Paul Johannes Tillich (August 20, 1886 – October 22, 1965) was
a German-American Christian existentialist philosopher and Lutheran
Protestant theologian who is widely regarded as one of the most
influential theologians of the twentieth century.
Among the general public, he is best known for his works The Courage
to Be (1952) and Dynamics of
Faith (1957), which introduced issues of
theology and modern culture to a general readership. In academic
theology, he is best known for his major three-volume work Systematic
Theology (1951–63) in which he developed his "method of
correlation", an approach of exploring the symbols of Christian
revelation as answers to the problems of human existence raised by
contemporary existential philosophical analysis.
2.1 Method of correlation
2.2 Use of "being" in systematic theology
2.3 Life and the Spirit
2.4 Absolute faith
Faith as ultimate concern
2.6 God above God
2.7 Tillich's ontology of courage
3 Popular works
6 See also
8 Further reading
9 External links
Tillich was born on August 20, 1886, in the small village of
Starzeddel (Starosiedle), Province of Brandenburg, which was then part
of Germany. He was the oldest of three children, with two sisters:
Johanna (born 1888, died 1920) and Elisabeth (born 1893). Tillich’s
Prussian father Johannes Tillich was a conservative
Lutheran pastor of
the Evangelical State Church of Prussia's older Provinces; his mother
Mathilde Dürselen was from the
Rhineland and more liberal.
When Tillich was four, his father became superintendent of a diocese
Bad Schönfliess (now Trzcińsko-Zdrój, Poland), a town of three
thousand, where Tillich began secondary school (Elementarschule). In
1898, Tillich was sent to
Königsberg in der Neumark
Königsberg in der Neumark (now Chojna,
Poland) to begin his gymnasium schooling. He was billeted in a
boarding house and experienced a loneliness that he sought to overcome
by reading the Bible while encountering humanistic ideas at school.
In 1900, Tillich’s father was transferred to Berlin, resulting in
Tillich switching in 1901 to a
Berlin school, from which he graduated
in 1904. Before his graduation, however, his mother died of cancer in
September 1903, when Tillich was 17. Tillich attended several
universities — the University of
Berlin beginning in 1904, the
University of Tübingen
University of Tübingen in 1905, and the University of
Halle-Wittenberg from 1905 to 1907. He received his Doctor of
Philosophy degree at the
University of Breslau
University of Breslau in 1911 and his
Theology degree at Halle-Wittenberg in 1912. During
his time at university, he became a member of the
Wingolf in Berlin,
Tübingen and Halle.
That same year, 1912, Tillich was ordained as a
Lutheran minister in
the Province of Brandenburg. On 28 September 1914 he married
Margarethe ("Grethi") Wever (1888–1968), and in October he joined
Imperial German Army
Imperial German Army as a chaplain during World War I. Grethi
deserted Tillich in 1919 after an affair that produced a child not
fathered by Tillich; the two then divorced.[page needed]
Tillich’s academic career began after the war; he became a
Theology at the University of Berlin, a post he held
from 1919 to 1924. On his return from the war he had met Hannah
Werner-Gottschow, then married and pregnant. In March 1924 they
married; it was the second marriage for both. She later wrote a book
entitled From Time to Time about their life together, which included
their commitment to open marriage, upsetting to some, but they moved
together into old age.
From 1924 to 1925, Tillich served as a Professor of
Theology at the
University of Marburg, where he began to develop his systematic
theology, teaching a course on it during the last of his three terms.
From 1925 until 1929, Tillich was a Professor of
Theology at the
Dresden University of Technology
Dresden University of Technology and the University of Leipzig. He
held the same post at the University of Frankfurt from 1929 to 1933.
Paul Tillich was in conversation with Erich Przywara.
While at the University of Frankfurt, Tillich gave public lectures and
speeches throughout Germany that brought him into conflict with the
Nazi movement. When
Adolf Hitler became German Chancellor in 1933,
Tillich was dismissed from his position.
Reinhold Niebuhr visited
Germany in the summer of 1933 and, already impressed with Tillich’s
writings, contacted Tillich upon learning of Tillich’s dismissal.
Niebuhr urged Tillich to join the faculty at New York City’s Union
Theological Seminary; Tillich accepted.
At the age of 47, Tillich moved with his family to America. This meant
learning English, the language in which Tillich would eventually
publish works such as the Systematic Theology. From 1933 until 1955 he
taught at Union Theological Seminary, where he began as a Visiting
Philosophy of Religion. During 1933–34 he was also a
Visiting Lecturer in
Philosophy at Columbia University.
The Fellowship of Socialist Christians was organized in the early
Reinhold Niebuhr and others with similar views. Later it
changed its name to Frontier Fellowship and then to Christian Action.
The main supporters of the Fellowship in the early days included
Tillich, Eduard Heimann,
Sherwood Eddy and Rose Terlin. In its early
days the group thought capitalist individualism was incompatible with
Christian ethics. Although not Communist, the group acknowledged Karl
Marx's social philosophy.
Tillich’s gravestone in the
Paul Tillich Park, New Harmony, Indiana.
Tillich acquired tenure at the Union Theological Seminary in 1937, and
in 1940 he was promoted to Professor of
Philosophical Theology and
became an American citizen. At Union, Tillich earned his
reputation, publishing a series of books that outlined his particular
Protestant Christian theology and existential philosophy.
He published On the Boundary in 1936; The
Protestant Era, a collection
of his essays, in 1948; and The Shaking of the Foundations, the first
of three volumes of his sermons, also in 1948. His collections of
sermons would give Tillich a broader audience than he had yet
His most heralded achievements though, were the 1951 publication of
volume one of Systematic
Theology which brought Tillich academic
acclaim, and the 1952 publication of The Courage to Be. The first
volume of the systematic theology series prompted an invitation to
give the prestigious
Gifford lectures during 1953–54 at the
University of Aberdeen. The latter book, called "his masterpiece",
was based on his 1950
Dwight H. Terry Lectureship and reached a wide
These works led to an appointment at the
Harvard Divinity School
Harvard Divinity School in
1955, where he became one of the University’s five University
Professors – the five highest ranking professors at Harvard. He was
primarily a professor of undergraduates because Harvard did not have a
department of religion for them, but thereby he was more exposed to
the wider University and "most fully embodied the ideal of a
In 1961 Tillich became one of the founding members of the Society for
Religion and Contemporary Culture, an organization with
which he maintained ties for the remainder of his life. During
this period, he published volume 2 of Systematic
also the popular book Dynamics of
Faith (both 1957). His career at
Harvard lasted until 1962 when he moved to the University of Chicago,
remaining a professor of theology there until his death in 1965.
Volume 3 of Systematic
Theology was published in 1963. In 1964,
Tillich became the first theologian to be honored in Kegley and
Bretall's Library of Living Theology: "The adjective ‘great,’ in
our opinion, can be applied to very few thinkers of our time, but
Tillich, we are far from alone in believing, stands unquestionably
amongst these few". A widely quoted critical assessment of his
importance was Georgia Harkness' comment: "What Whitehead was to
American philosophy, Tillich has been to American theology".
Tillich died on October 22, 1965, ten days after having a heart
attack. In 1966, his ashes were interred in the
Paul Tillich Park in
New Harmony, Indiana. Gravestone inscription : "And he shall be
like a tree planted by the rivers of water, that bringeth forth his
fruit for his season, his leaf also shall not wither. And whatsoever
he doeth shall prosper."
Part of a series on
Book of Concord
Apology of the
Luther's Small / Large Catechism
Treatise on the Power and
Primacy of the Pope
Formula of Concord
Law and Gospel
Two states of the Church
Priesthood of all believers
Theology of the Cross
Criticism of Protestantism
Sacraments & Liturgy
Anointing of the Sick
Lutheran World Federation
Lutheranism by region
Protestant Reformation (start)
High Church Lutherans
Johann Heinrich Callenberg
Johann Phillip Fabricius
John Christian Frederick Heyer
F. C. D. Wyneken
Hans Paludan Smith Schreuder
Lars Olsen Skrefsrud
Ludwig Ingwer Nommensen
Paul Olaf Bodding
Casiodoro de Reina
Kjell Magne Yri
Kristian Osvald Viderø
Johann Phillip Fabricius
Ludvig Olsen Fossum
Hans Egede / Paul Egede
Nils Vibe Stockfleth
Olaus Petri / Laurentius Petri
Ludwig Ingwer Nommensen
Norwegian Bible Society
Samuel Ludwik Zasadius
Olaf M. Norlie
Hans Paludan Smith Schreuder
Johann Ernst Glück
William F. Beck
Martin Luther / Katharina von Bora
Johannes Andreas Quenstedt
Johann Wilhelm Baier
Lars Levi Laestadius
Charles Porterfield Krauth
C. F. W. Walther
Method of correlation
The key to understanding Tillich’s theology is what he calls the
"method of correlation." It is an approach that correlates insights
from Christian revelation with the issues raised by existential,
psychological, and philosophical analysis.
Tillich states in the introduction to the Systematic Theology:
Theology formulates the questions implied in human existence, and
theology formulates the answers implied in divine self-manifestation
under the guidance of the questions implied in human existence. This
is a circle which drives man to a point where question and answer are
not separated. This point, however, is not a moment in time.
The Christian message provides the answers to the questions implied in
human existence. These answers are contained in the revelatory events
on which Christianity is based and are taken by systematic theology
from the sources, through the medium, under the norm. Their content
cannot be derived from questions that would come from an analysis of
human existence. They are ‘spoken’ to human existence from beyond
it, in a sense. Otherwise, they would not be answers, for the question
is human existence itself.
For Tillich, the existential questions of human existence are
associated with the field of philosophy and, more specifically,
ontology (the study of being). This is because, according to Tillich,
a lifelong pursuit of philosophy reveals that the central question of
every philosophical inquiry always comes back to the question of
being, or what it means to be, to exist, to be a finite human
being. To be correlated with these questions are the theological
answers, themselves derived from Christian revelation. The task of the
philosopher primarily involves developing the questions, whereas the
task of the theologian primarily involves developing the answers to
these questions. However, it should be remembered that the two tasks
overlap and include one another: the theologian must be somewhat of a
philosopher and vice versa, for Tillich’s notion of faith as
“ultimate concern” necessitates that the theological answer be
correlated with, compatible with, and in response to the general
ontological question which must be developed independently from the
answers. Thus, on one side of the correlation lies an
ontological analysis of the human situation, whereas on the other is a
presentation of the Christian message as a response to this
existential dilemma. For Tillich, no formulation of the question can
contradict the theological answer. This is because the Christian
message claims, a priori, that the logos “who became flesh” is
also the universal logos of the Greeks.
In addition to the intimate relationship between philosophy and
theology, another important aspect of the method of correlation is
Tillich’s distinction between form and content in the theological
answers. While the nature of revelation determines the actual content
of the theological answers, the character of the questions determines
the form of these answers. This is because, for Tillich, theology must
be an answering theology, or apologetic theology. God is called the
“ground of being” because God is the answer to the ontological
threat of non-being, and this characterization of the theological
answer in philosophical terms means that the answer has been
conditioned (insofar as its form is considered) by the question. 
Throughout the Systematic Theology, Tillich is careful to maintain
this distinction between form and content without allowing one to be
inadvertently conditioned by the other. Many criticisms of Tillich’s
methodology revolve around this issue of whether the integrity of the
Christian message is really maintained when its form is conditioned by
The theological answer is also determined by the sources of theology,
our experience, and the norm of theology. Though the form of the
theological answers are determined by the character of the question,
these answers (which “are contained in the revelatory events on
which Christianity is based”) are also “taken by systematic
theology from the sources, through the medium, under the norm.”
There are three main sources of systematic theology: the Bible, Church
history, and the history of religion and culture. Experience is not a
source but a medium through which the sources speak. And the norm of
theology is that by which both sources and experience are judged with
regard to the content of the Christian faith. Thus, we have the
following as elements of the method and structure of systematic
Sources of theology
History of religion and culture
Medium of the sources
Collective Experience of the Church
Norm of theology (determines use of sources)
Content of which is the biblical message itself, for example:
Justification through faith
Being in Jesus as the Christ
The criterion of the cross
As McKelway explains, the sources of theology contribute to the
formation of the norm, which then becomes the criterion through which
the sources and experience are judged. The relationship is
circular, as it is the present situation which conditions the norm in
the interaction between church and biblical message. The norm is then
subject to change, but Tillich insists that its basic content remains
the same: that of the biblical message. It is tempting to conflate
revelation with the norm, but we must keep in mind that revelation
(whether original or dependent) is not an element of the structure of
systematic theology per se, but an event. For Tillich, the
present-day norm is the “New
Being in Jesus as the Christ as our
Ultimate Concern”. This is because the present question is one
of estrangement, and the overcoming of this estrangement is what
Tillich calls the “New Being”. But since Christianity answers the
question of estrangement with “Jesus as the Christ”, the norm
tells us that we find the New
Being in Jesus as the Christ.
There is also the question of the validity of the method of
correlation. Certainly one could reject the method on the grounds that
there is no a priori reason for its adoption. But Tillich claims that
the method of any theology and its system are interdependent. That is,
an absolute methodological approach cannot be adopted because the
method is continually being determined by the system and the objects
Use of "being" in systematic theology
Tillich used the concept of "being" (Sein) in systematic theology.
There are three roles:
…[The concept of Being] appears in the present system in three
places: in the doctrine of God, where God is called the being as being
or the ground and the power of being;
in the doctrine of man, where the distinction is carried through
between man's essential and his existential being;
and finally, in the doctrine of the Christ, where he is called the
manifestation of the New Being, the actualization of which is the work
of the divine Spirit.
…It is the expression of the experience of being over against
non-being. Therefore, it can be described as the power of being which
resists non-being. For this reason, the medieval philosophers called
being the basic transcendentale, beyond the universal and the
particular… The same word, the emptiest of all concepts when taken
as an abstraction, becomes the most meaningful of all concepts when it
is understood as the power of being in everything that has being.
Life and the Spirit
This is part four of Tillich's Systematic Theology. In this part,
Tillich talks about life and the divine Spirit.
Life remains ambiguous as long as there is life. The question implied
in the ambiguities of life derives to a new question, namely, that of
the direction in which life moves. This is the question of history.
Systematically speaking, history, characterized as it is by its
direction toward the future, is the dynamic quality of life.
Therefore, the "riddle of history" is a part of the problem of
Tillich stated the courage to take meaninglessness into oneself
presupposes a relation to the ground of being: absolute faith.
Absolute faith can transcend the theistic idea of God, and has three
… The first element is the experience of the power of being which is
present even in the face of the most radical manifestation of non
being. If one says that in this experience vitality resists despair,
one must add that vitality in man is proportional to intentionality.
The vitality that can stand the abyss of meaninglessness is aware of a
hidden meaning within the destruction of meaning.
— Tillich, The Courage to Be, p.177
The second element in absolute faith is the dependence of the
experience of nonbeing on the experience of being and the dependence
of the experience of meaninglessness on the experience of meaning.
Even in the state of despair one has enough being to make despair
— Tillich, The Courage to Be, p.177
There is a third element in absolute faith, the acceptance of being
accepted. Of course, in the state of despair there is nobody and
nothing that accepts. But there is the power of acceptance itself
which is experienced. Meaninglessness, as long as it is experienced,
includes an experience of the "power of acceptance". To accept this
power of acceptance consciously is the religious answer of absolute
faith, of a faith which has been deprived by doubt of any concrete
content, which nevertheless is faith and the source of the most
paradoxical manifestation of the courage to be.
— Tillich, The Courage to Be, p.177
Faith as ultimate concern
According to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Tillich believes
the essence of religious attitudes is what he calls "ultimate
concern". Separate from all profane and ordinary realities, the object
of the concern is understood as sacred, numinous or holy. The
perception of its reality is felt as so overwhelming and valuable that
all else seems insignificant, and for this reason requires total
surrender. In 1957, Tillich defined his conception of faith more
explicitly in his work, Dynamics of Faith.
Man, like every living being, is concerned about many things, above
all about those which condition his very existence ... If [a situation
or concern] claims ultimacy it demands the total surrender of him who
accepts this claim ... it demands that all other concerns ... be
Tillich further refined his conception of faith by stating that,
Faith as ultimate concern is an act of the total personality. It is
the most centered act of the human mind ... it participates in the
dynamics of personal life."
An arguably central component of Tillich's concept of faith is his
notion that faith is "ecstatic". That is to say:
It transcends both the drives of the nonrational unconsciousness and
the structures of the rational conscious...the ecstatic character of
faith does not exclude its rational character although it is not
identical with it, and it includes nonrational strivings without being
identical with them. 'Ecstasy' means 'standing outside of oneself' -
without ceasing to be oneself - with all the elements which are united
in the personal center.
In short, for Tillich, faith does not stand opposed to rational or
nonrational elements (reason and emotion respectively), as some
philosophers would maintain. Rather, it transcends them in an ecstatic
passion for the ultimate.
It should also be noted that Tillich does not exclude atheists in his
exposition of faith. Everyone has an ultimate concern, and this
concern can be in an act of faith, "even if the act of faith includes
the denial of God. Where there is ultimate concern, God can be denied
only in the name of God"
God above God
Bust of Tillich by
James Rosati in New Harmony, Indiana
Throughout most of his works
Paul Tillich provides an apologetic and
alternative ontological view of God. Traditional medieval
philosophical theology in the work of figures such as St. Anselm,
Duns Scotus, and
William of Ockham
William of Ockham tended to understand God as the
highest existing Being, to which predicates such as
omnipotence, omniscience, omnipresence, goodness, righteousness,
holiness, etc. may be ascribed. Arguments for and against the
existence of God presuppose such an understanding of God. Tillich is
critical of this mode of discourse which he refers to as "theological
theism," and argues that if God is
Being [das Seiende], even if the
highest Being, God cannot be properly called the source of all being,
and the question can of course then be posed as to why God exists, who
created God, when God's beginning is, and so on. To put the issue in
traditional language: if God is 'being' [das Seiende], then God is a
creature, even if the highest one, and thus cannot be the Creator.
Rather, God must be understood as the "ground of Being-Itself".
The problem persists in the same way when attempting to determine
whether God is an eternal essence, or an existing being, neither of
which are adequate, as traditional theology was well aware. When
God is understood in this way, it becomes clear that not only is it
impossible to argue for the "existence" of God, since God is beyond
the distinction between essence and existence, but it is also foolish:
one cannot deny that there is being, and thus there is a Power of
Being. The question then becomes whether and in what way personal
language about God and humanity's relationship to God is appropriate.
In distinction to "theological theism", Tillich refers to another kind
of theism as that of the "divine-human encounter". Such is the theism
of the encounter with the "Wholly Other" ("Das ganz Andere"), as in
the work of
Karl Barth and Rudolf Otto, and implies a personalism with
regard to God's self-revelation. Tillich is quite clear that this is
both appropriate and necessary, as it is the basis of the personalism
Religion altogether and the concept of the "Word of
God", but can become falsified if the theologian tries to turn
such encounters with God as the Wholly Other into an understanding of
God as a being. In other words, God is both personal and
Tillich's ontological view of God has precedent in Christian theology.
Many theologians, especially those in the Hellenistic or Patristic
period of Christianity's history that corresponds with the Church
Fathers, understood God as the "unoriginate source" (agennetos) of all
being. This view was espoused in particular by Origen, one of a
number of early theologians whose thought influenced that of Tillich.
Their views in turn had pre-Christian precedents in middle Platonism.
Tillich further argues that theological theism is not only logically
problematic, but is unable to speak into the situation of radical
doubt and despair about meaning in life. This issue, he said, was of
primary concern in the modern age, as opposed to anxiety about fate,
guilt, death and condemnation. This is because the state of
finitude entails by necessity anxiety, and that it is our finitude as
human beings, our being a mixture of being and nonbeing, that is at
the ultimate basis of anxiety. If God is not the ground of being
itself, then God cannot provide an answer to the question of finitude;
God would also be finite in some sense. The term "God Above God,"
then, means to indicate the God who appears, who is the ground of
being itself, when the "God" of theological theism has disappeared in
the anxiety of doubt. While on the one hand this God goes beyond
the God of theism as usually defined, it finds expression in many
religious symbols of the Christian faith, particularly that of the
crucified Christ. The possibility thus exists, says Tillich, that
religious symbols may be recovered which would otherwise have been
rendered ineffective by contemporary society.
Tillich argues that the God of theological theism is at the root of
much revolt against theism and religious faith in the modern period.
Tillich states, sympathetically, that the God of theological theism
deprives me of my subjectivity because he is all-powerful and
all-knowing. I revolt and make him into an object, but the revolt
fails and becomes desperate. God appears as the invincible tyrant, the
being in contrast with whom all other beings are without freedom and
subjectivity. He is equated with the recent tyrants who with the help
of terror try to transform everything into a mere object, a thing
among things, a cog in a machine they control. He becomes the model of
everything against which
Existentialism revolted. This is the God
Nietzsche said had to be killed because nobody can tolerate being made
into a mere object of absolute knowledge and absolute control. This is
the deepest root of atheism. It is an atheism which is justified as
the reaction against theological theism and its disturbing
Another reason Tillich criticized theological theism was because it
placed God into the subject-object dichotomy. This is the basic
distinction made in Epistemology, that branch of
deals with human knowledge, how it is possible, what it is, and its
limits. Epistemologically, God cannot be made into an object, that is,
an object of the knowing subject. Tillich deals with this question
under the rubric of the relationality of God. The question is "whether
there are external relations between God and the creature".
Traditionally Christian theology has always understood the doctrine of
creation to mean precisely this external relationality between God,
the Creator, and the creature as separate and not identical realities.
Tillich reminds us of the point, which can be found in Luther, that
"there is no place to which man can withdraw from the divine thou,
because it includes the ego and is nearer to the ego than the ego to
Tillich goes further to say that the desire to draw God into the
subject–object dichotomy is an "insult" to the divine holiness.
Similarly, if God were made into the subject rather than the object of
knowledge (The Ultimate Subject), then the rest of existing entities
then become subjected to the absolute knowledge and scrutiny of God,
and the human being is "reified," or made into a mere object. It would
deprive the person of his or her own subjectivity and creativity.
According to Tillich, theological theism has provoked the rebellions
found in atheism and Existentialism, although other social factors
such as the industrial revolution have also contributed to the
"reification" of the human being. The modern man could no longer
tolerate the idea of being an "object" completely subjected to the
absolute knowledge of God. Tillich argued, as mentioned, that
theological theism is "bad theology".
The God of the theological theism is a being besides others and as
such a part of the whole reality. He is certainly considered its most
important part, but as a part and therefore as subjected to the
structure of the whole. He is supposed to be beyond the ontological
elements and categories which constitute reality. But every statement
subjects him to them. He is seen as a self which has a world, as an
ego which relates to a thought, as a cause which is separated from its
effect, as having a definite space and endless time. He is a being,
Alternatively, Tillich presents the above-mentioned ontological view
of God as Being-Itself, Ground of Being, Power of Being, and
occasionally as Abyss or God's "Abysmal Being". What makes Tillich's
ontological view of God different from theological theism is that it
transcends it by being the foundation or ultimate reality that
"precedes" all beings. Just as
Heidegger is ontologically
prior to conception, Tillich views God to be beyond Being-Itself,
manifested in the structure of beings. God is not a supernatural
entity among other entities. Instead, God is the ground upon which all
beings exist. We cannot perceive God as an object which is related to
a subject because God precedes the subject–object dichotomy.
Thus Tillich dismisses a literalistic Biblicism. Instead of rejecting
the notion of personal God, however, Tillich sees it as a symbol that
points directly to the Ground of Being. Since the Ground of Being
ontologically precedes reason, it cannot be comprehended since
comprehension presupposes the subject–object dichotomy. Tillich
disagreed with any literal philosophical and religious statements that
can be made about God. Such literal statements attempt to define God
and lead not only to anthropomorphism but also to a philosophical
Immanuel Kant warned against, that setting limits against
the transcendent inevitably leads to contradictions. Any statements
about God are simply symbolic, but these symbols are sacred in the
sense that they function to participate or point to the Ground of
Being. Tillich insists that anyone who participates in these symbols
is empowered by the Power of Being, which overcomes and conquers
nonbeing and meaninglessness.
Tillich also further elaborated the thesis of the God above the God of
theism in his Systematic Theology.
… (the God above the God of theism) This has been misunderstood as a
dogmatic statement of a pantheistic or mystical character. First of
all, it is not a dogmatic, but an apologetic, statement. It takes
seriously the radical doubt experienced by many people. It gives one
the courage of self-affirmation even in the extreme state of radical
— Tillich, Systematic
Theology Vol. 2 , p. 12
… In such a state the God of both religious and theological language
disappears. But something remains, namely, the seriousness of that
doubt in which meaning within meaninglessness is affirmed. The source
of this affirmation of meaning within meaninglessness, of certitude
within doubt, is not the God of traditional theism but the "God above
God," the power of being, which works through those who have no name
for it, not even the name God.
— Tillich, Systematic
Theology Vol. 2 , p. 12
…This is the answer to those who ask for a message in the
nothingness of their situation and at the end of their courage to be.
But such an extreme point is not a space with which one can live. The
dialectics of an extreme situation are a criterion of truth but not
the basis on which a whole structure of truth can be built.
— Tillich, Systematic
Theology Vol. 2 , p.12
Tillich's ontology of courage
In Paul Tillich's work The Courage to Be he defines courage as the
self-affirmation of one’s being in spite of a threat of nonbeing. He
relates courage to anxiety, anxiety being the threat of non-being and
the courage to be what we use to combat that threat. For Tillich, he
outlines three types of anxiety and thus three ways to display the
courage to be.
1) The Anxiety of Fate and Death a. The Anxiety of Fate and Death is
the most basic and universal form of anxiety for Tillich. It relates
quite simply to the recognition of our mortality. This troubles us
humans. We become anxious when we are unsure whether our actions
create a causal damnation which leads to a very real and quite
unavoidable death (42-44). “Nonbeing threatens man’s ontic
self-affirmation, relatively in terms of fate, absolutely in terms of
death” (41). b. We display courage when we cease to rely on others
to tell us what will come of us, (what will happen when we die etc.)
and begin seeking those answers out for ourselves. Called the
“courage of confidence” (162-63).
2) The Anxiety of Guilt and Condemnation a. This anxiety afflicts our
moral self-affirmation. We as humans are responsible for our moral
being, and when asked by our judge (whomever that may be) what we have
made of ourselves we must answer. The anxiety is produced when we
realize our being is unsatisfactory. “It [Nonbeing] threatens
man’s moral self-affirmation, relatively in terms of guilt,
absolutely in terms of condemnation” (41). b. We display courage
when we first identify our sin; despair or whatever is causing us
guilt or afflicting condemnation. We then rely on the idea that we are
accepted regardless. “The courage to be is the courage to accept
oneself as accepted in spite of being unacceptable” (164).
3) The Anxiety of Meaningless and Emptiness a. The Anxiety of
Meaninglessness and Emptiness attacks our being as a whole. We worry
about the loss of an ultimate concern or goal. This anxiety is also
brought on by a loss of spirituality. We as beings feel the threat of
non-being when we feel we have no place or purpose in the world. “It
[Nonbeing] threatens man’s spiritual self-affirmation, relatively in
terms of emptiness, absolutely in terms of meaninglessness” (41). b.
We display the courage to be when facing this anxiety by displaying
true faith, and by again, self-affirming oneself. We draw from the
“power of being” which is God for Tillich and use that faith to in
turn affirm ourselves and negate the non-being. We can find our
meaning and purpose through the “power of being” (172-73).
Tillich writes that the ultimate source of the courage to be is the
"God above God," which transcends the theistic idea of God and is the
content of absolute faith (defined as "the accepting of the acceptance
without somebody or something that accepts") (185).
Two of Tillich's works, The Courage to Be (1952) and Dynamics of Faith
(1957), were read widely, including by people who would not normally
read religious books. In The Courage to Be, he lists three basic
anxieties: anxiety about our biological finitude, i.e. that arising
from the knowledge that we will eventually die; anxiety about our
moral finitude, linked to guilt; and anxiety about our existential
finitude, a sense of aimlessness in life. Tillich related these to
three different historical eras: the early centuries of the Christian
era; the Reformation; and the 20th century. Tillich's popular works
have influenced psychology as well as theology, having had an
influence on Rollo May, whose "The Courage to Create" was inspired by
"The Courage to Be".
Today, Tillich’s most observable legacy may well be that of a
spiritually-oriented public intellectual and teacher with a broad and
continuing range of influence. Tillich‘s chapel sermons (especially
at Union) were enthusiastically received (Tillich was known as the
only faculty member of his day at Union willing to attend the revivals
of Billy Graham) Tillich's students have commented on
Tillich's approachability as a lecturer and his need for interaction
with his audience. When Tillich was University Professor at
Harvard, he was chosen as keynote speaker from among an auspicious
gathering of many who had appeared on the cover of Time Magazine
during its first four decades. Tillich along with his student,
psychologist Rollo May, was an early leader at the Esalen
New Age catchphrases describing God
(spatially) as the "Ground of Being" and (temporally) as the "Eternal
Now," in tandem with the view that God is not an entity among
entities but rather is "Being-Itself"—notions which Eckhart Tolle,
for example, has invoked repeatedly throughout his career—were
paradigmatically renovated by Tillich, although of course these ideas
derive from Christian mystical sources as well as from ancient and
medieval theologians such as
St. Augustine and St. Thomas
The introductory philosophy course taught by the person Tillich
considered to be his best student, John Edwin Smith, "probably turned
more undergraduates to the study of philosophy at
Yale than all the
other philosophy courses put together. His courses in philosophy of
American philosophy defined those fields for many years.
Perhaps most important of all, he has educated a younger generation in
the importance of the public life in philosophy and in how to practice
philosophy publicly.” In the 1980s and 1990s the Boston
University Institute for
Philosophy and Religion, a leading forum
dedicated to the revival of the American public tradition of
philosophy and religion, flourished under the leadership of
Tillich’s student and expositor Leroy S. Rouner.
Martin Buber criticized Tillich's "transtheistic position" as a
reduction of God to the impersonal "necessary being" of Thomas
Tillich has been criticized from the
Barthian wing of Protestantism
for what is alleged to be correlation theory's tendency to reduce God
and his relationship to man to anthropocentric terms. Tillich counters
that Barth's approach to theology denies the "possibility of
understanding God's relation to man in any other way than
heteronomously or extrinsically". Defenders of Tillich claim that
critics misunderstand the distinction Tillich makes between God's
essence as the unconditional ("das unbedingte") "Ground of Being"
which is unknowable, and how God reveals himself to mankind in
existence. Tillich establishes the distinction in the first
chapter of his Systematic
Theology Volume One: "But though God in his
abysmal nature [footnote: 'Calvin: in his essence' ] is in no way
dependent on man, God in his self manifestation to man is dependent on
the way man receives his manifestation."
Some conservative strains of Evangelical Christianity believe
Tillich's thought is too unorthodox to qualify as Christianity at all,
but rather as a form of pantheism or atheism. The Evangelical
Theology states, "At best Tillich was a pantheist, but
his thought borders on atheism."
A set of Paul Tillich's Main Works - Hauptwerke.
Tillich, Paul (1912),
Mysticism and Guilt-Consciousness in Schelling's
Philosophical Development, Bucknell University Press (published 1974),
——— (1956) [1925, Die religiose Lage der Gegenwart; Holt 1932],
The Religious Situation, Meridian Press, archived from the original on
——— (c. 1977) , The Socialist Decision, New York: Harper
& Row .
——— (1936), The Interpretation of History, archived from the
original on 2005-11-26 .
——— (1948), The
Protestant Era, The University of
archived from the original on 2005-11-26 .
——— (1948), The Shaking of the Foundations (sermon collection),
Charles Scribner's Sons, archived from the original on
——— (1951–1963), Systematic
Theology (3 volumes)format=
requires url= (help), University of
Chicago Press .
——— (1951), Systematic Theology, 1,
ISBN 978-0-22680337-1 .
——— (1957), Systematic Theology, 2: Existence and the Christ,
ISBN 978-0-22680338-8 .
——— (1963), Systematic Theology, 3: Life and the Spirit: History
and the Kingdom of God, ISBN 978-0-22680339-5
——— (1952), The Courage to Be,
Yale University Press,
ISBN 978-0-30017002-3 .
——— (1954), Love, Power, and Justice: Ontological Analysis and
Ethical Applications, Oxford University Press,
——— (1955), Biblical
Religion and the Search for Ultimate
Reality, University Of
Chicago Press, ISBN 978-0-22680341-8
——— (2006) [1955, Charles Scribner's Sons], The New Being
(sermon collection), introd. by Mary Ann Stenger, Bison Press,
ISBN 978-0-80329458-5 ,
——— (1957), Dynamics of Faith, Harper & Row,
Theology of Culture, Oxford University Press,
——— (1963), Christianity and the Encounter of the World
Columbia University Press, archived from the original on
——— (1995) [1963, Harper & Row],
Morality and Beyond,
Westminster John Knox Press, ISBN 978-0-664-25564-0 .
——— (2003) [1963, Charles Scribner’s Sons], The Eternal Now
(university sermons 1955–63), SCM Press, ISBN 0-334-02875-2,
archived from the original on 2005-11-26 .
——— (1965), Brown, D. Mackenzie, ed., Ultimate Concern: Tillich
in Dialogue, Harper & Row, archived from the original on
On the Boundary, 1966 New York: Charles Scribner’s
——— (1984) , Anshen, Ruth Nanda, ed., My Search for
Absolutes (posthumous; includes autobiographical chapter), Simon &
Schuster, ISBN 0-671-50585-8, archived from the original on
Philosophy of Religion", in What Is Religion? (1969), ed. James
Luther Adams. New York: Harper & Row
———, "The Conquest of the
Religion in the Philosophy
of Religion", What is Religion?
"On the Idea of a
Theology of Culture" in What is Religion?
——— (1970), Brauer, J.C, ed., My Travel Diary 1936: Between Two
Worlds, Harper & Row, archived from the original on
——— (1972), Braaten, Carl Edward, ed., A History of Christian
Thought: From its Judaic and Hellenistic Origins to Existentialism,
Simon & Schuster, ISBN 978-0-67121426-5 (edited from
his lectures and published posthumously).
A History of Christian Thought (1968), Harper & Row, contains the
first part of the two part 1972 edition (comprising the 38 New York
——— (1981) [German, 1923], The System of the Sciences According
to Objects and Methods, Paul Wiebe transl., London: Bucknell
University Press, ISBN 978-0-83875013-1 .
——— (1999), Church, F. Forrester, ed., The Essential Tillich
(anthology), U. of
Chicago Press, ISBN 978-0-22680343-2
List of American philosophers
^ Neuhaus, Richard John (May 1990). "Why Wait for the Kingdom? The
Theonomist Temptation". First Things. Retrieved 8 August 2013.
^ Peters, Ted (1995), Braaten, Carl E, ed., A map of twentieth-century
theology: readings from
Karl Barth to radical pluralism (review),
Fortress Press, backjacket, retrieved 2011-01-01, The current
generation of students has heard only the names of Barth, Brunner,
Bultmann, Bonhoeffer, Tillich, and the Niebuhrs.
^ a b Bowker, John, ed. (2000), "Tillich, Paul Johannes Oskar", The
Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions, Oxford Reference Online,
Oxford University Press .
^ a b c d e f "Tillich, Paul", Encyclopædia Britannica (online ed.),
2008, retrieved 17 February 2008 .
^ Gesamtverzeichnis des Wingolf, Lichtenberg, 1991 .
^ a b Pauck, Wilhelm & Marion 1976.
^ "Paul Tillich, Lover", Time, October 8, 1973 .
^ Wolfgang Saxon (October 30, 1988), "Hannah Tillich, 92, Christian
Theologian's Widow", New York Times
^ O’Meara, Thomas (2006), "
Paul Tillich and
Erich Przywara at
Davos", Gregorianum, 87: 227–38 .
^ Tillich 1964, p. 16.
^ Stone, Ronald H. (1992-01-01), Professor Reinhold Niebuhr: A Mentor
to the Twentieth Century, Westminster John Knox Press, p. 115,
ISBN 978-0-664-25390-5, retrieved 2016-03-14
^ Pauck, Wilhelm & Marion 1976, p. 225.
^ Williams, George Hunston, Divinings:
Religion At Harvard, 2,
pp. 424 f.
^ Meyer, Betty H. (2003). The ARC story: a narrative account of the
Society for the Arts, Religion, and Contemporary Culture. New York:
Religion and Intellectual Life.
^ Kegley & Bretall 1964, pp. ix–x.
^ "Dr. Paul Tillich, Outstanding
Protestant Theologian", The Times, 25
^ Thomas, John Heywood (2002), Tillich, Continuum,
ISBN 0-8264-5082-2 .
^ a b Tillich 1951, p. 61.
^ a b c Tillich 1951, p. 64.
^ Tillich 1955, pp. 11–20.
^ Tillich 1957, p. 23.
^ Tillich 1952, pp. 58ff.
^ Tillich 1951, p. 28.
^ McKelway 1964, p. 47.
^ Tillich 1951, p. 47.
^ Tillich 1951, p. 40.
^ Tillich 1951, p. 35.
^ McKelway 1964, pp. 55–56.
^ Tillich 1951, p. 52.
^ McKelway 1964, p. 80.
^ Tillich 1951, p. 50.
^ Tillich 1951, p. 60.
^ The development of the intellectual profile of Tillich happened in a
context where the fundamental ontology of Martin
Heidegger was also
taking shape, and especially in terms of the Heideggerian reflection
on the question of being (Seinsfrage) as it unfolded in Sein und Zeit
Being and Time), the connection of Tillich's notion of being to that
Heidegger has been rarely studied; a recent account of this has
been published in: Nader El-Bizri, 'Ontological Meditations on Tillich
and Heidegger', Iris: Annales de Philosophie Volume 36 (2015), pp.
109-114 (a peer-refereed journal published by the Faculté des lettres
et des sciences humaines, Université Saint-Joseph, Beyrouth)
^ Tillich 1957, p. 10.
^ Tillich 1957, p. 11.
^ Tillich, Systematic Theology, Vol. 2, p. 4
^ The Courage to Be, page 182
^ Wainwright, William (2010-09-29), "Concepts of God", Stanford
Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Stanford University, retrieved
^ Tillich, Dynamics of Faith, pp. 1–2
^ Tillich, Dynamics of Faith, p. 5
^ Tillich, Dynamics of Faith, pp. 8–9
^ Tillich Interview part 12 on YouTube
^ Tillich, Dynamics of Faith, p. 52
^ "Paul Tillich". www.lectionarycentral.com. Retrieved
^ Tillich, Systematic
Theology vol. 1, p. 236
Religion and the Search for Ultimate Reality, University of
Chicago Press: Chicago, 1955, 21-62.
^ The Courage to Be, Yale: New Haven, 2000, 184.
^ The Courage to Be, Yale: New Haven, 2000, 187.
^ J. N. D. Kelly, Early Christian Doctrines, HarperCollins:
New York, 1978, 128.
^ a b Tillich, Courage To Be, p 184.
^ The Courage to Be, Yale: New Haven, 2000, 190.
^ Tillich, Courage To Be, p 185.
^ a b Tillich, Systematic
Theology vol. 1, p. 271
^ Tillich, Systematic
Theology vol. 1, p. 272
^ a b Tillich,
Theology of Culture, p 15.
Theology of Culture, p 127-132.
^ Grenz, Stanley J. and Roger E. Olson (1993). 20th-Century Theology:
God & the World in a Transitional Age. Downers Grove IL:
InterVarsity Press. p. 116. ISBN 978-0830815258.
^ Bunge, Nancy. "From Hume to Tillich: Teaching
Philosophy Now. Retrieved 30 December
2012. As a former student, I can attest that he invited students to
leave questions on the podium and he would invariably open the lecture
by responding to them, often in a way that startled the student by
revealing what a profound question he or she had asked.
^ Anderson, Walter Truett (2004). The Upstart Spring: Esalen and the
Human Potential Movement: The First Twenty Years. Lincoln NE:
iUniverse. p. 104. ISBN 978-0595307357.
^ "There is no present in the mere stream of time; but the present is
real, as our experience witnesses. And it is real because eternity
breaks into time and gives it a real present. We could not even say
now, if eternity did not elevate that moment above the ever-passing
time. Eternity is always present; and its presence is the cause of our
having the present at all. When the psalmist looks at God, for Whom a
thousand years are like one day, he is looking at that eternity which
alone gives him a place on which he can stand, a now which has
infinite reality and infinite significance. In every moment that we
say now, something temporal and something eternal are united. Whenever
a human being says, 'Now I am living; now I am really present,'
resisting the stream which drives the future into the past, eternity
is. In each such Now eternity is made manifest; in every real now,
eternity is present." (Tillich, "The Mystery of Time," in The Shaking
of the Foundations).
^ In his September 2010 Live Meditation
(https://www.eckharttolletv.com/), e.g., Tolle expounds at length on
"the dimension of depth".
^ Cary, Phillip (2012). "Augustinian Compatibilism and the Doctrine of
Election", in Augustine and Philosophy, ed. by Phillip Cary, John
Doody and Kim Paffenroth. Lanham MD: Lexington Books. p. 91.
^ Both Augustine and later
Boethius used the concept of the "eternal
now" to investigate the relationship between divine omnipotence and
omniscience and the temporality of human free will; and Thomas
Aquinas' synthesis of Platonic and Aristotelian ontologies with
Christian theology included the concepts of God as the "ground of
being" and "being-itself" (ipsum esse).
The Chronicle of Higher Education
The Chronicle of Higher Education (Jan. 24, 2010)
^ Novak, David (Spring 1992), "Buber and Tillich", Journal of
Ecumenical Studies, 29 (2): 159–74 , as reprinted in Novak,
David (2005), Talking With Christians: Musings of A Jewish Theologian,
Wm. B. Eerdmans, p. 101 .
^ Dourley, John P. (1975),
Paul Tillich and Bonaventure: An Evaluation
of Tillich's Claim to Stand in the Augustinian-Franciscan Tradition,
Brill Archive, p. 12, ISBN 978-900404266-7
^ Boozer, Jack Stewart (1952), The place of reason in Paul Tillich's
concept of God (dissertation), Boston University, p. 269
^ Tillich held an equally low opinion of biblical literalism. See
(Tillich 1951, p. 3): ‘When fundamentalism is combined with an
antitheological bias, as it is, for instance, in its
biblicistic-evangelical form, the theological truth of yesterday is
defended as an unchangeable message against the theological truth of
today and tomorrow.
Fundamentalism fails to make contact with the
present situation, not because it speaks from beyond every situation,
but because it speaks from a situation from the past. It elevates
something finite and transitory to infinite and eternal validity. In
this respect fundamentalism has demonic traits.’
^ Gundry, SN, "Death of God Theology", in Elwell, Walter A,
Evangelical Dictionary of Theology, ISBN 978-0-8010-2075-9,
Adams, James Luther. 1965. Paul Tillich’s
Philosophy of Culture,
Science, and Religion. New York: New York University Press
Armbruster, Carl J. 1967. The Vision of Paul Tillich. New York: Sheed
Breisach, Ernst. 1962. Introduction to Modern Existentialism. New
York: Grove Press
Bruns, Katja (2011), "Anthropologie zwischen Theologie und
Paul Tillich und Kurt Goldstein. Historische
Grundlagen und systematische Perspektiven", Kontexte. Neue Beiträge
zur historischen und systematischen Theologie (in German), Goettingen:
Ruprecht, 41, ISBN 978-3-7675-7143-3 .
Carey, Patrick W., and Lienhard, Joseph. 2002. "Biographical
Dictionary of Christian Theologians". Mass: Hendrickson
Ford, Lewis S. 1966. "Tillich and Thomas: The Analogy of Being."
Religion 46:2 (April)
Freeman, David H. 1962. Tillich. Philadelphia: Presbyterian and
Reformed Publishing Co.
Grenz, Stanley, and Olson, Roger E. 1997. 20th Century
& the World in a Transitional Age
Hamilton, Kenneth. 1963. The System and the Gospel: A Critique of Paul
Tillich. New York: Macmillan
Hammond, Guyton B. 1965. Estrangement: A Comparison of the Thought of
Paul Tillich and Erich Fromm. Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press.
Hegel, G. W. F. 1967. The Phenomenology of Mind, trans. With intro. J.
B. Baillie, Torchbook intro. by George Lichtheim. New York: Harper
Hook, Sidney, ed. 1961 Religious Experience and Truth: A Symposium
(New York: New York University Press)
Hopper, David. 1968. Tillich: A Theological Portrait. Philadelphia:
Howlett, Duncan. 1964. The Fourth American Faith. New York: Harper
Kaufman, Walter (1961a), The
Faith of a Heretic, New York:
——— (1961b), Critique of
Religion and Philosophy, Garden City,
NY: Anchor Books, Doubleday .
Kegley, Charles W; Bretall, Robert W, eds. (1964), The
Paul Tillich, New York: Macmillan .
Kelsey, David H. 1967 The Fabric of Paul Tillich’s Theology. New
Yale University Press
Łata, Jan Adrian (1995), Odpowiadająca teologia Paula Tillicha (in
Polish), Signum, Oleśnica: Oficyna Wydaw,
ISBN 83-85631-38-0 .
MacIntyre, Alasdair. 1963. “God and the Theologians,” Encounter
Martin, Bernard. 1963. The Existentialist
Theology of Paul Tillich.
New Haven: College and University Press
Marx, Karl. n.d. Capital. Ed. Frederick Engels. trans. from 3rd German
ed. by Samuel Moore and Edward Aveling. New York: The Modern Library
May, Rollo. 1973. Paulus: Reminiscences of a Friendship. New York:
Harper & Row
McKelway, Alexander J (1964), The Systematic
Theology of Paul Tillich:
A Review and Analysis, Richmond: John Knox Press .
Modras, Ronald. 1976.
Paul Tillich 's
Theology of the Church: A
Catholic Appraisal. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1976.
Palmer, Michael. 1984. Paul Tillich's
Philosophy of Art. New York:
Walter de Gruyter
Pauck; Wilhelm; Marion (1976), Paul Tillich: His Life & Thought,
1: Life, New York: Harper & Row .
Re Manning, Russell, ed. 2009. The Cambridge Companion to Paul
Tillich. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Re Manning, Russell, ed. 2015. Retrieving the Radical Tillich. His
Legacy and Contemporary Importance. New York: Palgrave Macmillan
Rowe, William L. 1968. Religious Symbols and God: A Philosophical
Study of Tillich’s Theology. Chicago: University of
Scharlemann, Robert P. 1969. Reflection and Doubt in the Thought of
Paul Tillich. New Haven:
Yale University Press
Schweitzer, Albert. 1961. The Quest of the Historical Jesus, trans. W.
Montgomery. New York: Macmillan
Soper, David Wesley. 1952. Major Voices in American Theology: Six
Contemporary Leaders Philadelphia: Westminster
Tavard, George H. 1962.
Paul Tillich and the Christian Message. New
York: Charles Scribner’s Sons
Taylor, Mark Kline, ed. (1991), Paul Tillich:
Theologian of the
Boundaries, Minneapolis: Fortress Press,
Thomas, George F (1965), Religious Philosophies of the West, New York:
Thomas, J. Heywood (1963), Paul Tillich: An Appraisal, Philadelphia:
Tillich, Hannah. 1973. From Time to Time. New York: Stein and Day
Tucker, Robert. 1961.
Philosophy and Myth in Karl Marx. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press
Wheat, Leonard F. 1970. Paul Tillich’s Dialectical Humanism:
Unmasking the God above God. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press
Yunt, Jeremy D. 2017. Faithful to Nature:
Paul Tillich and the
Spiritual Roots of Environmental Ethics. Barred Owl Books.
Yunt, Jeremy D. 2015. Love, Gravity, and God:
Religion for Those Who
Reason. Barred Owl Books.
TRANSLATIONS OF HIS WORKS
IN ROMANIAN LANGUAGE:
Paul Tillich: (Dynamics of faith)Dinamica credinţei. Translation from
English language into Romanian language with introductory note by
Sorin-Avram Vîrtop. Editura Herald, Bucureşti, 2007.
ISBN 978-973-7970-89-3(172 pag.),(1000 ex., Citations:
Paul Tillich: (The courage to be)Curajul de a fi. Translation from
English language into Romanian language by Sorin-Avram Vîrtop.
Editura Herald, Bucureşti, 2007. ISBN 978-973-7970-85-5 (219
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Paul Tillich.
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Paul Tillich
The Andover-Harvard Theological Library at Harvard Divinity School
holds the papers of
Paul Tillich and Hannah Tillich.
"A Conversation With Dr.
Paul Tillich and Werner Rode, Graduate
Student in Theology." Film reel, 1956.
Tillich, Paul, 1886—1965. Audiocassettes, 1955–1965
Tillich, Paul, 1886—1965. Papers, 1894–1974
Tillich, Paul, 1886—1965, collector. Literature about Paul Tillich,
Tillich, Hannah. Papers, 1896–1976
Works by or about
Paul Tillich at Internet Archive
James Rosati's sculpture of Tillich's head in the
Paul Tillich Park in
New Harmony, Indiana.
Paul Tillich Society.
James Wu. "
Paul Tillich (1886–1965)". Boston Collaborative
Encyclopedia of Western Theology.
Tillich Park Finger Labyrinth (PDF) . Walk Tillich Park while
discerning Tillich's theology. Created by Rev. Bill Ressl after an
inspirational walk in Tillich Park in New Harmony, Indiana.
Tillich profile, and synopsis of Gifford Lectures
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Thomas J. J. Altizer
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Philosophy of religion
Concepts in religion
Problem of evil
Conceptions of God
Existence of God
Fine-tuning of the Universe
Divine command theory
Theories about religions
Problem of evil
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(by date active)
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King James VI and I
Marcion of Sinope
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W. K. Clifford
J L Mackie
George I Mavrodes
William L Rowe
Dewi Z Phillips
Robert Merrihew Adams
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William Lane Craig
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Criticism of religion
Ethics in religion
History of religions
Relationship between religion and science
Political science of religion
Faith and rationality
Philosophy of language
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
Wilhelm von Humboldt
Ferdinand de Saussure
Benjamin Lee Whorf
J. L. Austin
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P. F. Strawson
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Descriptivist theory of names
Direct reference theory
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Theory of descriptions
Principle of compositionality
Sense and reference
Philosophy of information
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Good and evil
Suffering or Pain
Augustine of Hippo
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