March is the third month of the year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. It is the second of seven months to have a length of 31 days. In the Northern Hemisphere, the meteorological beginning of spring occurs on the first day of March. The March equinox on the 20th or 21st marks the astronomical beginning of spring in the Northern Hemisphere and the beginning of autumn in the Southern Hemisphere, where September is the seasonal equivalent of the Northern Hemisphere's March.
The name of March comes from Martius, the first month of the earliest Roman calendar. It was named after Mars, the Roman god of war, and an ancestor of the Roman people through his sons Romulus and Remus. His month Martius was the beginning of the season for warfare, and the festivals held in his honor during the month were mirrored by others in October, when the season for these activities came to a close. Martius remained the first month of the Roman calendar year perhaps as late as 153 BC, and several religious observances in the first half of the month were originally new year's celebrations. Even in late antiquity, Roman mosaics picturing the months sometimes still placed March first.
March 1 began the numbered year in Russia until the end of the 15th century. Great Britain and its colonies continued to use March 25 until 1752, when they finally adopted the Gregorian calendar (the fiscal year in the UK continues to begin on the 6th April, initially identical to 25 March in the former Julian calendar). Many other cultures and religions still celebrate the beginning of the New Year in March.
March is the first month of spring in the Northern Hemisphere (North America, Europe, Asia and part of Africa) and the first month of fall or autumn in the Southern Hemisphere (South America, part of Africa, and Oceania).
Ancient Roman observances celebrated in March include Agonium Martiale, celebrated on March 1, March 14, and March 17, Matronalia, celebrated on March 1, Junonalia, celebrated on March 7, Equirria, celebrated on March 14, Mamuralia, celebrated on either March 14 or March 15, Hilaria on March 15 and then through March 22–28, Argei, celebrated on March 16–17, Liberalia and Bacchanalia, celebrated March 17, Quinquatria, celebrated March 19–23, and Tubilustrium, celebrated March 23. These dates do not correspond to the modern Gregorian calendar.
In Finnish, the month is called maaliskuu, which is believed to originate from maallinen kuu, during March, earth finally becomes visible under the snow (other etymological theories have however been put forward). In Ukrainian, the month is called березень/berezenʹ, meaning birch tree, and březen in Czech. Historical names for March include the Saxon Lentmonat, named after the March equinox and gradual lengthening of days, and the eventual namesake of Lent. Saxons also called March Rhed-monat or Hreth-monath (deriving from their goddess Rhedam/Hreth), and Angles called it Hyld-monath.
In Slovene, the traditional name is sušec, meaning the month when the earth becomes dry enough so that it is possible to cultivate it. The name was first written in 1466 in the Škofja Loka manuscript. Other names were used too, for example brezen and breznik, "the month of birches". The Turkish word Mart is given after the name of Mars the god.
, the floral emblem of March
This list does not necessarily imply either official status nor general observance.
Non-Gregorian observances, 2018
(Please note that all Baha'i, Islamic, and Jewish observances begin at the sundown prior to the date listed, and end at sundown of the date in question unless otherwise noted.)
- February 26 – March 1: Ayyám-i-Há (Bahá'í calendar)
- March 1: Chotrul Duchen (Buddhism, Tibetan calendar)
- March 1: Gaura-purnima (Hinduism)
- March 1: Poya (Buddhism, public holiday in Sri Lanka)
- March 1: Purim (Hebrew calendar, Judaism)
- March 2: Daeboreum (Korean calendar)
- March 2: Dol Purnima (Hindus in Assam, Bengal and Odisha)
- March 2: Lantern Festival, also Tourism Day in Taiwan (Chinese calendar)
- March 4: Ayya Vaikunda Avataram (Ayyavazhi, Tamil calendar)
- March 6: Arbor Day (Solar Hijri calendar, Iran)
- March 6: Fridolin of Säckingen (Solar Hijri calendar, Iran)
- March 7: Eknath Sashti (Hinduism)
- March 8-14: Lesser Mysteries (Attic calendar, modern Hellenism (religion)
- March 13: Chaharshanbe Suri (Solar Hijri calendar, Iran)
- March 18-26: Chaitra Navrati (Hinduism, Indian national calendar)
- March 18: Gudi Padwa Marathi Hindus, Indian national calendar
- March 18: Hecate's Deipnon (Attic calendar, modern Hellenism (religion)
- March 18: Longtaitou Festival, also Earth God's Birthday in Taiwan (Chinese calendar)
- March 19: Cheti Chand (Sindhi Hindus, Indian National Calendar)
- March 19: Noumenia (Attic calendar, modern Hellenism (religion)
- March 20: Gangaur (Hinduism)
- March 20: Nationalization of Oil Industry (Solar Hijri calendar, Iran)
- March 21: Nowruz (Solar Hijri calendar, Iran, other Iranian people and countries with an Iranian influence)
- March 24: Elaphebolia (Attic calendar, modern Hellenism (religion)
- March 26: Kamada Ekadashi (Hinduism)
- March 28-April 4: Dionysia ta astika (Attic calendar, modern Hellenism (religion)
- March 29: Arattupuzha Pooram (Hinduism, Thrissur district, India, Malayalam calendar)
- March 31: Hanuman Jayanti (Hinduism, Indian National Calendar)
- March 31: Poya (Buddhism, public holiday in Sri Lanka)
Movable observances: 2018
First Thursday: March 1
School day closest to March 2: March 2
First Friday: March 2
Fifth Sunday before Pascha and Second Sunday of Lent in Eastern Christianity: March 4
First Sunday: March 4
Second week: March 4–10
Week of March 8: March 4–10
First Monday: March 5
First Tuesday: March 6
Second Thursday: March 8
Third Saturday of Lent in Eastern Christianity: March 10
Fourth Sunday before Pascha and third Sunday of Lent in Eastern Christianity: March 11
Fourth Sunday of Lent, 21 days before Easter Sunday in Western Christianity: March 11
Monday closest to March 9, unless March 9 falls on a Saturday: March 12
Second Monday: March 12
Second Wednesday: March 14
Friday of the second full week of March: March 16
Fourth Saturday of Lent in Eastern Christianity: March 17
Firth Sunday of Lent in Western Christianity: March 18
- Passion Sunday: March 18 (no longer officially celebrated by Roman Catholic church, still celebrated by other denominations)
Third Sunday before Pascha and Fourth Sunday of Lent in Eastern Christianity: March 18
Third week in March: 18–24
Third Monday: March 19
March 19th, unless the 19th is a Sunday, then March 20: March 19
Third Wednesday: March 21
Fifth Saturday of Lent in Eastern Christianity: March 24
Last Saturday: March 24
Fifth Sunday of Lent in Eastern Christianity: March 25
Week before Easter in Western Christianity: March 25-31
Fourth Monday: March 26
Last Monday: March 26
Fourth Tuesday: March 27
Friday preceding Good Friday in Eastern Christianity: March 30
Day before Palm Sunday in Eastern Christianity: March 31
- ^ Mary Beard, John North, and Simon Price, Religions of Rome (Cambridge University Press, 1998), pp. 47–48 and 53.
- ^ Michael Lipka, Roman Gods: A Conceptual Approach (Brill, 2009), p. 37. The views of Georg Wissowa on the festivals of Mars framing the military campaigning season are summarized by C. Bennett Pascal, "October Horse," Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 85 (1981), p. 264, with bibliography.
- ^ H.H. Scullard, Festivals and Ceremonies of the Roman Republic (Cornell University Press, 1981), p. 84; Gary Forsythe, Time in Roman Religion: One Thousand Years of Religious History (Routledge, 2012), p. 14 (on the uncertainty of when the change occurred).
- ^ Scullard, Festivals and Ceremonies of the Roman Republic, p. 85ff.
- ^ Aïcha Ben Abed, Tunisian Mosaics: Treasures from Roman Africa (Getty Publications, 2006), p. 113.
- ^ "Koledar prireditev v letu 2007 in druge informacije občine Dobrova–Polhov Gradec" [The Calendar of Events and Other Information of the Municipality of Dobrova–Polhov Gradec] (PDF) (in Slovenian). Municipality of Dobrova-Polhov Gradec. 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-11-02.
- ^ "March Birth Flower : Flower Meaning".
- ^ "National Cerebral Palsy Awareness Month – UCP". ucp.org.
- ^ http://www.navratriday.com/navratri-dates.html
- ^ "National Corndog Day". corndogday.com.
- ^ https://www.earthhour.org/
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