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The highest-ranking bishops in Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy, the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
(above major archbishop and primate), and the Church of the East
Church of the East
are termed patriarchs (and in certain cases also popes). The word is derived from Greek πατριάρχης (patriarchēs),[1] meaning "chief or father of a family",[2] a compound of πατριά (patria),[3] meaning "family", and ἄρχειν (archein),[4] meaning "to rule".[2][5][6][7] Originally, a patriarch was a man who exercised autocratic authority as a pater familias over an extended family. The system of such rule of families by senior males is termed patriarchy. Historically, a patriarch has often been the logical choice to act as ethnarch of the community identified with his religious confession within a state or empire of a different creed (such as Christians within the Ottoman Empire). The term developed an ecclesiastical meaning, within the Christian Church. The office and the ecclesiastical circumscription of a Christian patriarch is termed a patriarchate. Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob
Jacob
are referred to as the three patriarchs of the people of Israel, and the period during which they lived is termed the Patriarchal Age. The word patriarch originally acquired its religious meaning in the Septuagint
Septuagint
version of the Bible.[8]

Contents

1 Catholic Church

1.1 Patriarchs 1.2 Major archbishoprics 1.3 Titular Latin patriarchates

1.3.1 Historical Latin patriarchates 1.3.2 Patriarch
Patriarch
as title ad personam 1.3.3 " Patriarch
Patriarch
of the West"

1.4 Current and Historical Catholic Patriarchates

2 Eastern Christianity

2.1 Eastern Orthodox 2.2 Patriarchs outside the Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
Communion 2.3 Oriental Orthodox Churches 2.4 Church of the East 2.5 Manichaeism

3 Other independent uses 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 Sources and external links

Catholic Church[edit] See also: Catholic Church

Catholic Patriarchal (non cardinal) coat of arms

Patriarchs[edit]

Map of Justinian's Pentarchy

Melkite Catholic Patriarch
Patriarch
Gregory III Laham
Gregory III Laham
of Antioch with Archbishop
Archbishop
Jules Joseph Zerey

In the Catholic Church, the bishop who is head of a particular autonomous Church, known in canon law as a Church sui iuris, is ordinarily a patriarch, though this responsibility can be entrusted to a Major Archbishop, Metropolitan, or other prelate for a number of serious reasons.[9] Since the Council of Nicaea, the bishop of Rome has been recognized as the first among patriarchs.[10] That Council designated three bishops with this 'supra-Metropolitan' title: Rome, Alexandria, and Antioch. In the Pentarchy
Pentarchy
formulated by Justinian I
Justinian I
(527–565), the emperor assigned as a patriarchate to the Bishop
Bishop
of Rome the whole of Christianized Europe (including almost all of modern Greece), except for the region of Thrace, the areas near Constantinople, and along the coast of the Black Sea. He included in this patriarchate also the western part of North Africa. The jurisdictions of the other patriarchates extended over Roman Asia, and the rest of Africa. Justinian's system was given formal ecclesiastical recognition by the Quinisext Council
Quinisext Council
of 692, which the see of Rome has, however, not recognized. There were at the time bishops of other apostolic sees that operated with patriarchal authority beyond the borders of the Roman Empire, such as the Catholicos of Selucia-Ctesephon. Today, the patriarchal heads of Catholic autonomous churches are:[11]

The Bishop
Bishop
of Rome (Pope), as head of the Latin Catholic Church[12] The Armenian Catholic Patriarch
Patriarch
of Cilicia and head of the Armenian Catholic Church The Chaldean Catholic Patriarch
Patriarch
of Babylon and head of the Chaldean Catholic Church The Coptic Catholic Patriarch
Patriarch
of Alexandria and head of the Coptic Catholic Church The Maronite Catholic Patriarch
Patriarch
of Antioch and all the East and head of the Maronite Catholic Church The Melkite Greek Catholic Patriarchate
Patriarchate
of Antioch and All the East, of Alexandria and of Jerusalem, head of the Melkite Greek Catholic Church; in his case, Antioch is the actual and sole patriarchate, Alexandria and Jerusalem are just titular (once residential) patriarchates vested in his see The Syrian Catholic Patriarch
Patriarch
of Antioch and all the East and head of the Syriac Catholic Church

Major archbishoprics[edit] Four more of the Eastern Catholic Churches
Eastern Catholic Churches
are headed by a prelate known as a "Major Archbishop,"[13] a title essentially equivalent to that of Patriarch
Patriarch
and originally created by Pope
Pope
Paul VI in 1963 for Josyf Slipyj:[14]

The Major Archbishop
Archbishop
of Kiev-Halych and head of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church The Major Archbishop
Archbishop
of Ernakulam-Angamaly and head of the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church The Major Archbishop
Archbishop
of Trivandrum and head of the Syro-Malankara Catholic Church The Major Archbishop
Archbishop
of Făgăraş and Alba Iulia and head of the Romanian Greek Catholic Church

Within their proper sui iuris churches there is no difference between patriarchs and major archbishops. However, differences exist in the order of precedence (i.e. patriarchs take precedence over major archbishops) and in the mode of accession. Whereas the election of a major archbishop has to be confirmed by the pope before he may take office,[15] no papal confirmation is needed for a newly elected patriarch before he takes office. Rather, a newly-installed patriarch is required to petition the pope as soon as possible for the concession of what is called ecclesiastical communion.[16][17] Furthermore, patriarchs who are created cardinals form part of the order of cardinal bishops, whereas major archbishops are only created cardinal priests. Titular Latin patriarchates[edit] Titular patriarchs do not have jurisdiction over other Metropolitan bishops. The title is granted purely as an honor for various historical reasons. They take precedence after the heads of autonomous churches in full communion, whether pope, patriarch, or major archbishop.

The Latin Patriarch
Patriarch
of Jerusalem The Patriarch of the East Indies
Patriarch of the East Indies
a titular patriarchal see, united to Goa and Daman. The Patriarch
Patriarch
of Lisbon. The Patriarch
Patriarch
of Venice.

Historical Latin patriarchates[edit]

The Patriarch
Patriarch
of Aquileia – with rival line of succession moved to Grado - dissolved in 1752. The Patriarch of Grado
Patriarch of Grado
– in 1451 merged with the Bishopric of Castello and Venice to form the Metropolitan Archdiocese of Venice (later a residential Patriarchate
Patriarchate
itself). The Patriarch of the West Indies – a titular patriarchal see, vacant since 1963. The Latin Patriarch of Antioch
Latin Patriarch of Antioch
– title abolished in 1964. The titular Latin Patriarch of Alexandria
Latin Patriarch of Alexandria
– title abolished in 1964. The Latin Patriarch
Patriarch
of Constantinople
Constantinople
– title abolished in 1964. The Latin Patriarchate
Patriarchate
of Ethiopia – 1555 to 1663, never effective, only held by Iberian Jesuits

Patriarch
Patriarch
as title ad personam[edit] The pope can confer the rank of Patriarch
Patriarch
without any see, to an individual Archbishop, as happened on 24 February 1676 to Alessandro Cescenzi, Somascans
Somascans
(C.S.R.), former Latin Titular Patriarch
Patriarch
of Alexandria (19 January 1671 – retired 27 May 1675), who resigned the title on 9 January 1682. " Patriarch
Patriarch
of the West"[edit] Main article: Pentarchy In theological and other scholarly literature of the Early Modern period, the title " Patriarch
Patriarch
of the West" (Latin: Patriarcha Occidentis; Greek: Πατριάρχης τῆς Δύσεως) was mainly used as designation for the jurisdiction of the Bishop
Bishop
of Rome over the Latin Church
Latin Church
in the West. From 1863 to 2005, the title " Patriarch
Patriarch
of the West" was appended to the list of papal titles in the Annuario Pontificio, which in 1885 became a semi-official publication of the Holy See. This was done without historical precedent or theological justification: There was no ecclesiastical office as such, except occasionally as a truism: the patriarch of Rome, for the Latin Church, was the only patriarch, and the only apostolic see, in the "west". The title was not included in the 2006 Annuario. On 22 March 2006, the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity offered an explanation for the decision to remove the title. It stated that the title " Patriarch
Patriarch
of the West" had become "obsolete and practically unusable" when the term the West comprises Australia, New Zealand and North America in addition to Western Europe, and that it was "pointless to insist on maintaining it" given that, since the Second Vatican Council, the Latin Church, for which "the West" is an equivalent, has been organized as a number of episcopal conferences and their international groupings.[18] Though the formulation " Patriarch
Patriarch
of the West" is no longer used, the pope in that role issues the Code of Canon Law for the Latin Church. During the Synod of Bishops on the Middle East in 2009, Pope
Pope
Benedict XVI appeared, as patriarch of the Latin Church, with the other patriarchs, but without the Latin patriarch of Jerusalem, though he was present at the same Synod.[19] Current and Historical Catholic Patriarchates[edit]

Current and Historical Catholic Patriarchates

Type Church Patriarchate Patriarch

Patriarchs of Autonomous Churches Latin Rome Pope
Pope
Francis

Coptic Alexandria Ibrahim Isaac
Isaac
Sidrak

Syrian Antioch Ignatius Joseph III Younan

Maronite Antioch Bechara Boutros al-Rahi

Greek-Melkite Antioch Youssef Absi

Armenian Cilicia Krikor Bedros XX Gabroyan

Chaldean Babylon Louis Raphaël I Sako

Major Archbishops of Autonomous Churches Ukrainian Kiev-Halych Sviatoslav Shevchuk

Syro-Malabar Ernakulam-Angamaly George Alencherry

Syro-Malankara Trivandrum Baselios Cleemis

Romanian Făgăraş and Alba Iulia Lucian Mureșan

Titular Latin-Rite Patriarchs Latin Aquileia suppressed in 1751

Latin Grado suppressed in 1451

Latin Jerusalem vacant since 2016

Latin Lisbon Manuel (III) Clemente

Latin Venice Francesco Moraglia

Latin Alexandria suppressed in 1964

Latin Antioch suppressed in 1964

Latin Constantinople suppressed in 1964

Latin East Indies Filipe Neri Ferrão

Latin West Indies vacant since 1963

Eastern Christianity[edit] Eastern Orthodox[edit] Main article: Eastern Orthodox

The five ancient Patriarchates, the Pentarchy, in order of preeminence ranked by the Quinisext Council
Quinisext Council
in 692. The title of "patriarch" created in 531 by Justinian.:[20][21]

The Patriarch
Patriarch
of Rome; the Pope
Pope
of Rome, originally "primus inter pares" according to Eastern Orthodoxy, recognized in 325. Currently not an Episcopal or Patriarchal authority in the Eastern Orthodox Church, following the Great Schism in 1054. The Patriarch
Patriarch
of Constantinople, chief of the Orthodox Church of Constantinople
Constantinople
and the "primus inter pares" of post-Schism Eastern Orthodoxy, recognized in 381. The Patriarch
Patriarch
of Alexandria the Pope
Pope
of All Africa and the chief of the Greek Orthodox Church of Alexandria, recognized in 325 The Patriarch
Patriarch
of Antioch and the head of the Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch and All the East in the Near East, recognized in 325 The Patriarch
Patriarch
of Jerusalem and the chief of the Eastern Orthodox Patriarchate
Patriarchate
of Jerusalem in Israel, Palestine, Jordan and All Arabia, recognized in 451

The five junior Patriarchates created after the consolidation of the Pentarchy, in chronological order of their recognition as Patriarchates by the Ecumenical Patriarchate
Patriarchate
of Constantinople:

The Patriarch
Patriarch
of All Bulgaria and the chief of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church in Bulgaria, recognized as a Patriarchate
Patriarchate
in 927[22] The Catholicos-Patriarch of All Georgia and the chief of the Georgian Orthodox Church in Georgia, recognized as a Catholicate (Patriarchate) in 1008[23] The Serbian Patriarch
Patriarch
and the chief of the Serbian Orthodox Church
Serbian Orthodox Church
in Serbia (and the former Yugoslavia), recognized as a Patriarchate
Patriarchate
in 1375[24] The Patriarch
Patriarch
of Moscow and All Russia and the chief of the Russian Orthodox Church in Russia, recognized as a Patriarchate
Patriarchate
in 1589[25] The Patriarch of All Romania
Patriarch of All Romania
and the chief of the Romanian Orthodox Church in Romania, recognized as a Patriarchate
Patriarchate
in 1925[26]

Patriarchs outside the Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
Communion[edit]

The Patriarch
Patriarch
of Moscow and All Russia chief of the Russian Old-Orthodox Church. The Patriarch
Patriarch
of Kiev chief of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church – Kiev Patriarchate The Patriarch
Patriarch
of Kyiv and All Rus- Ukraine
Ukraine
of the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church Canonical. The Patriarch
Patriarch
of the Autocephalous Orthodox Church of Europe [27] The Patriarch
Patriarch
of the Autocephalous Turkish Orthodox Patriarchate

Oriental Orthodox Churches[edit] Main article: Oriental Orthodoxy

The Pope
Pope
of Alexandria and Patriarch
Patriarch
of All Africa and the chief of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria
Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria
in Egypt and All Africa and the Spiritual Leader of Oriental Orthodoxy. The Patriarch
Patriarch
of Antioch and All the East and chief of the Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch and Supreme Leader of the Universal Syriac Orthodox Church in the Near East.

The Catholicos of India is the head of the Malankara Jacobite Syriac Orthodox Church, which is the part of Syriac Orthodox Church

The Catholicos of the East
Catholicos of the East
and the chief Metropolitan of the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church in India. The Catholicos of Etchmiadzin, Armenia and of All Armenians and Supreme Patriarch
Patriarch
of the Armenian Apostolic Church
Armenian Apostolic Church
and chief of the Armenian Apostolic Church.

The Patriarch
Patriarch
of Constantinople
Constantinople
for the Armenians in Turkey. The Patriarch
Patriarch
of Jerusalem and of Holy Zion for the Armenians in Israel, Palestine, Jordan and the Persian Gulf.

The Catholicos of Cilicia and chief of the Armenian Apostolic Church of the Great House of Cilicia in Antelias, Lebanon. The Archbishop
Archbishop
of Axum and Patriarch
Patriarch
Catholicos of All Ethiopia and the chief of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church
Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church
in Ethiopia. The Archbishop
Archbishop
of Asmara and Patriarch
Patriarch
of All Eritrea and the chief of the Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church in Eritrea.

Church of the East[edit] Main articles: Nestorianism, List of Patriarchs of the Church of the East, and Catholicos of the East
Catholicos of the East
(other) Patriarchs of the Church of the East, sometimes also referred to as Nestorian, the Church of Persia, the Sassanid Church, or, in modern times, the Assyrian Church of the East, trace their lineage of patriarchs back to the 1st century.

The Catholicos- Patriarch
Patriarch
of Seleucia-Ctesiphon, chief of the Assyrian Church of the East. The Patriarch-Catholicos of the Ancient Church of the East, a secession from the Assyrian Church of the East.

Manichaeism[edit] The term patriarch has also been used for the leader of the extinct, dualist, heretical Manichaeist sect, initially based at Ctesiphon (near modern-day Baghdad) and later at Samarkand. Other independent uses[edit] The title of "Patriarch" is assumed also by the leaders of certain relatively recent groups, who are in communion with none of the historic Christian Churches. Many, but not necessarily all such patriarchs are church leaders of the independent Catholic Churches:

Independent Catholic

The Patriarch
Patriarch
of the Brazilian Catholic Apostolic Church
Brazilian Catholic Apostolic Church
in Brazil. The Patriarch
Patriarch
of the Venezuelan Catholic Apostolic Church in Venezuela. The Patriarch
Patriarch
of the Catholic Apostolic Church of Antioch.[28] The Patriarch
Patriarch
of the Apostolic Catholic Church, in the Philippines.

Independent Eastern Catholic

The Patriarch
Patriarch
of the Ukrainian Orthodox Greek Catholic Church
Catholic Church
in Ukraine.

Independent Orthodox

The Patriarch
Patriarch
of the American Orthodox Catholic Church.

Protestant

The Patriarch
Patriarch
of the International Communion of the Charismatic Episcopal Church.

Latter Day Saint movement

Main article: Patriarch
Patriarch
(Latter Day Saints) In the Latter Day Saint movement, a patriarch is one who has been ordained to the office of patriarch in the Melchizedek
Melchizedek
priesthood. The term is considered synonymous with the term evangelist, a term favored by the Community of Christ. In The Church of Jesus
Jesus
Christ of Latter-day Saints, one of the patriarch's primary responsibilities is to give patriarchal blessings, as Jacob
Jacob
did to his twelve sons according to the Old Testament. Patriarchs are typically assigned in each stake and possess the title for life.

Others

The Patriarch
Patriarch
of the Czechoslovak Hussite Church
Czechoslovak Hussite Church
mainly in Czech Republic and also some part of Slovakia

See also[edit]

Christianity
Christianity
portal

List of current patriarchs Lists of Patriarchs Patriarchate Patriarchy Matriarchy List of Bishops and Archbishops Major archbishop List of Metropolitans and Patriarchs of Moscow

References[edit]

^ πατριάρχης, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus ^ a b Online Etymological Dictionary: "patriarch" ^ πατριά, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus ^ ἄρχω, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus ^ Merriam-Webster: "patriarch" ^ American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: "patriarch" ^ Oxford Dictionaries: "patriarch" ^  Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Patriarch". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  ^ Code of Canons of Eastern Churches. 1990. p. 58-59.  ^ "DOCUMENTS FROM THE FIRST COUNCIL OF NICEA". History Sourcebooks Project. Fordham university. Retrieved 30 September 2017.  ^ "Patriarchs". GCCatholic.org. Retrieved 30 September 2017.  ^ Maloney, G.A. (2002). New Catholic Encyclopedia
Catholic Encyclopedia
(Revised ed.). Gale. pp. 15 vols. ISBN 978-0787640040.  ^ Code of Canons of Eastern Churches. Catholic Church. 1990. p. 151-154.  ^ "CCEO: text - IntraText CT". Intratext.com. 4 May 2007. Retrieved July 2013.  Check date values in: access-date= (help) ^ Codex Canonum Ecclesiarum Orientalium: Can. 153 ^ Codex Canonum Ecclesiarum Orientalium: Can. 76 ^ An example of the petition and the granting of ecclesiastical communion: "Exchange of letters between Benedict XVI and His Beatitude Antonios Naguib". Holy See
Holy See
Press Office. Retrieved 2013-01-18.  ^ "Communiqué on title ' Patriarch
Patriarch
of the West'". Zenit. 22 March 2006. Retrieved 20 December 2017.  ^ "Meeting of the Eastern Catholic Patriarchs and Major Archbishops with Pope
Pope
Benedict XVI". Society of St. John Chrysostom. 20 September 2009. Retrieved 30 September 2017.  ^ L'idea di pentarchia nella cristianità ^ A Summary of Christian History– Google Knihy. Books.google.cz. November 1, 2005. Retrieved 2016-10-16.  ^ Catholic Near East Welfare Association, a Papal agency for humanitarian and pastoral assistance Archived 2009-01-15 at the Wayback Machine. (ID: 20). ^ Catholic Near East Welfare Association, a Papal agency for humanitarian and pastoral support Archived 2009-01-15 at the Wayback Machine. (ID: 21). ^ Catholic Near East Welfare Association, a Papal agency for humanitarian and pastoral assistance Archived 2009-01-15 at the Wayback Machine. (ID: 18). ^ Catholic Near East Welfare Association, a Papal agency for humanitarian and pastoral assistance Archived 2009-01-15 at the Wayback Machine. (ID: 17). ^ Catholic Near East Welfare Association, a Papal agency for humanitarian and pastoral assistance Archived 2009-01-15 at the Wayback Machine. (ID: 19). ^ [1] ^ When a woman was elected head of this Church, she was styled Matriarch. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-07-05. Retrieved 2010-03-18. 

Further reading[edit]

Nedungatt, George, ed. (2002). A Guide to the Eastern Code: A Commentary on the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches. Rome: Oriental Institute Press. 

Sources and external links[edit]

Current and former patriarchates of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
(GCatholic) Current titular patriarchal sees of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
(GCatholic) Current patriarchates of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
(GCatholic). WorldStatesmen - Religious Organisations  "Patriarch". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911.   "Patriarchs". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920. 

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Disciples

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Irenaeus
of Lyons Isidore of Seville Jerome
Jerome
of Stridonium John Chrysostom John of Damascus Maximus the Confessor Melito of Sardis Quadratus of Athens Papias of Hierapolis Peter Chrysologus Polycarp
Polycarp
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Patriarchs

Adam Abel Abraham Isaac Jacob Joseph Joseph (father of Jesus) David Noah Solomon Matriarchs

Popes

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Virgins

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See also

Military saints Virtuous pagan

Catholicism por

.