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Patrick Maynard Stuart Blackett, Baron Blackett OM CH PRS[1] (18 November 1897 – 13 July 1974) was a British experimental physicist known for his work on cloud chambers, cosmic rays, and paleomagnetism, winning the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
for Physics
Physics
in 1948.[4] He also made a major contribution in World War II
World War II
advising on military strategy and developing operational research. His left-wing views saw an outlet in third world development and in influencing policy in the Labour Government of the 1960s.[5][6][7]

Contents

1 Biography

1.1 Early years 1.2 Academia and research 1.3 World War II
World War II
and operational research 1.4 Politics 1.5 Personal life

2 Influence in fiction 3 Publications 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links

Biography[edit] Early years[edit] Blackett was born in Kensington, London, the son of Arthur Stuart Blackett, a stockbroker, and his wife Caroline Maynard.[8] His younger sister was the psychoanalyst Marion Milner. His paternal grandfather Rev. Henry Blackett, brother of Edmund Blacket
Edmund Blacket
the Australian architect, was for many years Vicar of Croydon. His maternal grandfather Charles Maynard was an officer in the Royal Artillery at the time of the Indian Mutiny. The Blackett family lived successively at Kensington, Kenley, Woking
Woking
and Guildford, Surrey, where Blackett went to preparatory school. His main hobbies were model aeroplanes and crystal radio. When he went for interview for entrance to the Royal Naval College, Osborne, Isle of Wight, Charles Rolls
Charles Rolls
had completed his cross-channel flight the previous day and Blackett who had tracked the flight on his crystal set was able to expound lengthily on the subject. He was accepted and spent two years there before moving on to Dartmouth where he was "usually head of his class".[9] In August 1914 on the outbreak of World War I
World War I
Blackett was assigned to active service as a midshipman. He was transferred to the Cape Verde Islands on HMS Carnarvon and was present at the Battle of the Falkland Islands. He was then transferred to HMS Barham and saw much action at the Battle of Jutland. While on HMS Barham, Blackett was co-inventor of a gunnery device on which the Admiralty
Admiralty
took out a patent. In 1916 he applied to join the RNAS
RNAS
but his application was refused. In October that year he became a sub-lieutenant on HMS P17 on Dover patrol, and in July 1917 he was posted to HMS Sturgeon in the Harwich Force under Admiral Tyrwhitt. Blackett was particularly concerned by the poor quality of gunnery in the force compared with that of the enemy and of his own previous experience, and started to read science textbooks. He was promoted to Lieutenant in May 1918, but had decided to leave the Navy. Then, in January 1919, the Admiralty
Admiralty
sent the officers whose training had been interrupted by the war to Cambridge University for a course of general duties. On his first night at Magdalene College, Cambridge
Magdalene College, Cambridge
he met Kingsley Martin and Geoffrey Webb, later recalling that he had never before, in his naval training, heard intellectual conversation. Blackett was impressed by the prestigious Cavendish Laboratory, and left the Navy to study mathematics and physics at Cambridge.[10] Academia and research[edit] After graduating from Magdalene College in 1921, Blackett spent ten years working at the Cavendish Laboratory
Cavendish Laboratory
as an experimental physicist with Ernest Rutherford
Ernest Rutherford
and in 1923 became a fellow of King's College, Cambridge, a position he held until 1933. Rutherford had found out that the nucleus of the nitrogen atom could be disintegrated by firing fast alpha particles into nitrogen. He asked Blackett to use a cloud chamber to find visible tracks of this disintegration, and by 1924, he had taken 23,000 photographs showing 415,000 tracks of ionized particles. Eight of these were forked, and this showed that the nitrogen atom-alpha particle combination had formed an atom of fluorine, which then disintegrated into an isotope of oxygen and a proton. Blackett spent some time in 1924–1925 at Göttingen, Germany
Germany
working with James Franck
James Franck
on atomic spectra. In 1932, working with Giuseppe Occhialini, he devised a system of geiger counters which only took photographs when a cosmic ray particle traversed the chamber. They found 500 tracks of high energy cosmic ray particles in 700 automatic exposures. In 1933, Blackett discovered fourteen tracks which confirmed the existence of the positron and revealed the now instantly recognisable opposing spiral traces of positron/electron pair production. This work and that on annihilation radiation made him one of the first and leading experts on anti-matter. That same year he moved to Birkbeck College, University of London
London
as Professor of Physics
Physics
for four years. Then in 1937 he went to the Victoria University of Manchester
University of Manchester
where he was elected to the Langworthy Professorship and created a major international research laboratory. The Blackett Memorial Hall and Blackett lecture theatre at the University of Manchester
University of Manchester
were named after him. In 1947, Blackett introduced a theory to account for the Earth's magnetic field as a function of its rotation, with the hope that it would unify both the electromagnetic force and the force of gravity. He spent a number of years developing high-quality magnetometers to test his theory, and eventually found it to be without merit. His work on the subject, however, led him into the field of geophysics, where he eventually helped process data relating to paleomagnetism and helped to provide strong evidence for continental drift. In 1948 he was awarded the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Physics, for his investigation of cosmic rays using his invention of the counter-controlled cloud chamber. Professor Blackett was appointed Head of the Physics
Physics
Department of Imperial College London
London
in 1953 and retired in July 1963. The current Physics
Physics
department building of Imperial College is named the Blackett Laboratory. In 1957 Blackett gave the presidential address (Technology and World Advancement) to the British Association
British Association
meeting in Dublin.[11] In 1965 he was invited to deliver the MacMillan Memorial Lecture to the Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders in Scotland. He chose the subject "Continental Drift".[12] World War II
World War II
and operational research[edit] In 1935 Blackett was invited to join the Aeronautical Research Committee chaired by Sir Henry Tizard. The committee was effective pressing for the early installation of Radar
Radar
for air defence. In the early part of World War II, Blackett served on various committees and spent time at the Royal Aircraft Establishment
Royal Aircraft Establishment
(RAE) Farnborough, where he made a major contribution to the design of the Mark XIV bomb sight which allowed bombs to be released without a level bombing run beforehand. In 1940–41 Blackett served on the MAUD Committee
MAUD Committee
which concluded that an atomic bomb was feasible. He disagreed with the Committee's conclusion that Britain could produce an atomic bomb by 1943, and recommended that the project should be discussed with the Americans. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society
Fellow of the Royal Society
(FRS) in 1933[1] and awarded its Royal Medal
Royal Medal
in 1940. In August 1940 Blackett became scientific adviser to Lieutenant General Sir Frederick Pile, Commander in Chief of Anti-Aircraft Command and thus began the work that resulted in the field of study known as operational research (OR). He was Director of Operational Research with the Admiralty
Admiralty
from 1942 to 1945, and his work with E. J. Williams improved the survival odds of convoys, presented counter-intuitive but correct recommendations for the armour-plating of aircraft and achieved many other successes. His aim, he said, was to find numbers on which to base strategy, not gusts of emotion. During the war he criticised the assumptions in Lord Cherwell's dehousing paper and sided with Tizard who argued that fewer resources should go to RAF Bomber Command
RAF Bomber Command
for the area bombing offensive and more to the other armed forces, as his studies had shown the ineffectiveness of the bombing strategies, as opposed to the importance of fighting of the German U-boats, which were heavily affecting the war effort with their Battle of the Atlantic of merchant ships [13][14] In this opinion he chafed against the existing military authority and was cut out of various circles of communications; after the war, the Allied Strategic Bombing Survey proved Blackett correct, however. Politics[edit] Blackett became friends with Kingsley Martin, later editor of the New Statesman, while an undergraduate and became committed to the left. Politically he identified himself as a socialist, and often campaigned on behalf of the Labour Party. In the late 1940s, Blackett became known for his radical political opinions, which included his belief that Britain ought not develop atomic weapons. He was considered too far to the left for the Labour Government 1945-1951
Labour Government 1945-1951
to employ, and he returned to academic life. His internationalism found expression in his strong support for India. There in 1947 he met Jawaharlal Nehru, who sought his advice on the research and development needs of the Indian armed forces
Indian armed forces
and for the next 20 years he was a frequent visitor and advisor on military and civil science. These visits deepened his concern for the underprivileged and the poor. He was convinced that the problem could be solved by applying science and technology and he used his scientific prestige to try and persuade scientists that one of their first duties was to use their skill to ensure a decent life for all mankind. Before underdevelopment became a popular issue he proposed in a presidential address to the British Association that Britain should devote 1% of its national income to the economic improvement of the third world and he was later one of the prime movers in the foundation of the Overseas Development Institute. He was the senior member of a group of scientists which met regularly to discuss scientific and technological policy during the 13 years when the Labour Party was out of office, and this group became influential when Harold Wilson
Harold Wilson
became leader of the Party. Blackett's ideas led directly to the creation of the Ministry of Technology as soon as the Wilson government was formed and he insisted that the first priority was revival of the computer industry. He did not enter open politics, but worked for a year as a civil servant. He remained deputy chairman of the Minister's Advisory Council throughout the administration's life, and was also personal scientific adviser to the Minister. Personal life[edit] Blackett had refused many honours in the manner of a radical of the twenties but accepted a Companion of Honour
Companion of Honour
in the 1965 Birthday Honours,[15] and was appointed to the Order of Merit
Order of Merit
in 1967.[16] He was created a life peer on 27 January 1969 as Baron Blackett, of Chelsea in Greater London.[17] However, the greatest honour of all for him was when he was made President of the Royal Society
President of the Royal Society
in 1965. The crater Blackett on the Moon
Moon
is named after him. Blackett married Constanza Bayon (1899–1986) in 1924. They had one son and one daughter. His ashes are buried in the Kensal Green Cemetery, London. Bernard Lovell
Bernard Lovell
wrote of Blackett: "Those who worked with Blackett in the laboratory were dominated by his immensely powerful personality, and those who knew him elsewhere soon discovered that the public image thinly veiled a sensitive and humane spirit".[18] Edward Bullard said that he was the most versatile and best loved physicist of his generation and that his achievement was also without rival: "he was wonderfully intelligent, charming, fun to be with, dignified and handsome".[19] In 2016, the house that Blackett lived in from 1953 to 1969 (48 Paultons Square, Chelsea, London) has received an English Heritage Blue Plaque[20] Blackett was an agnostic or atheist.[21] Influence in fiction[edit]

Blackett's theory of planetary magnetism and gravity were taken up by the science fiction author James Blish
James Blish
who cited the Blackett effect as the theoretical "basis" behind his "spindizzy" antigravity drive. In his close friend C. P. Snow's novel sequence Strangers and Brothers (1940–1974), aspects of Blackett's personality are drawn upon for the left-wing physicist Francis Getliffe.[22] Blackett and his dictum, “You can't run a war on gusts of emotion”, appear in the 'alternative' W W II novel, Gravity's Rainbow.[23]

Publications[edit]

Fear, War, and the Bomb: The Military and Political Consequences of Atomic Energy (1948) — (1956). Atomic Weapons and East/West Relations (C.U.P 2003 ed.). ISBN 978-0-521-04268-0. 

See also[edit]

Blackett laboratory (named after him)

References[edit]

^ a b c Lovell, B. (1975). "Patrick Maynard Stuart Blackett, Baron Blackett, of Chelsea. 18 November 1897-13 July 1974". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 21: 1–115. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1975.0001.  ^ "SpaandanB Project: Imdad-Sitara Khan Scholarship". www.spaandanb.org. Retrieved 5 April 2018.  ^ "::ISKKC::". www.iskkc.org. Retrieved 5 April 2018.  ^ Massey, H. S. W. (September 1974). "Lord Blackett". Physics
Physics
Today. 27 (9): 69–71. Bibcode:1974PhT....27i..69M. doi:10.1063/1.3128879.  ^ Anderson, D. (2007). "Patrick Blackett: Physicist, Radical, and Chief Architect of the Manchester Computing Phenomenon". IEEE Annals of the History of Computing. 29 (3): 82–85. doi:10.1109/MAHC.2007.44.  ^ Anderson, R. S. (1999). "Patrick Blackett in India: Military consultant and scientific intervenor, 1947-72. Part one". Notes and Records of the Royal Society. 53 (2): 253–273. doi:10.1098/rsnr.1999.0079.  ^ Nye, Mary Jo (2004). "Blackett, Patrick Maynard Stuart, Baron Blackett (1897–1974)". The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/30822.  ^ Kirby, M. W.; Rosenhead, J. (2011). "Patrick Blackett". Profiles in Operations Research. International Series in Operations Research & Management Science. 147. p. 1. doi:10.1007/978-1-4419-6281-2_1. ISBN 978-1-4419-6280-5.  ^ Lovell, Bernard (1976). P. M. S. Blackett: A Biographical Memoir. John Wright & Sons. pp. 1–3. ISBN 0854030778.  ^ Lovell 1976, pp. 3–5 ^ Blackett, P. M. S. (November 1957). "Technology and World Advancement". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. 13 (9): 323.  ^ "Hugh Miller Macmillan". Macmillan Memorial Lectures. The Institution of Engineers & Shipbuilders in Scotland Limited. Archived from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved 16 July 2014.  ^ Longmate, Norman (1983). The bombers: the RAF offensive against Germany, 1939–1945. Hutchinson. p. 132. ISBN 978-0-09-151580-5.  ^ Hore, Peter (2002). Patrick Blackett: Sailor, Scientist, Socialist. Psychology Press. p. 181. ISBN 978-0-7146-5317-4.  ^ "No. 43667". The London
London
Gazette (Supplement). 12 June 1965. p. 5496.  ^ "No. 44460". The London
London
Gazette. 24 November 1967. p. 12859.  ^ "No. 44776". The London
London
Gazette. 28 January 1969. p. 1008.  ^ Lovell 1976, Preface ^ Bullard, Edward (1974). "Patrick Blackett: An appreciation". Nature. 250 (5465): 370. Bibcode:1974Natur.250..370B. doi:10.1038/250370a0.  ^ "Rare double blue plaque award for home of Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
winners". BBC. Retrieved 28 April 2016.  ^ "The grandson of a vicar on his father’s side, Blackett respected religious observances that were established social customs, but described himself as agnostic or atheist." Mary Jo Nye: "Blackett, Patrick Maynard Stuart." Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography, Vol. 19 p. 293. Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2008. ^ Nye, M. J. (1999). "A Physicist
Physicist
in the Corridors of Power: P. M. S. Blackett's Opposition to Atomic Weapons Following the War". Physics
Physics
in Perspective. 1 (2): 136–156. Bibcode:1999PhP.....1..136N. doi:10.1007/s000160050013. . ^ Thomas Pynchon, Gravity's Rainbow
Gravity's Rainbow
(Picador 1973) p. 12

Further reading[edit]

Books

Nye, Mary Jo (2004). Blackett: Physics, War, and Politics in the Twentieth Century. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01548-7.  Budiansky, Stephen. Blackett's War: The Men Who Defeated the Nazi U-Boats and Brought Science to the Art of Warfare. Knopf. ISBN 978-0307595966.  Kirtley, Allan, Longbottom, Patricia, Blackett, Martin. A History of the Blacketts. (2013) The Blacketts. ISBN 978-0-9575675-0-4. Archived from the original on 23 June 2014. 

Articles

Times Obituary July 1974 Staff. Patrick Maynard Stuart Blackett website of www.nobel-winners.com Staff. Patrick M.S. Blackett Biography website of the Nobel Foundation 1948 Blog, Patrick M.S. Blackett Biography about his development of the Wilson cloud chamber method, and his discoveries therewith in the fields of nuclear physics and cosmic radiation. Staff. The Imperial College Physics
Physics
Department (the ' Blackett Lab') website of Imperial College London

External links[edit]

Television appearance Oral History interview transcript with Patrick Blackett 17 December 1962, American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr
Niels Bohr
Library and Archives Nobelprize.org biography Biography of Patrick Blackett from the Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences (INFORMS)

v t e

Copley Medallists (1951–2000)

David Keilin
David Keilin
(1951) Paul Dirac
Paul Dirac
(1952) Albert Kluyver
Albert Kluyver
(1953) E. T. Whittaker
E. T. Whittaker
(1954) Ronald Fisher
Ronald Fisher
(1955) Patrick Blackett (1956) Howard Florey
Howard Florey
(1957) John Edensor Littlewood (1958) Frank Macfarlane Burnet
Frank Macfarlane Burnet
(1959) Harold Jeffreys
Harold Jeffreys
(1960) Hans Adolf Krebs
Hans Adolf Krebs
(1961) Cyril Norman Hinshelwood
Cyril Norman Hinshelwood
(1962) Paul Fildes
Paul Fildes
(1963) Sydney Chapman (1964) Alan Lloyd Hodgkin
Alan Lloyd Hodgkin
(1965) Lawrence Bragg
Lawrence Bragg
(1966) Bernard Katz (1967) Tadeusz Reichstein
Tadeusz Reichstein
(1968) Peter Medawar
Peter Medawar
(1969) Alexander R. Todd
Alexander R. Todd
(1970) Norman Pirie (1971) Nevill Francis Mott (1972) Andrew Huxley
Andrew Huxley
(1973) W. V. D. Hodge
W. V. D. Hodge
(1974) Francis Crick
Francis Crick
(1975) Dorothy Hodgkin
Dorothy Hodgkin
(1976) Frederick Sanger
Frederick Sanger
(1977) Robert Burns Woodward
Robert Burns Woodward
(1978) Max Perutz
Max Perutz
(1979) Derek Barton (1980) Peter D. Mitchell
Peter D. Mitchell
(1981) John Cornforth
John Cornforth
(1982) Rodney Robert Porter
Rodney Robert Porter
(1983) Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar
Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar
(1984) Aaron Klug
Aaron Klug
(1985) Rudolf Peierls
Rudolf Peierls
(1986) Robin Hill (1987) Michael Atiyah
Michael Atiyah
(1988) César Milstein
César Milstein
(1989) Abdus Salam
Abdus Salam
(1990) Sydney Brenner
Sydney Brenner
(1991) George Porter
George Porter
(1992) James D. Watson (1993) Frederick Charles Frank
Frederick Charles Frank
(1994) Frank Fenner (1995) Alan Cottrell
Alan Cottrell
(1996) Hugh Huxley (1997) James Lighthill
James Lighthill
(1998) John Maynard Smith
John Maynard Smith
(1999) Alan Battersby (2000)

v t e

Laureates of the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Physics

1901–1925

1901 Röntgen 1902 Lorentz / Zeeman 1903 Becquerel / P. Curie / M. Curie 1904 Rayleigh 1905 Lenard 1906 J. J. Thomson 1907 Michelson 1908 Lippmann 1909 Marconi / Braun 1910 Van der Waals 1911 Wien 1912 Dalén 1913 Kamerlingh Onnes 1914 Laue 1915 W. L. Bragg / W. H. Bragg 1916 1917 Barkla 1918 Planck 1919 Stark 1920 Guillaume 1921 Einstein 1922 N. Bohr 1923 Millikan 1924 M. Siegbahn 1925 Franck / Hertz

1926–1950

1926 Perrin 1927 Compton / C. Wilson 1928 O. Richardson 1929 De Broglie 1930 Raman 1931 1932 Heisenberg 1933 Schrödinger / Dirac 1934 1935 Chadwick 1936 Hess / C. D. Anderson 1937 Davisson / G. P. Thomson 1938 Fermi 1939 Lawrence 1940 1941 1942 1943 Stern 1944 Rabi 1945 Pauli 1946 Bridgman 1947 Appleton 1948 Blackett 1949 Yukawa 1950 Powell

1951–1975

1951 Cockcroft / Walton 1952 Bloch / Purcell 1953 Zernike 1954 Born / Bothe 1955 Lamb / Kusch 1956 Shockley / Bardeen / Brattain 1957 C. N. Yang / T. D. Lee 1958 Cherenkov / Frank / Tamm 1959 Segrè / Chamberlain 1960 Glaser 1961 Hofstadter / Mössbauer 1962 Landau 1963 Wigner / Goeppert-Mayer / Jensen 1964 Townes / Basov / Prokhorov 1965 Tomonaga / Schwinger / Feynman 1966 Kastler 1967 Bethe 1968 Alvarez 1969 Gell-Mann 1970 Alfvén / Néel 1971 Gabor 1972 Bardeen / Cooper / Schrieffer 1973 Esaki / Giaever / Josephson 1974 Ryle / Hewish 1975 A. Bohr / Mottelson / Rainwater

1976–2000

1976 Richter / Ting 1977 P. W. Anderson / Mott / Van Vleck 1978 Kapitsa / Penzias / R. Wilson 1979 Glashow / Salam / Weinberg 1980 Cronin / Fitch 1981 Bloembergen / Schawlow / K. Siegbahn 1982 K. Wilson 1983 Chandrasekhar / Fowler 1984 Rubbia / Van der Meer 1985 von Klitzing 1986 Ruska / Binnig / Rohrer 1987 Bednorz / Müller 1988 Lederman / Schwartz / Steinberger 1989 Ramsey / Dehmelt / Paul 1990 Friedman / Kendall / R. Taylor 1991 de Gennes 1992 Charpak 1993 Hulse / J. Taylor 1994 Brockhouse / Shull 1995 Perl / Reines 1996 D. Lee / Osheroff / R. Richardson 1997 Chu / Cohen-Tannoudji / Phillips 1998 Laughlin / Störmer / Tsui 1999 't Hooft / Veltman 2000 Alferov / Kroemer / Kilby

2001– present

2001 Cornell / Ketterle / Wieman 2002 Davis / Koshiba / Giacconi 2003 Abrikosov / Ginzburg / Leggett 2004 Gross / Politzer / Wilczek 2005 Glauber / Hall / Hänsch 2006 Mather / Smoot 2007 Fert / Grünberg 2008 Nambu / Kobayashi / Maskawa 2009 Kao / Boyle / Smith 2010 Geim / Novoselov 2011 Perlmutter / Riess / Schmidt 2012 Wineland / Haroche 2013 Englert / Higgs 2014 Akasaki / Amano / Nakamura 2015 Kajita / McDonald 2016 Thouless / Haldane / Kosterlitz 2017 Weiss / Barish / Thorne

v t e

Presidents of the Royal Society

17th century

Viscount Brouncker (1662) Joseph Williamson (1677) Christopher Wren
Christopher Wren
(1680) John Hoskyns (1682) Cyril Wyche
Cyril Wyche
(1683) Samuel Pepys
Samuel Pepys
(1684) Earl of Carbery (1686) Earl of Pembroke (1689) Robert Southwell (1690) Charles Montagu (1695) Lord Somers (1698)

18th century

Isaac Newton
Isaac Newton
(1703) Hans Sloane
Hans Sloane
(1727) Martin Folkes
Martin Folkes
(1741) Earl of Macclesfield (1752) Earl of Morton (1764) James Burrow
James Burrow
(1768) James West (1768) James Burrow
James Burrow
(1772) John Pringle
John Pringle
(1772) Joseph Banks
Joseph Banks
(1778)

19th century

William Hyde Wollaston
William Hyde Wollaston
(1820) Humphry Davy
Humphry Davy
(1820) Davies Gilbert
Davies Gilbert
(1827) Duke of Sussex (1830) Marquess of Northampton (1838) Earl of Rosse (1848) Lord Wrottesley (1854) Benjamin Collins Brodie (1858) Edward Sabine
Edward Sabine
(1861) George Biddell Airy
George Biddell Airy
(1871) Joseph Dalton Hooker
Joseph Dalton Hooker
(1873) William Spottiswoode
William Spottiswoode
(1878) Thomas Henry Huxley
Thomas Henry Huxley
(1883) George Gabriel Stokes (1885) William Thomson (1890) Joseph Lister
Joseph Lister
(1895)

20th century

William Huggins
William Huggins
(1900) Lord Rayleigh (1905) Archibald Geikie
Archibald Geikie
(1908) William Crookes
William Crookes
(1913) J. J. Thomson
J. J. Thomson
(1915) Charles Scott Sherrington
Charles Scott Sherrington
(1920) Ernest Rutherford
Ernest Rutherford
(1925) Frederick Gowland Hopkins
Frederick Gowland Hopkins
(1930) William Henry Bragg
William Henry Bragg
(1935) Henry Hallett Dale
Henry Hallett Dale
(1940) Robert Robinson (1945) Edgar Adrian (1950) Cyril Norman Hinshelwood
Cyril Norman Hinshelwood
(1955) Howard Florey
Howard Florey
(1960) Patrick Blackett (1965) Alan Lloyd Hodgkin
Alan Lloyd Hodgkin
(1970) Lord Todd (1975) Andrew Huxley
Andrew Huxley
(1980) George Porter
George Porter
(1985) Sir Michael Atiyah
Michael Atiyah
(1990) Sir Aaron Klug
Aaron Klug
(1995)

21st century

Robert May (2000) Martin Rees (2005) Sir Paul Nurse
Paul Nurse
(2010) Sir Venkatraman Ramakrishnan
Venkatraman Ramakrishnan
(2015)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 29650406 LCCN: n50008580 ISNI: 0000 0001 0883 6935 GND: 122703642 SELIBR: 178692 SUDOC: 035013591 BNF: cb125702380 (data) MGP: 50720 NLA: 36185275 NDL: 00520083 NKC: ola2002153

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