HOME
The Info List - Pataliputra



--- Advertisement ---


(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

PATALIPUTRA ( IAST : Pāṭaliputra), adjacent to modern-day Patna
Patna
, was a city in ancient India, originally built by Magadha
Magadha
ruler Ajatashatru in 490 BCE as a small fort (Pāṭaligrāma) near the Ganges
Ganges
river.

Pilgrimage to

Buddha's Holy Sites

THE FOUR MAIN SITES

* Bodh Gaya
Bodh Gaya
* Kushinagar * Lumbini
Lumbini
* Sarnath
Sarnath

FOUR ADDITIONAL SITES

* Rajgir * Sankassa
Sankassa
* Shravasti * Vaishali

OTHER SITES

* Amaravathi * Chandavaram * Devadaha

* Gaya * Kapilavastu * Kesaria

* Kosambi * Nalanda
Nalanda
* Pataliputra

* Pava * Varanasi
Varanasi

LATER SITES

* Ajanta Caves
Ajanta Caves
* Barabar Caves * Bharhut
Bharhut

* Ellora Caves
Ellora Caves
* Lalitgiri
Lalitgiri
* Mathura

* Pandavleni Caves
Pandavleni Caves
* Piprahwa * Ratnagiri

* Sanchi
Sanchi
* Udayagiri * Vikramashila

* v * t * e

Extensive archaeological excavations have been made in the vicinity of modern Patna. Excavations early in the 20th century around Patna revealed clear evidence of large fortification walls, including reinforcing wooden trusses.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 History

* 2.1 Capital of the Maurya
Maurya
Empire * 2.2 Capital of later dynasties

* 3 Structure

* 3.1 Excavated sites of Pataliputra
Pataliputra

* 4 Gallery * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Sources * 8 Further reading

ETYMOLOGY

The etymology of Pataliputra
Pataliputra
is unclear. "Putra" means son, and "pāţali" is a species of rice or the plant _ Bignonia suaveolens _. One traditional etymology holds that the city was named after the plant. Another tradition says that Pāṭaliputra means the son of Pāṭali, who was the daughter of Raja Sudarshan. As it was known as Pāṭali-grāma ("Pāṭali village") originally, some scholars believe that Pāṭaliputra is a transformation of Pāṭalipura, "Pāṭali town".

HISTORY

There is no mention of Pataliputra
Pataliputra
in written sources prior to the early Buddhist texts (the Pali Canon and Āgamas ), where it appears as the village of Pataligrama and is omitted from a list of major cities in the region. Early Buddhist sources report a city being built in the vicinity of the village towards the end of the Buddha's life; this generally agrees with archaeological evidence showing urban development occurring in the area no earlier than the 3rd or 4th Century BCE. In 303 BCE, Greek historian and ambassador Megasthenes mentioned Pataliputra
Pataliputra
as a city in his work Indika.

The city of Pataliputra
Pataliputra
was formed by fortification of a village by Haryanka ruler Bimbisara
Bimbisara
.

Its central location in north eastern India
India
led rulers of successive dynasties to base their administrative capital here, from the Nandas , Mauryans , Shungas and the Guptas down to the Palas . Situated at the confluence of the Ganges
Ganges
, Gandhaka and Son rivers, Pataliputra
Pataliputra
formed a "water fort, or _jaldurga_". Its position helped it dominate the riverine trade of the Indo-Gangetic plains during Magadha
Magadha
's early imperial period. It was a great centre of trade and commerce and attracted merchants and intellectuals, such as the famed Chanakya , from all over India.

Two important early Buddhist councils are recorded in early Buddhist texts as being held here, the First Buddhist council
First Buddhist council
immediately following the death of the Buddha and the Second Buddhist council in the reign of Ashoka
Ashoka
. Jain and Brahmanical sources identify Udayabhadra , son of Ajatashatru , as the king who first established Pataliputra
Pataliputra
as the capital of Magadha
Magadha
.

CAPITAL OF THE MAURYA EMPIRE

The Pataliputra capital , showing Persian and especially Greek influence , with volute , bead and reel , meander or honeysuckle designs. Early Mauryan period, 3rd century BCE.

During the reign of Emperor Ashoka
Ashoka
in the 3rd century BCE, it was one of the world's largest cities, with a population of 150,000–400,000. The city is estimated to have had a surface of 25.5 square kilometers, and a circumference of 33.8 kilometers, and was in the shape of a parallelogram and had 64 gates (that is, approximately one gate every 500 meters). Pataliputra
Pataliputra
reached the pinnacle of prosperity when it was the capital of the great Mauryan Emperors , Chandragupta Maurya
Chandragupta Maurya
and Ashoka
Ashoka
. The city prospered under the Mauryas and a Greek ambassador, Megasthenes , resided there and left a detailed account of its splendour, referring to it as "Palibothra":

" Megasthenes says that on one side where it is longest this city extends ten miles in length, and that its breadth is one and threequarters miles; that the city has been surrounded with a ditch in breadth 600 feet, and in depth 45 feet; and that its wall has 570 towers and 64 gates." Arrian , "The Indica" Mauryan remains of a wooden palisade discovered at the Bulandi Bagh
Bulandi Bagh
site of Pataliputra. Fa-Hien at the ruins of Ashoka's palace in Pataliputra
Pataliputra
in the 4th century CE (artist impression).

Strabo
Strabo
in his Geographia
Geographia
adds that the city walls were made of wood. These are thought to be the wooden palisades identified during the excavation of Patna.

"At the confluence of the Ganges
Ganges
and of another river is situated Palibothra, in length 80, and in breadth 15 stadia. It is in the shape of a parallelogram, surrounded by a wooden wall pierced with openings through which arrows may be discharged. In front is a ditch, which serves the purpose of defence and of a sewer for the city." Strabo
Strabo
, "Geographia"

Aelian , although not expressly quoting Megasthenes nor mentionning Pataliputra, described Indian palaces as superior in splendor to Persia
Persia
's Susa
Susa
or Ectabana :

"In the royal residences in India
India
where the greatest of the kings of that country live, there are so many objects for admiration that neither Memnon 's city of Susa
Susa
with all its extravagance, nor the magnificence of Ectabana is to be compared with them. (...) In the parks, tame peacocks and pheasants are kept." Aelian , "Characteristics of animals"

Ashoka's Palace in Pataliputra
Pataliputra
and the monument columns everywhere in India
India
were built to imitate the Achaemenid
Achaemenid
palaces and Persepolis columns. The architecture of Pataliputra's enclosures and the monumental columns of Ashoka
Ashoka
had been affected by Persian Achaemenid architecture. The design of the Pataliputra
Pataliputra
palace capital has been described as Perso -Iionic , with a strong late-archaic Greek stylistic influence, including volute , bead and reel , meander or honeysuckle designs.

CAPITAL OF LATER DYNASTIES

The city also became a flourishing Buddhist centre boasting a number of important monasteries. It remained the capital of the Gupta dynasty (3rd–6th centuries) and the Pala Dynasty (8th-12th centuries). The city was largely in ruins when visited by Xuanzang , and suffered further damage at the hands of Muslim raiders in the 12th century. Afterwards, Sher Shah Suri made Pataliputra
Pataliputra
his capital and changed the name to modern Patna
Patna
.

STRUCTURE

An artistic impression of the palisades, gates and city of Pataliputra. Ruins of Pataliputra
Pataliputra
at Kumhrar . Mauryan Hall pillar at the Kumhrar site of Pataliputra.

Though parts of the ancient city have been excavated, much of it still lies buried beneath modern Patna
Patna
. Various locations have been excavated, including Kumhrar , and Bulandi Bagh
Bulandi Bagh
.

During the Mauryan period, the city was described as being shaped as parallelogram, approximately 1.5 miles wide and 9 miles long. Its wooden walls were pierced by 64 gates. Archaeological research has found remaining portions of the wooden palisade over several kilometers, but stone fortifications have not been found.

EXCAVATED SITES OF PATALIPUTRA

* Kumhrar * Bulandi Bagh
Bulandi Bagh
* Agam Kuan * Goalghar * Gurudwara at Gayeghat

GALLERY

*

Pataliputra
Pataliputra
as a capital of the Haryanka dynasty of the Magadha Empire. *

Pataliputra
Pataliputra
as a capital of Maurya
Maurya
Empire . The Maurya
Maurya
Empire at its largest extent under Chandragupta Maurya
Chandragupta Maurya
and Bindusara . *

Pataliputra
Pataliputra
as a capital of Shunga Empire . Approximate greatest extent of the Shunga Empire (c. 185 BCE). *

Pataliputra
Pataliputra
as a capital of Gupta Empire . Approximate greatest extent of the Gupta Empire . *

Pataliputra
Pataliputra
as a capital of Sher Shah 's Empire.

SEE ALSO

* India
India
portal

* Azimabad * Magadh * Names of Patna
Patna
* History of Patna
Patna

REFERENCES

_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to PATALIPUTRA _.

* ^ _A_ _B_ Kulke, Hermann; Rothermund, Dietmar (2004), _A History of India_, 4th edition. Routledge, Pp. xii, 448, ISBN 0-415-32920-5 . * ^ "Patna". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2013. Web. 13 Dec. 2013 . * ^ "Heritage wall for Metro corridor plan". * ^ "A relic of Mauryan era". * ^ Valerie Hansen _Voyages in World History, Volume 1 to 1600, 2e, Volume 1_ pp. 69 Cengage Learning , 2012 * ^ Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary: Pāṭali, (a junior synonym of _ Stereospermum colais_ ) * ^ Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, p.677 * ^ _Folklore_, Vol. 19, No. 3 (30 September 1908), pp. 349–350 * ^ The Calcutta Review Vol LXXVI (1883), p.218 * ^ _Language_, Vol. 4, No. 2 (June , 1928), pp. 101–105 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Sujato, Bhikkhu; Bhikkhu, Brahmali, "1.1.5", _The Authenticity of the Early Buddhist Texts_ (PDF), Oxford Center for Buddhist Studies . * ^ Tripathi, Piyush Kumar (16 July 2015). "Realty to broaden horizon". _The Telegraph_. Calcutta. * ^ Sastri 1988 , p. 11. * ^ Thapar, Romilak (1990), _A History of India, Volume 1_, New Delhi
Delhi
and London: Penguin Books. Pp. 384, ISBN 0-14-013835-8 . * ^ The Pearson Indian History Manual, Pearson Education India, A94. * ^ The Rise of Man in the Gardens of Sumeria: A Biography of L.A. Waddell, Christine Preston, Sussex Academic Press, 2009, p.49 * ^ Fortified Cities of Ancient India: A Comparative Study, Dieter Schlingloff, Anthem Press, 2014, p.49 * ^ Arrian, "The Indica" * ^ Kosmin 2014 , p. 42. * ^ Strabo
Strabo
Geographia
Geographia
Vol 3 Paragraph 36 * ^ Aelian, Characteristics of animals, book XIII, Chapter 18, also quoted in The Cambridge History of India, Volume 1, p411 * ^ The Analysis of Indian Muria Empire affected from Achaemenid’s architecture art. In: Journal of Subcontinent Researches. Article 8, Volume 6, Issue 19, Summer 2014, Page 149-174. * ^ Report on the excavations at Pātaliputra (Patna); the Palibothra of the Greeks by Waddell, L. A. (Laurence Austine) * ^ Scott, David (May 1995). "Buddhism and Islam: Past to Present Encounters and Interfaith Lessons". _Numen_. 42 (2): 141–155. JSTOR 3270172 . doi :10.1163/1568527952598657 . * ^ _Excavation sites in Bihar_, Archaeological Survey of India
Archaeological Survey of India
, retrieved 13 September 2009 .

SOURCES

* Kosmin, Paul J. (2014), _The Land of the Elephant Kings: Space, Territory, and Ideology in Seleucid Empire_, Harvard University Press , ISBN 978-0-674-72882-0 * Sastri, Kallidaikurichi Aiyah Nilakanta , ed. (1988) , _Age of the Nandas and Mauryas_ (Second ed.), Delhi
Delhi
: Motilal Banarsidass , ISBN 81-208-0465-1

FURTHER READING

* Bernstein, Richard (2001). _Ultimate Journey: Retracing the Path of an Ancient Buddhist Monk (Xuanzang) who crossed Asia in Search of Enlightenment_. Alfred A. Knopf, New York. ISBN 0-375-40009-5

* v * t * e

Patna
Patna
topics

Patna
Patna
, Bihar
Bihar
, India
India

HISTORY OF PATNA

* History of Patna
Patna
* Pataliputra * Azimabad * Ajatashatru * Chanakya * Chandragupta Maurya
Chandragupta Maurya
* Ashoka
Ashoka
* Aryabhata
Aryabhata
* Magadha
Magadha
* Mauryan Empire * Haryanka dynasty * Nanda Empire * Nalanda
Nalanda
* Mṛcchakatika * Bankipur Central Jail * Alliance Air Flight 7412 * 2013 Patna
Patna
bombings * 2014 Patna
Patna
stampede * Siege of Arrah

CIVIC

* Government * Legislative Assembly * Patna
Patna
Municipal Corporation * Patna
Patna
Police * Patna
Patna
High Court * Patna
Patna
Regional Development Authority

ECONOMY

* Bihar
Bihar
State Power Holding Company Limited * Magadh Stock Exchange * Patna
Patna
rice

SATELLITE TOWN

* Danapur * Bihta * Fatuha * Punpun

Localities/ neighbourhoods

* Neighbourhoods in Patna
Patna

Buildings and landmarks

* Patna
Patna
Collectorate * Martyrs\' Memorial Patna
Patna
* Patna
Patna
Secretariat * Raj Bhavan * Kargil Chowk * 1 Anne Marg * Sadaqat Ashram * Nagholkothi * Beur Central Jail * Golghar
Golghar
* Maurya
Maurya
Lok * Wheeler Senate Hall * Shri Krishna Memorial Hall * Patna
Patna
International Convention Centre * List of tallest buildings in Patna
Patna

TRANSPORT

AIR

* Lok Nayak Jayaprakash Airport * Bihta Air Force Station

RAIL

* Patna
Patna
Junction * Rajendra Nagar Terminal * Patliputra Junction * Patna
Patna
Saheb * Gulzarbagh Station * Phulwari Sharif railway station * Danapur Station * Fatuha Junction railway station * Patna
Patna
Metro * Patna
Patna
Monorail

ROAD

* Loknayak Ganga Path * Mahatma Gandhi Setu * Digha–Sonpur bridge

HOSPITALS

* PMCH * NMCH * AIIMS * Mahavir Cancer Institute border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">

Universities border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">

* Patna
Patna
University * Aryabhatta Knowledge University * Chanakya National Law University * Nalanda
Nalanda
Open University * Maulana Mazharul Haque Arabic and Persian University * Magadh University * Central University of South Bihar
Bihar
* Indian Institute of Technology Patna
Patna
(IIT-P) * National Institute of Technology, Patna
Patna
(NIT-P) * National Institute of Fashion Technology (NIFT Patna) * All India
India
Institute of Medical Sciences Patna
Patna
* Chandragupt Institute of Management * Patna
Patna
Women\'s College * Patna
Patna
Dental College * Patna
Patna
College * Bihar
Bihar
National College * St. Xavier\'s College, Patna
Patna
* A N College * Birla Institute of Technology, Patna
Patna
* R.P. Sharma Institute of Technology * Rajendra Memorial Research Institute of Medical Sciences * Magadh Mahila College * Maulana Azad College of Engineering and Technology

SCHOOLS

* St. Xavier\'s High School * Don Bosco Academy * St. Michael\'s High School * Loyola High School * Delhi
Delhi
Public School, Patna
Patna
* DAV BSEB

SPORTS COMPLEX

* Moin-ul-Haq Stadium * Patna
Patna
Golf Club * Patliputra Sports Complex

SHOPPING COMPLEX

* Maurya
Maurya
Lok * Pborder-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">

* Patna
Patna
Golf Club * Bankipore Club * Rotary Club * Lions Club

CULTURE

* 350th Prakash Parv * Patliputra Natya Mahotsav * Patna
Patna
Sahib Mahotsav * Bhartiya Nritya Kala Mandir * Kalidas Rangalaya * Premchand Rangshala * Rabindra Parishad * Culture of Magadh Region

PARKS border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">

* Eco Park * Patna
Patna
Zoo * Buddha Smriti Park * Funtasia Water Park * Gandhi Maidan

CONSTITUENCIES

LOK SABHA

* Patna
Patna
Sahib * Pataliputra
Pataliputra

VIDHAN SABHA

* Kumhrar * Digha * Bankipur * Danapur * Patna
Patna
Sahib

OTHER TOPICS

* Patna
Patna
Film Festival * Patna
Patna
Book Fair * People from Patna
Patna
* Tourism in Patna
Patna
* Bihar
Bihar
Regiment * Media in Bihar
Bihar
* Tarumitra * Super 30 * Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Patna
Patna

SEE ALSO

* Rajgir * Bodh Gaya
Bodh Gaya
* Nalanda
Nalanda
University * Rajgir Mahotsav * Sonepur Cattle Fair

* Category
Category
* Portal
Portal
* WikiProject

* v * t * e

Patna division topics

GENERAL

* Azimabad * Battle of Buxar * Kaimur Range * Nalanda
Nalanda
* Pataliputra * Takht Sri Patna
Patna
Sahib * Tourism in Patna
Patna

DISTRICTS

* Bhojpur * Buxar * Kaimur * Nalanda
Nalanda
* Patna
Patna
* Rohtas

RIVERS

* Ganges
Ganges
* Durgavati * Karmanasa * Punpun * Son

DAMS, BARRAGES

* Indrapuri Barrage

TRANSPORT

* NH 2 * NH 30 * NH 31 * NH 82 * NH 83 * NH 84 * NH 110 * Ganga rail–road bridge * Koilwar Bridge * Howrah– Delhi
Delhi
main line * Grand Chord * Gaya–Mughalsarai section * Bakhtiyarpur–Tilaiya line * Mahatma Gandhi Setu * Mokama–Barauni section * Nehru Setu * Jawahar Setu
Jawahar Setu
* Rajendra Setu

RAILWAY STATIONS

* Bakhtiyarpur Junction * Barh * Bhabua Road * Danapur Terminal * Dehri-on-Sone * Fatuha Junction * Gulzarbagh * Hathidah Junction * Harnaut * Khusropur * Mokama Junction * Patliputra Junction * Patna
Patna
Junction * Patna
Patna
Sahib * Rajendra Nagar Terminal * Rajgir

LOK SABHA CONSTITUENCIES

* Arrah * Buxar * Jahanabad * Karakat * Nalanda
Nalanda
* Pataliputra
Pataliputra
* Patna