Paternoster Square
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Paternoster Square is an urban development, owned by the
Mitsubishi Estate Co. is one of the largest real-estate developers in Japan and is involved in property management and architecture research and design. As of 2018, Mitsubishi Estate has the most valuable portfolio in the Japanese real estate industry, with a total ...
, next to
St Paul's Cathedral St Paul's Cathedral is an Anglicanism, Anglican cathedral in London. As the seat of the Bishop of London, the cathedral serves as the mother church of the Diocese of London. It sits on Ludgate Hill at the highest point of the City of London an ...

St Paul's Cathedral
in the
City of London The City of London is a City status in the United Kingdom, city, Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county and local government district that contains the historic centre and the primary central business district (CBD) of London. It co ...

City of London
. The area, which takes its name from
Paternoster Row Paternoster Row was a street in the City of London The City of London is a City status in the United Kingdom, city, Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county and local government district that contains the historic centre and the pr ...
, once centre of the London
publishing Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and other content available to the public for sale or for free. Traditionally, the term refers to the creation and distribution of printed works, such as s, s, and s. ...
trade, was devastated by aerial bombardment in
The Blitz The Blitz was a German bombing campaign against the United Kingdom in 1940 and 1941, during the World War II, Second World War. The term was first used by the British press and originated from the term , the German word for 'lightning war'. ...
during the
Second World War World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved —including all of the great powers—forming two opposing s: the and the . In a total war directly involving m ...
. It is now the location of the
London Stock Exchange London Stock Exchange (LSE) is a stock exchange in the City of London The City of London is a City status in the United Kingdom, city, Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county and local government district that contains the histori ...
which relocated there from
Threadneedle Street Threadneedle Street is a street in the City of London The City of London is a City status in the United Kingdom, city, Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county and local government district that contains the historic centre and th ...

Threadneedle Street
in 2004. It is also the location of investment banks such as
Goldman Sachs The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. () is an American multinational investment bank and financial services company headquartered in New York City. It offers services in investment management, securities, asset management, prime brokerage Prime ...

Goldman Sachs
,
Merrill Lynch Merrill (officially Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith Incorporated), previously branded Merrill Lynch, is an American investment management Investment management is the professional asset management of various securities A security i ...
and Nomura Securities Co., and of fund manager Fidelity Investments. The square itself, i.e. the plaza, is
privately owned public space Privately owned public space (POPS), or alternatively, privately owned public open spaces (POPOS), are terms used to describe a type of public space that, although privately owned, is legally required to be open to the public under a city's zon ...
. In 2004,
Christopher Wren Sir Christopher Wren President of the Royal Society, PRS Fellow of the Royal Society, FRS (; – ) was one of the most highly acclaimed English architects in history, as well as an anatomist, astronomer, geometer, and mathematician-physicist. ...

Christopher Wren
's 1669 Temple Bar Gate was re-erected here as an entrance way to the plaza. The Square is near the top of a modest rise known as
Ludgate Hill Ludgate Hill is a hill in the City of London The City of London is a City status in the United Kingdom, city, Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county and local government district that contains the historic centre and the prim ...

Ludgate Hill
, the highest part of the City of London. It is characterised by its pedestrianisation and colonnades.


World War II bombing

The City of London was hit by one of the heaviest night raids of The Blitz on the night of 29 December 1940. Buildings on
Paternoster Row Paternoster Row was a street in the City of London The City of London is a City status in the United Kingdom, city, Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county and local government district that contains the historic centre and the pr ...
, housing the publishing companies Simpkins and Marshall, Hutchinsons, Blackwoods, and Longmans and Collins were destroyed. St Paul's Cathedral remained intact.


1960s rebuilding

In 1956, the Corporation of London published Sir William Holford's proposals for redeveloping the precinct north of
St Paul's Cathedral St Paul's Cathedral is an Anglicanism, Anglican cathedral in London. As the seat of the Bishop of London, the cathedral serves as the mother church of the Diocese of London. It sits on Ludgate Hill at the highest point of the City of London an ...

St Paul's Cathedral
. Holford's report attempted to resolve problems of traffic flow in the vicinity of the cathedral, while protecting the cathedral's presence as a national monument on the highest ground of the City, at the top of
Ludgate Hill Ludgate Hill is a hill in the City of London The City of London is a City status in the United Kingdom, city, Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county and local government district that contains the historic centre and the prim ...

Ludgate Hill
, on the north bank of the
Thames The River Thames ( ), known alternatively in parts as the River Isis, is a river that flows through southern England Southern England, or the South of England, also known as the South, is an area of England consisting of the southernmos ...
. The report was controversial, however, because it introduced a decisively modern note alongside the foremost work of Britain's foremost 17th-century architect,
Sir Christopher Wren Sir Christopher Wren President of the Royal Society, PRS Fellow of the Royal Society, FRS (; – ) was one of the most highly acclaimed English architects in history, as well as an anatomist, astronomer, geometer, and mathematician-physicist. H ...
. Rebuilding was carried out between 1961–7, but it involved only part of Holford's concept — the area of Paternoster Square between St Paul's churchyard and
Newgate Street
Newgate Street
— and this included undistinguished buildings by other architects and the omission of some of Holford's features. The new Paternoster Square soon became very unpopular, and (in the eyes of many) its grim presence immediately north of one of the capital's prime tourist attractions was seen as an embarrassment. Robert Finch, the
Lord Mayor of London The Lord Mayor of London is the mayor In many countries, a mayor is the highest-ranking official An official is someone who holds an office (function or mandate, regardless whether it carries an actual working space with it) in an organi ...
, wrote of it in ''
The Guardian ''The Guardian'' is a British daily newspaper. It was founded in 1821 as ''The Manchester Guardian'', and changed its name in 1959. Along with its sister papers ' and ', ''The Guardian'' is part of the , owned by the . The trust was created ...

The Guardian
'' in 2004, that it was made up of "ghastly, monolithic constructions without definition or character".


1980s and 1990s

In the late 1980s, many existing tenants moved to other London sites leading to vacant premises. This prompted landlords and the City of London to welcome proposals to redevelop. In 1987, a body awarded a prize for a plan by Arup associates; this was not implemented as complicated, bold and postmodern. In 1990 a front-running scheme arose by John Simpson sponsored by a newspaper competition and championed by
The Prince of Wales Prince of Wales ( cy, Tywysog Cymru, ) is a title traditionally and ceremonially granted to the heir apparent An heir apparent is a person who is first in an order of succession An order of succession or right of succession is the line of ...

The Prince of Wales
; this proposed classical features, which would have been sympathetic with the nearby cathedral. The City's architecturally more radical planners for large commercial buildings refused these plans, as
pastiche A pastiche is a work of visual art The visual arts are art forms such as painting Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a solid surface (called the "matrix" or "support"). The medium is common ...

pastiche
, even though the scheme that was eventually realised also draws heavily from classical architecture, complete with Corinthian columns and classical mouldings. In 1996 planning permissions were granted for the masterplan by Sir William Whitfield — then planned in detail and built. By October 2003 the redeveloped square was complete, lined with buildings by Whitfield's firm and others. Among the first new tenants was the
London Stock Exchange London Stock Exchange (LSE) is a stock exchange in the City of London The City of London is a City status in the United Kingdom, city, Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county and local government district that contains the histori ...
.


Occupy London and public space controversy

The
London Stock Exchange London Stock Exchange (LSE) is a stock exchange in the City of London The City of London is a City status in the United Kingdom, city, Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county and local government district that contains the histori ...
was the initial target for the protesters of Occupy London on 15 October 2011. Attempts to occupy Paternoster Square were thwarted by police, Police sealed off the entrance to Paternoster Square. A High Court injunction had been granted against public access to the square, defining it as private property. The square was repeatedly described as 'public space' in the plans for Paternoster Square, meaning the public is granted access but does not designate the square as a Rights of way in England and Wales, right of way under English law, thus the owner can limit access at any time.


Monuments and sculpture

The main monument in the redeveloped square is the 75 ft (23m) tall Paternoster Square Column. It is a Corinthian order, Corinthian column of Portland stone topped by a gold leaf covered flaming copper urn, which is illuminated by fibre-optic lighting at night. The column was designed by William Whitfield's firm Whitfield Partners, and also serves as a ventilation shaft for a service road that runs beneath the square. At the north end of the square is the bronze statue, bronze ''Paternoster (sculpture), Paternoster'' (also known as ''Shepherd and Sheep'') by Elisabeth Frink, Dame Elisabeth Frink. The statue was commissioned for the previous Paternoster Square complex in 1975, and was replaced on a new plinth following the redevelopment. Another sculpture in the square is ''Paternoster Vents'' by Thomas Heatherwick. Temple Bar Gate, a Wren-designed stone archway constructed between 1669 and 1672 on Fleet Street at Temple Bar, London, Temple Bar (the historic western ceremonial entrance to the City), has been in front of the cathedral side entrance since 2004. Contractors were paid £3,000,000 to restore it and move it from a site in Theobalds Park by the Corporation of London, which received donations from the Temple Bar Trust and more than one livery company.


References


External links


CWO
construction of Paternoster Column {{Authority control Redevelopment projects in London Squares in the City of London Odonyms referring to religion Buildings and structures in the City of London History of the City of London Privately owned public spaces William Whitfield (architect) buildings