Pattani (Patani) or the Sultanate of Patani was a
Malay sultanate in
the historical Patani Region. It covered approximately the area of the
modern Thai provinces of Pattani, Yala, Narathiwat and much of the
northern part of modern Malaysia. The 6–7th century
Hindu state of
Pan Pan may or may not have been related.
1 Early history
2 Patani and the Siamese Kingdom
2.2.1 First Siamese-Burmese wars
2.2.2 Growth as a trade entrepot
2.2.3 Reassertion of Thai power
2.2.4 Death of the Yellow Queen
2.3 Patani in the
3 Chronology of Rulers
4 See also
5 Further reading
7 External links
Further information: Pan Pan (kingdom)
The Hikayat Patani.
Langkasuka was a Hindu-
Buddhist kingdom, founded in the region as
early as the 2nd century CE, which appeared in many accounts by
Chinese travellers, the most famous of whom was the
I-Ching. The kingdom drew trade from Chinese, Indian, and local
traders as a stopping place for ships bound for, or just arrived from,
the Gulf of Thailand.
Langkasuka reached its greatest economic success
in the 6th and 7th centuries and afterward declined as a major trade
center. Political circumstances suggest that by the 11th century Chola
Langkasuka was no longer a major port visited by merchants.
However, much of the decline may be due to the silting up of its
harbour, shown most poignantly today because the most substantial
Langkasukan ruins lie approximately 15 kilometres from the sea.
Patani became part of the Hindu-
Buddhist Empire of Srivijaya, a
maritime confederation based in Palembang.
Srivijaya dominated trade
South China Sea
South China Sea and exacted tolls on all traffic through the
Straits of Malacca. Malay culture had substantial influence on the
Khmer Empire, and the ancient city of Nakhon Pathom.
The founding of the Islamic kingdom of Patani is thought to have been
around the mid-13th century CE, with folklore suggesting it was named
after an exclamation made by Sultan Ismail Shah, "Pantai ini!"
(pronounced as "pata ni!", 'this beach' in the local Malay
language). However, some think it was the same country known to the
Chinese as Pan Pan.
An alternative theory is that the Patani kingdom was founded in the
14th century. Local stories tell of a fisherman named Pak Tani (Father
of Tani), who was sent by a king from the interior to survey the
coast, to find a place for an appropriate settlement. After he
established a successful fishing outpost, other people moved to join
him. The town soon grew into a prosperous trading center that
continued to bear his name. The authors of the 17th–18th century
Hikayat Patani chronicle claim this story is untrue, and support the
claim that the kingdom was founded by the Sultan.
The Patani kingdom's golden age was during the reign of its four
successive queens from 1584, known as
Ratu Hijau (The Green Queen),
Ratu Biru (The Blue Queen),
Ratu Ungu (The Purple Queen) and Ratu
Kuning (The Yellow Queen), during which the kingdom's economic and
military strength was greatly increased to the point that it was able
to fight off four major Siamese invasions, with the help of the
eastern Malay kingdom of
Pahang and the southern Malay Sultanate of
Patani and the Siamese Kingdom
In the 14th century CE, King
Ram Khamhaeng the Great (c.1239 – 1317)
of Sukhothai (also known as Pho Khun Ramkhamhaeng, Thai:
Nakhon Si Thammarat
Nakhon Si Thammarat and its vassal states – including
Ayutthaya kingdom conquered the isthmus during the 14th
century CE, bringing it into a single unified state, with Ayutthaya as
a capital, and many smaller vassal states under its control. This
consisted of a self-governing system in which the vassal states and
tributary provinces owed allegiance to the king of Ayutthaya, but
otherwise ran their own affairs.
A sheikh named Sa'id or Shafi'uddin from Kampong
Pasai (presumably a
small community of traders from
Pasai who lived on the outskirts of
Patani reportedly healed the king of a rare skin disease and after
much negotiation (and recurrence of the disease), the king agreed to
convert to Islam, adopting the name Sultan Ismail Shah. All of the
sultan's officials also agreed to convert. However, there is
fragmentary evidence that some local people had begun to convert to
Islam prior to this. The existence of a diasporic
Pasai community near
Patani shows the locals had regular contact with Muslims. There are
also travel reports, such as that of Ibn Battuta, and early Portuguese
accounts that claimed Patani had an established Muslim community even
Melaka (which officially converted in 1413), which would
suggest that merchants who had contact with other emerging Muslims
centres were the first to convert to the region.
During much of the 15th century Ayutthaya's energies were directed
toward the Malay Peninsula, especially the trading port of Malacca,
which fell under the rule of the
Malacca Sultanate. Ayutthaya's
sovereignty extended over
Malacca and the Malay states south of
Tambralinga (Nakorn Sri Thammarat). Ayutthaya helped develop and
stabilise the region, opening the way for lucrative trade on the
isthmus. This attracted Chinese merchants seeking speciality goods for
the Chinese market.
First Siamese-Burmese wars
The 16th century witnessed the rise of Burma, which under an
aggressive dynasty had overrun
Chiang Mai and
Laos and made war on
Ayutthaya. A second siege (1563–64) led by King
Maha Chakkraphat to surrender in 1564. The royal family was taken
to Bago, Burma, with the king's second son
as the vassal king. With the brief decline of Ayutthaya's
hegemony in this period, Patani may have become independent
King Dhammaraja (reigned 1569–90) was a Siamese noble of the
Sukhothai dynasty, and was formerly the King of Phitsanulok - an
important city of the Ayutthaya Kingdom. Dhammaraja became the King of
Ayutthaya by aiding the Burmese King in the siege of Ayutthaya in
1568. After, taking over Ayutthaya,
Bayinnaung installed Dhammara as a
vassal king. After Bayinnaung's death in 1581, uparaja Naresuan
proclaimed Ayutthaya's independence in 1584. The Thai fought off
repeated Burmese invasions (1584–1593). Thai independence was later
restored by Dhammaraja son, King
Naresuan the Great (reigned
1590–1605), who rebelled against the Burmese and by 1593 had driven
them from the kingdom. The
Burmese–Siamese War (1594–1605)
Burmese–Siamese War (1594–1605) was a
Thai attack on Burma, resulting in the capture of the Tanintharyi
Region as far as
Mottama in 1595 and Lan Na in 1602.
Burma as far as Taungoo in 1600, but was driven back.
Under King Naresuan, Ayutthaya returned to the summit of its power -
its territory span over
Lan Xang and the Khmer Kingdom. All the
polities that broke away from its hegemony during Dhammaraja's reign
returned to be under the Siamese control. King
Naresuan set about
unifying the country's administration directly under the royal court
at Ayutthaya. He ended the practice of nominating royal princes to
govern Ayutthaya's provinces, instead assigning court officials who
were expected to adhere the policies handed by the king. The royal
princes were confined to the capital city. Their power struggles
continued, but they were at court under the king's watchful eye. Even
with King Naresuan's reforms, however, the power of the royal
government during the next 150 years should not be
Growth as a trade entrepot
Chinese merchants, beginning with
Zheng He in the period 1406–1433
CE, played a major role in the rise of Patani as a regional trade
center. They were joined by others including the Portuguese in 1516,
Japanese in 1592, Dutch in 1602, English in 1612, and Malay and
Siamese merchants who traded throughout the area. Many Chinese also
moved to Patani, perhaps due to the activity of Lin Daoqian. A
Dutch report of 1603 by Jacob van Neck estimated that there may be as
many Chinese in Patani as there were native Malays, and they were
responsible for most of the commercial activity of Patani. The
India Company (VOC) established warehouses in Patani in
1603, followed by the English East
India Company in 1612, both
carrying out intense trading. In 1619, John Jourdain, the East India
Company's chief factor at Bantam was killed off the coast of Patani by
Patani was seen by European traders as a way to access the Chinese
market. After 1620, the Dutch and English both closed their
warehouses, but a prosperous trade was continued by the Chinese,
Japanese, and Portuguese for most of the 17th century.
Reassertion of Thai power
Following a 1688 invasion by Ayutthaya, political disorder continued
for five decades, during which the local rulers were helpless to end
the lawlessness in the region. Most foreign merchants abandoned trade
Death of the Yellow Queen
In the mid-17th century
Ratu Kuning (the Yellow Queen) died. She is
believed to be the last of four successive female rulers of Patani,
which then went through decades of political chaos and conflict,
experiencing a gradual decline.
One hundred years later, Ayutthaya under King
Ekatat (Boromaraja V)
faced another Burmese invasion. This culminated in the capture and
destruction of the city of Ayutthaya in 1767, as well as the death of
Siam was shattered, and as rivals fought for the vacant
throne, Patani declared its complete independence.
Taksin finally defeated the Burmese and reunified the country,
opening the way for the establishment of the Chakri dynasty by his
successor, King Rama I. In 1785, a resurgent
Siam sent an army led by
Prince Surasi (Viceroy Boworn Maha Surasinghanat), younger brother of
King Rama I, to seek the submission of Patani.
Patani in the
Bunga mas, the tribute sent every three years to the Siamese ruler in
Bangkok as symbol of friendship by the ruler of Patani. The sending of
Bunga mas began in the 14th century.
Patani was easily defeated by
Siam in 1785 and resumed its tributary
status. However, a series of attempted rebellions prompted
divide Patani into seven smaller puppet kingdoms in the early 1800s
during the reign of King Rama II. Britain recognised the Thai
ownership of Patani by treaty in 1909. Yala and Narathiwat remain
separate provinces to this day.
Chronology of Rulers
Inland Dynasty (Sri Wangsa)
Sultan Ismail Shah (d. 1530?), founder of the kingdom according to one
account, and the first ruler to convert to Islam. In fact, other
rulers must have preceded him. It is also likely that during his reign
the Portuguese first visited the port to trade, arriving in 1516. He
was called King Phaya Tu Nakpa before his conversion.
Sultan Mudhaffar Shah (c. 1530–1564), son of Sultan Ismail Shah, who
died during an attack on Ayudhya (Siam).
Sultan Manzur Shah (1564–1572), brother of Sultan Mudhaffar Shah.
Siam (1572–1573), son of Sultan Mudhaffar Shah, who was
murdered by his half-brother, Raja Bambang.
Sultan Bahdur (1573–1584), son of Sultan Manzur Shah, who was
considered a tyrant in most accounts.
Ratu Hijau (the Green Queen) (1584–1616), sister of Sultan Bahdur,
during whose reign Patani attained its greatest economic success as a
middle-sized port, frequented by Chinese, Dutch, English, Japanese,
Malays, Portuguese, Siamese, and other merchants.
Ratu Biru (the Blue Queen) (1616–1624), sister of Ratu Hijau.
Ratu Ungu (the Purple Queen) (1624–1635), sister of Ratu Biru, who
was particularly opposed to Siamese interference in local affairs.
Ratu Kuning (the Yellow Queen) (1635-1649/88), daughter of Ratu Ungu
and last queen of the Inland Dynasty. Controversy surrounds the exact
date of the end of her reign.
First Kelantanese Dynasty
Raja Bakal, (1688–1690 or 1651–1670), after a brief invasion of
Patani by his father in 1649, Raja Sakti I of Kelantan, he was given
the throne in Patani.
Kelantan (1690–1704 or 1670–1698), thought by Teeuw
& Wyatt to be a king, but claimed by al-Fatani to be a queen, the
widow of Raja Bakal and mother of the succeeding queen.
Raja Emas Chayam (1704–1707 or 1698–1702 and 1716–1718),
daughter of the two preceding rulers, according to al-Fatani.
Raja Dewi (1707–1716; Fatani gives no dates).
Raja Bendang Badan (1716–1720 or ?-1715), he was afterwards
raja of Kelantan, 1715–1733.
Raja Laksamana Dajang (1720–1721; Fatani gives no dates).
Raja Alung Yunus (1728–1729 or 1718–1729).
Raja Yunus (1729–1749).
Raja Long Nuh (1749–1771).
Sultan Muhammad (1771–1785).
Tengku Lamidin (1785–1791).
Datuk Pengkalan (1791–1808).
Second Kelantanese Dynasty
Sultan Phraya Long Muhammad Ibni Raja Muda Kelantan/Raja Kampong Laut
Tuan Besar Long Ismail Ibni Raja Long Yunus (1842–1856)
Tuan Long Puteh Bin Sultan Phraya Long Muhammad (Phraya Pattani II)
Tuan Besar Bin Tuan Long Puteh (Phraya Pattani III) (1881–1890)
Tuan Long Bongsu Bin Sultan Phraya Long Muhammad (Sultan Sulaiman
Sharafuddin Syah / Phraya Pattani IV)(1890–1898)
Sultan Abdul Kadir Kamaruddin Syah (Phraya Pattani V) deposed in 1902
Tengku Sri Akar Ahmad Zainal Abidin
Tengku Mahmood Mahyidden
Tengku Besar Zubaidah, married Tengku Ismail the son of Tuan Long
Besar (Phraya Pattani III), had descendents:
Tengku Budriah of Perlis
Tengku Ahmad Rithaudeen
List of Sunni Muslim dynasties
Ibrahim Syukri. History of the Malay Kingdom of Patani.
Thailand: Country Studies by the Library of Congress, Federal Research
Maryam Salim. (2005). The Kedah Laws. Dewan Bahasa and Pustaka.
ประชุมพงศาวดาร ภาคที่ 3,
มีนาคม 2470) – Historical account of Patani made by a
This article includes a list of references, related reading or
external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline
citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more
precise citations. (December 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this
^ History of the Malay Kingdom of Patani, Ibrahim Syukri,
^ Lt. Gen. Sir Arthur P. Phayre (1883). History of
Burma (1967 ed.).
London: Susil Gupta. p. 111.
^ GE Harvey (1925). History of Burma. London: Frank Cass & Co.
Ltd. pp. 167–170.
^ Yen Ching-hwang. Ethnic Chinese Business In Asia: History, Culture
And Business Enterprise. World Scientific Publishing Company.
p. 57. ISBN 9789814578448.
^ Anthony Reid (30 August 2013). Patrick Jory, ed. Ghosts of the Past
in Southern Thailand: Essays on the History and Historiography of
Patani. NUS Press. pp. 22–23. ISBN 978-9971696351.
^ Keay, John (2010). The Honourable Company: A History of the English
India Company (EPUB ed.). Harper Collins Publishers.
p. location 1218. ISBN 978-0-007-39554-5.
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