The Info List - Paul Tillich

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Paul Johannes Tillich (August 20, 1886 – October 22, 1965) was a German-American Christian existentialist philosopher and Lutheran Protestant
theologian who is widely regarded as one of the most influential theologians of the twentieth century.[2] Among the general public, he is best known for his works The Courage to Be (1952) and Dynamics of Faith
(1957), which introduced issues of theology and modern culture to a general readership. In academic theology, he is best known for his major three-volume work Systematic Theology
(1951–63) in which he developed his "method of correlation", an approach of exploring the symbols of Christian revelation as answers to the problems of human existence raised by contemporary existential philosophical analysis.[3][4]


1 Biography 2 Theology

2.1 Method of correlation 2.2 Use of "being" in systematic theology 2.3 Life and the Spirit 2.4 Absolute faith 2.5 Faith
as ultimate concern 2.6 God above God 2.7 Tillich's ontology of courage

3 Popular works 4 Reception

4.1 Criticism

5 Bibliography 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links

Biography[edit] Tillich was born on August 20, 1886, in the small village of Starzeddel
(Starosiedle), Province of Brandenburg, which was then part of Germany. He was the oldest of three children, with two sisters: Johanna (born 1888, died 1920) and Elisabeth (born 1893). Tillich’s Prussian father Johannes Tillich was a conservative Lutheran
pastor of the Evangelical State Church of Prussia's older Provinces; his mother Mathilde Dürselen was from the Rhineland
and more liberal. When Tillich was four, his father became superintendent of a diocese in Bad Schönfliess
Bad Schönfliess
(now Trzcińsko-Zdrój, Poland), a town of three thousand, where Tillich began secondary school (Elementarschule). In 1898, Tillich was sent to Königsberg in der Neumark
Königsberg in der Neumark
(now Chojna, Poland) to begin his gymnasium schooling. He was billeted in a boarding house and experienced a loneliness that he sought to overcome by reading the Bible while encountering humanistic ideas at school.[4] In 1900, Tillich’s father was transferred to Berlin, resulting in Tillich switching in 1901 to a Berlin
school, from which he graduated in 1904. Before his graduation, however, his mother died of cancer in September 1903, when Tillich was 17. Tillich attended several universities — the University of Berlin
beginning in 1904, the University of Tübingen
University of Tübingen
in 1905, and the University of Halle-Wittenberg from 1905 to 1907. He received his Doctor of Philosophy
degree at the University of Breslau
University of Breslau
in 1911 and his Licentiate of Theology
degree at Halle-Wittenberg in 1912.[4] During his time at university, he became a member of the Wingolf in Berlin, Tübingen and Halle.[5] That same year, 1912, Tillich was ordained as a Lutheran
minister in the Province of Brandenburg. On 28 September 1914 he married Margarethe ("Grethi") Wever (1888–1968), and in October he joined the Imperial German Army
Imperial German Army
as a chaplain during World War I. Grethi deserted Tillich in 1919 after an affair that produced a child not fathered by Tillich; the two then divorced.[6][page needed] Tillich’s academic career began after the war; he became a Privatdozent of Theology
at the University of Berlin, a post he held from 1919 to 1924. On his return from the war he had met Hannah Werner-Gottschow, then married and pregnant.[7] In March 1924 they married; it was the second marriage for both. She later wrote a book entitled From Time to Time about their life together, which included their commitment to open marriage, upsetting to some, but they moved together into old age.[8] From 1924 to 1925, Tillich served as a Professor of Theology
at the University of Marburg, where he began to develop his systematic theology, teaching a course on it during the last of his three terms. From 1925 until 1929, Tillich was a Professor of Theology
at the Dresden University of Technology
Dresden University of Technology
and the University of Leipzig. He held the same post at the University of Frankfurt from 1929 to 1933. Paul Tillich
Paul Tillich
was in conversation with Erich Przywara.[9] While at the University of Frankfurt, Tillich gave public lectures and speeches throughout Germany that brought him into conflict with the Nazi
movement. When Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
became German Chancellor in 1933, Tillich was dismissed from his position. Reinhold Niebuhr
Reinhold Niebuhr
visited Germany in the summer of 1933 and, already impressed with Tillich’s writings, contacted Tillich upon learning of Tillich’s dismissal. Niebuhr urged Tillich to join the faculty at New York City’s Union Theological Seminary; Tillich accepted.[6][10] At the age of 47, Tillich moved with his family to America. This meant learning English, the language in which Tillich would eventually publish works such as the Systematic Theology. From 1933 until 1955 he taught at Union Theological Seminary, where he began as a Visiting Professor of Philosophy
of Religion. During 1933–34 he was also a Visiting Lecturer in Philosophy
at Columbia University.[4] The Fellowship of Socialist Christians was organized in the early 1930s by Reinhold Niebuhr
Reinhold Niebuhr
and others with similar views. Later it changed its name to Frontier Fellowship and then to Christian Action. The main supporters of the Fellowship in the early days included Tillich, Eduard Heimann, Sherwood Eddy and Rose Terlin. In its early days the group thought capitalist individualism was incompatible with Christian ethics. Although not Communist, the group acknowledged Karl Marx's social philosophy.[11]

Tillich’s gravestone in the Paul Tillich
Paul Tillich
Park, New Harmony, Indiana.

Tillich acquired tenure at the Union Theological Seminary in 1937, and in 1940 he was promoted to Professor of Philosophical Theology and became an American citizen.[4] At Union, Tillich earned his reputation, publishing a series of books that outlined his particular synthesis of Protestant
Christian theology and existential philosophy. He published On the Boundary in 1936; The Protestant
Era, a collection of his essays, in 1948; and The Shaking of the Foundations, the first of three volumes of his sermons, also in 1948. His collections of sermons would give Tillich a broader audience than he had yet experienced. His most heralded achievements though, were the 1951 publication of volume one of Systematic Theology
which brought Tillich academic acclaim, and the 1952 publication of The Courage to Be. The first volume of the systematic theology series prompted an invitation to give the prestigious Gifford lectures during 1953–54 at the University of Aberdeen. The latter book, called "his masterpiece",[12] was based on his 1950 Dwight H. Terry Lectureship and reached a wide general readership.[4] These works led to an appointment at the Harvard Divinity School
Harvard Divinity School
in 1955, where he became one of the University’s five University Professors – the five highest ranking professors at Harvard. He was primarily a professor of undergraduates because Harvard did not have a department of religion for them, but thereby he was more exposed to the wider University and "most fully embodied the ideal of a University Professor."[13] In 1961 Tillich became one of the founding members of the Society for the Arts, Religion
and Contemporary Culture, an organization with which he maintained ties for the remainder of his life.[14] During this period, he published volume 2 of Systematic Theology
and also the popular book Dynamics of Faith
(both 1957). His career at Harvard lasted until 1962 when he moved to the University of Chicago, remaining a professor of theology there until his death in 1965. Volume 3 of Systematic Theology
was published in 1963. In 1964, Tillich became the first theologian to be honored in Kegley and Bretall's Library of Living Theology: "The adjective ‘great,’ in our opinion, can be applied to very few thinkers of our time, but Tillich, we are far from alone in believing, stands unquestionably amongst these few".[15] A widely quoted critical assessment of his importance was Georgia Harkness' comment: "What Whitehead was to American philosophy, Tillich has been to American theology".[16][17] Tillich died on October 22, 1965, ten days after having a heart attack. In 1966, his ashes were interred in the Paul Tillich
Paul Tillich
Park in New Harmony, Indiana. Gravestone inscription : "And he shall be like a tree planted by the rivers of water, that bringeth forth his fruit for his season, his leaf also shall not wither. And whatsoever he doeth shall prosper." Theology[edit]

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v t e

Method of correlation[edit] The key to understanding Tillich’s theology is what he calls the "method of correlation." It is an approach that correlates insights from Christian revelation with the issues raised by existential, psychological, and philosophical analysis.[3] Tillich states in the introduction to the Systematic Theology:

formulates the questions implied in human existence, and theology formulates the answers implied in divine self-manifestation under the guidance of the questions implied in human existence. This is a circle which drives man to a point where question and answer are not separated. This point, however, is not a moment in time.[18]

The Christian message provides the answers to the questions implied in human existence. These answers are contained in the revelatory events on which Christianity is based and are taken by systematic theology from the sources, through the medium, under the norm. Their content cannot be derived from questions that would come from an analysis of human existence. They are ‘spoken’ to human existence from beyond it, in a sense. Otherwise, they would not be answers, for the question is human existence itself.[19]

For Tillich, the existential questions of human existence are associated with the field of philosophy and, more specifically, ontology (the study of being). This is because, according to Tillich, a lifelong pursuit of philosophy reveals that the central question of every philosophical inquiry always comes back to the question of being, or what it means to be, to exist, to be a finite human being.[20] To be correlated with these questions are the theological answers, themselves derived from Christian revelation. The task of the philosopher primarily involves developing the questions, whereas the task of the theologian primarily involves developing the answers to these questions. However, it should be remembered that the two tasks overlap and include one another: the theologian must be somewhat of a philosopher and vice versa, for Tillich’s notion of faith as “ultimate concern” necessitates that the theological answer be correlated with, compatible with, and in response to the general ontological question which must be developed independently from the answers.[21][22] Thus, on one side of the correlation lies an ontological analysis of the human situation, whereas on the other is a presentation of the Christian message as a response to this existential dilemma. For Tillich, no formulation of the question can contradict the theological answer. This is because the Christian message claims, a priori, that the logos “who became flesh” is also the universal logos of the Greeks.[23] In addition to the intimate relationship between philosophy and theology, another important aspect of the method of correlation is Tillich’s distinction between form and content in the theological answers. While the nature of revelation determines the actual content of the theological answers, the character of the questions determines the form of these answers. This is because, for Tillich, theology must be an answering theology, or apologetic theology. God is called the “ground of being” because God is the answer to the ontological threat of non-being, and this characterization of the theological answer in philosophical terms means that the answer has been conditioned (insofar as its form is considered) by the question. [19] Throughout the Systematic Theology, Tillich is careful to maintain this distinction between form and content without allowing one to be inadvertently conditioned by the other. Many criticisms of Tillich’s methodology revolve around this issue of whether the integrity of the Christian message is really maintained when its form is conditioned by philosophy.[24] The theological answer is also determined by the sources of theology, our experience, and the norm of theology. Though the form of the theological answers are determined by the character of the question, these answers (which “are contained in the revelatory events on which Christianity is based”) are also “taken by systematic theology from the sources, through the medium, under the norm.”[19] There are three main sources of systematic theology: the Bible, Church history, and the history of religion and culture. Experience is not a source but a medium through which the sources speak. And the norm of theology is that by which both sources and experience are judged with regard to the content of the Christian faith.[25] Thus, we have the following as elements of the method and structure of systematic theology:

Sources of theology[26]

Bible[27] Church history History of religion and culture

Medium of the sources

Collective Experience of the Church

Norm of theology (determines use of sources)

Content of which is the biblical message itself, for example:

Justification through faith New Being
in Jesus as the Christ The Protestant
Principle The criterion of the cross

As McKelway explains, the sources of theology contribute to the formation of the norm, which then becomes the criterion through which the sources and experience are judged.[28] The relationship is circular, as it is the present situation which conditions the norm in the interaction between church and biblical message. The norm is then subject to change, but Tillich insists that its basic content remains the same: that of the biblical message.[29] It is tempting to conflate revelation with the norm, but we must keep in mind that revelation (whether original or dependent) is not an element of the structure of systematic theology per se, but an event.[30] For Tillich, the present-day norm is the “New Being
in Jesus as the Christ as our Ultimate Concern”.[31] This is because the present question is one of estrangement, and the overcoming of this estrangement is what Tillich calls the “New Being”. But since Christianity answers the question of estrangement with “Jesus as the Christ”, the norm tells us that we find the New Being
in Jesus as the Christ. There is also the question of the validity of the method of correlation. Certainly one could reject the method on the grounds that there is no a priori reason for its adoption. But Tillich claims that the method of any theology and its system are interdependent. That is, an absolute methodological approach cannot be adopted because the method is continually being determined by the system and the objects of theology.[32] Use of "being" in systematic theology[edit] Tillich used the concept of "being" (Sein) in systematic theology.[33] There are three roles:

…[The concept of Being] appears in the present system in three places: in the doctrine of God, where God is called the being as being or the ground and the power of being; in the doctrine of man, where the distinction is carried through between man's essential and his existential being; and finally, in the doctrine of the Christ, where he is called the manifestation of the New Being, the actualization of which is the work of the divine Spirit. — Tillich[34]

…It is the expression of the experience of being over against non-being. Therefore, it can be described as the power of being which resists non-being. For this reason, the medieval philosophers called being the basic transcendentale, beyond the universal and the particular… The same word, the emptiest of all concepts when taken as an abstraction, becomes the most meaningful of all concepts when it is understood as the power of being in everything that has being. — Tillich[35]

Life and the Spirit[edit] This is part four of Tillich's Systematic Theology. In this part, Tillich talks about life and the divine Spirit.

Life remains ambiguous as long as there is life. The question implied in the ambiguities of life derives to a new question, namely, that of the direction in which life moves. This is the question of history. Systematically speaking, history, characterized as it is by its direction toward the future, is the dynamic quality of life. Therefore, the "riddle of history" is a part of the problem of life.[36]

Absolute faith[edit] Tillich stated the courage to take meaninglessness into oneself presupposes a relation to the ground of being: absolute faith.[37] Absolute faith can transcend the theistic idea of God, and has three elements.

… The first element is the experience of the power of being which is present even in the face of the most radical manifestation of non being. If one says that in this experience vitality resists despair, one must add that vitality in man is proportional to intentionality. The vitality that can stand the abyss of meaninglessness is aware of a hidden meaning within the destruction of meaning. — Tillich, The Courage to Be, p.177

The second element in absolute faith is the dependence of the experience of nonbeing on the experience of being and the dependence of the experience of meaninglessness on the experience of meaning. Even in the state of despair one has enough being to make despair possible. — Tillich, The Courage to Be, p.177

There is a third element in absolute faith, the acceptance of being accepted. Of course, in the state of despair there is nobody and nothing that accepts. But there is the power of acceptance itself which is experienced. Meaninglessness, as long as it is experienced, includes an experience of the "power of acceptance". To accept this power of acceptance consciously is the religious answer of absolute faith, of a faith which has been deprived by doubt of any concrete content, which nevertheless is faith and the source of the most paradoxical manifestation of the courage to be. — Tillich, The Courage to Be, p.177

as ultimate concern[edit] According to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Tillich believes the essence of religious attitudes is what he calls "ultimate concern". Separate from all profane and ordinary realities, the object of the concern is understood as sacred, numinous or holy. The perception of its reality is felt as so overwhelming and valuable that all else seems insignificant, and for this reason requires total surrender.[38] In 1957, Tillich defined his conception of faith more explicitly in his work, Dynamics of Faith.

Man, like every living being, is concerned about many things, above all about those which condition his very existence ... If [a situation or concern] claims ultimacy it demands the total surrender of him who accepts this claim ... it demands that all other concerns ... be sacrificed.[39]

Tillich further refined his conception of faith by stating that, " Faith
as ultimate concern is an act of the total personality. It is the most centered act of the human mind ... it participates in the dynamics of personal life."[40] An arguably central component of Tillich's concept of faith is his notion that faith is "ecstatic". That is to say:

It transcends both the drives of the nonrational unconsciousness and the structures of the rational conscious...the ecstatic character of faith does not exclude its rational character although it is not identical with it, and it includes nonrational strivings without being identical with them. 'Ecstasy' means 'standing outside of oneself' - without ceasing to be oneself - with all the elements which are united in the personal center.[41]

In short, for Tillich, faith does not stand opposed to rational or nonrational elements (reason and emotion respectively), as some philosophers would maintain. Rather, it transcends them in an ecstatic passion for the ultimate.[42] It should also be noted that Tillich does not exclude atheists in his exposition of faith. Everyone has an ultimate concern, and this concern can be in an act of faith, "even if the act of faith includes the denial of God. Where there is ultimate concern, God can be denied only in the name of God"[43] God above God[edit]

Bust of Tillich by James Rosati
James Rosati
in New Harmony, Indiana

Throughout most of his works Paul Tillich
Paul Tillich
provides an apologetic and alternative ontological view of God. Traditional medieval philosophical theology in the work of figures such as St. Anselm, Duns Scotus, and William of Ockham
William of Ockham
tended to understand God as the highest existing Being[citation needed], to which predicates such as omnipotence, omniscience, omnipresence, goodness, righteousness, holiness, etc. may be ascribed. Arguments for and against the existence of God presuppose such an understanding of God. Tillich is critical of this mode of discourse which he refers to as "theological theism," and argues that if God is Being
[das Seiende], even if the highest Being, God cannot be properly called the source of all being, and the question can of course then be posed as to why God exists, who created God, when God's beginning is, and so on. To put the issue in traditional language: if God is 'being' [das Seiende], then God is a creature, even if the highest one, and thus cannot be the Creator. Rather, God must be understood as the "ground of Being-Itself".[44] The problem persists in the same way when attempting to determine whether God is an eternal essence, or an existing being, neither of which are adequate, as traditional theology was well aware.[45] When God is understood in this way, it becomes clear that not only is it impossible to argue for the "existence" of God, since God is beyond the distinction between essence and existence, but it is also foolish: one cannot deny that there is being, and thus there is a Power of Being. The question then becomes whether and in what way personal language about God and humanity's relationship to God is appropriate. In distinction to "theological theism", Tillich refers to another kind of theism as that of the "divine-human encounter". Such is the theism of the encounter with the "Wholly Other" ("Das ganz Andere"), as in the work of Karl Barth
Karl Barth
and Rudolf Otto, and implies a personalism with regard to God's self-revelation. Tillich is quite clear that this is both appropriate and necessary, as it is the basis of the personalism of Biblical Religion
altogether and the concept of the "Word of God",[46] but can become falsified if the theologian tries to turn such encounters with God as the Wholly Other into an understanding of God as a being.[47] In other words, God is both personal and transpersonal.[48] Tillich's ontological view of God has precedent in Christian theology. Many theologians, especially those in the Hellenistic or Patristic period of Christianity's history that corresponds with the Church Fathers, understood God as the "unoriginate source" (agennetos) of all being.[49] This view was espoused in particular by Origen, one of a number of early theologians whose thought influenced that of Tillich. Their views in turn had pre-Christian precedents in middle Platonism. Tillich further argues that theological theism is not only logically problematic, but is unable to speak into the situation of radical doubt and despair about meaning in life. This issue, he said, was of primary concern in the modern age, as opposed to anxiety about fate, guilt, death and condemnation.[50] This is because the state of finitude entails by necessity anxiety, and that it is our finitude as human beings, our being a mixture of being and nonbeing, that is at the ultimate basis of anxiety. If God is not the ground of being itself, then God cannot provide an answer to the question of finitude; God would also be finite in some sense. The term "God Above God," then, means to indicate the God who appears, who is the ground of being itself, when the "God" of theological theism has disappeared in the anxiety of doubt.[51] While on the one hand this God goes beyond the God of theism as usually defined, it finds expression in many religious symbols of the Christian faith, particularly that of the crucified Christ. The possibility thus exists, says Tillich, that religious symbols may be recovered which would otherwise have been rendered ineffective by contemporary society. Tillich argues that the God of theological theism is at the root of much revolt against theism and religious faith in the modern period. Tillich states, sympathetically, that the God of theological theism

deprives me of my subjectivity because he is all-powerful and all-knowing. I revolt and make him into an object, but the revolt fails and becomes desperate. God appears as the invincible tyrant, the being in contrast with whom all other beings are without freedom and subjectivity. He is equated with the recent tyrants who with the help of terror try to transform everything into a mere object, a thing among things, a cog in a machine they control. He becomes the model of everything against which Existentialism
revolted. This is the God Nietzsche
said had to be killed because nobody can tolerate being made into a mere object of absolute knowledge and absolute control. This is the deepest root of atheism. It is an atheism which is justified as the reaction against theological theism and its disturbing implications.[52]

Another reason Tillich criticized theological theism was because it placed God into the subject-object dichotomy. This is the basic distinction made in Epistemology, that branch of Philosophy
which deals with human knowledge, how it is possible, what it is, and its limits. Epistemologically, God cannot be made into an object, that is, an object of the knowing subject. Tillich deals with this question under the rubric of the relationality of God. The question is "whether there are external relations between God and the creature".[53] Traditionally Christian theology has always understood the doctrine of creation to mean precisely this external relationality between God, the Creator, and the creature as separate and not identical realities. Tillich reminds us of the point, which can be found in Luther, that "there is no place to which man can withdraw from the divine thou, because it includes the ego and is nearer to the ego than the ego to itself".[53] Tillich goes further to say that the desire to draw God into the subject–object dichotomy is an "insult" to the divine holiness.[54] Similarly, if God were made into the subject rather than the object of knowledge (The Ultimate Subject), then the rest of existing entities then become subjected to the absolute knowledge and scrutiny of God, and the human being is "reified," or made into a mere object. It would deprive the person of his or her own subjectivity and creativity. According to Tillich, theological theism has provoked the rebellions found in atheism and Existentialism, although other social factors such as the industrial revolution have also contributed to the "reification" of the human being. The modern man could no longer tolerate the idea of being an "object" completely subjected to the absolute knowledge of God. Tillich argued, as mentioned, that theological theism is "bad theology".

The God of the theological theism is a being besides others and as such a part of the whole reality. He is certainly considered its most important part, but as a part and therefore as subjected to the structure of the whole. He is supposed to be beyond the ontological elements and categories which constitute reality. But every statement subjects him to them. He is seen as a self which has a world, as an ego which relates to a thought, as a cause which is separated from its effect, as having a definite space and endless time. He is a being, not being-itself[50]

Alternatively, Tillich presents the above-mentioned ontological view of God as Being-Itself, Ground of Being, Power of Being, and occasionally as Abyss or God's "Abysmal Being". What makes Tillich's ontological view of God different from theological theism is that it transcends it by being the foundation or ultimate reality that "precedes" all beings. Just as Being
for Heidegger
is ontologically prior to conception, Tillich views God to be beyond Being-Itself, manifested in the structure of beings.[55] God is not a supernatural entity among other entities. Instead, God is the ground upon which all beings exist. We cannot perceive God as an object which is related to a subject because God precedes the subject–object dichotomy.[55] Thus Tillich dismisses a literalistic Biblicism. Instead of rejecting the notion of personal God, however, Tillich sees it as a symbol that points directly to the Ground of Being.[56] Since the Ground of Being ontologically precedes reason, it cannot be comprehended since comprehension presupposes the subject–object dichotomy. Tillich disagreed with any literal philosophical and religious statements that can be made about God. Such literal statements attempt to define God and lead not only to anthropomorphism but also to a philosophical mistake that Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant
warned against, that setting limits against the transcendent inevitably leads to contradictions. Any statements about God are simply symbolic, but these symbols are sacred in the sense that they function to participate or point to the Ground of Being. Tillich insists that anyone who participates in these symbols is empowered by the Power of Being, which overcomes and conquers nonbeing and meaninglessness. Tillich also further elaborated the thesis of the God above the God of theism in his Systematic Theology.

… (the God above the God of theism) This has been misunderstood as a dogmatic statement of a pantheistic or mystical character. First of all, it is not a dogmatic, but an apologetic, statement. It takes seriously the radical doubt experienced by many people. It gives one the courage of self-affirmation even in the extreme state of radical doubt. — Tillich, Systematic Theology
Vol. 2 , p. 12

… In such a state the God of both religious and theological language disappears. But something remains, namely, the seriousness of that doubt in which meaning within meaninglessness is affirmed. The source of this affirmation of meaning within meaninglessness, of certitude within doubt, is not the God of traditional theism but the "God above God," the power of being, which works through those who have no name for it, not even the name God. — Tillich, Systematic Theology
Vol. 2 , p. 12

…This is the answer to those who ask for a message in the nothingness of their situation and at the end of their courage to be. But such an extreme point is not a space with which one can live. The dialectics of an extreme situation are a criterion of truth but not the basis on which a whole structure of truth can be built. — Tillich, Systematic Theology
Vol. 2 , p.12

Tillich's ontology of courage[edit] In Paul Tillich's work The Courage to Be he defines courage as the self-affirmation of one’s being in spite of a threat of nonbeing. He relates courage to anxiety, anxiety being the threat of non-being and the courage to be what we use to combat that threat. For Tillich, he outlines three types of anxiety and thus three ways to display the courage to be. 1) The Anxiety of Fate and Death a. The Anxiety of Fate and Death is the most basic and universal form of anxiety for Tillich. It relates quite simply to the recognition of our mortality. This troubles us humans. We become anxious when we are unsure whether our actions create a causal damnation which leads to a very real and quite unavoidable death (42-44). “Nonbeing threatens man’s ontic self-affirmation, relatively in terms of fate, absolutely in terms of death” (41). b. We display courage when we cease to rely on others to tell us what will come of us, (what will happen when we die etc.) and begin seeking those answers out for ourselves. Called the “courage of confidence” (162-63). 2) The Anxiety of Guilt and Condemnation a. This anxiety afflicts our moral self-affirmation. We as humans are responsible for our moral being, and when asked by our judge (whomever that may be) what we have made of ourselves we must answer. The anxiety is produced when we realize our being is unsatisfactory. “It [Nonbeing] threatens man’s moral self-affirmation, relatively in terms of guilt, absolutely in terms of condemnation” (41). b. We display courage when we first identify our sin; despair or whatever is causing us guilt or afflicting condemnation. We then rely on the idea that we are accepted regardless. “The courage to be is the courage to accept oneself as accepted in spite of being unacceptable” (164). 3) The Anxiety of Meaningless and Emptiness a. The Anxiety of Meaninglessness and Emptiness attacks our being as a whole. We worry about the loss of an ultimate concern or goal. This anxiety is also brought on by a loss of spirituality. We as beings feel the threat of non-being when we feel we have no place or purpose in the world. “It [Nonbeing] threatens man’s spiritual self-affirmation, relatively in terms of emptiness, absolutely in terms of meaninglessness” (41). b. We display the courage to be when facing this anxiety by displaying true faith, and by again, self-affirming oneself. We draw from the “power of being” which is God for Tillich and use that faith to in turn affirm ourselves and negate the non-being. We can find our meaning and purpose through the “power of being” (172-73). Tillich writes that the ultimate source of the courage to be is the "God above God," which transcends the theistic idea of God and is the content of absolute faith (defined as "the accepting of the acceptance without somebody or something that accepts") (185). Popular works[edit] Two of Tillich's works, The Courage to Be (1952) and Dynamics of Faith (1957), were read widely, including by people who would not normally read religious books. In The Courage to Be, he lists three basic anxieties: anxiety about our biological finitude, i.e. that arising from the knowledge that we will eventually die; anxiety about our moral finitude, linked to guilt; and anxiety about our existential finitude, a sense of aimlessness in life. Tillich related these to three different historical eras: the early centuries of the Christian era; the Reformation; and the 20th century. Tillich's popular works have influenced psychology as well as theology, having had an influence on Rollo May, whose "The Courage to Create" was inspired by "The Courage to Be". Reception[edit] Today, Tillich’s most observable legacy may well be that of a spiritually-oriented public intellectual and teacher with a broad and continuing range of influence. Tillich‘s chapel sermons (especially at Union) were enthusiastically received[57] (Tillich was known as the only faculty member of his day at Union willing to attend the revivals of Billy Graham[citation needed]) Tillich's students have commented on Tillich's approachability as a lecturer and his need for interaction with his audience.[58] When Tillich was University Professor at Harvard, he was chosen as keynote speaker from among an auspicious gathering of many who had appeared on the cover of Time Magazine during its first four decades. Tillich along with his student, psychologist Rollo May, was an early leader at the Esalen Institute.[59] Contemporary New Age
New Age
catchphrases describing God (spatially) as the "Ground of Being" and (temporally) as the "Eternal Now,"[60] in tandem with the view that God is not an entity among entities but rather is "Being-Itself"—notions which Eckhart Tolle, for example, has invoked repeatedly throughout his career[61]—were paradigmatically renovated by Tillich, although of course these ideas derive from Christian mystical sources as well as from ancient and medieval theologians such as St. Augustine
St. Augustine
and St. Thomas Aquinas.[62][63] The introductory philosophy course taught by the person Tillich considered to be his best student, John Edwin Smith, "probably turned more undergraduates to the study of philosophy at Yale
than all the other philosophy courses put together. His courses in philosophy of religion and American philosophy
American philosophy
defined those fields for many years. Perhaps most important of all, he has educated a younger generation in the importance of the public life in philosophy and in how to practice philosophy publicly.”[64] In the 1980s and 1990s the Boston University Institute for Philosophy
and Religion, a leading forum dedicated to the revival of the American public tradition of philosophy and religion, flourished under the leadership of Tillich’s student and expositor Leroy S. Rouner. Criticism[edit] Martin Buber
Martin Buber
criticized Tillich's "transtheistic position" as a reduction of God to the impersonal "necessary being" of Thomas Aquinas.[65] Tillich has been criticized from the Barthian
wing of Protestantism for what is alleged to be correlation theory's tendency to reduce God and his relationship to man to anthropocentric terms. Tillich counters that Barth's approach to theology denies the "possibility of understanding God's relation to man in any other way than heteronomously or extrinsically".[66] Defenders of Tillich claim that critics misunderstand the distinction Tillich makes between God's essence as the unconditional ("das unbedingte") "Ground of Being" which is unknowable, and how God reveals himself to mankind in existence.[67] Tillich establishes the distinction in the first chapter of his Systematic Theology
Volume One: "But though God in his abysmal nature [footnote: 'Calvin: in his essence' ] is in no way dependent on man, God in his self manifestation to man is dependent on the way man receives his manifestation."[18] Some conservative strains of Evangelical Christianity believe Tillich's thought is too unorthodox to qualify as Christianity at all, but rather as a form of pantheism or atheism.[68] The Evangelical Dictionary of Theology
states, "At best Tillich was a pantheist, but his thought borders on atheism."[69] Bibliography[edit]

A set of Paul Tillich's Main Works - Hauptwerke.

Tillich, Paul (1912), Mysticism
and Guilt-Consciousness in Schelling's Philosophical Development, Bucknell University Press (published 1974), ISBN 978-0-83871493-5  ——— (1956) [1925, Die religiose Lage der Gegenwart; Holt 1932], The Religious Situation, Meridian Press, archived from the original on 2005-11-26 . ——— (c. 1977) [1933], The Socialist Decision, New York: Harper & Row . ——— (1936), The Interpretation of History, archived from the original on 2005-11-26 . ——— (1948), The Protestant
Era, The University of Chicago
Press, archived from the original on 2005-11-26 . ——— (1948), The Shaking of the Foundations (sermon collection), Charles Scribner's Sons, archived from the original on 2005-11-26 . ——— (1951–1963), Systematic Theology
(3 volumes)format= requires url= (help), University of Chicago
Press .

——— (1951), Systematic Theology, 1, ISBN 978-0-22680337-1 . ——— (1957), Systematic Theology, 2: Existence and the Christ, ISBN 978-0-22680338-8 . ——— (1963), Systematic Theology, 3: Life and the Spirit: History and the Kingdom of God, ISBN 978-0-22680339-5 

——— (1952), The Courage to Be, Yale
University Press, ISBN 978-0-30017002-3 . ——— (1954), Love, Power, and Justice: Ontological Analysis and Ethical Applications, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19500222-5  ——— (1955), Biblical Religion
and the Search for Ultimate Reality, University Of Chicago
Press, ISBN 978-0-22680341-8  ——— (2006) [1955, Charles Scribner's Sons], The New Being (sermon collection), introd. by Mary Ann Stenger, Bison Press, ISBN 978-0-80329458-5 , Religion
online. ——— (1957), Dynamics of Faith, Harper & Row, ISBN 978-0-06203146-4  ——— (1959), Theology
of Culture, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19976353-5  ——— (1963), Christianity and the Encounter of the World Religions, Columbia University
Columbia University
Press, archived from the original on 2005-11-26 . ——— (1995) [1963, Harper & Row], Morality
and Beyond, Westminster John Knox Press, ISBN 978-0-664-25564-0 . ——— (2003) [1963, Charles Scribner’s Sons], The Eternal Now (university sermons 1955–63), SCM Press, ISBN 0-334-02875-2, archived from the original on 2005-11-26 . ——— (1965), Brown, D. Mackenzie, ed., Ultimate Concern: Tillich in Dialogue, Harper & Row, archived from the original on 2005-11-26 . On the Boundary, 1966 New York: Charles Scribner’s ——— (1984) [1967], Anshen, Ruth Nanda, ed., My Search for Absolutes (posthumous; includes autobiographical chapter), Simon & Schuster, ISBN 0-671-50585-8, archived from the original on 2005-11-26 . "The Philosophy
of Religion", in What Is Religion? (1969), ed. James Luther Adams. New York: Harper & Row

———, "The Conquest of the Concept
of Religion
in the Philosophy of Religion", What is Religion?  "On the Idea of a Theology
of Culture" in What is Religion?

——— (1970), Brauer, J.C, ed., My Travel Diary 1936: Between Two Worlds, Harper & Row, archived from the original on 2006-06-22 . ——— (1972), Braaten, Carl Edward, ed., A History of Christian Thought: From its Judaic and Hellenistic Origins to Existentialism, Simon & Schuster, ISBN 978-0-67121426-5  (edited from his lectures and published posthumously).

A History of Christian Thought (1968), Harper & Row, contains the first part of the two part 1972 edition (comprising the 38 New York lectures).

——— (1981) [German, 1923], The System of the Sciences According to Objects and Methods, Paul Wiebe transl., London: Bucknell University Press, ISBN 978-0-83875013-1 . ——— (1999), Church, F. Forrester, ed., The Essential Tillich (anthology), U. of Chicago
Press, ISBN 978-0-22680343-2 

See also[edit]

List of American philosophers Neo-orthodoxy Panentheism Postmodern Christianity


^ Neuhaus, Richard John (May 1990). "Why Wait for the Kingdom? The Theonomist Temptation". First Things. Retrieved 8 August 2013.  ^ Peters, Ted (1995), Braaten, Carl E, ed., A map of twentieth-century theology: readings from Karl Barth
Karl Barth
to radical pluralism (review), Fortress Press, backjacket, retrieved 2011-01-01, The current generation of students has heard only the names of Barth, Brunner, Bultmann, Bonhoeffer, Tillich, and the Niebuhrs.  ^ a b Bowker, John, ed. (2000), "Tillich, Paul Johannes Oskar", The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions, Oxford Reference Online, Oxford University Press . ^ a b c d e f "Tillich, Paul", Encyclopædia Britannica (online ed.), 2008, retrieved 17 February 2008 . ^ Gesamtverzeichnis des Wingolf, Lichtenberg, 1991 . ^ a b Pauck, Wilhelm & Marion 1976. ^ "Paul Tillich, Lover", Time, October 8, 1973 . ^ Wolfgang Saxon (October 30, 1988), "Hannah Tillich, 92, Christian Theologian's Widow", New York Times  ^ O’Meara, Thomas (2006), " Paul Tillich
Paul Tillich
and Erich Przywara at Davos", Gregorianum, 87: 227–38 . ^ Tillich 1964, p. 16. ^ Stone, Ronald H. (1992-01-01), Professor Reinhold Niebuhr: A Mentor to the Twentieth Century, Westminster John Knox Press, p. 115, ISBN 978-0-664-25390-5, retrieved 2016-03-14  ^ Pauck, Wilhelm & Marion 1976, p. 225. ^ Williams, George Hunston, Divinings: Religion
At Harvard, 2, pp. 424 f.  ^ Meyer, Betty H. (2003). The ARC story: a narrative account of the Society for the Arts, Religion, and Contemporary Culture. New York: Association for Religion
and Intellectual Life. ISBN 978-0-97470130-1.  ^ Kegley & Bretall 1964, pp. ix–x. ^ "Dr. Paul Tillich, Outstanding Protestant
Theologian", The Times, 25 Oct 1965  ^ Thomas, John Heywood (2002), Tillich, Continuum, ISBN 0-8264-5082-2 . ^ a b Tillich 1951, p. 61. ^ a b c Tillich 1951, p. 64. ^ Tillich 1955, pp. 11–20. ^ Tillich 1957, p. 23. ^ Tillich 1952, pp. 58ff. ^ Tillich 1951, p. 28. ^ McKelway 1964, p. 47. ^ Tillich 1951, p. 47. ^ Tillich 1951, p. 40. ^ Tillich 1951, p. 35. ^ McKelway 1964, pp. 55–56. ^ Tillich 1951, p. 52. ^ McKelway 1964, p. 80. ^ Tillich 1951, p. 50. ^ Tillich 1951, p. 60. ^ The development of the intellectual profile of Tillich happened in a context where the fundamental ontology of Martin Heidegger
was also taking shape, and especially in terms of the Heideggerian reflection on the question of being (Seinsfrage) as it unfolded in Sein und Zeit ( Being
and Time), the connection of Tillich's notion of being to that of Heidegger
has been rarely studied; a recent account of this has been published in: Nader El-Bizri, 'Ontological Meditations on Tillich and Heidegger', Iris: Annales de Philosophie Volume 36 (2015), pp. 109-114 (a peer-refereed journal published by the Faculté des lettres et des sciences humaines, Université Saint-Joseph, Beyrouth) ^ Tillich 1957, p. 10. ^ Tillich 1957, p. 11. ^ Tillich, Systematic Theology, Vol. 2, p. 4 ^ The Courage to Be, page 182 ^ Wainwright, William (2010-09-29), "Concepts of God", Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Stanford University, retrieved 2011-01-01  ^ Tillich, Dynamics of Faith, pp. 1–2 ^ Tillich, Dynamics of Faith, p. 5 ^ Tillich, Dynamics of Faith, pp. 8–9 ^ Tillich Interview part 12 on YouTube ^ Tillich, Dynamics of Faith, p. 52 ^ "Paul Tillich". www.lectionarycentral.com. Retrieved 2018-03-22.  ^ Tillich, Systematic Theology
vol. 1, p. 236  ^ Biblical Religion
and the Search for Ultimate Reality, University of Chicago
Press: Chicago, 1955, 21-62. ^ The Courage to Be, Yale: New Haven, 2000, 184. ^ The Courage to Be, Yale: New Haven, 2000, 187. ^ J. N. D. Kelly, Early Christian Doctrines, HarperCollins: New York, 1978, 128. ^ a b Tillich, Courage To Be, p 184. ^ The Courage to Be, Yale: New Haven, 2000, 190. ^ Tillich, Courage To Be, p 185. ^ a b Tillich, Systematic Theology
vol. 1, p. 271  ^ Tillich, Systematic Theology
vol. 1, p. 272  ^ a b Tillich, Theology
of Culture, p 15. ^ Tillich, Theology
of Culture, p 127-132. ^ Grenz, Stanley J. and Roger E. Olson (1993). 20th-Century Theology: God & the World in a Transitional Age. Downers Grove IL: InterVarsity Press. p. 116. ISBN 978-0830815258.  ^ Bunge, Nancy. "From Hume to Tillich: Teaching Faith
& Benevolence". Philosophy
Now. Philosophy
Now. Retrieved 30 December 2012. As a former student, I can attest that he invited students to leave questions on the podium and he would invariably open the lecture by responding to them, often in a way that startled the student by revealing what a profound question he or she had asked.  ^ Anderson, Walter Truett (2004). The Upstart Spring: Esalen and the Human Potential Movement: The First Twenty Years. Lincoln NE: iUniverse. p. 104. ISBN 978-0595307357.  ^ "There is no present in the mere stream of time; but the present is real, as our experience witnesses. And it is real because eternity breaks into time and gives it a real present. We could not even say now, if eternity did not elevate that moment above the ever-passing time. Eternity is always present; and its presence is the cause of our having the present at all. When the psalmist looks at God, for Whom a thousand years are like one day, he is looking at that eternity which alone gives him a place on which he can stand, a now which has infinite reality and infinite significance. In every moment that we say now, something temporal and something eternal are united. Whenever a human being says, 'Now I am living; now I am really present,' resisting the stream which drives the future into the past, eternity is. In each such Now eternity is made manifest; in every real now, eternity is present." (Tillich, "The Mystery of Time," in The Shaking of the Foundations). ^ In his September 2010 Live Meditation (https://www.eckharttolletv.com/), e.g., Tolle expounds at length on "the dimension of depth". ^ Cary, Phillip (2012). "Augustinian Compatibilism and the Doctrine of Election", in Augustine and Philosophy, ed. by Phillip Cary, John Doody and Kim Paffenroth. Lanham MD: Lexington Books. p. 91. ISBN 978-0739145388.  ^ Both Augustine and later Boethius
used the concept of the "eternal now" to investigate the relationship between divine omnipotence and omniscience and the temporality of human free will; and Thomas Aquinas' synthesis of Platonic and Aristotelian ontologies with Christian theology included the concepts of God as the "ground of being" and "being-itself" (ipsum esse). ^ The Chronicle of Higher Education
The Chronicle of Higher Education
(Jan. 24, 2010) ^ Novak, David (Spring 1992), "Buber and Tillich", Journal of Ecumenical Studies, 29 (2): 159–74 , as reprinted in Novak, David (2005), Talking With Christians: Musings of A Jewish Theologian, Wm. B. Eerdmans, p. 101 . ^ Dourley, John P. (1975), Paul Tillich
Paul Tillich
and Bonaventure: An Evaluation of Tillich's Claim to Stand in the Augustinian-Franciscan Tradition, Brill Archive, p. 12, ISBN 978-900404266-7  ^ Boozer, Jack Stewart (1952), The place of reason in Paul Tillich's concept of God (dissertation), Boston University, p. 269  ^ Tillich held an equally low opinion of biblical literalism. See (Tillich 1951, p. 3): ‘When fundamentalism is combined with an antitheological bias, as it is, for instance, in its biblicistic-evangelical form, the theological truth of yesterday is defended as an unchangeable message against the theological truth of today and tomorrow. Fundamentalism fails to make contact with the present situation, not because it speaks from beyond every situation, but because it speaks from a situation from the past. It elevates something finite and transitory to infinite and eternal validity. In this respect fundamentalism has demonic traits.’ ^ Gundry, SN, "Death of God Theology", in Elwell, Walter A, Evangelical Dictionary of Theology, ISBN 978-0-8010-2075-9, retrieved 2011-01-01 

Further reading[edit]

Adams, James Luther. 1965. Paul Tillich’s Philosophy
of Culture, Science, and Religion. New York: New York University Press Armbruster, Carl J. 1967. The Vision of Paul Tillich. New York: Sheed and Ward Breisach, Ernst. 1962. Introduction to Modern Existentialism. New York: Grove Press Bruns, Katja (2011), "Anthropologie zwischen Theologie und Naturwissenschaft bei Paul Tillich
Paul Tillich
und Kurt Goldstein. Historische Grundlagen und systematische Perspektiven", Kontexte. Neue Beiträge zur historischen und systematischen Theologie (in German), Goettingen: Ruprecht, 41, ISBN 978-3-7675-7143-3 . Carey, Patrick W., and Lienhard, Joseph. 2002. "Biographical Dictionary of Christian Theologians". Mass: Hendrickson Ford, Lewis S. 1966. "Tillich and Thomas: The Analogy of Being." Journal of Religion
46:2 (April) Freeman, David H. 1962. Tillich. Philadelphia: Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Co. Grenz, Stanley, and Olson, Roger E. 1997. 20th Century Theology
God & the World in a Transitional Age Hamilton, Kenneth. 1963. The System and the Gospel: A Critique of Paul Tillich. New York: Macmillan Hammond, Guyton B. 1965. Estrangement: A Comparison of the Thought of Paul Tillich
Paul Tillich
and Erich Fromm. Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press. Hegel, G. W. F. 1967. The Phenomenology of Mind, trans. With intro. J. B. Baillie, Torchbook intro. by George Lichtheim. New York: Harper Torchbooks Hook, Sidney, ed. 1961 Religious Experience and Truth: A Symposium (New York: New York University Press) Hopper, David. 1968. Tillich: A Theological Portrait. Philadelphia: Lippincott Howlett, Duncan. 1964. The Fourth American Faith. New York: Harper & Row Kaufman, Walter (1961a), The Faith
of a Heretic, New York: Doubleday . ——— (1961b), Critique of Religion
and Philosophy, Garden City, NY: Anchor Books, Doubleday . Kegley, Charles W; Bretall, Robert W, eds. (1964), The Theology
of Paul Tillich, New York: Macmillan . Kelsey, David H. 1967 The Fabric of Paul Tillich’s Theology. New Haven: Yale
University Press Łata, Jan Adrian (1995), Odpowiadająca teologia Paula Tillicha (in Polish), Signum, Oleśnica: Oficyna Wydaw, ISBN 83-85631-38-0 . MacIntyre, Alasdair. 1963. “God and the Theologians,” Encounter 21:3 (September) Martin, Bernard. 1963. The Existentialist Theology
of Paul Tillich. New Haven: College and University Press Marx, Karl. n.d. Capital. Ed. Frederick Engels. trans. from 3rd German ed. by Samuel Moore and Edward Aveling. New York: The Modern Library May, Rollo. 1973. Paulus: Reminiscences of a Friendship. New York: Harper & Row McKelway, Alexander J (1964), The Systematic Theology
of Paul Tillich: A Review and Analysis, Richmond: John Knox Press . Modras, Ronald. 1976. Paul Tillich
Paul Tillich
's Theology
of the Church: A Catholic Appraisal. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1976. Palmer, Michael. 1984. Paul Tillich's Philosophy
of Art. New York: Walter de Gruyter Pauck; Wilhelm; Marion (1976), Paul Tillich: His Life & Thought, 1: Life, New York: Harper & Row . Re Manning, Russell, ed. 2009. The Cambridge Companion to Paul Tillich. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Re Manning, Russell, ed. 2015. Retrieving the Radical Tillich. His Legacy and Contemporary Importance. New York: Palgrave Macmillan Rowe, William L. 1968. Religious Symbols and God: A Philosophical Study of Tillich’s Theology. Chicago: University of Chicago
Press Scharlemann, Robert P. 1969. Reflection and Doubt in the Thought of Paul Tillich. New Haven: Yale
University Press Schweitzer, Albert. 1961. The Quest of the Historical Jesus, trans. W. Montgomery. New York: Macmillan Soper, David Wesley. 1952. Major Voices in American Theology: Six Contemporary Leaders Philadelphia: Westminster Tavard, George H. 1962. Paul Tillich
Paul Tillich
and the Christian Message. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons Taylor, Mark Kline, ed. (1991), Paul Tillich: Theologian
of the Boundaries, Minneapolis: Fortress Press, ISBN 978-1-45141386-1  Thomas, George F (1965), Religious Philosophies of the West, New York: Scribner's . Thomas, J. Heywood (1963), Paul Tillich: An Appraisal, Philadelphia: Westminster . Tillich, Hannah. 1973. From Time to Time. New York: Stein and Day Tucker, Robert. 1961. Philosophy
and Myth in Karl Marx. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Wheat, Leonard F. 1970. Paul Tillich’s Dialectical Humanism: Unmasking the God above God. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press Yunt, Jeremy D. 2017. Faithful to Nature: Paul Tillich
Paul Tillich
and the Spiritual Roots of Environmental Ethics. Barred Owl Books. Yunt, Jeremy D. 2015. Love, Gravity, and God: Religion
for Those Who Reason. Barred Owl Books.


Paul Tillich: (Dynamics of faith)Dinamica credinţei. Translation from English language into Romanian language with introductory note by Sorin-Avram Vîrtop. Editura Herald, Bucureşti, 2007. ISBN 978-973-7970-89-3(172 pag.),(1000 ex., Citations: https://scholar.google.ro/scholar?cites=15690573237942622546&as_sdt=2005&sciodt=0,5&hl=ro Paul Tillich: (The courage to be)Curajul de a fi. Translation from English language into Romanian language by Sorin-Avram Vîrtop. Editura Herald, Bucureşti, 2007. ISBN 978-973-7970-85-5 (219 pag.).(1000 ex.); Citations:https://scholar.google.ro/scholar?cites=10592604652560383718&as_sdt=2005&sciodt=0,5&hl=ro

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Paul Tillich.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Paul Tillich

The Andover-Harvard Theological Library at Harvard Divinity School holds the papers of Paul Tillich
Paul Tillich
and Hannah Tillich.

"A Conversation With Dr. Paul Tillich
Paul Tillich
and Werner Rode, Graduate Student in Theology." Film reel, 1956. Tillich, Paul, 1886—1965. Audiocassettes, 1955–1965 Tillich, Paul, 1886—1965. Papers, 1894–1974 Tillich, Paul, 1886—1965, collector. Literature about Paul Tillich, 1911–1994 Tillich, Hannah. Papers, 1896–1976

Works by or about Paul Tillich
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at Internet Archive James Rosati's sculpture of Tillich's head in the Paul Tillich
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Park in New Harmony, Indiana. North American Paul Tillich
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Society. James Wu. " Paul Tillich
Paul Tillich
(1886–1965)". Boston Collaborative Encyclopedia of Western Theology.  Tillich Park Finger Labyrinth (PDF) . Walk Tillich Park while discerning Tillich's theology. Created by Rev. Bill Ressl after an inspirational walk in Tillich Park in New Harmony, Indiana. Tillich profile, and synopsis of Gifford Lectures

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Philosophical Investigations Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus

Bertrand Russell Rudolf Carnap Jacques Derrida

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Benjamin Lee Whorf Gustav Bergmann J. L. Austin Noam Chomsky Hans-Georg Gadamer Saul Kripke A. J. Ayer G. E. M. Anscombe Jaakko Hintikka Michael Dummett Donald Davidson Roger Gibson Paul Grice Gilbert Ryle P. F. Strawson Willard Van Orman Quine Hilary Putnam David Lewis John Searle Joxe Azurmendi Scott Soames Stephen Yablo John Hawthorne Stephen Neale Paul Watzlawick


Causal theory of reference Contrast theory of meaning Contrastivism Conventionalism Cratylism Deconstruction Descriptivist theory of names Direct reference theory Dramatism Expressivism Linguistic determinism Logical atomism Logical positivism Mediated reference theory Nominalism Non-cognitivism Phallogocentrism Quietism Relevance theory Semantic externalism Semantic holism Structuralism Supposition theory Symbiosism Theological noncognitivism Theory of descriptions Verification theory


Ambiguity Linguistic relativity Meaning Language Truth-bearer Proposition Use–mention distinction Concept Categories Set Class Intension Logical form Metalanguage Mental representation Principle
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Laozi Plato Aristotle Diogenes Valluvar Cicero Confucius Augustine of Hippo Mencius Mozi Xunzi Thomas Aquinas Baruch Spinoza David Hume Immanuel Kant Georg W. F. Hegel Arthur Schopenhauer Jeremy Bentham John Stuart Mill Søren Kierkegaard Henry Sidgwick Friedrich Nietzsche G. E. Moore Karl Barth Paul Tillich Dietrich Bonhoeffer Philippa Foot John Rawls John Dewey Bernard Williams J. L. Mackie G. E. M. Anscombe William Frankena Alasdair MacIntyre R. M. Hare Peter Singer Derek Parfit Thomas Nagel Robert Merrihew Adams Charles Taylor Joxe Azurmendi Christine Korsgaard Martha Nussbaum more...

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Henry Sloane Coffin Joseph C. Hough, Jr. Serene Jones



Charles Butler


William Greenough Thayer Shedd Charles Augustus Briggs Reinhold Niebuhr Paul Tillich John Macquarrie Robert Pollack Raymond E. Brown Edward Robinson Henry Sloane Coffin Dorothee Sölle Harry Emerson Fosdick Harry F. Ward Walter Wink Roger Haight Harrison S. Elliot J. Louis Martyn J. Brooke Mosley


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