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Paul Joseph Schrader (born July 22, 1946) is an American screenwriter, film director, and film critic. Schrader wrote or co-wrote screenplays for four Martin Scorsese
Martin Scorsese
films: Taxi Driver
Taxi Driver
(1976), Raging Bull (1980), The Last Temptation of Christ (1988), and Bringing Out the Dead (1999). Schrader has also directed 18 feature films, including his directing debut crime drama, Blue Collar (co-written with his brother, Leonard Schrader), the crime drama Hardcore (a loosely autobiographical film also written by Schrader), his 1982 remake of the horror classic Cat People, the crime drama American Gigolo
American Gigolo
(1980), the biographical drama Mishima: A Life in Four Chapters (1985), the true life biopic Patty Hearst
Patty Hearst
(1988), the cult film Light Sleeper (1992), the drama Affliction (1997), the biographical film Auto Focus (2002), and the erotic dramatic thriller The Canyons (2013).

Contents

1 Schrader's upbringing and critical writing 2 Film career 3 Theatre career 4 Themes 5 Awards

5.1 Won 5.2 Nominated

6 Filmography

6.1 Feature films 6.2 Short films

6.2.1 Director 6.2.2 Music video director 6.2.3 Actor

6.3 Stage plays 6.4 Short documentary appearances 6.5 Documentary feature film appearances 6.6 Television appearances

6.6.1 As himself

6.7 Soundtrack

7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links

Schrader's upbringing and critical writing[edit] Schrader was born in Grand Rapids, Michigan, the son of Joan (née Fisher) and Charles A. Schrader, an executive.[1] Schrader's family attended the Calvinist Christian Reformed Church.[2][3] His early life was based upon the religion's strict principles and parental education. He did not see a film until, when he was seventeen years old, he was able to sneak away from home. In an interview he stated that The Absent-Minded Professor
The Absent-Minded Professor
was the first film he saw. In his own words, he was "very unimpressed" by it, while Wild in the Country, which he saw some time later, had quite some effect on him.[4] Schrader attributes his intellectual rather than emotional approach towards movies and movie-making to his having no adolescent movie memories.[5] Schrader is of Dutch descent.[6] Schrader earned his B.A. from Calvin College, with a minor in theology. He then earned an M.A. in film studies at the UCLA Film School upon the recommendation of Pauline Kael. With Kael as his mentor, he became a film critic, writing for the Los Angeles Free Press and later for Cinema magazine. His book Transcendental Style in Film: Ozu, Bresson, Dreyer, which examines the similarities between Robert Bresson, Yasujirō Ozu, and Carl Theodor Dreyer, was published in 1972. The endings of his films American Gigolo
American Gigolo
and Light Sleeper bear obvious resemblance to that of Bresson's 1959 film Pickpocket. His essay Notes on Film Noir from the same year has become a much-cited source in literature on film. The September–October 2006 issue of Film Comment magazine published his essay Canon Fodder, which attempted to establish criteria for judging film masterworks. Other film-makers who made a lasting impression on Schrader are John Ford, Jean Renoir, Roberto Rossellini, Alfred Hitchcock, and Sam Peckinpah. Renoir's The Rules of the Game
The Rules of the Game
he called the "quintessential movie" which represents "all of the cinema".[5] Film career[edit] In 1974, Schrader and his brother Leonard co-wrote The Yakuza, a film set in the Japanese crime world. The script became the subject of a bidding war, eventually selling for $325,000. The film was directed by Sydney Pollack
Sydney Pollack
and starred Robert Mitchum. Robert Towne, best known for Chinatown, also received a credit for his rewrite. Although The Yakuza
The Yakuza
failed commercially, it brought Schrader to the attention of the new generation of Hollywood
Hollywood
directors. In 1975 he wrote the script for Obsession for Brian De Palma. Schrader wrote an early draft of Steven Spielberg's Close Encounters of the Third Kind (1977), but Spielberg disliked the script, calling it "terribly guilt-ridden," and opted for something lighter.[7] He also wrote an early draft of Rolling Thunder (1977), which the film's producers had reworked without his participation. He disapproved of the final film.[5] Schrader's script about an obsessed New York City taxi driver became Martin Scorsese's film Taxi Driver, which was nominated for the Academy Award
Academy Award
for Best Picture and won the Palme d'Or
Palme d'Or
at the Cannes Film Festival. Besides Taxi Driver
Taxi Driver
(1976) Scorsese also drew on scripts by Schrader for the boxing tale Raging Bull
Raging Bull
(1980), co-written with Mardik Martin, The Last Temptation of Christ (1988), and Bringing Out the Dead (1999). Thanks partly to critical acclaim for Taxi Driver, Schrader was able to direct his first feature, Blue Collar (1978), co-written with his brother Leonard. Blue Collar features Richard Pryor, Harvey Keitel, and Yaphet Kotto
Yaphet Kotto
as car factory workers attempting to escape their socio-economic rut through theft and blackmail. He has described the film as difficult to make, because of the artistic and personal tensions between him and the cast. During principal photography he suffered an on-set mental collapse which led him to seriously reconsider his career. John Milius acted as executive producer on the following year's Hardcore, again written by Schrader, a film with many autobiographical parallels in his depiction of the Calvinist milieu of Grand Rapids, and in the character of George C. Scott, which was based on Schrader's father.[5] Among Paul Schrader's films in the 1980s were American Gigolo
American Gigolo
starring Richard Gere
Richard Gere
(1980), his Cat People (1982) a remake of the 1942 film Cat People, and Mishima: A Life in Four Chapters (1985). Inspired by Japanese writer Yukio Mishima, the film interweaves episodes from Mishima's life with dramatizations of segments from his books. Mishima was nominated for the top prize (the Palme d'Or) at the Cannes Film Festival. Francis Ford Coppola
Francis Ford Coppola
and George Lucas
George Lucas
served as executive producers. Schrader also directed Patty Hearst
Patty Hearst
(1988), about the kidnapping and transformation of the Hearst Corporation
Hearst Corporation
heiress. In 1987, he was a member of the jury at the 37th Berlin International Film Festival.[8] His 1990s work included the travelers-in-Venice tale The Comfort of Strangers (1990), adapted by Harold Pinter
Harold Pinter
from the Ian McEwan
Ian McEwan
novel, and Light Sleeper
Light Sleeper
(1992), a sympathetic study of a drug dealer vying for a normal life. In 2005 Schrader described Light Sleeper
Light Sleeper
as his "most personal" film.[9] In 1997 he made Touch (1997), based on an Elmore Leonard
Elmore Leonard
novel about a young man seemingly able to cure the sick by the laying on of hands. In 1998, Schrader won critical acclaim for the drama Affliction. The film tells the story of a troubled small town policeman (Nick Nolte) who becomes obsessed with solving the mystery behind a fatal hunting accident. Schrader's script was based on the novel by Russell Banks. The film was nominated for multiple awards including two Academy Awards for acting (for Nolte and James Coburn). The same year, Schrader received the Austin Film Festival's Distinguished Screenwriter
Screenwriter
Award. In 1999, Schrader received the Laurel Award for Screenwriting Achievement from the Writers Guild of America. In 2002, he directed the acclaimed biopic Auto Focus, based on the life and murder of Hogan's Heroes
Hogan's Heroes
actor Bob Crane. In 2003, Schrader made entertainment headlines after being fired from The Exorcist: Dominion, a prequel film to the horror classic The Exorcist
Exorcist
from 1973. The film's production companies Morgan Creek Productions and Warner Bros. Pictures
Warner Bros. Pictures
greatly disliked the film Schrader had made. Director Renny Harlin was hired to then re-shoot nearly the entire film, which was released as Exorcist: The Beginning on August 20, 2004 to disastrously negative reviews and embarrassing box office receipts. Warner Bros. and Morgan Creek put over $80 million into the endeavor and Harlin's film only made back $41 million domestically. Schrader's version of the film eventually premiered at the Brussels International Festival of Fantastic Film on March 18, 2005 as Exorcist: The Original Prequel. Due to extreme interest in Schrader's version from critics and cinephiles alike, Warner Bros. agreed to give the film a limited theatrical release later that year under the title Dominion: Prequel to the Exorcist. The film was only shown on 110 screens around the United States and made just $251 thousand. The critics liked Schrader's version much better than Harlin's. However, Schrader's film ultimately met with a generally negative reaction. After that, Schrader filmed The Walker
The Walker
(2007), starring Woody Harrelson as a male escort caught up in a political murder enquiry, and the Israeli-set Adam Resurrected
Adam Resurrected
(2008), which stars Jeff Goldblum and Willem Dafoe. After five years of trying and failing to find funding to make feature films, Schrader returned with The Canyons (2013) an erotic dramatic thriller written by Bret Easton Ellis
Bret Easton Ellis
and starring Lindsay Lohan
Lindsay Lohan
and adult-film star James Deen. The film gained notability as it was one of the first films to use the website Kickstarter
Kickstarter
to crowd-source its funding. Schrader also used the website Let It Cast to have unknown actors submit their audition tapes over the internet. American Apparel stepped in to provide some wardrobe for the film. The film gained media coverage due to Lohan's notorious on-set behavior, as well as the film's unusual production route. The film was ultimately made for just $250 thousand and had a limited theatrical release from IFC Films on August 2, 2013. The film was poorly received by general critics and audiences. The film only made $56 thousand in theaters but found later success when released on various Video on Demand
Video on Demand
platforms. As of April, 2014, Schrader was in post-production on The Dying of the Light, an espionage thriller starring Nicolas Cage
Nicolas Cage
as a government agent suffering from a deadly disease, Anton Yelchin
Anton Yelchin
and Irène Jacob. the film was savaged by many film critics and was a devastating box-office bomb. Schrader headed the International Jury of the 2007 Berlin International Film Festival, and in 2011 became a jury member for the ongoing Filmaka short film contest.[10] On July 2, 2009, Schrader was awarded the inaugural Lifetime Achievement in Screenwriting award at the ScreenLit Festival in Nottingham, England. Several of his films were shown at the festival, including Mishima: A Life in Four Chapters, which followed the presentation of the award by director Shane Meadows. Schrader's second marriage is to actress Mary Beth Hurt, who has appeared in smaller roles in a variety of his films. Theatre career[edit] Schrader has written two stage plays, Berlinale and Cleopatra Club. The latter saw its premiere at the Powerhouse Theater
Powerhouse Theater
in Poughkeepsie, New York, in 1995 and its foreign language debut in Vienna
Vienna
in 2011.[5][11][12] Themes[edit] A recurring theme in Schrader's films is the protagonist on a self-destructive path, or undertaking actions which work against himself, deliberately or subconsciously. The finale often bears an element of redemption, preceded by a painful sacrifice or cathartic act of violence. Schrader has repeatedly referred to Taxi Driver, American Gigolo, Light Sleeper, The Canyons and The Walker
The Walker
as "a man in a room" stories. The protagonist in each film changes from an angry, then narcissistic, later anxious character, to a person who hides behind a mask of superficiality.[5][13][14] Although many of his films or scripts are based on real-life biographies (Raging Bull, Mishima: A Life in Four Chapters, Patty Hearst, Auto Focus), Schrader confessed having problems with biographical films due to their altering of actual events, which he tried to prevent by imposing structures and stylization instead.[5] Awards[edit] Won[edit]

1976 – National Board of Review, USA, NBR Award – Top 10 Films of the Year for Obsession 1977 – National Society of Film Critics Awards, USA, 2nd Place, NSFC Award – Best Film for Taxi Driver 1980 – Los Angeles Film Critics Association Awards, LAFCA Award – Best Picture for Raging Bull 1980 – National Board of Review, USA, NBR Award – Top 10 Films of the Year for Raging Bull 1980 – New York Film Critics Circle Awards, 3rd Place, NYFCC Award – Best Film for Raging Bull 1981 – National Society of Film Critics Awards, USA, 2nd Place, NSFC Award – Best Film for Raging Bull
Raging Bull
(tied with Every Man for Himself) 1981 – Boston Society of Film Critics Awards, BSFC Award – Best Film for Raging Bull 1990 – National Film Preservation Board, USA, National Film Registry for Raging Bull 1993 – New York Film Critics Circle Awards, 3rd place NYFCC Award – Best Film for Light Sleeper 1994 – National Film Preservation Board, USA, National Film Registry for Taxi Driver 1997 – Valladolid International Film Festival, Youth Jury Award – Special
Special
Mention for Affliction 1998 – Taos Talking Picture Festival, Storyteller Award 1998 – New York Film Critics Circle Awards, 2nd Place, NYFCC Award – Best Film for Affliction 1999 – National Society of Film Critics Awards, USA, 2nd Place, NSFC Award – Best Film for Affliction 1999 – Golden Trailer Awards, Golden Trailer – Best in Show for Bringing Out the Dead 1999 – Writers Guild of America, USA, Laurel Award for Screen Writing Achievement 2005 – American Film Institute, USA, Franklin J. Schaffner Award 2007 – Stockholm Film Festival, Lifetime Achievement Award 2008 – St. Louis International Film Festival, Lifetime Achievement Award 2009 – Cinemanila International Film Festival, Lifetime Achievement Award 2013 – Melbourne Underground Film Festival, Best Foreign Director for The Canyons 2013 – Melbourne Underground Film Festival, Best Foreign Film for The Canyons 2013 – Ghent International Film Festival, Joseph Plateau Honorary Award 2013 – Valladolid International Film Festival, Honorary Spike for The Canyons

Nominated[edit]

1977 – Golden Globes, USA, Golden Globe – Best Screenplay – Motion Picture for Taxi Driver 1977 – Writers Guild of America, USA, WGA Award (Screen) for Taxi Driver 1977 – Academy of Science Fiction, Fantasy & Horror Films, USA, Golden Scroll – Best Horror Film for Obsession 1979 – Berlin International Film Festival, Golden Berlin Bear for Hardcore 1981 – Golden Globes, USA, Golden Globe – Best Screenplay – Motion Picture for Raging Bull
Raging Bull
(shared with Mardik Martin) 1985 – Cannes Film Festival, Palme d'Or
Palme d'Or
for Mishima: A Life in Four Chapters 1988 – Cannes Film Festival, Palme d'Or
Palme d'Or
for Patty Hearst 1988 – National Board of Review, USA, NBR Award – Top 10 Films of the Year for The Last Temptation of Christ 1989 – Political Film Society, USA, PFS Award – Exposé for Patty Hearst 1992 – Berlin International Film Festival, Golden Berlin Bear for Light Sleeper 1992 – Deauville Film Festival, Critics Award for Light Sleeper 1993 – Independent Spirit Awards, Independent Spirit Award – Best Screenplay for Light Sleeper 1993 – Mystfest, Best Film for Light Sleeper 1995 – Academy of Science Fiction, Fantasy & Horror Films, USA, Saturn Award – Best Single Genre Television Presentation for Witch Hunt 1997 – Sitges - Catalan International Film Festival, Best Film for Touch 1997 – Valladolid International Film Festival, Golden Spike for Affliction 1998 – Independent Spirit Awards, Independent Spirit Award – Best Screenplay for Touch 1998 – Independent Spirit Awards, Independent Spirit Award – Best Director for Touch 1999 – Independent Spirit Awards, Independent Spirit Award – Best Screenplay for Affliction 1999 – Independent Spirit Awards, Independent Spirit Award – Best Director for Affliction 2002 – San Sebastián International Film Festival, Golden Seashell for Auto Focus 2003 – Golden Trailer Awards, Golden Trailer – Trashiest Trailer for Auto Focus 2005 – Golden Raspberry Awards, Razzie Award – Worst Director for Dominion: Prequel to The Exorcist

Filmography[edit] Feature films[edit]

Year Name Director Screenwriter Notes

1974 The Yakuza

Yes Directed by Sydney Pollack. Co-written with Leonard Schrader and Robert Towne.

1976 Taxi Driver

Yes Directed by Martin Scorsese.

Obsession

Yes Directed by Brian De Palma.

1977 Rolling Thunder

Yes Directed by John Flynn. Co-written with Heywood Gould.

1978 Blue Collar Yes Yes Co-written with Leonard Schrader.

1979 Hardcore Yes Yes

Old Boyfriends

Yes Directed by Joan Tewkesbury. Co-written with Leonard Schrader. Producer.

1980 American Gigolo Yes Yes

Raging Bull

Yes Directed by Martin Scorsese. Co-written with Mardik Martin.

1982 Cat People Yes

Written by Alan Ormsby. Original screenplay by DeWitt Bodeen.

1985 Mishima: A Life in Four Chapters Yes Yes Co-written with Leonard Schrader and Chieko Schrader.

1986 The Mosquito Coast

Yes Directed by Peter Weir.

1987 Light of Day Yes Yes

1988 Patty Hearst Yes

Written by Nicholas Kazan.

The Last Temptation of Christ

Yes Directed by Martin Scorsese.

1990 The Comfort of Strangers Yes

Written by Harold Pinter.

1992 Light Sleeper Yes Yes

1994 Witch Hunt (TV) Yes

Written by Joseph Dougherty.

1996 City Hall

Yes Directed by Harold Becker. Co-written with Bo Goldman, Nicholas Pileggi, and Ken Lipper.

1997 Touch Yes Yes

Affliction Yes Yes

1999 Forever Mine Yes Yes

Bringing Out the Dead

Yes Directed by Martin Scorsese.

2002 Auto Focus Yes

Written by Michael Gerbosi.

2005 Dominion: Prequel to the Exorcist Yes

Written by William Wisher and Caleb Carr.

2007 The Walker Yes Yes

2008 Adam Resurrected Yes

Written by Noah Stollman.

2013 The Canyons Yes

Written by Bret Easton Ellis.

2014 The Dying of the Light Yes Yes

2016 Dog Eat Dog Yes

Also actor. Screenplay by Matthew Wilder, based on the novel by Edward Bunker.

2017 First Reformed Yes Yes

TBA The Jesuit

Yes Post-production. Directed by Alfonso Pineda Ulloa.

Short films[edit] Director[edit]

1970 – For Us, Cinema is the Most Important of Arts 1995 – New Blue

Music video director[edit]

1985 – "Tight Connection to My Heart" for Bob Dylan

Actor[edit]

2007 – God's Lonely Man as 'Himself'

Stage plays[edit]

Berlinale The Cleopatra Club

Short documentary appearances[edit]

2003 – Sex at 24 Frames Per Second 2005 – Budd Boetticher: A Man Can Do That 2005 – Budd Boetticher: An American Original 2005 – Pickpocket: Paul Schrader
Paul Schrader
Introduction 2007 – Producing 'Taxi Driver' 2007 – Influence and Appreciation: A Martin Scorsese
Martin Scorsese
Tribute 2008 – Murnau, Borzage and Fox 2010 – More Tales from the Script 2013 – The Making of 'Rolling Thunder' 2013 – Creating 'The Canyons' 2014 – More Than a Remake: An Interview with Paul Schrader
Paul Schrader
on 'Cat People'

Documentary feature film appearances[edit]

2013 – Richard Pryor: Omit the Logic 2013 – Milius 2011 – Eames: The Architect & The Painter 2011 – These Amazing Shadows 2009 – Tales from the Script 2008 – Erika Rabau: Puck of Berlin 2003 – Easy Riders, Raging Bulls: How the Sex, Drugs and Rock 'N' Roll Generation Saved Hollywood 2003 – A Decade Under the Influence

Television appearances[edit] As himself[edit]

The 100 Greatest Films (TV Movie documentary – aired 2001) AFI's 100 Years... 100 Movies: The Antiheroes (TV Movie documentary -aired 1998) American Masters (episode: "Preston Sturges: The Rise and Fall of an American Dreamer" – aired July 2, 1990) Charlie Rose (episode: "Episode dated 5 January 1999" – aired January 5, 1999) Días de cine (episodes: "Episode dated 10 March 2011," "Episode dated 24 October 2013," "Episode dated 27 February 2014" – aired March 10, 2011, October 24, 2013, February 27, 2014) The Directors (episode: "The Films of Paul Schrader" – aired 2002) Fear – Angst (TV Movie documentary, aired 1984) Festival Pass with Chris Gore (TV Series documentary, aired 2002) Godard Made in USA (TV Movie documentary, aired 2010) Heroes of Black Comedy (TV Mini-Series documentary, aired 2002) The Hollywood
Hollywood
Fashion Machine (TV Movie documentary, 1995) Hollywood's Best Film Directors (episode: "Paul Schrader" – aired September 1, 2010) Lindsay (episode: "Part One" – aired March 9, 2014) Männer im Trenchcoat, Frauen im Pelz (TV Movie documentary, aired 2004) Metropolis (episode: "Ein Tag mit Paul Schrader" – aired February 14, 2009) Nouvelle vague vue d'ailleurs (TV Movie documentary, aired 2009) The Passion: Films, Faith & Fury (TV Movie documentary – aired 2006) The Rules of Film Noir (TV Movie documentary, aired 2009) Sam Peckinpah's West: Legacy of a Hollywood
Hollywood
Renegade (TV Movie documentary – aired 2004) Scene By Scene (episode: '"Paul Schrader" – aired April 25, 1998) The Seventh Art (episode: "Issue 13" – aired June 1, 2013) The Story of Film: An Odyssey (episodes: "Post-War Cinema," "European New Wave," "American Cinema of the 1970's" – aired October 1, 2011, October 15, 2011, October 29, 2011)

Soundtrack[edit]

1978 – Blue Collar (lyrics: "Hard Workin Man") 1980 – American Gigolo
American Gigolo
(lyrics: "Love and Passion") 1998 – A Civil Action (lyrics: "Hard Workin' Man" (1978)) 2002 – Auto Focus
Auto Focus
(lyrics: "Snap!")

References[edit]

^ Paul Schrader
Paul Schrader
Biography on Filmreference.com, retrieved 2002-11-06. ^ Harmetz, Aljean (August 24, 1988). "How Studio Maneuvered 'Temptation' Into a Hit". The New York Times.  ^ "Ageing bulls return". The Guardian. London. October 31, 1999.  ^ John Brady, The craft of the screenwriter, Simon & Schuster, 1982 (0-671-25230-5). ^ a b c d e f g Kevin Jackson (ed.), Schrader on Schrader and Other Writings, Faber & Faber, 2004 (ISBN 0-571-22176-9). ^ "Paul J. Schrader".  ^ Joseph McBride, Steven Spielberg: A Biography, Faber & Faber, 1997 (ISBN 0-571-19177-0). ^ "Berlinale: Juries". berlinale.de. Retrieved 2011-02-27.  ^ Interview with Paul Schrader
Paul Schrader
on The Hollywood
Hollywood
Interview, originally published in Venice Magazine, November 2005, retrieved 2011-11-06. ^ Short profile of Paul Schrader
Paul Schrader
on Filmaka.com, retrieved 2011-11-06. ^ Production history of the "New York Stage and Film" company, retrieved 2011-12-9. ^ Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (Frankfurt), February 3, 2011. ^ Schrader: Indies are scavenger dogs, scouring the planet for scraps – Interview with Roger Ebert in Chicago Sun-Times, December 11, 2007, retrieved 2011-11-22. ^ Interview Archived 2012-02-22 at the Wayback Machine. with Paul Schrader on Filmmakermagazine.com, retrieved 2011-11-2.

Further reading[edit]

Transcendental Style in Film: Ozu, Bresson, Dreyer, Da Capo Press, 1988 (ISBN 0-306-80335-6). Notes on Film Noir, Film Comment, Vol. 8, No. 1, Spring 1972.

External links[edit]

Paul Schrader's website Paul Schrader
Paul Schrader
on IMDb Interview with Schrader from 1998 on 'Bringing Out the Dead' and his writing techniques by Mikael Colville-Andersen. A collection of his film criticism

v t e

Paul Schrader
Paul Schrader
filmography

Films directed

Blue Collar (1978) Hardcore (1979) American Gigolo
American Gigolo
(1980) Cat People (1982) Mishima: A Life in Four Chapters (1985) Light of Day
Light of Day
(1987) Patty Hearst
Patty Hearst
(1988) The Comfort of Strangers (1990) Light Sleeper
Light Sleeper
(1992) Witch Hunt (1994) Touch (1997) Affliction (1997) Forever Mine
Forever Mine
(1999) Auto Focus
Auto Focus
(2002) Dominion: Prequel to the Exorcist
Exorcist
(2005) The Walker
The Walker
(2007) Adam Resurrected
Adam Resurrected
(2008) The Canyons (2013) Dying of the Light (2014) Dog Eat Dog (2016) First Reformed (2017)

Writer only

The Yakuza
The Yakuza
(1974) Taxi Driver
Taxi Driver
(1976) Obsession (1976) Rolling Thunder (1977) Old Boyfriends
Old Boyfriends
(1979) Raging Bull
Raging Bull
(1980) The Mosquito Coast
The Mosquito Coast
(1986) The Last Temptation of Christ (1988) City Hall (1996) Bringing Out the Dead
Bringing Out the Dead
(1999)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 37103354 LCCN: n87887565 ISNI: 0000 0001 2278 4131 GND: 119004399 SELIBR: 315946 SUDOC: 027128172 BNF: cb13899539d (data) BIBSYS: 90575654 ULAN: 500258019 NDL: 00455753 BNE: XX868

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