The Info List - Paul Hindemith

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Paul Hindemith
Paul Hindemith
(/ˈhɪndəmɪt/; 16 November 1895 – 28 December 1963) was a prolific German composer, violist, violinist, teacher and conductor. Notable compositions include his song cycle Das Marienleben (1923), Der Schwanendreher for viola and orchestra (1935), and opera Mathis der Maler (1938). Hindemith's most popular work, both on record and in the concert hall, is likely the Symphonic Metamorphosis of Themes by Carl Maria von Weber, written in 1943.


1 Life and career 2 Music

2.1 Style 2.2 Musical system

3 Works 4 Pedagogical writings 5 Notable students 6 Recordings 7 Media 8 Hindemithon Festival 9 See also 10 References 11 External links

Life and career[edit] Born in Hanau, near Frankfurt am Main, Hindemith was taught the violin as a child. He entered Frankfurt's Hoch’sche Konservatorium, where he studied violin with Adolf Rebner, as well as conducting and composition with Arnold Mendelssohn and Bernhard Sekles. At first he supported himself by playing in dance bands and musical-comedy groups. He became deputy leader of the Frankfurt Opera
in 1914, and was promoted to leader in 1917. He played second violin in the Rebner String Quartet from 1914. Hindemith was conscripted into the German army in September, 1917 and sent to join his regiment in Alsace in January, 1918.[1] There he was assigned to play bass drum in the regiment band, and also formed a string quartet. In May 1918 he was deployed to the front in Flanders, where he served as a sentry; his diary shows him "surviving grenade attacks only by good luck", according to New Grove Dictionary.[1] After the armistice he returned to Frankfurt and the Rebner Quartet.[1] In 1921 he founded the Amar Quartet,[2] playing viola, and extensively toured Europe. In 1922, some of his pieces were played in the International Society for Contemporary Music festival at Salzburg, which first brought him to the attention of an international audience. The following year, he began to work as an organizer of the Donaueschingen Festival, where he programmed works by several avant garde composers, including Anton Webern and Arnold Schoenberg. In 1927 he was appointed Professor at the Berliner Hochschule für Musik in Berlin.[3] Hindemith wrote the music for Hans Richter's 1928 avant-garde film Ghosts Before Breakfast (Vormittagsspuk), although the score was subsequently lost, and he also acted in the film.[4] In 1929 he played the solo part in the premiere of William Walton's Viola
Concerto, after Lionel Tertis, for whom it was written, turned it down. During the 1930s he made a visit to Cairo
and several visits to Ankara where (at the invitation of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk) he led the task of reorganizing Turkish music education and the early efforts for the establishment of the Turkish State Opera
and Ballet. Hindemith did not stay in Turkey
as long as many other émigrés. Nevertheless, he greatly influenced the developments of Turkish musical life; the Ankara
State Conservatory owes much to his efforts. In fact, Hindemith was regarded as a "real master" by young Turkish musicians and he was appreciated and greatly respected.[5] Towards the end of the 1930s, he made several tours in America as a viola and viola d'amore soloist. Hindemith's relationship to the Nazis is a complicated one. Some condemned his music as "degenerate" (largely based on his early, sexually charged operas such as Sancta Susanna), and in December 1934, during a speech at the Berlin
Sports Palace, Germany’s Minister of Propaganda Joseph Goebbels
Joseph Goebbels
publicly denounced Hindemith as an "atonal noisemaker".[6] Other officials working in Nazi Germany, though, thought that he might provide Germany with an example of a modern German composer, as by this time he was writing music based in tonality, with frequent references to folk music; the conductor Wilhelm Furtwängler's defense of Hindemith, published in 1934, takes precisely this line.[7] The controversy around his work continued throughout the thirties, with the composer falling in and out of favor with the Nazi hierarchy; he finally emigrated to Switzerland in 1938 (in part because his wife was of partially Jewish ancestry).[8] From there he migrated to Turkey where he was the leading figure of a new music pedagogy in the era of president Kemal Atatürk. His deputy was Eduard Zuckmayer.[9] This development seems to have been supported by the Nazi regime: it may have got him conveniently out of the way, yet at the same time he propagated a German view of musical history and education. (Hindemith himself said he believed he was being an ambassador for German culture.) In 1940, Hindemith emigrated to the United States. At the same time that he was codifying his musical language, his teaching and compositions began to be affected by his theories, according to critics like Ernest Ansermet.[10] Once in the U.S. he taught primarily at Yale University, where he had such notable students as Lukas Foss, Graham George, Norman Dello Joio, Mitch Leigh, Mel Powell, Yehudi Wyner, Harold Shapero, Hans Otte, Ruth Schönthal, Samuel Adler, Leonard Sarason, and Oscar-winning film director George Roy Hill. He also taught at the University at Buffalo, Cornell University, and Wells College.[11] During this time he also gave the Charles Eliot Norton Lectures at Harvard, from which the book A Composer's World was extracted (Hindemith 1952). Hindemith had a long friendship with Erich Katz, whose own compositions were influenced by him.[12] Also included among Hindemith's students were the composers Franz Reizenstein[13] and Robert Strassburg[14] [15] He became a U.S. citizen in 1946, but returned to Europe in 1953, living in Zürich
and teaching at the university there. Towards the end of his life he began to conduct more, and made numerous recordings, mostly of his own music. An anonymous critic writing in Opera
magazine in 1954, having attended a performance of Hindemith's Neues vom Tage, noted that "Mr Hindemith is no virtuoso conductor, but he does possess an extraordinary knack of making performers understand how his own music is supposed to go".[16] He was awarded the Balzan Prize
Balzan Prize
in 1962. After a prolonged decline in his physical health, although he composed almost to his death, Hindemith died in Frankfurt from pancreatitis aged 68. Music[edit]

Hindemith (to the left) received the Wihuri Sibelius Prize
Wihuri Sibelius Prize
in 1955 from Antti Wihuri.

Style[edit] Hindemith is among the most significant German composers of his time. His early works are in a late romantic idiom, and he later produced expressionist works, rather in the style of early Arnold Schoenberg, before developing a leaner, contrapuntally complex style in the 1920s. This style has been described as neoclassical,[17] but is very different from the works by Igor Stravinsky
Igor Stravinsky
labeled with that term, owing more to the contrapuntal language of Johann Sebastian Bach
Johann Sebastian Bach
and Max Reger
Max Reger
than the Classical clarity of Mozart.[citation needed] The new style can be heard in the series of works called Kammermusik (Chamber Music) from 1922 to 1927. Each of these pieces is written for a different small instrumental ensemble, many of them very unusual. Kammermusik No. 6, for example, is a concerto for the viola d'amore, an instrument that has not been in wide use since the baroque period, but which Hindemith himself played. He continued to write for unusual groups of instruments throughout his life, producing a trio for viola, heckelphone and piano (1928), 7 trios for 3 trautoniums (1930), a sonata for double bass and a concerto for trumpet, bassoon, and strings (both in 1949), for example. Around the 1930s, Hindemith began to write less for chamber groups, and more for large orchestral forces. In 1933–35, Hindemith wrote his opera Mathis der Maler, based on the life of the painter Matthias Grünewald. This opera is rarely staged, though a well-known production by the New York City Opera
in 1995 was an exception (Holland 1995). It combines the neo-classicism of earlier works with folk song. As a preliminary stage to the composing of this opera, Hindemith wrote a purely instrumental symphony also called Mathis der Maler, which is one of his most frequently performed works. In the opera, some portions of the symphony appear as instrumental interludes, others were elaborated in vocal scenes. Hindemith wrote Gebrauchsmusik (Music for Use)—compositions intended to have a social or political purpose and sometimes written to be played by amateurs. The concept was inspired by Bertolt Brecht. An example of this is his Trauermusik (Funeral Music), written in January 1936. Hindemith was preparing the London premiere of Der Schwanendreher when he heard news of the death of George V. He quickly wrote this piece for solo viola and string orchestra in tribute to the late king, and the premiere was given that same evening, the day after the king's death.[18] Other examples of Hindemith’s Gebrauchsmusik include:

the Plöner Musiktage (1932): a series of pieces designed for a day of community music making open to all inhabitants of the city of Plön, culminating in an evening concert by grammar school students and teachers. a Scherzo for viola and cello (1934), written in several hours during a series of recording sessions as a "filler" for an unexpected blank side of a 78 rpm album, and recorded immediately upon its completion. Wir bauen eine Stadt ("We’re Building a City"), an opera for eight-year-olds (1930).

Hindemith's most popular work, both on record and in the concert hall, is probably the Symphonic Metamorphosis of Themes by Carl Maria von Weber, written in 1943. It takes melodies from various works by Weber, mainly piano duets, but also one from the overture to his incidental music for Turandot (Op. 37/J. 75), and transforms and adapts them so that each movement of the piece is based on one theme. In 1951, Hindemith completed his Symphony
in B-flat. Scored for concert band, it was written for the U.S. Army Band "Pershing's Own". Hindemith premiered it with that band on April 5 of that year.[19] Its second performance took place under the baton of Hugh McMillan, conducting the Boulder Symphonic Band at the University of Colorado. The piece is representative of his late works, exhibiting strong contrapuntal lines throughout, and is a cornerstone of the band repertoire. Hindemith recorded it in stereo with members of the Philharmonia Orchestra
for EMI
in 1956. Musical system[edit]

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Most of Hindemith's music employs a unique system that is tonal but non-diatonic. Like most tonal music, it is centred on a tonic and modulates from one tonal centre to another, but it uses all 12 notes freely rather than relying on a scale picked as a subset of these notes. Hindemith even rewrote some of his music after developing this system. One of the key features of his system is that he ranks all musical intervals of the 12-tone equally tempered scale from the most consonant to the most dissonant. He classifies chords in six categories, on the basis of how dissonant they are, whether or not they contain a tritone, and whether or not they clearly suggest a root or tonal centre. Hindemith's philosophy also encompassed melody—he strove for melodies that do not clearly outline major or minor triads. In the late 1930s, Hindemith wrote a theoretical book The Craft of Musical Composition (vol. 1, Hindemith 1937), which lays out this system in great detail. He also advocated this system as a means of understanding and analyzing the harmonic structure of other music, claiming that it has a broader reach than the traditional Roman numeral approach to chords (an approach that is strongly tied to the diatonic scales). In the final chapter of Book I, Hindemith seeks to illustrate the wide-ranging relevance and applicability of his system in analysis of music examples ranging from the early origins of European music to the contemporary. These analyses include an early Gregorian melody, and compositions by Guillaume de Machaut, J. S. Bach, Richard Wagner, Igor Stravinsky, Arnold Schoenberg, and finally, a composition of his own. His piano work of the early 1940s Ludus Tonalis
Ludus Tonalis
contains twelve fugues, in the manner of Johann Sebastian Bach, each connected by an interlude during which the music moves from the key of the last fugue to the key of the next one. The order of the keys follows Hindemith's ranking of musical intervals around the tonal center of C. One traditional aspect of classical music that Hindemith retains is the idea of dissonance resolving to consonance. Much of Hindemith's music begins in consonant territory, progresses rather smoothly into dissonance, and resolves at the end in full, consonant chords. This is especially apparent in his Concert Music for Strings and Brass. Works[edit] Further information: List of compositions by Paul Hindemith
List of compositions by Paul Hindemith
and List of operas by Hindemith Pedagogical writings[edit] His complete set of instructional books (in possible educational order)

Elementary Training for Musicians (ISBN 0901938165) 1946 A Concentrated Course in Traditional Harmony: Book 1, Part 1—With Emphasis on Exercises and a Minimum of Rules, revised edition (ISBN 0901938424) New York: Schott Music, 1968 A Concentrated Course in Traditional Harmony: Book 2—Exercises for Advanced Students, translated by Arthur Mendel. (ISBN 0901938432) New York: Schott, 1964 The Craft of Musical Composition: Book 1—Theoretical Part, translated by Arthur Mendel (London: Schott & Co; New York: Associated Music Publishers. ISBN 0901938300), 1942 [1] The Craft of Musical Composition: Book 2—Exercises in Two-Part Writing, translated by Otto Ortmann. (London: Schott & Co; New York: Associated Music Publishers. ISBN 0901938416) 1941 Unterweisung im Tonsatz 3: Ubungsbuch für den dreistimmigen Satz [The Craft of Musical Composition: Book 3—Exercises in Three-part Writing]. Mainz: Schott 5205, ISBN 3-7957-1605-5, 251 pages. 1970. Only available in the original German.

Notable students[edit] For Hindemith's notable students, see List of music students by teacher: G to J § Paul Hindemith. Recordings[edit] Hindemith conducted some of his own music in a series of recordings for EMI
with the Philharmonia Orchestra
and for Deutsche Grammophon with the Berlin
Philharmonic Orchestra, which have been digitally remastered and released on CD.[20][21] The Violin
was also recorded by Hindemith for Decca/London, with the composer conducting the London Symphony
with David Oistrakh
David Oistrakh
as soloist. Everest Records issued a recording of Hindemith's postwar When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom'd ("A Requiem for Those We Love") on LP, conducted by Hindemith. A stereo recording of Hindemith conducting the requiem with the New York Philharmonic Orchestra, with Louise Parker and George London as soloists, was made for Columbia Records
Columbia Records
in 1963 and later issued on CD. He also appeared on television as a guest conductor of the Chicago Symphony
Orchestra's nationally syndicated "Music from Chicago" series; the performances have been released by VAI on home video. A complete orchestral music collection has been recorded by German and Australian orchestras, all released on the CPO label, recordings all conducted by Werner Andreas Albert. Media[edit]

Kleine Kammermusik

performed by the Soni Ventorum Wind Quintet

Problems playing this file? See media help.

Hindemithon Festival[edit] An annual festival of Hindemith's music is held at William Paterson University in Wayne, New Jersey. It features student, staff, and professional musicians performing a range of Hindemith's works. See also[edit]

Music written in all major and/or minor keys

References[edit] Notes

^ a b c Giselher Schubert, "Paul Hindemith," Entry in The New Grove Dictionary of Opera, accessed online in Grove Music Online, November 2015 ^ The Amar Quartet
Amar Quartet
was founded for the Donaueschingen Festival
Donaueschingen Festival
of 1921 and was disbanded in 1929. See an account by Tully Potter, "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-05-13. Retrieved 2009-03-30. , and entry under Chamber-Music Players in Eaglefield-Hull 1924, 86. ^ A Dictionary of Twentieth Century World Biography. United Kingdom: Book Club Associates, 1992, p. 267. ^ Wilke, Tobias (2010). Medien der Unmittelbarkeit (in German). Munich: Wilhelm Fink. p. 63. ISBN 978-3-7705-4923-8.  ^ Arnold Reisman, ed. (2006). Turkey's Modernization: Refugees from Nazism
and Atatürk's Vision. New Academia Publishing. p. 90. ISBN 0977790886. Retrieved 2013-03-23.  ^ Arnold Reisman, ed. (2006). Turkey's Modernization: Refugees from Nazism
and Atatürk's Vision. New Academia Publishing. p. 88. ISBN 0977790886. Retrieved 2013-03-23.  ^ Furtwängler 1934. ^ Steinberg, Michael (1998). The Concerto : A Listener's Guide. Oxford University Press. p. 205. ISBN 019802634X. Retrieved 2013-03-23.  ^ Arnold Reisman, ed. (2006). Turkey's Modernization: Refugees from Nazism
and Atatürk's Vision. New Academia Publishing. p. 88. ISBN 0977790886. Retrieved 2013-03-23.  ^ 1961, note to p. 42 added on an errata slip ^ "Courses as an Instructor: Paul Hindemith".  ^ Davenport 1970, 43. ^ Maurice Hinson, Music for More than One Piano: An Annotated Guide (Bloomington and London: Indiana University Press, 2001): 244. ISBN 978-0-253-11306-1. ^ Composer
genealogies: A Compendium of Composers, Their teachers and Their Students Pfitzinger, Scott. Roman & Littlefield, New York & London 2017 Pg. 522. ISBN 9781442272248 ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=ugfWDQAAQBAJ&p ^ Opera
(June 1954): 348. ^ Taylor 1997, p. 261. ^ Steinberg, Michael (1998). The Concerto : A Listener's Guide. Oxford University Press. p. 212. ISBN 019802634X. Retrieved 2013-03-23.  ^ "Biography". Hindemith Foundation. Archived from the original on 2001-04-13.  ^ "Review HINDEMITH CONDUCTS HINDEMITH. ® ORCHESTRAL WORKS. °Dennis Drain (hn); Philharmonia Orchestra
I Paul Hindemith. EMI Treasury® EG291 173-1; LEI EG291 173-4. Nobilissima visione—suite (from Columbia 33CX1533, 5/58). Horn Concerto
(33CX1279, 12/59)8. Konzertmusik for strings and brass, Op. 50 (33CX1 512, 3/58). Symphony in B flat major for concert band (33CX1 512, 3/58)". Gramophone. 1987-04-20: 40.  ^ "Hindemith Conducts Hindemith: The Complete Recordings on Deutsche Grammophon: Paul Hindemith, Spoken Word, Paul Hindemith, Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra, Members of the Berlin
Philharmonic Orchestra, Berlin
Philharmonic Orchestra
[members], Monique Haas, Hans Otte: Music". Amazon.com. Retrieved 2012-10-07. 


Ansermet, Ernest. 1961. Les fondements de la musique dans la conscience humaine. 2 v. Neuchâtel: La Baconnière. Briner, Andres. 1971. Paul Hindemith. Zürich: Atlantis-Verlag; Mainz: Schott. Bruhn, Siglind (1998). The Temptation of Paul Hindemith. Mathis der Maler as a Spiritual Testimony. Stuyvesant, NY: Pendragon Press. ISBN 978-1-57647-013-8. Bruhn, Siglind. 2000. Musical Ekphrasis in Rilke's Marienleben. Internationale Forschungen zur allgemeinen und vergleichenden Literaturwissenschaft 47. Amsterdam: Rodopi. ISBN 90-420-0800-8. Bruhn, Siglind. 2005. The Musical Order of the World: Kepler, Hesse, Hindemith. Interplay, no. 4. Hillsdale, NY: Pendragon Press. ISBN 978-1-57647-117-3. Davenport, LaNoue. 1970. ""Erich Katz: A Profile"". The American Recorder (Spring): 43–44. Retrieved November 2, 2011. Furtwängler, Wilhelm. 1934. "Der Fall Hindemith". Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung 73, no. 551 (Sunday, 25 November): 1. Reprinted in Berta Geissmar, Musik im Schatten der Politik. Zürich: Atlantis, 1945. Reprinted in Wilhelm Furtwängler, Ton und Wort: Aufsätze und Vorträge 1918 bis 1954, 91–96. Wiesbaden: F.A. Brockhaus, 1954; reissued Zürich: Atlantis Musikbuch-Verlag, 1994. ISBN 9783254001993. English version as "The Hindemith Case", in Wilhelm Furtwängler, Furtwängler on Music, edited and translated by Ronald Taylor, 117–20. Aldershot, Hants.: Scolar Press, 1991. ISBN 978-0-85967-816-2. Eaglefield-Hull, Arthur. (Ed.). 1924. A Dictionary of Modern Music and Musicians. London: Dent. Hindemith, Paul. 1937–70. Unterweisung im Tonsatz. 3 vols. Mainz, B. Schott's Söhne. First two volumes in English, as The Craft of Musical Composition, translated by Arthur Mendel and Otto Ortmann. New York: Associated Music Publishers; London: Schott & Co., 1941–42. Hindemith, Paul. 1952. A Composer's World, Horizons and Limitations. Cambridge: Harvard
University Press. Holland, Bernard. 1995. "Music Review; City Opera
Gamely Flirts with Danger". New York Times, 9 September. Kater, Michael H. 1997. The Twisted Muse: Musicians and Their Music in the Third Reich. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press. Kater, Michael H. 2000. Composers of the Nazi Era: Eight Portraits. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press. Kemp, Ian. 1970. Hindemith. Oxford Studies of Composers 6. London, New York: Oxford University Press. Neumeyer, David. 1986. The Music of Paul Hindemith. New Haven: Yale University Press. Noss, Luther. 1989. Paul Hindemith
Paul Hindemith
in the United States. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. Preussner, Eberhard. 1984. Paul Hindemith: ein Lebensbild. Innsbruck: Edition Helbling. Skelton, Geoffrey. 1975. Paul Hindemith: The Man Behind the Music: A Biography. London: Gollancz. Taylor, Ronald. 1997. Berlin
and Its Culture: A Historical Portrait. Yale University
Yale University
Press. ISBN 0300072007. Taylor-Jay, Claire. 2004. The Artist-Operas of Pfitzner, Krenek and Hindemith: Politics and the Ideology of the Artist. Aldershot: Ashgate.

Further reading

Luttmann, Stephen. 2013. Paul Hindemith: A Research and Information Guide. New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-135-84841-5.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Paul Hindemith.

Paul Hindemith
Paul Hindemith
at Encyclopædia Britannica Free scores by Paul Hindemith
Paul Hindemith
on IMSLP at the International Music Score Library Project (IMSLP) Hindemith Foundation Hindemith Foundation Catalogue of Works Schott Music Publisher page An Inner Emigration, notes on Hindemith and Der Schwanendreher by Ron Drummond Publications by and about Paul Hindemith
Paul Hindemith
in the catalogue Helveticat of the Swiss National Library

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Paul Hindemith


Mörder, Hoffnung der Frauen Das Nusch-Nuschi Sancta Susanna Cardillac Hin und zurück Neues vom Tage Mathis der Maler Die Harmonie der Welt The Long Christmas Dinner


Triadisches Ballett Nobilissima Visione The Four Temperaments Hérodiade

Orchestral works

Konzertmusik for Brass and String Orchestra Symphony: Mathis der Maler Symphonic Metamorphosis of Themes by Carl Maria von Weber Symphonia Serena Symphony
in B-flat for Band


Der Schwanendreher Clarinet Concerto Kammermusik

Chamber music

Ouvertüre zum "Fliegenden Holländer", wie sie eine schlechte Kurkapelle morgens um 7 am Brunnen vom Blatt spielt Kammermusik

Instrumental works

Sonata, Op. 11 No. 4 Piano
Sonata No. 1 Ludus Tonalis

Vocal music

When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom'd Das Marienleben


The Flight Across the Ocean

Other compositions

Trauermusik Tuttifäntchen

Related articles

Adolescence (ballet) Gebrauchsmusik Ghosts Before Breakfast Hindemith Prize

List of compositions by Paul Hindemith
List of compositions by Paul Hindemith
Category:Compositions by Paul Hindemith

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Neoclassical music


Georges Auric Béla Bartók Alfredo Casella Carlos Chávez Aaron Copland Louis Durey George Enescu Manuel de Falla Radamés Gnattali Camargo Guarnieri Paul Hindemith Arthur Honegger Zoltán Kodály Bohuslav Martinů Darius Milhaud Francis Poulenc Maurice Ravel Igor Stravinsky Germaine Tailleferre Heitor Villa-Lobos


Antiche arie e danze Apollo Le bourgeois gentilhomme Concert champêtre Concerto
in D Concerto
in E-flat (Dumbarton Oaks) Divertimento for chamber orchestra after keyboard pieces by Couperin Harpsichord Concerto Mathis der Maler Mavra Octet for winds Oedipus rex Orpheus Premier Menuet Pulcinella The Rake's Progress El retablo de maese Pedro Piano
Sonata No. 1 (Enescu) Piano
Sonata No. 3 (Chávez) Piano
Sonata No. 3 (Enescu) Piano
Suite No. 2 (Enescu) Sonatine bureaucratique Symphony
No. 1 Symphony
in C Symphony
in Three Movements Symphony
of Psalms Tanzsuite aus Klavierstücken von François Couperin Le tombeau de Couperin Gli uccelli

Other topics

Neoclassical ballet Neoromanticism (music) Neotonality Modernism (music)

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Wihuri Sibelius Prize

Jean Sibelius
Jean Sibelius
(1953) Paul Hindemith
Paul Hindemith
(1955) Dmitri Shostakovich
Dmitri Shostakovich
(1958) Igor Stravinsky
Igor Stravinsky
(1963) Benjamin Britten, Erik Bergman, Usko Meriläinen, & Einojuhani Rautavaara (1965) Olivier Messiaen
Olivier Messiaen
(1971) Witold Lutoslawski & Joonas Kokkonen
Joonas Kokkonen
(1973) Krzysztof Penderecki
Krzysztof Penderecki
& Aulis Sallinen
Aulis Sallinen
(1983) György Ligeti
György Ligeti
(2000) Magnus Lindberg
Magnus Lindberg
(2003) Per Nørgård
Per Nørgård
(2006) Kaija Saariaho
Kaija Saariaho
(2009) György Kurtág
György Kurtág
(2012) Harrison Birtwistle
Harrison Birtwistle
(2015) Unsuk Chin (2017)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 24622167 LCCN: n79077225 ISNI: 0000 0003 6863 8986 GND: 118551256 SELIBR: 295268 SUDOC: 028825136 BNF: cb12058131z (data) BIBSYS: 90063114 HDS: 26964 MusicBrainz: 4068eaba-ca03-4c34-9172-2b709b8050e6 NDL: 00468379 ICCU: ITICCUCFIV34276 BNE: XX1001420 TLS: Paul_Hindem