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Pathogenic bacteria
Pathogenic bacteria
are bacteria that can cause disease.[1] This article deals with human pathogenic bacteria. Although most bacteria are harmless or often beneficial, some are pathogenic, with the number of species estimated as fewer than 100 that are seen to cause infectious diseases in humans.[2] By contrast, several thousand species exist in the human digestive system. One of the bacterial diseases with the highest disease burden is tuberculosis, caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium
Mycobacterium
tuberculosis, which kills about 2 million people a year, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa. Pathogenic bacteria
Pathogenic bacteria
contribute to other globally important diseases, such as pneumonia, which can be caused by bacteria such as Streptococcus
Streptococcus
and Pseudomonas, and foodborne illnesses, which can be caused by bacteria such as Shigella, Campylobacter, and Salmonella. Pathogenic bacteria
Pathogenic bacteria
also cause infections such as tetanus, typhoid fever, diphtheria, syphilis, and leprosy. Pathogenic bacteria
Pathogenic bacteria
are also the cause of high infant mortality rates in developing countries.[3] Koch's postulates
Koch's postulates
are the standard to establish a causative relationship between a microbe and a disease.

Contents

1 Diseases

1.1 Pathogenic susceptibility 1.2 Intracellular 1.3 Infections in specific tissue

2 Mechanisms of damage

2.1 Direct

2.1.1 Toxin production

2.2 Indirect

3 Survival in host

3.1 Nutrients

4 Identification 5 Treatment 6 Prevention 7 List of genera and microscopy features 8 List of species and clinical characteristics 9 Genetic transformation 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 External links

Diseases[edit] Each species has specific effect and causes symptoms in people who are infected. Some, if not most people who are infected with a pathogenic bacteria do not have symptoms. Immuno-compromised individuals are more susceptible to pathogenic bacteria. Pathogenic susceptibility[edit] Some pathogenic bacteria cause disease under certain conditions, such as entry through the skin via a cut, through sexual activity or through a compromised immune function.

An abscess caused by opportunistic S. aureus bacteria.

Streptococcus
Streptococcus
and Staphylococcus
Staphylococcus
are part of the normal skin microbiota and typically reside on healthy skin or in the nasopharangeal region. Yet these species can potentially initiate skin infections. They are also able to cause sepsis, pneumonia or meningitis. These infections can become quite serious creating a systemic inflammatory response resulting in massive vasodilation, shock, and death.[4] Other bacteria are opportunistic pathogens and cause disease mainly in people suffering from immunosuppression or cystic fibrosis. Examples of these opportunistic pathogens include Pseudomonas
Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, Burkholderia cenocepacia, and Mycobacterium
Mycobacterium
avium.[5][6] Intracellular[edit] Obligate intracellular parasites (e.g. Chlamydophila, Ehrlichia, Rickettsia) have the ability to only grow and replicate inside other cells. Even these intracellular infections may be asymptomatic, requiring an incubation period. An example of this is Rickettsia
Rickettsia
which causes typhus. Another causes Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Chlamydia is a phylum of intracellular parasites. These pathogens can cause pneumonia or urinary tract infection and may be involved in coronary heart disease.[7] Other groups of intracellular bacterial pathogens include Salmonella, Neisseria, Brucella, Mycobacterium, Nocardia, Listeria, Francisella, Legionella, and Yersinia
Yersinia
pestis. These can exist intracellularly, but can exist outside of host cells. Infections in specific tissue[edit] Bacterial pathogens often cause infection in specific areas of the body. Others are generalists.

Bacterial vaginosis
Bacterial vaginosis
is caused by bacteria that change the vaginal microbiota caused by an overgrowth of bacteria that crowd out the Lactobacilli
Lactobacilli
species that maintain healthy vaginal microbial populations. Other non-bacterial vaginal infections include: yeast infection (candidiasis), Trichomonas vaginalis
Trichomonas vaginalis
(trichomoniasis).[8][9] Bacterial meningitis
Bacterial meningitis
is a bacterial inflammation of the meninges, that is, the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. Bacterial pneumonia is a bacterial infection of the lungs. Urinary tract infection
Urinary tract infection
is predominantly caused by bacteria. Symptoms include the strong and frequent sensation or urge to urinate, pain during urination, and urine that is cloudy.[10] The main causal agent is Escherichia
Escherichia
coli. Urine
Urine
is typically sterile but contains a variety of salts, and waste products.[11] Bacteria
Bacteria
can ascend into the bladder or kidney and causing cystitis and nephritis. Bacterial gastroenteritis
Bacterial gastroenteritis
is caused by enteric, pathogenic bacteria. These pathogenic species are usually distinct from the usually harmless bacteria of the normal gut flora. But a different strain of the same species may be pathogenic. The distinction is sometimes difficult as in the case of Escherichia. Bacterial skin infections include:

Impetigo
Impetigo
is a highly contagious bacterial skin infection commonly seen in children.[12] It is caused by Staphylococcus
Staphylococcus
aureus, and Streptococcus
Streptococcus
pyogenes.[13] Erysipelas
Erysipelas
is an acute streptococcus bacterial infection[14] of the deeper skin layers that spreads via with lymphatic system. Cellulitis
Cellulitis
is a diffuse inflammation[15] of connective tissue with severe inflammation of dermal and subcutaneous layers of the skin. Cellulitis
Cellulitis
can be caused by normal skin flora or by contagious contact, and usually occurs through open skin, cuts, blisters, cracks in the skin, insect bites, animal bites, burns, surgical wounds, intravenous drug injection, or sites of intravenous catheter insertion. In most cases it is the skin on the face or lower legs that is affected, though cellulitis can occur in other tissues.

Mechanisms of damage[edit] The symptoms of disease appear as pathogenic bacteria damage host tissues or interfere with their function. The bacteria can damage host cells directly. They can also cause damage indirectly by provoking an immune response that inadvertently damages host cells.[16] Direct[edit] Once pathogens attach to host cells, they can cause direct damage as the pathogens use the host cell for nutrients and produce waste products.[17] For example, Streptococcus
Streptococcus
mutans, a component of dental plaque, metabolizes dietary sugar and produces acid as a waste product. The acid decalcifies the tooth surface to cause dental caries.[18] However, toxins produced by bacteria cause most of the direct damage to host cells.[17] Toxin production[edit]

Protein structure of Botulinum toxin 3BTA

Endotoxins
Endotoxins
are the lipid portions of lipopolysaccharides that are part of the outer membrane of the cell wall of gram negative bacteria. Endotoxins
Endotoxins
are released when the bacteria lyses, which is why after antibiotic treatment, symptoms can worsen at first as the bacteria are killed and they release their endotoxins. Exotoxins
Exotoxins
are secreted into the surrounding medium or released when the bacteria die and the cell wall breaks apart.[19] Indirect[edit] An excessive or inappropriate immune response triggered by an infection may damage host cells.[1] Survival in host[edit] Nutrients[edit] Iron is required for humans, as well as the growth of most bacteria. To obtain free iron, some pathogens secrete proteins called siderophores, which take the iron away from iron-transport proteins by binding to the iron even more tightly. Once the iron-siderophore complex is formed, it is taken up by siderophore receptors on the bacterial surface and then that iron is brought into the bacterium.[19] Identification[edit] Typically identification is done by growing the organism in a wide range of cultures which can take up to 48 hours. The growth is then visually or genomically identified. The cultured organism is then subjected to various assays to observe reactions to help further identify species and strain.[20] Treatment[edit] Main article: Antibiotics See also: overview list below Bacterial infections may be treated with antibiotics, which are classified as bacteriocidal if they kill bacteria or bacteriostatic if they just prevent bacterial growth. There are many types of antibiotics and each class inhibits a process that is different in the pathogen from that found in the host. For example, the antibiotics chloramphenicol and tetracyclin inhibit the bacterial ribosome but not the structurally different eukaryotic ribosome, so they exhibit selective toxicity.[21] Antibiotics
Antibiotics
are used both in treating human disease and in intensive farming to promote animal growth. Both uses may be contributing to the rapid development of antibiotic resistance in bacterial populations.[22] Phage therapy
Phage therapy
can also be used to treat certain bacterial infections.[23] Prevention[edit] Infections can be prevented by antiseptic measures such as sterilizing the skin prior to piercing it with the needle of a syringe and by proper care of indwelling catheters. Surgical and dental instruments are also sterilized to prevent infection by bacteria. Disinfectants such as bleach are used to kill bacteria or other pathogens on surfaces to prevent contamination and further reduce the risk of infection. Bacteria
Bacteria
in food are killed by cooking to temperatures above 73 °C (163 °F). List of genera and microscopy features[edit] Many genera contain pathogenic bacteria species. They often possess characteristics that help to classify and organize them into groups. The following is a partial listing.

Genus Species Gram staining Shape Oxygen requirement Intra/Extracellular

Bacillus[24]

Bacillus
Bacillus
anthracis Bacillus
Bacillus
cereus

Positive Rods Facultative anaerobic Extracellular

Bartonella[24]

Bartonella
Bartonella
henselae Bartonella
Bartonella
quintana

Negative Rods Aerobic Facultative intracellular

Bordetella[24]

Bordetella
Bordetella
pertussis[25][26]

Negative Small coccobacilli Aerobic Extracellular

Borrelia[24]

Borrelia
Borrelia
burgdorferi Borrelia
Borrelia
garinii Borrelia
Borrelia
afzelii Borrelia
Borrelia
recurrentis

Negative, stains poorly spirochete Anaerobic Extracellular

Brucella[24]

Brucella
Brucella
abortus Brucella
Brucella
canis Brucella
Brucella
melitensis Brucella
Brucella
suis

Negative coccobacilli Aerobic Intracellular

Campylobacter[24]

Campylobacter
Campylobacter
jejuni

Negative spiral rods[27] coccoid in older cultures[27] Microaerophilic[27] extracellular

Chlamydia and Chlamydophila[24]

Chlamydia pneumoniae Chlamydia trachomatis Chlamydophila psittaci

(not Gram-stained) Small, round, ovoid Facultative or strictly aerobic Obligate intracellular

Clostridium[24]

Clostridium
Clostridium
botulinum Clostridium
Clostridium
difficile Clostridium
Clostridium
perfringens Clostridium
Clostridium
tetani

Positive Large, blunt-ended rods Obligate anaerobic extracellular

Corynebacterium[24]

Corynebacterium
Corynebacterium
diphtheriae[26][28][29]

Positive (unevenly) bacilli Mostly facultative anaerobic extracellular

Enterococcus[26][30]

Enterococcus
Enterococcus
faecalis Enterococcus
Enterococcus
faecium

Positive Cocci Facultative Anaerobic extracellular

Escherichia[3][26][31]

Escherichia
Escherichia
coli

Negative Bacillus Facultative anaerobic extracellular or intracellular

Francisella[24]

Francisella
Francisella
tularensis

Negative coccobacillus strictly aerobic Facultative intracellular

Haemophilus

Haemophilus
Haemophilus
influenzae[26][32]

Negative coccobacilli to long and slender filaments

extracellular

Helicobacter

Helicobacter
Helicobacter
pylori[33]

Negative Spiral rod Microaerophile extracellular

Legionella[24]

Legionella
Legionella
pneumophila

Negative, stains poorly cocobacilli aerobic facultative intracellular

Leptospira[26][34]

Leptospira
Leptospira
interrogans Leptospira
Leptospira
santarosai Leptospira
Leptospira
weilii Leptospira
Leptospira
noguchii

Negative, stains poorly Spirochete Strictly aerobic extracellular

Listeria[24]

Listeria
Listeria
monocytogenes

Positive, darkly Slender, short rods Facultative Anaerobic intracellular

Mycobacterium[24]

Mycobacterium
Mycobacterium
leprae Mycobacterium
Mycobacterium
tuberculosis Mycobacterium
Mycobacterium
ulcerans

(none) Long, slender rods aerobic extracellular

Mycoplasma[24]

Mycoplasma
Mycoplasma
pneumoniae

(none) 'fried egg' appearance, no cell wall Mostly facultative anaerobic; M. pneumoniae strictly aerobic extracellular

Neisseria[26][35]

Neisseria
Neisseria
gonorrhoeae Neisseria
Neisseria
meningitidis

Negative Kidney
Kidney
bean-shaped aerobic Gonococcus: facultative intracellular N. meningitidis: extracellular

Pseudomonas[26][36]

Pseudomonas
Pseudomonas
aeruginosa

Negative rods Obligate aerobic extracellular

Rickettsia[24]

Rickettsia
Rickettsia
rickettsii

Negative, stains poorly Small, rod-like coccobacillary Aerobic Obligate intracellular

Salmonella[24]

Salmonella
Salmonella
typhi Salmonella
Salmonella
typhimurium

Negative Bacillus
Bacillus
shape Facultative anaerobica Facultative intracellular

Shigella[26][37]

Shigella
Shigella
sonnei

Negative rods Facultative anaerobic extracellular

Staphylococcus[3]

Staphylococcus
Staphylococcus
aureus Staphylococcus
Staphylococcus
epidermidis Staphylococcus
Staphylococcus
saprophyticus

Positive, darkly Round cocci Facultative anaerobic extracellular, facultative intracellular

Streptococcus[24]

Streptococcus
Streptococcus
agalactiae Streptococcus
Streptococcus
pneumoniae Streptococcus
Streptococcus
pyogenes

Positive ovoid to spherical Facultative anaerobic extracellular

Treponema[24]

Treponema
Treponema
pallidum

Negative, stains poorly Spirochete Aerobic extracellular

Ureaplasma[3]

Ureaplasma urealyticum

Stains poorly[38] indistinct, 'fried egg' appearance, no cell wall anaerobic extracellular

Vibrio[26][26][39]

Vibrio
Vibrio
cholerae

Negative Spiral with single polar flagellum Facultative anaerobic extracellular

Yersinia[26][40]

Yersinia
Yersinia
pestis Yersinia
Yersinia
enterocolitica Yersinia
Yersinia
pseudotuberculosis

Negative, bipolarly Small rods Facultative Anaerobe Intracellular

List of species and clinical characteristics[edit] This is description of the more common genera and species presented with their clinical characteristics and treatments.

Species
Species
of human pathogenic bacteria

Species Transmission Diseases Treatment Prevention

Actinomyces israelii Oral flora[41] Actinomycosis:[41] painful abscesses in the mouth, lungs,[42][43] or gastrointestinal tract.[28] Prolonged penicillin G and drainage[41]

Bacillus
Bacillus
anthracis

Contact with cattle, sheep, goats and horses[44] Spores enter through inhalation or through abrasions[26]

Anthrax: pulmonary, gastrointestinal and/or cutaneous symptoms.[41]

In early infection:[45] Penicillin Doxycycline Ciprofloxacin Raxibacumab[46]

Anthrax
Anthrax
vaccine[26] Autoclaving
Autoclaving
of equipment[26]

Bacteroides fragilis Gut flora[41] Abscesses in gastrointestinal tract, pelvic cavity and lungs[41] metronidazole[41] Wound care[47] Aspiration prevention[47]

Bordetella
Bordetella
pertussis

Contact with respiratory droplets expelled by infected human hosts.[26]

Whooping cough[26][41] Secondary bacterial pneumonia[26]

Macrolides[26] such as erythromycin,[26][41] before paroxysmal stage[41]

Pertussis
Pertussis
vaccine,[26][41] such as in DPT vaccine[26][41]

Borrelia B. burgdorferi[26][41] B. garinii[26] B. afzelii[26]

Ixodes
Ixodes
hard ticks Reservoir in mice, other small mammals, and birds[48]

Lyme disease[49][50]

Early localized: erythema migrans Early disseminated: neuroborreliosis, Lyme carditis Late: Lyme arthritis, Achrodermatitis chronica (B. afzelii only)

Doxycycline
Doxycycline
for adults, amoxicillin for children, ceftriaxone for neurological involvement[49]

Wearing clothing that limits skin exposure to ticks.[26] Insect repellent.[26] Avoid areas where ticks are found.[26]

B. recurrentis[51] and others[note 1]

Pediculus humanus corporis
Pediculus humanus corporis
body louse ( B. recurrentis only) and Ornithodoros
Ornithodoros
soft ticks[51] Relapsing fever Penicillin, tetracycline, doxycycline[52] Avoid areas where ticks are found[51] Better access to washing facilities[51] Reduce crowding[51] Pesticides[51]

Brucella B. abortus B. canis B. melitensis B. suis

Direct contact with infected animal[26] Oral, by ingestion of unpasteurized milk or milk products[26]

Brucellosis: mainly fever, muscular pain and night sweats

doxycycline[26] streptomycin or gentamicin[26]

Campylobacter
Campylobacter
jejuni

Fecal-oral from animals (mammals and fowl)[26][41] Uncooked meat (especially poultry)[26][41] Contaminated water[26]

Enteritis,[26] bloody diarrhea[41] Guillain–Barré syndrome[41] (muscle weakness)

Treat symptoms[26] Fluoroquinolone[41] such as ciprofloxacin[26] in severe cases[26]

Good hygiene[26] Avoiding contaminated water[26] Pasteurizing
Pasteurizing
milk and milk products[26] Cooking meat (especially poultry)[26]

Chlamydia C. pneumoniae

Respiratory droplets[26][41]

Atypical pneumonia[41]

Doxycycline[26][41] Erythromycin[26][41]

None[26]

C. trachomatis

vaginal sex[26] oral sex[26] anal sex[26] Vertical from mother to newborn(ICN)[26] Direct or contaminated surfaces and flies (trachoma)[26]

Trachoma[26][41] Neonatal conjunctivitis[26][41] Neonatal pneumonia[26][41] Nongonococcal urethritis (NGU)[26][41] Urethritis[26][41] Pelvic inflammatory disease[26][41] Epididymitis[26][41] Prostatitis[26][41] Lymphogranuloma venereum
Lymphogranuloma venereum
(LGV)[26][41]

Erythromycin[26][41] (adults)[41] Doxycycline[26][41] (infants and pregnant women)[41]

Erythromycin
Erythromycin
or silver nitrate in newborn's eyes[26] Safe sex[26] Abstinence[26]

Chlamydophila psittaci Inhalation of dust with secretions or feces from birds (e.g. parrots) Psittacosis, mainly atypical pneumonia

Tetracycline[26] Doxycycline[26] Erythromycin[26]

-

Clostridium C. botulinum Spores from soil,[26][41] persevere in canned food, smoked fish and honey[41]

Botulism: Mainly muscle weakness and paralysis[41]

Antitoxin[26][41] Penicillin[41] Hyperbaric oxygen[41] Mechanical ventilation[41]

Proper food preservation techniques

C. difficile

Gut flora,[26][41] overgrowing when other flora is depleted[26]

Pseudomembranous colitis[26][41]

Discontinuing responsible antibiotic[26][41] Vancomycin
Vancomycin
or metronidazole if severe[26][41]

Fecal bacteriotherapy

C. perfringens

Spores in soil[26][41] Vaginal flora
Vaginal flora
and gut flora[26]

Anaerobic cellulitis[26][41] Gas gangrene[26][41] Acute food poisoning[26][41]

Gas gangrene: Debridement
Debridement
or amputation[26][41] Hyperbaric medicine[26][41] High doses of doxycycline[26] or penicillin G[26][41] and clindamycin[41] Food poisoning: Supportive care is sufficient[26]

Appropriate food handling[26]

C. tetani

Spores in soil, skin penetration through wounds[26][41]

Tetanus: muscle spasms[53]

Tetanus
Tetanus
immune globulin[26][41] Sedatives[26] Muscle relaxants[26] Mechanical ventilation[26][41] Penicillin
Penicillin
or metronidazole[41]

Tetanus
Tetanus
vaccine (such as in the DPT vaccine)[26]

Corynebacterium
Corynebacterium
diphtheriae

respiratory droplets part of human flora

Diphtheria: Fever, sore throat and neck swelling, potentially narrowing airways.[54]

Horse serum antitoxin Erythromycin Penicillin

DPT vaccine

Ehrlichia E. canis[41] E. chaffeensis[41]

Dog tick[41] Ehrlichiosis:[41] headache, muscle aches, and fatigue

doxycycline[41] rifampin[41]

Enterococcus E. faecalis E. faecium

Part of gut flora,[41] opportunistic or entering through GI tract or urinary system wounds[26]

Bacterial endocarditis,[41] biliary tract infections,[41] urinary tract infections[41]

Ampicillin
Ampicillin
(combined with aminoglycoside in endocarditis)[41] Vancomycin[26]

No vaccine Hand washing and other nosocomial prevention

Escherichia E. coli (generally)

Gut flora,[26][41] and in urinary tract[41] Spreading extraintestinally or proliferating in the GI tract[26]

Diarrhea[26][41] Urinary tract
Urinary tract
infections (UTI)[26][41] Meningitis
Meningitis
in infants[26][41] Hospital-acquired pneumonia[41] Hospital-acquired sepsis[41]

UTI:[26] (resistance-tests are required first)

Co-trimoxazole Fluoroquinolone, e.g. ciprofloxacin

Meningitis:[26]

Cephalosporin
Cephalosporin
(e.g. cefotaxime) and gentamicin combination

Diarrhea:[26]

Antibiotics
Antibiotics
above shorten duration Electrolyte and fluid replacement

(no vaccine or preventive drug)[26]

Cooking ground beef and pasteurizing milk against O157:H7[26] Hand washing and disinfection[26]

Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC)

Fecal-oral[41] through food and water[26] Direct physical contact[26]

Traveller's diarrhea[26][41]

Enteropathogenic E. coli

Vertical, in utero or at birth[26]

Diarrhea
Diarrhea
in infants[26]

Enteroinvasive E.coli (EIEC)

Fecal-oral[55]

bloody diarrhea and fever[41]

Enterohemorrhagic (EHEC), including E. coli O157:H7

Reservoir in cattle[26]

bloody diarrhea[26][41] Hemolytic-uremic syndrome[26][41]

Francisella
Francisella
tularensis

vector-borne by arthropods[26] Infected wild or domestic animals, birds or house pets[26]

Tularemia: Fever, ulceration at entry site and/or lymphadenopathy.[56] Can cause severe pneumonia.[56]

Streptomycin[26] Gentamicin[26]

Avoiding insect vectors[26] Precautions when handling wild animals or animal products[26]

Haemophilus
Haemophilus
influenzae

Droplet contact[26] Human flora
Human flora
of e.g. upper respiratory tract[26]

Bacterial meningitis[26][41] Upper respiratory tract infections[26][41] Pneumonia,[26][41] bronchitis[26] Septic arthritis in infants[41]

Meningitis:[26] (resistance-tests are required first)

Third generation cephalosporin, e.g. cefotaxime or ceftriaxone[26] Ampicillin
Ampicillin
and sulbactam combination[26]

Hib vaccine
Hib vaccine
to infants[26][41] Rifampin
Rifampin
prophylactically[26]

Helicobacter
Helicobacter
pylori

Colonizing stomach[26] Unclear person-to-person transmission[26]

Peptic ulcer[26][41] Chronic gastritis[41] Risk factor for gastric carcinoma and gastric B-cell lymphoma[26]

Tetracycline, metronidazole and bismuth salt combination[26]

(No vaccine or preventive drug)[26]

Klebsiella pneumoniae

Mouth, skin, and gut flora.[57] Pneumonia
Pneumonia
upon aspiration

Klebsiella pneumonia, with significant lung necrosis and hemoptysis[41] Hospital-acquired Urinary tract infection
Urinary tract infection
and sepsis[41]

3rd generation cephalosporin[41] ciprofloxacin[41]

hand hygiene.[58]

Legionella
Legionella
pneumophila

Droplet contact, from e.g. cooling towers,[26][41] humidifiers,[26] air conditioners[26][41] and water distribution systems[26]

Legionnaire's Disease[26][41] Pontiac fever[26][41]

Macrolides, such as erythromycin[26][41] Fluoroquinolones[26] Rifampin[41]

(no vaccine or preventive drug)[26] Heating water[26]

Leptospira
Leptospira
species

Food and water contaminated by urine from infected wild or domestic animals. Leptospira
Leptospira
survives for weeks in fresh water and moist soil.[26]

Leptospirosis: Headaches, muscle pains, and fevers; possible jaundice, kidney failure, pulmonary hemorrhage, and meningitis.[59][60]

Doxycycline
Doxycycline
for mild cases[61] Intravenous
Intravenous
penicillin for severe cases[61]

Vaccine not widely used[26]

Doxycycline[26]

Prevention of exposure[26]

Rodent control[26]

Listeria
Listeria
monocytogenes

Raw milk or cheese,[26][41] ground meats,[26] poultry[26] Vertically to newborn or fetus[26][41]

Listeriosis:[26]

Meningitis[41] Sepsis[41]

Ampicillin[26][41] Co-trimoxazole[26][41]

(no vaccine)[26]

Proper food preparation and handling[26]

Mycobacterium M. leprae

Prolonged human-human contact, e.g. through exudates from skin lesions to abrasion of other person[26]

Leprosy
Leprosy
(Hansen's disease):[26] granulomas of the nerves, respiratory tract, skin, and eyes.[62]

Tuberculoid form:

Dapsone
Dapsone
and rifampin[26]

Lepromatous form:

Clofazimine[26]

BCG vaccine shows some effects[26]

M. tuberculosis

Droplet contact[26]

Tuberculosis: chronic cough with blood-containing sputum, fever, night sweats, and weight loss[63]

(difficult, see Tuberculosis
Tuberculosis
treatment for more details)[26] Standard "short" course:[26]

First 2 months, combination:

Isoniazid Rifampicin Pyrazinamide Ethambutol

Further 4 months, combination:

Isoniazid Rifampicin

BCG vaccine Isoniazid

Mycoplasma
Mycoplasma
pneumoniae

Human flora[26][41] Respiratory droplets[26][41]

Mycoplasma
Mycoplasma
pneumonia[26]

Doxycycline
Doxycycline
and erythromycin[26][41]

Neisseria N. gonorrhoeae

Sexually transmitted[26][41] vertical in birth[26]

Gonorrhea[26][41]

Urethritis (men)[41] Pelvic inflammatory disease
Pelvic inflammatory disease
(women)[41]

Ophthalmia neonatorum[26][41] Septic arthritis[26][41]

Uncomplicated gonorrhea:[26]

Ceftriaxone[41] Tetracycline, e.g. doxycycline if also chlamydia is suspected[41] Spectinomycin
Spectinomycin
for resistance[26][41] or patient allergy to cephalosporin[26]

Ophthalmia neonatorum:

Erythromycin[26][41] + ceftriaxone[41]

(No vaccine)[26]

Safe sex[26] Erythromycin
Erythromycin
into eyes of newborn at risk[26][41]

N. meningitidis

Droplet transmission[26]

Meningococcal disease
Meningococcal disease
including meningitis[26][41] Sepsis, including Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome[26][41]

Penicillin
Penicillin
G[26][41] Ceftriaxone[26][41]

NmVac4-A/C/Y/W-135
NmVac4-A/C/Y/W-135
vaccine[26][41] Rifampin[26][41]

Pseudomonas
Pseudomonas
aeruginosa Opportunistic;[41] Infects damaged tissues or people with immunodeficiency.[26] Pseudomonas
Pseudomonas
infection:[26]

Pneumonia[26][41] Urinary tract
Urinary tract
infection[26][41] Corneal infection[26][41] Endocarditis[26][41] Osteomyelitis[26][41] Burn wound
Burn wound
infection[41] Sepsis[26][41] Malignant external otitis[41]

Anti-pseudomonal penicillins[26] such as ticarcillin[41] Aminoglycoside[26]

(no vaccine)[26]

Topical silver sulfadiazine for burn wounds[26]

Nocardia
Nocardia
asteroides In soil[41] Nocardiosis:[41] Pneumonia, endocarditis, keratitis, neurological or lymphocutaneous infection TMP/SMX[41]

Rickettsia
Rickettsia
rickettsii

Wood or dog tick[26][41]

Rocky mountain spotted fever[26][41]

Doxycycline[26][41] Chloramphenicol[26][41]

(no preventive drug or approved vaccine)[26]

Vector control, such as clothing[26] Prompt removal of attached ticks[26]

Salmonella S typhi

Fecal-oral route, through food or water[26][41]

Typhoid fever
Typhoid fever
type salmonellosis[26] (fever, abdominal pain, hepatosplenomegaly, rose spots)[41] Chronic carrier state[41]

Ceftriaxone[26][41] Fluoroquinolones, e.g. ciprofloxacin[26][41]

Ty21a
Ty21a
and ViCPS vaccines[26] Hygiene and food preparation[26]

Other Salmonella
Salmonella
species

e.g. S. typhimurium[26]

Fecal-oral[26] Food contaminated by fowl[26] (e.g. uncooked eggs)[41] or turtles[41]

Salmonellosis[26] with gastroenteritis[26][41] Paratyphoid fever[41] Osteomyelitis
Osteomyelitis
in people with sickle cells[41] Sepsis[41]

Fluid and electrolyte replacement for diarrhea[26][41] Antibiotics
Antibiotics
(in neonates[41] and immuno-compromised[26][41]):

Ciprofloxacin[41] Ceftriaxone
Ceftriaxone
[41] TMP/SMX[41] Azithromycin[41]

(No vaccine or preventive drug)[26]

Proper sewage disposal[26] Food preparation[26] Good personal hygiene[26]

Shigella S. sonnei[26]

S. dysenteriae[41]

Fecal-oral[26][41]

Shigellosis
Shigellosis
(bacillary dysentery)

Fluid and electrolyte replacement[41] Fluoroquinolone[41] such as ciprofloxacin[26] if severe[41]

Protection of water and food supplies[26] Vaccines are in trial stage[64]

Staphylococcus aureus

Human flora
Human flora
on mucosae in e.g. anterior nares, skin and vagina,[26][41] entering through wound

Coagulase-positive staphylococcal infections:

Skin
Skin
infections, including impetigo[26][41] Acute infective endocarditis[26][41] Septis[26][26] Necrotizing pneumonia[26] Meningitis[41] Osteomyelitis[41] Toxinoses

Scalded skin syndrome[26][41] Toxic shock syndrome[26][41] Staphylococcal food poisoning[26][41]

Incision and drainage of localized lesions[26] Nafcillin,[26][41] oxacillin,[26] methicillin[41] Vancomycin
Vancomycin
for Methicillin-resistant (MRSA)[26]

(no vaccine or preventive drug)

Barrier precautions, washing hands and fomite disinfection in hospitals

epidermidis Human flora
Human flora
in skin,[26][41] anterior nares[26] and mucous membranes[41]

Infections of implanted prostheses (e.g. heart valves[26] and joints[41]) and catheters[26][41]

Vancomycin[26][41]

None[26]

saprophyticus Part of normal vaginal flora[26]

Cystitis
Cystitis
in women[26][41]

TMP/SMX
TMP/SMX
or norfloxacin[65]

None[26]

Streptococcus agalactiae Human flora
Human flora
in vagina,[26][41] urethral mucous membranes,[26] rectum[26]

Vertically during childbirth[26] Sexually[26]

Neonatal meningitis[26][41] Neonatal sepsis[26][41] Neonatal pneumonia[41] Endometritis
Endometritis
in postpartum women[26] Opportunistic infections with septicemia and pneumonia[26]

Penicillin
Penicillin
G[26][41] Aminoglycoside
Aminoglycoside
in case of lethal infection[26]

None[26]

pneumoniae

Respiratory droplets Human flora
Human flora
in nasopharynx[41] (spreading in immunocompromised)[26]

Acute bacterial pneumonia & meningitis in adults[26][41] Otitis media
Otitis media
and sinusitis in children[26][41] Sepsis[41]

Penicillin
Penicillin
G[26][41]

23-serotype vaccine for adults (PPV)[26][41] Heptavalent conjugated vaccine for children (PCV)[26]

pyogenes

Respiratory droplets[26] Direct physical contact with impetigo lesions[26]

Streptococcal pharyngitis[26][41] Sepsis[41] Scarlet fever[26][41] Rheumatic fever[26][41] Impetigo
Impetigo
and erysipelas[26][41] Puerperal fever[26] Necrotizing fasciitis[26] Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis[41]

Penicillin
Penicillin
G[26][41] or V[41] Macrolide, e.g. clarithromycin[26] or erythromycin[41] in penicillin allergy Drainage and debridement for necrotizing fasciitis[26]

No vaccine[26]

Rapid antibiotic treatment helps prevent rheumatic fever[26]

viridans Oral flora,[41] penetration through abrasions

Subacute bacterial endocarditis[41] Dental cavities[41] Abscesses of brain and liver[41]

Penicillin
Penicillin
G[41]

Treponema
Treponema
pallidum subspecies pallidum

Sexual[26][41] Vertical (from mother to fetus)[26]

Syphilis:[26][41] First a chancre, (a painless skin ulceration), then diffuse rash.[66] Later: gummas (soft growths), neurological, or heart symptoms.[67] Congenital syphilis[26][41]

Penicillin
Penicillin
G[26][41] Doxycycline
Doxycycline
if penicillin allergy[26][41]

Penicillin
Penicillin
offered to recent sexual partners[68] Antibiotics
Antibiotics
to pregnant women if risk of transmitting to child[26] No vaccine available[26] Safe sex[26]

Vibrio
Vibrio
cholerae

Fecal-oral route[41] Contaminated water and raw seafood[26]

Cholera: Severe "rice water" diarrhea[41]

Fluid[41] and electrolyte replacement[26] Doxycycline[26][41]

Proper sanitation[26] Adequate food preparation[26]

Yersinia
Yersinia
pestis

Fleas
Fleas
from animals[26][69] Ingestion of animal tissues[26] Respiratory droplets[26]

Plague:

Bubonic plague Pneumonic plague

Streptomycin
Streptomycin
primarily[26][70][71] Tetracyclin[26][72] Supportive therapy for shock[26]

Plague vaccine[73] Minimize exposure to rodents and fleas[26]

Genetic transformation[edit] Of the 59 species listed in the table with their clinical characteristics, 11 species (or 19%) are known to be capable of natural genetic transformation.[74] Natural transformation is a bacterial adaptation for transferring DNA
DNA
from one cell to another. This process includes the uptake of exogenous DNA
DNA
from a donor cell by a recipient cell and its incorporation into the recipient cell’s genome by recombination. Transformation appears to be an adaptation for repairing damage in the recipient cell’s DNA. Among pathogenic bacteria, transformation capability likely serves as an adaptation that facilitates survival and infectivity.[74] The pathogenic bacteria able to carry out natural genetic transformation (of those listed in the table) are Campylobacter
Campylobacter
jejuni, Enterococcus
Enterococcus
faecalis, Haemophilus
Haemophilus
influenzae, Helicobacter
Helicobacter
pylori, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Legionella
Legionella
pneumophila, Neisseria
Neisseria
gonorrhoeae, Neisseria
Neisseria
meningitides, Staphylococcus
Staphylococcus
aureus, Streptococcus
Streptococcus
pneumoniae and Vibrio
Vibrio
cholerae. See also[edit]

Human microbiome project List of antibiotics Pathogenic viruses

Notes[edit]

^ Relapsing fever can also be caused by the following Borrelia species: B. crocidurae, B. duttonii, B. hermsii, B. hispanica, B. miyamotoi, B. persica, B. turicatae and B. venezuelensis. - Barbour, Alan G. (2017). "Relapsing Fever". In Kasper, Dennis L.; Fauci, Anthony S. Harrison's Infectious Diseases (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw Hill Education. pp. 678–687. ISBN 978-1-259-83597-1. 

References[edit]

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Pathogenic bacteria
Pathogenic bacteria
genomes and related information at PATRIC, a Bioinformatics Resource Center funded by NIAID

v t e

Infectious disease and microbiology

Disciplines (pathogens) Major diseases

Bacteriology (bacteria)

Cholera Diphtheria Leprosy Syphilis Tuberculosis

Virology
Virology
(viruses, prions)

AIDS Influenza Measles Polio Smallpox

Mycology (fungi)

Aspergillosis Candidiasis Tinea

Parasitology
Parasitology
(protozoa, helminths)

Amoebic dysentery Hookworm Malaria Schistosomiasis

Entomology (ectoparasites)

Lice Scabies

People

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Related topics

Antibiotics Eradication Pandemic Transmission

horizontal vertical

Vaccination Zoonosis

v t e

Firmicutes
Firmicutes
(low-G+C) Infectious diseases Bacterial diseases: G+

primarily A00–A79, 001–041, 080–109

Bacilli

Lactobacillales (Cat-)

Streptococcus

α

optochin susceptible

S. pneumoniae

Pneumococcal infection

optochin resistant

Viridans streptococci: S. mitis S. mutans S. oralis S. sanguinis S. sobrinus milleri group

β

A

bacitracin susceptible: S. pyogenes

Group A streptococcal infection Streptococcal pharyngitis Scarlet fever Erysipelas Rheumatic fever

B

bacitracin resistant, CAMP test+: S. agalactiae

Group B streptococcal infection

ungrouped

Streptococcus
Streptococcus
iniae

Cutaneous Streptococcus
Streptococcus
iniae infection

γ

D BEA+: Streptococcus
Streptococcus
bovis

Enterococcus

BEA+: Enterococcus
Enterococcus
faecalis

Urinary tract
Urinary tract
infection

Enterococcus
Enterococcus
faecium

Bacillales (Cat+)

Staphylococcus

Cg+

S. aureus

Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome

Toxic shock syndrome MRSA

Cg-

novobiocin susceptible

S. epidermidis

novobiocin resistant

S. saprophyticus

Bacillus

Bacillus
Bacillus
anthracis

Anthrax

Bacillus
Bacillus
cereus

Food poisoning

Listeria

Listeria
Listeria
monocytogenes

Listeriosis

Clostridia

Clostridium
Clostridium
(spore-forming)

motile:

Clostridium
Clostridium
difficile

Pseudomembranous colitis

Clostridium
Clostridium
botulinum

Botulism

Clostridium
Clostridium
tetani

Tetanus

nonmotile:

Clostridium
Clostridium
perfringens

Gas gangrene Clostridial necrotizing enteritis

Peptostreptococcus
Peptostreptococcus
(non-spore forming)

Peptostreptococcus
Peptostreptococcus
magnus

Mollicutes

Mycoplasmataceae

Ureaplasma urealyticum

Ureaplasma infection

Mycoplasma
Mycoplasma
genitalium Mycoplasma
Mycoplasma
pneumoniae

Mycoplasma
Mycoplasma
pneumonia

Anaeroplasmatales

Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae

Erysipeloid

v t e

Gram-positive bacterial infection: Actinobacteria
Actinobacteria
(primarily A00–A79, 001–041, 080–109)

Actinomycineae

Actinomycetaceae

Actinomyces israelii

Actinomycosis Cutaneous actinomycosis

Tropheryma whipplei

Whipple's disease

Arcanobacterium haemolyticum

Arcanobacterium haemolyticum
Arcanobacterium haemolyticum
infection

Actinomyces gerencseriae

Propionibacteriaceae

Propionibacterium acnes

Corynebacterineae

Mycobacteriaceae

M. tuberculosis/ M. bovis

Tuberculosis: Ghon focus/Ghon's complex Pott disease brain

Meningitis Rich focus

Tuberculous lymphadenitis

Tuberculous cervical lymphadenitis

cutaneous

Scrofuloderma Erythema induratum Lupus vulgaris Prosector's wart Tuberculosis
Tuberculosis
cutis orificialis Tuberculous cellulitis Tuberculous gumma

Lichen scrofulosorum Tuberculid

Papulonecrotic tuberculid

Primary inoculation tuberculosis Miliary Tuberculous pericarditis Urogenital tuberculosis Multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis

M. leprae

Leprosy: Tuberculoid leprosy Borderline tuberculoid leprosy Borderline leprosy Borderline lepromatous leprosy Lepromatous leprosy Histoid leprosy

Nontuberculous

R1:

M. kansasii M. marinum

Aquarium granuloma

R2:

M. gordonae

R3:

M. avium complex/ Mycobacterium
Mycobacterium
avium/ Mycobacterium
Mycobacterium
intracellulare/MAP

MAI infection

M. ulcerans

Buruli ulcer

M. haemophilum

R4/RG:

M. fortuitum M. chelonae M. abscessus

Nocardiaceae

Nocardia
Nocardia
asteroides/ Nocardia
Nocardia
brasiliensis

Nocardiosis

Rhodococcus equi

Corynebacteriaceae

Corynebacterium
Corynebacterium
diphtheriae

Diphtheria

Corynebacterium
Corynebacterium
minutissimum

Erythrasma

Corynebacterium
Corynebacterium
jeikeium

Group JK corynebacterium sepsis

Bifidobacteriaceae

Gardnerella vaginalis

v t e

Infectious diseases Bacterial disease: Proteobacterial G−

primarily A00–A79, 001–041, 080–109

α

Rickettsiales

Rickettsiaceae/ (Rickettsioses)

Typhus

Rickettsia
Rickettsia
typhi

Murine typhus

Rickettsia
Rickettsia
prowazekii

Epidemic typhus, Brill–Zinsser disease, Flying squirrel typhus

Spotted fever

Tick-borne

Rickettsia
Rickettsia
rickettsii

Rocky Mountain spotted fever

Rickettsia
Rickettsia
conorii

Boutonneuse fever

Rickettsia
Rickettsia
japonica

Japanese spotted fever

Rickettsia
Rickettsia
sibirica

North Asian tick typhus

Rickettsia
Rickettsia
australis

Queensland tick typhus

Rickettsia
Rickettsia
honei

Flinders Island spotted fever

Rickettsia
Rickettsia
africae

African tick bite fever

Rickettsia
Rickettsia
parkeri

American tick bite fever

Rickettsia
Rickettsia
aeschlimannii

Rickettsia
Rickettsia
aeschlimannii infection

Mite-borne

Rickettsia
Rickettsia
akari

Rickettsialpox

Orientia tsutsugamushi

Scrub typhus

Flea-borne

Rickettsia
Rickettsia
felis

Flea-borne spotted fever

Anaplasmataceae

Ehrlichiosis: Anaplasma phagocytophilum

Human granulocytic anaplasmosis, Anaplasmosis

Ehrlichia chaffeensis

Human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis

Ehrlichia ewingii

Ehrlichiosis ewingii infection

Rhizobiales

Brucellaceae

Brucella
Brucella
abortus

Brucellosis

Bartonellaceae

Bartonellosis: Bartonella
Bartonella
henselae

Cat-scratch disease

Bartonella
Bartonella
quintana

Trench fever

Either B. henselae or B. quintana

Bacillary angiomatosis

Bartonella
Bartonella
bacilliformis

Carrion's disease, Verruga peruana

β

Neisseriales

M+

Neisseria
Neisseria
meningitidis/meningococcus

Meningococcal disease, Waterhouse–Friderichsen syndrome, Meningococcal septicaemia

M−

Neisseria
Neisseria
gonorrhoeae/gonococcus

Gonorrhea

ungrouped:

Eikenella corrodens/Kingella kingae

HACEK

Chromobacterium violaceum

Chromobacteriosis infection

Burkholderiales

Burkholderia pseudomallei

Melioidosis

Burkholderia mallei

Glanders

Burkholderia cepacia complex Bordetella
Bordetella
pertussis/ Bordetella
Bordetella
parapertussis

Pertussis

γ

Enterobacteriales (OX−)

Lac+

Klebsiella pneumoniae

Rhinoscleroma, Klebsiella pneumonia

Klebsiella granulomatis

Granuloma
Granuloma
inguinale

Klebsiella oxytoca

Escherichia
Escherichia
coli: Enterotoxigenic Enteroinvasive Enterohemorrhagic O157:H7 O104:H4

Hemolytic-uremic syndrome

Enterobacter aerogenes/Enterobacter cloacae

Slow/weak

Serratia marcescens

Serratia infection

Citrobacter koseri/Citrobacter freundii

Lac−

H2S+

Salmonella
Salmonella
enterica

Typhoid fever, Paratyphoid fever, Salmonellosis

H2S−

Shigella
Shigella
dysenteriae/sonnei/flexneri/boydii

Shigellosis, Bacillary dysentery

Proteus mirabilis/Proteus vulgaris Yersinia
Yersinia
pestis

Plague/Bubonic plague

Yersinia
Yersinia
enterocolitica

Yersiniosis

Yersinia
Yersinia
pseudotuberculosis

Far East scarlet-like fever

Pasteurellales

Haemophilus:

H. influenzae

Haemophilus
Haemophilus
meningitis Brazilian purpuric fever

H. ducreyi

Chancroid

H. parainfluenzae

HACEK

Pasteurella multocida

Pasteurellosis Actinobacillus

Actinobacillosis

Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans

HACEK

Legionellales

Legionella
Legionella
pneumophila/ Legionella
Legionella
longbeachae

Legionnaires' disease

Coxiella burnetii

Q fever

Thiotrichales

Francisella
Francisella
tularensis

Tularemia

Vibrionaceae

Vibrio
Vibrio
cholerae

Cholera

Vibrio
Vibrio
vulnificus Vibrio
Vibrio
parahaemolyticus Vibrio
Vibrio
alginolyticus Plesiomonas shigelloides

Pseudomonadales

Pseudomonas
Pseudomonas
aeruginosa

Pseudomonas
Pseudomonas
infection

Moraxella catarrhalis Acinetobacter baumannii

Xanthomonadaceae

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

Cardiobacteriaceae

Cardiobacterium hominis

HACEK

Aeromonadales

Aeromonas hydrophila/Aeromonas veronii

Aeromonas infection

ε

Campylobacterales

Campylobacter
Campylobacter
jejuni

Campylobacteriosis, Guillain–Barré syndrome

Helicobacter
Helicobacter
pylori

Peptic ulcer, MALT lymphoma, Gastric cancer

Helicobacter
Helicobacter
cinaedi

Helicobacter
Helicobacter
cellulitis

v t e

Infectious diseases Bacterial diseases: BV4 non-proteobacterial G- (primarily A00–A79, 001–041, 080–109)

Spirochaete

Spirochaetaceae

Treponema

Treponema
Treponema
pallidum

Syphilis/bejel Yaws

Treponema
Treponema
carateum (Pinta) Treponema
Treponema
denticola

Borrelia

Borrelia
Borrelia
burgdorferi/ Borrelia
Borrelia
afzelii

Lyme disease Erythema chronicum migrans Neuroborreliosis

Borrelia
Borrelia
recurrentis ( Louse
Louse
borne relapsing fever) Borrelia
Borrelia
hermsii/ Borrelia
Borrelia
duttoni/ Borrelia
Borrelia
parkeri (Tick borne relapsing fever)

Leptospiraceae

Leptospira

Leptospira
Leptospira
interrogans (Leptospirosis)

Chlamydiaceae

Chlamydophila

Chlamydophila psittaci (Psittacosis) Chlamydophila pneumoniae

Chlamydia

Chlamydia trachomatis

Chlamydia Lymphogranuloma venereum Trachoma

Bacteroidetes

Bacteroides fragilis Tannerella forsythia Capnocytophaga canimorsus Porphyromonas gingivalis Prevotella intermedia

Fusobacteria

Fusobacterium necrophorum (Lemierre's syndrome) Fusobacterium nucleatum Fusobacterium polymorphum

Streptobacillus moniliformis (Rat-bite feve

.