
that there is a moral duty to oppose a leader who is a 'tyrant.'"
Other areas where Wolfowitz disagreed with the administration was in
his opposition to attempts to open up dialogue with the Palestine
Liberation Organization (PLO) and to the sale of Airborne Warning and
Control System (AWACS) aircraft to Saudi Arabia. "In both instances,"
according to Mann, "Wolfowitz demonstrated himself to be one of the
strongest supporters of
Israel in the Reagan administration."
Mann stresses: "It was on
China that Wolfowitz launched his boldest
challenge to the established order." After Nixon and Kissinger had
China in the early 1970s, US policy was to make concessions to
China as an essential
Cold War ally. The Chinese were now pushing for
the US to end arms sales to Taiwan, and Wolfowitz used the Chinese
incentive as an opportunity to undermine Kissinger's foreign policy
toward China. Instead, Wolfowitz advocated a unilateralist policy,
claiming that the US did not need China’s assistance but that the
Chinese needed the US to protect them against the far-more-likely
prospect of a Soviet invasion of the Chinese mainland. Wolfowitz soon
came into conflict with Secretary of State Alexander Haig, who had
been Kissinger’s assistant at the time of the visits to China. On
March 30, 1982, The
New York Times
New York Times predicted that "Paul D. Wolfowitz,
the director of policy planning ... will be replaced", because "Mr.
Haig found Mr. Wolfowitz too theoretical." Instead, on June 25, 1982,
George P. Shultz
George P. Shultz replaced Haig as US Secretary of State, and Wolfowitz
State Department Assistant Secretary for East Asian and Pacific
In 1982, Secretary of State Shultz appointed Wolfowitz as Assistant
Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs.
Jeane Kirkpatrick, on a visit to the Philippines, was welcomed by the
Ferdinand Marcos who quoted heavily from her 1979 Commentary
article Dictatorships and Double Standards and although Kirkpatrick
had been forced to speak-out in favor of democracy the article
continued to influence Reagan’s policy toward Marcos. Following the
assassination of Philippine opposition leader
Benigno Aquino, Jr.
Benigno Aquino, Jr. in
1983 many within the Reagan administration including the President
himself began to fear that the
Philippines could fall to the
communists and the US military would lose its strongholds at Clark Air
Force Base and Subic Bay Naval Station. Wolfowitz tried to change the
administration’s policy, stating in an April 15, 1985 article in The
Wall Street Journal that "The best antidote to Communism is
democracy." Wolfowitz and his assistant
Lewis Libby made trips to
Manila where they called for democratic reforms and met with
non-communist opposition leaders.
Mann points out that "the Reagan administration’s decision to
support democratic government in the
Philippines had been hesitant,
messy, crisis-driven and skewed by the desire to do what was necessary
to protect the American military installations." Following massive
street protests, Marcos fled the country on a US Air Force plane and
the US recognized the government of Corazón Aquino.
Ambassador to the Republic of Indonesia
From 1986 to 1989, during the military-backed government of President
Suharto, Wolfowitz was the US Ambassador to the Republic of
According to Peter J. Boyer,
Wolfowitz’s appointment to Indonesia was not an immediately obvious
match. He was a Jew representing America in the largest Muslim
republic in the world, an advocate of democracy in Suharto's
dictatorship. But Wolfowitz’s tenure as Ambassador was a notable
success, largely owing to the fact that, in essence, he went native.
With tutoring help from his driver, he learned the language, and
hurled himself into the culture. He attended academic seminars,
climbed volcanoes, and toured the neighborhoods of Jakarta.
Sipress and Nakashima report that "Wolfowitz's colleagues and friends,
both Indonesian and American" pointed to the "U.S. envoy's quiet
pursuit of political and economic reforms in Indonesia." Dewi
Fortuna Anwar, a foreign policy adviser to B. J. Habibie, Suharto's
successor as head of state (1998–99), stated "that Wolfowitz was a
competent and popular envoy." But "he never intervened to push human
rights or stand up to corruption."
Officials involved in the AID program during Wolfowitz's tenure told
The Washington Post
The Washington Post that he "took a keen personal interest in
development, including health care, agriculture and private sector
expansion" and that "Wolfowitz canceled food assistance to the
Indonesian government out of concern that Suharto's family, which had
an ownership interest in the country's only flour mill, was indirectly
In "The Tragedy of Suharto", published in May 1998, in The Wall Street
Journal, Wolfowitz states:
Although it is fashionable to blame all of Asia's present problems on
corruption and the failure of Asian values, it is at bottom a case of
a bubble bursting, of too many imprudent lenders chasing too many
incautious borrowers. But the greed of Mr. Suharto's children ensured
that their father would take the lion's share of the blame for
Indonesia's financial collapse. The
Suharto children's favored
position became a major obstacle to the measures needed to restore
economic confidence. Worst of all, they ensured that the economic
crisis would be a political crisis as well. That he allowed this, and
that he amassed such wealth himself, is all the more mysterious since
he lived a relatively modest life.
After the 2002 Bali bombing, on October 18, 2002, then Deputy
Secretary of Defense Wolfowitz observed that "the reason the
terrorists are successful in Indonesia is because the
fell and the methods that were used to suppress them are gone."
Undersecretary of Defense for Policy
Flag of the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy.
Gen. Colin Powell, Gen. Norman Schwarzkopf, and Under Sec. Wolfowitz
listen as Defense Sec.
Dick Cheney briefs reporters during the Gulf
War in February 1991.
From 1989 to 1993, Wolfowitz served in the administration of George H.
W. Bush as Under Secretary of Defense for Policy, under then US
Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney. During the 1991 Persian Gulf War,
Wolfowitz’s team co-ordinated and reviewed military strategy,
raising $50 billion in allied financial support for the operation.
Wolfowitz was present with Cheney,
Colin Powell and others, on
February 27, 1991, at the meeting with the President where it was
decided that the troops should be demobilised.
On February 25, 1998, Wolfowitz testified before a congressional
committee that he thought that "the best opportunity to overthrow
Saddam was, unfortunately, lost in the month right after the war."
Wolfowitz added that he was horrified in March as "
Saddam Hussein flew
helicopters that slaughtered the people in the south and in the north
who were rising up against him, while American fighter pilots flew
overhead, desperately eager to shoot down those helicopters, and not
allowed to do so." During that hearing, he also stated: "Some people
might say—and I think I would sympathise with this view—that
perhaps if we had delayed the ceasefire by a few more days, we might
have got rid of Saddam Hussein."
After the 1991 Persian Gulf War, Wolfowitz and his then-assistant
Scooter Libby wrote the "Defense Planning Guidance of 1992", which
came to be known as the Wolfowitz Doctrine, to "set the nation’s
direction for the next century." As military strategist Andrew
Bacevich described the doctrine:
Before this classified document was fully vetted by the White House,
it was leaked to The New York Times, which made it front-page news.
The draft DPG announced that it had become the "first objective" of
U.S. policy "to prevent the re-emergence of a new rival." With an eye
toward "deterring potential competitors from even aspiring to a larger
regional or global role," the
United States would maintain
unquestioned military superiority and, if necessary, employ force
unilaterally. As window dressing, allies might be nice, but the United
States no longer considered them necessary.
At that time the official administration line was "containment", and
the contents of Wolfowitz’s plan calling for "preemption" and
"unilateralism" which was opposed by Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of
Colin Powell and President Bush. Defense Secretary Cheney
produced a revised plan released in 1992. Many of the ideas in the
Wolfowitz Doctrine later became part of the Bush Doctrine. He left
the government after the 1992 election.
Johns Hopkins University
Main article: Project for the New American Century
From 1994 to 2001, Wolfowitz served as Professor of International
Relations and Dean of the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced
International Studies (SAIS) at Johns Hopkins University. He was
instrumental in adding more than $75 million to the university's
endowment, developing an international finance concentration as part
of the curriculum, and combining the various Asian studies programs
into one department. He also advised
Bob Dole on foreign policy during
his 1996 US Presidential election campaign, which was managed by
According to Kampfner, "Wolfowitz used his perch at the Johns Hopkins
School of Advanced International Studies as a test-bed for a new
conservative world vision." Wolfowitz was associated with the Project
for the New American Century (PNAC); he signed both the PNAC's June 3,
1997 "Statement of Principles", and its January 26, 1998, open
letter to President Bill Clinton.
In February 1998, Wolfowitz testified before a Congressional hearing,
stating that the current administration lacked the sense of purpose to
"liberate ourselves, our friends and allies in the region, and the
Iraqi people themselves from the menace of Saddam Hussein."
In September 2000, the PNAC produced a 90-page report entitled
Rebuilding America's Defenses: Strategies, Forces and Resources for a
New Century, advocating the redeployment of US troops in permanent
bases in strategic locations throughout the world where they can be
ready to act to protect US interests abroad. During the 2000 US
Presidential election campaign, Wolfowitz served as a foreign policy
George W. Bush
George W. Bush as part of the group led by Condoleezza Rice
calling itself The Vulcans.
Deputy Secretary of Defense
Wolfowitz and Dutch Foreign Minister Jozias van Aartsen, 2001
Wolfowitz meets with Qatari Emir Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani, October
President George W. Bush, Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld, and
Deputy Secretary Wolfowitz in March 2003
Dep. Sec. Wolfowitz is escorted by Army General
David Petraeus he
tours Mosul, Iraq, July 21, 2003
Wolfowitz, Rumsfeld, and General
Richard Myers testifying before the
9/11 Commission in March 2004
Wolfowitz and Rear Admiral
Robert T. Moeller
Robert T. Moeller aboard the USS Ronald
Reagan in July 2004
Deputy Secretary Wolfowitz departs the
USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72)
USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72) in
From 2001 to 2005, during the
George W. Bush
George W. Bush administration, Wolfowitz
served as U.S. Deputy Secretary of Defense reporting to U.S. Secretary
of Defense Donald Rumsfeld.
September 11 attacks
September 11 attacks in 2001 was a turning point in administration
policy, as Wolfowitz later explained: "9/11 really was a wake up call
and that if we take proper advantage of this opportunity to prevent
the future terrorist use of weapons of mass destruction that it will
have been an extremely valuable wake up call," adding: "if we say our
only problem was to respond to 9/11, and we wait until somebody hits
us with nuclear weapons before we take that kind of threat seriously,
we will have made a very big mistake."
In the first emergency meeting of the National Security Council on the
day of the attacks, Rumsfeld asked, "Why shouldn’t we go against
Iraq, not just al-Qaeda?" with Wolfowitz adding that
Iraq was a
"brittle, oppressive regime that might break easily—it was doable,"
and, according to John Kampfner, "from that moment on, he and
Wolfowitz used every available opportunity to press the case." The
idea was initially rejected, at the behest of Secretary of State Colin
Powell, but, according to Kampfner, "Undeterred Rumsfeld and Wolfowitz
held secret meetings about opening up a second front—against Saddam.
Powell was excluded." In such meetings they created a policy that
would later be dubbed the Bush Doctrine, centering on "pre-emption"
and the war on Iraq, which the PNAC had advocated in their earlier
After the September 11 attacks, the US invaded
Afghanistan to fight
Al-Qaeda, which had orchestrated the attack. The invasion of
Afghanistan began on October 7, 2001. On October 10, 2001, George
Robertson, then Secretary-General of the North Atlantic Treaty
Organisation, went to the Pentagon to offer
NATO troops, planes and
ships to assist. Wolfowitz rebuffed the offer, saying: "We can do
everything we need to." Wolfowitz later announced publicly, according
to Kampfner, "that 'allies, coalitions and diplomacy' were of little
Ten months later, on January 15, 2003, with hostilities still
continuing, Wolfowitz made a fifteen-hour visit to the Afghan capital,
Kabul, and met with the new president Hamid Karzai. Wolfowitz stated,
"We’re clearly moving into a different phase, where our priority in
Afghanistan is increasingly going to be stability and reconstruction.
There’s no way to go too fast. Faster is better." Despite the
promises, according to Hersh, "little effort to provide the military
and economic resources" necessary for reconstruction was made.
This criticism would also re-occur after the 2003 invasion of Iraq
later that year.
On April 16, 2002 the National Solidarity Rally for
Israel was called
in Washington to promote US support and collaboration with Israel.
Wolfowitz was the sole representative of the Bush administration to
attend, speaking alongside Former
Israeli Prime Minister
Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin
Netanyahu and former
New York Mayor
New York Mayor Rudolph Giuliani. As reported by
the BBC, Wolfowitz told the crowd that US President George W. Bush
"wants you to know that he stands in solidarity with you". Sharon
Samber and Matthew E. Berger reported for
Jewish Telegraphic Agency
(JTA) that Wolfowitz continued by saying that "Innocent Palestinians
are suffering and dying as well. It is critical that we recognize and
acknowledge that fact," before being booed and drowned out by chants
of "No more Arafat."
Following the invasion of
Afghanistan the Bush administration had
started to plan for the next stage of the War on Terror. According to
John Kampfner, "Emboldened by their experience in Afghanistan, they
saw the opportunity to root out hostile regimes in the Middle East and
to implant very American interpretations of democracy and free
Iraq to Iran and Saudi Arabia. Wolfowitz epitomised this
view." Wolfowitz "saw a liberated
Iraq as both paradigm and linchpin
for future interventions." The 2003 invasion of
Iraq began on March
Prior to the invasion, Wolfowitz actively championed it, as he later
stated: "For reasons that have a lot to do with the U.S. government
bureaucracy we settled on the one issue that everyone could agree on
which was weapons of mass destruction as the core reason"
The job of finding WMD and providing justification for the attack
would fall to the intelligence services, but, according to Kampfner,
"Rumsfeld and Wolfowitz believed that, while the established security
services had a role, they were too bureaucratic and too traditional in
their thinking." As a result, "they set up what came to be known as
the 'cabal', a cell of eight or nine analysts in a new Office of
Special Plans (OSP) based in the U.S. Defense Department." According
to an unnamed Pentagon source quoted by Hersh, the OSP "was created in
order to find evidence of what Wolfowitz and his boss, Defense
Secretary Donald Rumsfeld, believed to be true—that Saddam Hussein
had close ties to Al Qaeda, and that
Iraq had an enormous arsenal of
chemical, biological, and possibly even nuclear weapons that
threatened the region and, potentially, the United States."
Within months of being set up, the OSP "rivaled both the CIA and the
Pentagon’s Defense Intelligence Agency, the DIA, as President
Bush’s main source of intelligence regarding Iraq’s possible
possession of weapons of mass destruction and connection with Al
Qaeda." Hersh explains that the OSP "relied on data gathered by other
intelligence agencies and also on information provided by the Iraqi
National Congress, or I.N.C., the exile group headed by Ahmad
Chalabi." According to Kampfner, the CIA had ended its funding of the
INC "in the mid-1990s when doubts were cast about Chalabi’s
reliability." Nevertheless, "as the administration geared up for
conflict with Saddam, Chalabi was welcomed in the inner sanctum of the
Pentagon" under the auspices of the OSP, and "Wolfowitz did not see
fit to challenge any of Chalabi’s information." The actions of the
OSP have led to accusation of the Bush administration "fixing
intelligence to support policy" with the aim of influencing Congress
in its use of the War Powers Act.
Kampfner outlined Wolfowitz’s strategy for the 2003 invasion of
Iraq, which "envisaged the use of air support and the occupation of
Iraq with ground troops, to install a new government run by
Ahmed Chalabi’s Iraqi National Congress." Wolfowitz believed that
the operation would require minimal troop deployment, Hersh explains,
because "any show of force would immediately trigger a revolt against
Saddam within Iraq, and that it would quickly expand." The
financial expenditure would be kept low, Kampfner observes, if "under
the plan American troops would seize the oil fields around Basra, in
the South, and sell the oil to finance the opposition."
On March 27, 2003, Wolfowitz told the House Appropriations
Committee that oil revenue earned by
Iraq alone would pay for
Iraq's reconstruction after the
Iraq war; he testified his "rough
recollection" was: "The oil revenues of that country could bring
between $50 and $100 billion over the course of the next two or three
years. Now, there are a lot of claims on that money, but ... We are
dealing with a country that can really finance its own reconstruction
and relatively soon." By October of that year, "Lawrence Di Rita,
the Pentagon's chief spokesman, said 'prewar estimates that may be
borne out in fact are likelier to be more lucky than smart.' [He]
added that earlier estimates and statements by Mr. Wolfowitz and
others 'oozed with uncertainty.'" Di Rita's comments came as a much
less optimistic secret Pentagon study—which had been complete at the
time of Wolfowitz's testimony—was coming to public light, and when
actual production results in
Iraq were coinciding with those projected
in the less optimistic Pentagon study.
During Wolfowitz's pre-war testimony before Congress, he dismissed
General Eric K. Shinseki's estimates of the size of the post war
occupation force which would be needed. General Shinseki testified to
the US Senate Armed Services Committee on February 25, 2003 that
"something in the order of several hundred thousand soldiers" would
probably be required for postwar Iraq. By contrast, Wolfowitz
estimated that fewer than 100,000 troops would be necessary in
Iraq. Two days after Shinseki testified, Wolfowitz said to the
House Budget Committee on February 27, 2003:
There has been a good deal of comment—some of it quite
outlandish—about what our postwar requirements might be in Iraq.
Some of the higher end predictions we have been hearing recently, such
as the notion that it will take several hundred thousand U.S. troops
to provide stability in post-Saddam Iraq, are wildly off the mark. It
is hard to conceive that it would take more forces to provide
stability in post-Saddam
Iraq than it would take to conduct the war
itself and to secure the surrender of Saddam's security forces and his
army—hard to imagine.
On October 26, 2003, while in
Baghdad staying at the Al-Rashid Hotel
Wolfowitz narrowly escaped an attack when six rockets hit the floors
below his room. Army Lt. Col. Charles H. Buehring was killed and
seventeen other soldiers were wounded. Wolfowitz and his DOD
staffers escaped unharmed and returned to the
United States on October
President of the World Bank
Press conference at G8 Summit (
Paul Wolfowitz standing at rear on
In March 2005, Wolfowitz was nominated to be president of the World
Bank by US President George W. Bush. Criticism of his nomination
appeared in the media. Nobel Laureate in Economics and former
chief economist for the
Joseph Stiglitz said: "'The World
Bank will once again become a hate figure. This could bring street
protests and violence across the developing world.'" In a speech
at the U.N. Economic and Social Council, economist
Jeffrey Sachs also
opposed Wolfowitz: "It's time for other candidates to come forward
that have experience in development. This is a position on which
hundreds of millions of people depend for their lives ... Let's have a
proper leadership of professionalism."
In the US, there was some praise for the nomination. An editorial in
The Wall Street Journal
The Wall Street Journal stated:
Mr. Wolfowitz is willing to speak the truth to power ... he saw
earlier than most, and spoke publicly about, the need for dictators to
plan democratic transitions. It is the world's dictators who are the
chief causes of world poverty. If anyone can stand up to the Robert
Mugabes of the world, it must be the man who stood up to Saddam
He was confirmed and became president on June 1, 2005. He soon
31st G8 summit
31st G8 summit to discuss issues of global climate change
and the economic development in Africa. When this meeting was
interrupted by the July 7, 2005 London bombings, Wolfowitz was present
with other world leaders at the press conference given by British
Prime Minister Tony Blair.
Several of Wolfowitz's initial appointments at the Bank proved
controversial, including two US nationals (Robin Cleveland and Kevin
Kellems) formerly with the Bush administration, whom he appointed as
close advisors with $250,000 tax-free contracts. Another
appointee, Juan José Daboub, faced criticism, including from his
colleagues, for attempting to bring policies on climate change and
family planning towards a more conservative position.
Wolfowitz gave special emphasis to two particular issues. Identifying
Africa as the region most challenged to improve living
standards, he traveled widely in the region. He also made clear his
focus on fighting corruption. Several aspects of the latter program
raised controversy. Overturning the names produced by a formal search
process, he appointed a figure linked to the US Republican party to
head the Bank's internal watchdog. Member countries worried that
Wolfowitz's willingness to suspend lending to countries on grounds of
corruption was vulnerable to selective application in line with US
foreign policy interests. In a debate on the proposed Governance and
Anti-Corruption Strategy at the Bank's 2006 Annual Meetings,
shareholders directed Wolfowitz to undertake extensive consultations
and revise the strategy to show how objective measures of corruption
would be incorporated into decisions and how the shareholders'
representatives on the Bank's Board would play a key role. Following
the consultations and revisions, the Board approved a revised strategy
in spring 2007.
Wolfowitz's relationship with Shaha Riza
Main article: Shaha Riza
George W. Bush
George W. Bush nominated Wolfowitz as president of the
World Bank, journalists reported that Wolfowitz was involved in a
World Bank Senior Communications Officer (and Acting
Manager of External Affairs) for the Middle East and North Africa
Regional Office Shaha Ali Riza. According to Richard Leiby, of The
Washington Post, Riza is "an Oxford-educated British citizen, was born
in Tunisia and grew up in Saudi Arabia. She's known for her expertise
on women's rights and has been listed on the bank's Web site as a
media contact for
Iraq reconstruction issues." According to Leiby
and Linton Weeks, in their essay "In the Shadow of a Scandal", Riza's
employment at the
World Bank predated Wolfowitz's nomination as Bank
president: "Riza started at the
World Bank as a consultant in July
1997 and became a full-time employee in 1999"; and the relationship
between Riza and Wolfowitz pre-dated it as well:
In the early 1990s, Riza joined the National Endowment for Democracy
and is credited there with development of the organization's Middle
East program. Wolfowitz was on the endowment's board—which is how
Riza first met him, according to Turkish journalist Cengiz Candar, a
friend of the couple. "Shaha was married at the time and Paul was
married," Candar recalled, and it wasn't until late 1999—after Riza
divorced and Wolfowitz had separated from his wife of 30 years, Clare
Selgin Wolfowitz—that the couple began dating."
When Wolfowitz was considered for head of the CIA after the 2000
election, Clare Wolfowitz wrote President-elect George Bush a letter
telling him that her husband's relationship with a foreign
national—Riza—posed a national security risk. It has been
Scooter Libby intercepted the letter. Sidney
Blumenthal also reported on the letter Clare Wolfowitz wrote:
This embittered letter remained a closely guarded secret, although a
former high official of the CIA told me about it. Chris Nelson also
reported it on April 16 in his widely respected, nonpartisan foreign
policy newsletter: "A certain Ms. Riza was even then Wolfowitz's true
love. The problem for the CIA wasn't just that she was a foreign
national, although that was and is today an issue for anyone
interested in CIA employment. The problem was that Wolfowitz was
married to someone else, and that someone was really angry about it,
and she found a way to bring her complaint directly to the President.
So when we, with our characteristic innocence, put Wolfowitz on our
short-list for CIA, we were instantly told, by a very, very, very
senior Republican foreign policy operative, 'I don't think so.' " The
Daily Mail of London also reported on his wife's letter when Wolfowitz
was appointed president of the
World Bank in 2005.
According to the London
Sunday Times on March 20, 2005, despite their
Riza, an Arab feminist who confounds portrayals of Wolfowitz as a
leader of a "Zionist conspiracy" of
Jewish neoconservatives in
Washington ... [and who] works as the bank's senior gender
co-ordinator for the Middle East and north
Africa ... not only shares
Wolfowitz's passion for spreading democracy in the Arab world, but is
said to have reinforced his determination to remove Saddam Hussein's
The relationship created further controversy over Wolfowitz's
nomination to head the World Bank, because the bank's ethics rules
preclude sexual relationships between a manager and a staff member
serving under that manager, even if one reports to the other only
indirectly through a chain of supervision. Sharon Churcher and Annette
Witheridge, in The Daily Mail, quote one
World Bank employee's
statement that "Unless Riza gives up her job, this will be an
impossible conflict of interest"; the observation of "a Washington
insider": "His womanizing has come home to roost ... Paul was a
foreign policy hawk long before he met Shaha, but it doesn't look good
to be accused of being under the thumb of your mistress"; and
Wolfowitz's response: "If a personal relationship presents a potential
conflict of interest, I will comply with Bank policies to resolve the
Wolfowitz initially proposed to the World Bank's Ethics Committee that
he recuse himself from personnel matters regarding Riza, but the
committee rejected that proposal. Riza was "seconded to the State
Department", or placed on "external assignment", assigned "a job at
the state department under Liz Cheney, the daughter of the
vice-president, promoting democracy in the Middle East". She "was
also moved up to a managerial pay grade in compensation for the
disruption to her career", resulting in a raise of over $60,000, as
well as guarantees of future increases; "The staff association claims
that the pay rise was more than double the amount allowed under
employee guidelines." A promotion and raise had been among the
options suggested by a
World Bank ethics committee that was set up to
advise on the situation. According to Steven R. Weisman, however,
in a report published in The New York Times, the then-current chair of
the committee emphasized that he was not informed at the time of the
details or extent of the present and future raises built into the
agreement with Riza. Wolfowitz referred to the controversy
concerning his relationship with Riza in a statement posted on the
website of the
World Bank at the time (April 12, 2007).
The affair resurfaced in headlines in 2011.
Wolfowitz's leadership of the
World Bank Group
In early 2007,
Fox News published on a series of investigative stories
on the World Bank, based in part on leaks of internal bank
documents. On April 11, 2007,
Reuters and Al Kamen in The
Washington Post, reported that Wolfowitz and the
World Bank board had
hired the Williams & Connolly law firm to oversee an investigation
into the leaking of internal bank documents to Fox News. Those
reports cite an internal memo to the bank staff later posted on the
internet, dated April 9, 2007, in which the World Bank's general
counsel, Ana Palacio, states that the Bank's legal staff was
scrutinizing two articles by investigative reporter Richard Behar
published on the website of
Fox News on January 31 and March 27,
2007. A day after the second report published by Behar, on March
28, 2007, Kamen had disclosed that "Bank records obtained by the
Government Accountability Project" documented pay raises in excess of
Bank policies given to Shaha Riza
On April 12, 2007, the London
Financial Times reported that, in a 2005
memorandum, Wolfowitz had personally directed the Bank's human
resources chief to offer Riza a large pay rise and promotion,
according to two anonymous sources who told the
Financial Times that
they had seen the memo. The memo was part of a package of 102
pages of documents released by the bank on April 14, 2007.
On April 14, 2007, after reviewing these documents, the Financial
Times concluded that it was "a potentially fatal blow" to
Wolfowitz. In contrast,
Fox News concluded that the new documents
might offer Wolfowitz a "new lifeline" in the scandal, because the
Bank's ethics committee had launched a review of the Riza compensation
case in early 2006 and concluded that it did not warrant any further
attention by the committee. Wolfowitz failed, on April 19, 2007,
to attend a high-profile meeting and the controversy led to disruption
World Bank when some employees wore blue ribbons "in a display
of defiance against his leadership."
World Bank Group's board of executive directors and staffers
complained also that Wolfowitz was imposing Bush Administration
policies to eliminate family planning from
World Bank programs.
According to Nicole Gaouette, in her report published in the Los
Angeles Times on April 19, 2007, Juan José Daboub—the managing
director whom Wolfowitz had appointed who has also been criticized for
overly-conservative policies concerning climate change and "a
Roman Catholic with ties to a conservative Salvadoran political
party"—repeatedly deleted references to family planning from World
On May 14, 2007 the
World Bank committee investigating the alleged
ethics violations reported (in part):
"Mr. Wolfowitz's contract requiring that he adhere to the Code of
Conduct for board officials and that he avoid any conflict of
interest, real or apparent, were violated";
"The salary increase Ms. Riza received at Mr. Wolfowitz's direction
was in excess of the range established by Rule 6.01";
"The ad hoc group concludes that in actuality, Mr Wolfowitz from the
outset cast himself in opposition to the established rules of the
"He did not accept the bank's policy on conflict of interest, so he
sought to negotiate for himself a resolution different from that which
would have applied to the staff he was selected to head."
Wolfowitz appeared before the
World Bank Group's board of executive
directors to respond on May 15. Adams speculated that "With Mr
Wolfowitz so far refusing to step down, the board may need to take
radical action to break the stalemate. Members have discussed a range
of options, including sacking Mr Wolfowitz, issuing a vote of no
confidence or reprimanding him. Some board members argue that a vote
of no confidence would make it impossible for him to stay in the
job." By Wednesday, May 16, 2007, The New York Times, reported
that "after six weeks of fighting efforts to oust him as president ...
Wolfowitz began today to negotiate the terms of his possible
resignation, in return for the bank dropping or softening the charge
that he had engaged in misconduct ..." After expressions from the
Bush administration that it "fully" supported Wolfowitz as World Bank
president and its urging a "fair hearing" for him, President Bush
expressed "regret" at Wolfowitz's impending resignation.
On May 17, 2007 the
World Bank Group's board of Executive Directors
Paul Wolfowitz would resign as
World Bank Group
president at the end of June 2007.
As a Visiting Scholar of the
American Enterprise Institute
American Enterprise Institute for Public
Policy Research, Wolfowitz has blogged for the group and appeared
in group events. In 2011, he wrote columns that appeared in
publications such as The Independent, The Sunday Times, and
Wolfowitz is a former steering committee member of the Bilderberg
In February 2013, Wolfowitz publicly supported legal recognition for
same-sex marriage in an amicus brief submitted to the US Supreme
In February 2015, Wolfowitz advised presidential candidate Jeb
In August 2016, Wolfowitz announced his intention to vote for Hillary
Clinton in the 2016
United States presidential election, despite
having "serious reservations about her." However, in a December
interview on Fox Business, Wolfowitz claimed that he did not in fact
vote for Clinton.
In January 2017, Wolfowitz wrote an op-ed in the New York Times
commenting on a "dissent cable" that had been signed by 1,000 Foreign
Service Officers criticizing President Trump's executive action on
Joint Vision 2020
Washington Institute for Near East Policy
Washington Institute for Near East Policy (WINEP)
World Bank Group
^ Zachary A. Goldfarb, "Wolfowitz Joins Think Tank as Visiting
Scholar", online posting, The New Yorker, July 3, 2007, accessed July
US-Taiwan Business Council
US-Taiwan Business Council (2008). Paul D. Wolfowitz. Retrieved
December 7, 2008.
^ Paul, Reynolds (2005-03-17). "Wolfowitz to spread neo-con gospel".
BBC. Retrieved 2009-04-08.
^ Ostroy, Andy (2014-06-20). "Dick Cheney's Big Neo-Con Con".
Huffington Post. Retrieved 2016-08-06.
^ Boot, Max (2009-10-28). "Think Again: Neocons". Council on Foreign
Relations. Retrieved 2016-08-06.
^ "Statements of Executive Directors and President Wolfowitz", World
Bank Group, May 17, 2007, accessed May 17, 2007.
^ Matthew Jones, "Wolfowitz Exit Seen Clearing Way for Progress",
Reuters (UK), May 18, 2007, accessed May 18, 2007.
^ a b Suzanne Goldenberg, "Guardian Profile: Paul Wolfowitz", The
Guardian, April 1, 2005, accessed May 1, 2007.
^ a b c d David Dudley, "Paul's Choice", Cornell Alumni Magazine
Online 107.1 (July/August 2004), accessed May 17, 2007.
^ a b Eric Schmitt, "The Busy Life of Being a Lightning Rod for Bush",
The New York Times, April 22, 2002, accessed March 24, 2008.
^ a b c d e John Cassidy, "The Next Crusade:
Paul Wolfowitz at the
World Bank", online posting, The New Yorker, April 9, 2007, accessed
May 7, 2007.
^ a b Linton Weeks and Richard Leiby, "In the Shadow of a Scandal",
The Washington Post, May 10, 2007, accessed May 10, 2007. (Page 2 of 3
^ a b Ivo H. Daalder; James H. Lindsay. America Unbound: The Bush
Revolution in Foreign Policy. Wiley. p. 26.
^ James Mann, Rise of the Vulcans: the history of Bush's war cabinet
(2004) pp. 28–31
^ a b c d e f g Bacevich, Andrew, A Letter to Paul Wolfowitz, Harper's
^ "Profile: Paul Wolfowitz, Right Web (International Relations
Center), updated April 19, 2007, accessed May 21, 2007.
^ Kit Oldham, "Cyberpedia Library: Jackson, Henry M. 'Scoop'
(1912–1983): HistoryLink.org Essay 5516", historylink.org (The
Online Encyclopedia of Washington State History), August 19, 2003,
accessed May 17, 2007.
^ Sam Tanenhaus, "The Hard Liner:
^ Qtd. by Jack Davis, "The Challenge of Managing Uncertainty: Paul
Wolfowitz on Intelligence-Policy Relations", Studies in Intelligence
39.5 (1996):35–42, accessed May 21, 2007. ("Jack Davis served in the
Directorate of Intelligence.") [Corrected title.]
^ Michael Dobbs, "For Wolfowitz, a Vision May Be Realized", The
Washington Post, April 7, 2003, accessed April 16, 2007.
^ James Mann, Rise of the Vulcans: the history of Bush's war cabinet
(2004) p 93
^ a b AP, "Indonesian Rights Groups Denounce Wolfowitz' World Bank
Nomination", online posting, Alliance for Reform and Democracy in
Asia, March 22, 2005, accessed June 20, 2007.
^ Peter J. Boyer, "The Believer:
Paul Wolfowitz Defends His War",
online posting, The New Yorker, November 1, 2004, accessed November
26, 2014 (7 pages).
^ a b Alan Sipress and Ellen Nakashima, "Jakarta Tenure Offers Glimpse
of Wolfowitz", The Washington Post, March 28, 2005, accessed April 16,
^ Paul Wolfowitz, "The Tragedy of Suharto" Archived 2005-02-08 at the
Wayback Machine., The Wall Street Journal, May 27, 1998, accessed
April 16, 2007.
^ As qtd. in Scott Burchill, "What the West Wants from Indonesia"
Archived 2007-09-29 at the Wayback Machine., Z Magazine, October 1,
2003, accessed June 7, 2007.
^ Transcript of hearing, Committee on International Relations, "U.S.
Options in Confronting Iraq", February 25, 1998, accessed April 17,
^ Paul Wolfowitz, velociraptor,
The Economist (Feb. 7, 2002)
^ Elliott Abrams, et al., "Statement of Principles" Archived
2005-02-05 at the Wayback Machine., Project for the New American
Century, June 3, 1997, accessed May 27, 2007.
^ Elliott Abrams, et al., "Open letter to President Bill Clinton,"
Archived 2008-09-09 at the Wayback Machine. Project for the New
American Century, January 26, 1998, accessed May 24, 2007.
^ U.S. House Committee on International Relations, "U.S. Options in
Confrtonting Iraq", February 25, 1998, accessed April 18, 2007.
^ Rebuilding America's Defenses: Strategies, Forces and Resources for
a New Century[permanent dead link], Project for the New American
Century, September 2000, accessed May 14, 2007.
^ Martin Sieff, "Mission Accomplished: Archived 2008-03-07 at the
Wayback Machine. Bush's Brain Trust Had a Grand Plan for the Middle
East. The Results Are Coming Home Every Day in Body Bags", Slate,
April 8, 2004, accessed May 19, 2007.
^ "U.S. Department of Defense Office of the Assistant Secretary of
Defense (Public Affairs) News Transcript" of "Wolfowitz interview with
the San Francisco Chronicle", conducted by Robert Collier, "Presenter:
Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz", press release, United
States Department of Defense, February 23, 2002, accessed May 26,
2007. ["Interview with Robert Collier, San Francisco Chronicle".]
^ Kampfner, John (2003). Blair's wars. Simon and Schuster.
p. 156. ISBN 978-0-7432-4829-7.
^ a b c d e f g h i Seymour M. Hersh, "Annals of National Security
Donald Rumsfeld Has His Own
Are they reliable?" The New Yorker, May 12, 2003, accessed May 8,
^ "Thousands in US rally for Israel",
BBC News, April 15, 2002,
accessed April 18, 2007.
^ Sharon Samber and Matthew E. Berger, "Speakers Stick to Consensus
Theme at National Solidarity Rally for Israel[permanent dead link]",
Jewish Communities (JTA), April 15, 2002, accessed May 3, 2007.
^ "U.S. Department of Defense Office of the Assistant Secretary of
Defense (Public Affairs) News Transcript" of telephone interview of
Paul Wolfowitz, conducted by Sam Tanenhaus, "Presenter: Deputy
Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz", press release, United States
Department of Defense, May 9, 2003, accessed May 2, 2007. ["Deputy
Secretary Wolfowitz Interview with Sam Tannenhaus [sic]", Vanity
^ Qtd. in Associated Press, "Wolfowitz Comments Revive Doubts Over
Iraq's WMD", USA Today, May 30, 2003, accessed May 8, 2007.
^ a b c Gerth, Jeff, "Report Offered Bleak Outlook About
Iraq Oil, The
New York Times, October 5, 2003. Retrieved 2010-09-05. Referenced in
Frank Rich, "Freedom's just another word", The New York Times,
September 4, 2010 (September 5, 2010, p. WK8, NY ed.).
^ Paul Blustein, "Wolfowitz Strives To Quell Criticism", The
Washington Post, March 21, 2005, accessed April 18, 2007.
^ Schmitt, Eric (February 28, 2003). "Pentagon Contradicts General on
Iraq Occupation Force's Size". The New York Times. Retrieved April 4,
^ Jane Arraf, "Bold, Well-executed Attack", CNN, October 26, 2003,
accessed April 18, 2007.
^ "DoD Identifies Army Casualty",
United States Department of Defense,
October 27, 2003, accessed April 18, 2007.
^ Paul Blustein and Peter Baker, "Wolfowitz Picked for World Bank",
The Washington Post, March 27, 2005, accessed January 3, 2009.
^ Alan Beattie and Edward Alden, "Shareholders' dismay at lack of
consultation", The Financial Times, March 16, 2005, accessed April 16,
^ Peston, Robert (2005-03-20). "Stiglitz warns of violence if
Wolfowitz goes to World Bank". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved
^ "Many Wary, Some Cheer Wolfowitz Pick" Archived 2007-10-01 at the
Wayback Machine., Al Jazeera, April 16, 2007, accessed April 16, 2007.
^ "Banking on Wolfowitz: And You Thought
Iraq Was Difficult", The Wall
Street Journal, March 17, 2005, accessed April 16, 2007, Review &
Outlook (Past Featured Article), accessed June 8, 2007.
^ Karen DeYoung, "Wolfowitz Clashed Repeatedly With
World Bank Staff:
Tenure as President Has Been Rocky", The Washington Post, April 15,
2007: A12, accessed May 1, 2007.
^ a b Nicole Gaouette, "
World Bank May Target Family Planning:
Repeated Absence of References to Birth Control in Internal Reports
Alarms Women's Health Advocates", The Los Angeles Times, April 19,
2007, accessed May 1, 2007.
^ a b Krishna Guha, "Wolfowitz Deputy Under Fire for Climate Change",
The Financial Times, April 24, 2007, updated April 25, 2007, accessed
May 2, 2007.
^ Philip Sherwell, "
Special 'relationship' Behind US West Asia
policy", The Telegraph, August 1, 2002, accessed April 18, 2007.
^ a b Richard Leiby, "Reliable Source: What Will the Neighbors Say?",
The Washington Post, March 22, 2007, C-03, accessed May 1, 2007.
^ Will a British divorcee cost 'Wolfie' his job?, Sharon Churcher and
Annette Witheridge, The Daily Mail, March 20, 2005.
^ How Cheney took control of Bush's foreign policy, Craig Unger,
Salon.com, November 9, 2007; Interview with Vanity Fair contributing
editor Craig Unger, David Shankbone, Wikinews, November 12, 2007
^ Libby and Wolfie: A Story of Reacharounds, Ward Harkarvey, The
Village Voice, June 14, 2007.
^ Wolfowitz's tomb, Sidney Blumenthal, Salon.com, May 24, 2007.
^ "Profile: Paul Wolfowitz: Hawk with a Lot of Loot Needs a Bit of
Lady Luck", The Sunday Times, March 20, 2005, accessed April 18, 2007.
^ Sharon Churcher and Annette Witheridge, "Will a British Divorcee
Cost 'Wolfie' His Job?" The Daily Mail, March 20, 2005, accessed April
^ Greg Hitt, "
World Bank Ex-Board Member Disputes Wolfowitz", The Wall
Street Journal, May 2, 2007, A8, accessed May 8, 2007 (restricted
access; free preview); rpt. 2-2007/ "
World Bank Ex-Board Member
Disputes Wolfowitz", goldnotes.wordpress.com, May 2, 2007, accessed
May 8, 2007; cf. Greg Hitt, "Top Wolfowitz Adviser Resigns", The Wall
Street Journal, Wall Street Journal Online, May 7, 2007, Washington
Wire, accessed May 8, 2007.
^ a b Suzanne Goldenberg, "Wolfowitz Under Fire After Partner Receives
Promotion and Pay Rise", The Guardian, April 7, 2007, accessed May 2,
^ William McQuillen, "Wolfowitz Says He Won't Quit, Calls Charges
'Bogus'" (Update2), Bloomberg News, April 30, 2007, accessed May 2,
^ ""Ethics Committee Case No 2 and President Papers"". Archived from
the original on 2008-12-12. , World Bank, worldbank.org,
"strictly confidential" documents posted online at bicusa.org, April
12, 2007, accessed April 14, 2007.
^ Steven R. Weisman, "Wolfowitz Loses Ground in Fight for World Bank
Post", The New York Times, April 27, 2007, accessed May 1, 2007.
^ Paul Wolfowitz, "Statement by Paul Wolfowitz, President of the World
Bank Group WB/IMF Spring Meetings 2007", Worldbank.org, April 12,
2007, accessed May 1, 2007. (Video and audio links.)
^ "Dominique Strauss-Kahn, Anwar Ibrahim, and Paul Wolfowitz: The
Woman Troubles of Men Who Oversee Money" Archived 2011-05-21 at the
Wayback Machine., New Ledger. May 16, 2011. Accessed June 9, 2011
^ "Can Asians become chief of IMF or World Bank?", Robert E. Kelly.
May 25, 2011. Accessed June 9, 2011
^ "France's Lagarde leads IMF race", Business Live. June 6, 2011.
Accessed June 9, 2011
Richard Behar (2007-02-08). "
World Bank Launches Internal Probe to
Root Out Leakers". Fox News. Retrieved 2007-05-14.
^ Reuters, "
World Bank Launches Probe Into Leak of Confidential
Documents to FOXNews.com", Fox News, April 11, 2007, accessed May 16,
^ Al Kamen, "Under Flood of Criticism, Looking to Plug a Leak", The
Washington Post, April 11, 2007, accessed May 16, 2007.
^ Richard Behar, "Wolfowitz vs. the
World Bank Board: It's Trench
Warfare", Fox News, January 31, 2007, and "
World Bank Anticorruption
Drive Blunted as
China Threatens to Halt Loans", Fox News, March 27,
2007, both accessed May 14, 2007.
^ Al Kamen, "In the Loop: Where the Money Is", The Washington Post,
March 28, 2007, accessed May 10, 2007.
^ a b c Krishna Guha and Eoin Callan, "Wolfowitz Laid Out Terms for
Partner’s Pay Package", The Financial Times, April 12, 2007,
accessed May 14, 2007.
^ Richard Behar, "Documents May Give Wolfowitz New Lifeline in World
Bank Scandal", Fox News, April 14, 2007, accessed May 14, 2007.
^ "Wolfowitz Absent As
World Bank Board Decides Fate", The Guardian,
April 19, 2007, accessed April 20, 2007.
^ "Wolfowitz's Troubles Disrupt World Bank", San Francisco Chronicle,
April 20, 2007, accessed April 20, 2007.
^ Reuters, ""Wolfowitz Rejects
World Bank Ethics Ruling"". Archived
from the original on May 18, 2007. Retrieved 2007-05-15. CS1
maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) : Bank Committee
Determines That President Violated Ethics Standards Over His
Girlfriend's Promotion; Wolfowitz Calls Findings 'unbalanced' and
'flawed'", online posting, CNNMoney.com ("The Internet home of
Fortune, Money, Business 2.0"), May 15, 2007, accessed November 17,
^ Richard Adams, "Angry Wolfowitz in Four-letter Tirade", The Guardian
Unlimited, May 15, 2007, accessed May 16, 2007.
^ Steven R. Weisman, "Wolfowitz Said to Be Working On Deal for His
Resignation", The New York Times, May 16, 2007, accessed May 16, 2007.
^ Jeannine Aversa (Associated Press), "White House: Give Wolfowitz
Fair Hearing", USA Today, May 9, 2007, accessed November 17, 2008;
""Markets: Bush Expresses Regret Over Wolfowitz"". Archived from the
original on May 19, 2007. Retrieved 2017-05-13. CS1 maint: BOT:
original-url status unknown (link) , The Houston Chronicle, May 17,
2007, accessed November 19, 2008.
^ Steven R. Weisman, "'Second Chance' at Career Goes Sour for
Wolfowitz", The New York Times, May 18, 2007, accessed May 18, 2007.
^ "What Will 'Odyssey Dawn' Bring?" Archived 2011-06-01 at the Wayback
Machine.. AEI, March 28, 2011.
^ "A Conversation with Libyan National Council Representative Ali
Aujali" Archived 2011-06-03 at the Wayback Machine.. AEI, April 11,
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-04-28. Retrieved
^ Bilderberg Meetings. Archived 2014-02-02 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "The Pro-Freedom Republicans Are Coming: 131 Sign Gay-Marriage
Brief", The Daily Beast, February 28, 2013.
Jeb Bush Foreign Policy Adviser, Plays Up Reagan
Influence", Bloomberg Politics, Feb 22, 2015 3:09 PM CST.
^ "Former Bush adviser Wolfowitz to vote for Clinton: Spiegel".
Reuters. August 26, 2016. Retrieved August 26, 2016.
^ "Amb. Wolfowitz Raises Concerns About Surveillance and Putin".
December 21, 2016.
^ Wolfowitz, Paul D. (2017-01-31). "A Diplomat's Proper Channel of
Dissent". The New York Times. Retrieved 2017-02-01.
Immerman, Richard H. Empire for Liberty: A History of American
Imperialism from Benjamin Franklin to
Paul Wolfowitz (2010)
pp. 196–231 excerpt and text search
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Paul Wolfowitz.
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Paul Wolfowitz
Wikisource has original works written by or about:
Paul Wolfowitz at the American Enterprise Institute's website
Appearances on C-SPAN
Official biographical accounts
"Biography: Paul Wolfowitz: President, The
World Bank Group", at
World Bank Group). Accessed May 4, 2007.
Paul Wolfowitz – Department of Defense, Deputy Secretary of
Defense". Search result in obsolete directory of "The President and
His Leadership Team". Accessed May 4, 2007.
"Paul Wolfowitz, Deputy Secretary of Defense" at the Wayback Machine
(archived May 2, 2006) – Archived biography at the United States
Department of Defense. Last updated: March 16, 2005. Accessed May 2,
Wolfowitz, Paul."Statement by Paul Wolfowitz, President of the World
Bank Group WB/IMF Spring Meetings 2007". Online posting. World Bank
Group, Worldbank.org, April 12, 2007. Accessed May 1, 2007. (Video and
Director of Policy Planning
Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs
Undersecretary of Defense for Policy
Rudy de Leon
United States Deputy Secretary of Defense
United States Ambassador to Indonesia
John C. Monjo
President of the
World Bank Group
Dean of the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies
World Bank Group
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
International Development Association
International Finance Corporation
Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency
International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes
John J. McCloy
Eugene R. Black, Sr.
George David Woods
Alden W. Clausen
Lewis Thompson Preston
Jim Yong Kim
United States Deputy Secretaries of Defense
John R. Bolton
Douglas J. Feith
Eliot A. Cohen
Reuel Marc Gerecht
R. James Woolsey Jr.
Henry M. Jackson
John Courtney Murray
Project for the New American Century
National Endowment for Democracy
Foundation for Defense of Democracies
Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs
Henry Jackson Society
Emergency Committee for Israel
American Enterprise Institute
Foreign Policy Initiative
The Weekly Standard
The Public Interest
Timeline of modern American conservatism
Neoconservatism and paleoconservatism
Clash of Civilizations
Idealism in international relations
Anti-Stalinist left (
The New York Intellectuals and Trotskyism)
Republican In Name Only
Republican In Name Only (pejorative)
Stop Trump movement
ISNI: 0000 0000 8323 0610