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Pataliputra
Pataliputra
(IAST: Pāṭaliputra), adjacent to modern-day Patna, was a city in ancient India, originally built by Magadha
Magadha
ruler Udayin in 490 BCE as a small fort (Pāṭaligrāma) near the Ganges
Ganges
river.[1]

Pilgrimage to

Buddha's Holy Sites

The Four Main Sites

Bodh Gaya Kushinagar Lumbini Sarnath

Four Additional Sites

Rajgir Sankassa Shravasti Vaishali

Other Sites

Amaravathi Chandavaram Devadaha

Gaya Kapilavastu Kesaria

Kosambi Nalanda Pataliputra

Pava Varanasi

Later Sites

Ajanta Caves Barabar Caves Bharhut

Ellora Caves Lalitgiri Mathura

Pandavleni Caves Piprahwa Ratnagiri

Sanchi Udayagiri Vikramashila

v t e

It became the capital of major powers in ancient India, such as the Nanda Empire
Nanda Empire
(345-320 BCE), the Maurya Empire
Maurya Empire
(320-180 BCE), and the Gupta Empire
Gupta Empire
(320-550 CE). During the Maurya
Maurya
period (see below), it became one of the largest cities in the world. Extensive archaeological excavations have been made in the vicinity of modern Patna.[2][3] Excavations early in the 20th century around Patna revealed clear evidence of large fortification walls, including reinforcing wooden trusses.[4][5]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Capital of the Maurya
Maurya
Empire 2.2 Capital of later dynasties

3 Structure

3.1 Excavated sites of Pataliputra

4 Gallery 5 See also 6 References 7 Sources 8 Further reading

Etymology[edit] The etymology of Pataliputra
Pataliputra
is unclear. "Putra" means son, and "pāţali" is a species of rice or the plant Bignonia suaveolens.[6] One traditional etymology[7] holds that the city was named after the plant.[8] Another tradition says that Pāṭaliputra means the son of Pāṭali, who was the daughter of Raja Sudarshan.[9] As it was known as Pāṭali-grāma ("Pāṭali village") originally, some scholars believe that Pāṭaliputra is a transformation of Pāṭalipura, "Pāṭali town".[10] History[edit] There is no mention of Pataliputra
Pataliputra
in written sources prior to the early Buddhist texts (the Pali Canon
Pali Canon
and Āgamas), where it appears as the village of Pataligrama and is omitted from a list of major cities in the region.[11] Early Buddhist sources report a city being built in the vicinity of the village towards the end of the Buddha's life; this generally agrees with archaeological evidence showing urban development occurring in the area no earlier than the 3rd or 4th Century BCE.[11] In 303 BCE, Greek historian and ambassador Megasthenes
Megasthenes
mentioned Pataliputra
Pataliputra
as a city in his work Indika.[12] The city of Pataliputra
Pataliputra
was formed by fortification of a village by Haryanka
Haryanka
ruler Ajatashatru, son of Bimbisara.[13] Its central location in north eastern India
India
led rulers of successive dynasties to base their administrative capital here, from the Nandas, Mauryans, Shungas and the Guptas down to the Palas.[14][page needed] Situated at the confluence of the Ganges, Gandhaka and Son rivers, Pataliputra
Pataliputra
formed a "water fort, or jaldurga".[15] Its position helped it dominate the riverine trade of the Indo-Gangetic plains during Magadha's early imperial period. It was a great centre of trade and commerce and attracted merchants and intellectuals, such as the famed Chanakya, from all over India. Two important early Buddhist councils are recorded in early Buddhist texts as being held here, the First Buddhist council
First Buddhist council
immediately following the death of the Buddha and the Second Buddhist council in the reign of Ashoka. Jain and Brahmanical sources identify Udayabhadra, son of Ajatashatru, as the king who first established Pataliputra
Pataliputra
as the capital of Magadha.[11] Capital of the Maurya
Maurya
Empire[edit]

Ruins of pillared hall at Kumrahar site at Pataliputra.

Wooden platforms at Kumrahar site at Pataliputra.

Mauryan remains of a wooden palissade at Bulandi Bagh
Bulandi Bagh
site.

During the reign of Emperor Ashoka
Ashoka
in the 3rd century BCE, it was one of the world's largest cities, with a population of 150,000–400,000.[16] The city is estimated to have had a surface of 25.5 square kilometers, and a circumference of 33.8 kilometers, and was in the shape of a parallelogram and had 64 gates (that is, approximately one gate every 500 meters).[17] Pataliputra
Pataliputra
reached the pinnacle of prosperity when it was the capital of the great Mauryan Emperors, Chandragupta Maurya
Chandragupta Maurya
and Ashoka. The city prospered under the Mauryas and a Greek ambassador, Megasthenes, resided there and left a detailed account of its splendour, referring to it as "Palibothra":

" Megasthenes
Megasthenes
says that on one side where it is longest this city extends ten miles in length, and that its breadth is one and threequarters miles; that the city has been surrounded with a ditch in breadth 600 feet, and in depth 45 feet; and that its wall has 570 towers and 64 gates." Arrian, "The Indica"[18]

Mauryan remains of a wooden palisade discovered at the Bulandi Bagh site of Pataliputra.

Fa-Hien
Fa-Hien
at the ruins of Ashoka's palace in Pataliputra
Pataliputra
in the 4th century CE (artist impression).

Strabo
Strabo
in his Geographia
Geographia
adds that the city walls were made of wood. These are thought to be the wooden palisades identified during the excavation of Patna.[19]

"At the confluence of the Ganges
Ganges
and of another river is situated Palibothra, in length 80, and in breadth 15 stadia. It is in the shape of a parallelogram, surrounded by a wooden wall pierced with openings through which arrows may be discharged. In front is a ditch, which serves the purpose of defence and of a sewer for the city." Strabo, "Geographia"[20]

Aelian, although not expressly quoting Megasthenes
Megasthenes
nor mentionning Pataliputra, described Indian palaces as superior in splendor to Persia's Susa
Susa
or Ectabana:

"In the royal residences in India
India
where the greatest of the kings of that country live, there are so many objects for admiration that neither Memnon's city of Susa
Susa
with all its extravagance, nor the magnificence of Ectabana
Ectabana
is to be compared with them. (...) In the parks, tame peacocks and pheasants are kept." Aelian, "Characteristics of animals"[21]

Under Ashoka, most of wooden structure of Pataliputra
Pataliputra
palace may have been gradually replaced by stone.[22] Ashoka
Ashoka
was known to be a great builder, who may have even imported craftsmen from abroad to build royal monuments.[23] Pataliputra
Pataliputra
palace shows decorative influences of the Achaemenid palaces and Persepolis and may have used the help of foreign craftmen.[24] Which may be the result of the formative influence of craftsmen employed from Persia
Persia
following the disintegration of the Achaemenid Empire after the conquests of Alexander the Great.[25][26] Capital of later dynasties[edit] The city also became a flourishing Buddhist centre boasting a number of important monasteries. It remained the capital of the Gupta dynasty (3rd–6th centuries) and the Pala Dynasty (8th-12th centuries). The city was largely in ruins when visited by Xuanzang, and suffered further damage at the hands of Muslim raiders in the 12th century.[27] Afterwards, Sher Shah Suri
Sher Shah Suri
made Pataliputra
Pataliputra
his capital and changed the name to modern Patna. Structure[edit]

Ruins of Pataliputra
Pataliputra
at Kumhrar.

Mauryan Hall pillar at the Kumhrar
Kumhrar
site of Pataliputra.

Though parts of the ancient city have been excavated, much of it still lies buried beneath modern Patna. Various locations have been excavated, including Kumhrar, and Bulandi Bagh. During the Mauryan period, the city was described as being shaped as parallelogram, approximately 1.5 miles wide and 9 miles long. Its wooden walls were pierced by 64 gates. Archaeological research has found remaining portions of the wooden palisade over several kilometers, but stone fortifications have not been found.[28] Excavated sites of Pataliputra[edit]

Kumhrar Bulandi Bagh Agam Kuan

Gallery[edit]

Pataliputra
Pataliputra
as a capital of the Haryanka dynasty
Haryanka dynasty
of the Magadha Empire.

Pataliputra
Pataliputra
as a capital of Maurya
Maurya
Empire. The Maurya Empire
Maurya Empire
at its largest extent under Chandragupta Maurya
Chandragupta Maurya
and Bindusara.

Pataliputra
Pataliputra
as a capital of Shunga Empire. Approximate greatest extent of the Shunga Empire
Shunga Empire
(c. 185 BCE).

Pataliputra
Pataliputra
as a capital of Gupta Empire. Approximate greatest extent of the Gupta Empire.

Pataliputra
Pataliputra
as a capital of Sher Shah's Empire.

See also[edit]

India
India
portal

Azimabad Magadh Names of Patna History of Patna

References[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pataliputra.

^ Kulke, Hermann; Rothermund, Dietmar (2004), A History of India, 4th edition. Routledge, Pp. xii, 448, ISBN 0-415-32920-5 . ^ "Patna". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2013. Web. 13 Dec. 2013 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/446536/Patna>. ^ "Heritage wall for Metro corridor plan".  ^ "A relic of Mauryan era".  ^ Valerie Hansen
Valerie Hansen
Voyages in World History, Volume 1 to 1600, 2e, Volume 1 pp. 69 Cengage Learning, 2012 ^ Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary: Pāṭali, [1] (a junior synonym of Stereospermum
Stereospermum
colais [2]) ^ Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, p.677 ^ Folklore, Vol. 19, No. 3 (30 September 1908), pp. 349–350 ^ The Calcutta Review Vol LXXVI (1883), p.218 ^ Language, Vol. 4, No. 2 (June , 1928), pp. 101–105 ^ a b c Sujato, Bhikkhu; Bhikkhu, Brahmali, "1.1.5", The Authenticity of the Early Buddhist Texts (PDF), Oxford Center for Buddhist Studies, Archived from the original on 20 November 2017 CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) . ^ Tripathi, Piyush Kumar (16 July 2015). "Realty to broaden horizon". The Telegraph. Calcutta.  ^ Sastri 1988, p. 11. ^ Thapar, Romilak (1990), A History of India, Volume 1, New Delhi
Delhi
and London: Penguin Books. Pp. 384, ISBN 0-14-013835-8 . ^ The Pearson Indian History Manual, Pearson Education India, A94. ^ The Rise of Man in the Gardens of Sumeria: A Biography of L.A. Waddell, Christine Preston, Sussex Academic Press, 2009, p.49 [3] ^ Fortified Cities of Ancient India: A Comparative Study, Dieter Schlingloff, Anthem Press, 2014, p.49 [4] ^ Arrian, "The Indica" Archived 25 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Kosmin 2014, p. 42. ^ Strabo
Strabo
Geographia
Geographia
Vol 3 Paragraph 36 ^ Aelian, Characteristics of animals, book XIII, Chapter 18, also quoted in The Cambridge History of India, Volume 1, p411 ^ Asoka Mookerji Radhakumud, Motilal Banarsidass
Motilal Banarsidass
Publishing, 1995 p.96 [5] ^ Monuments, Power and Poverty in India: From Ashoka
Ashoka
to the Raj, A. S. Bhalla, I.B.Tauris, 2015 p.18 [6] ^ The Analysis of Indian Muria Empire affected from Achaemenid’s architecture art. In: Journal of Subcontinent Researches. Article 8, Volume 6, Issue 19, Summer 2014, Page 149-174. ^ "The Archaeology of South Asia: From the Indus to Asoka, c.6500 BCE-200 CE" Robin Coningham, Ruth Young Cambridge University Press, 31 aout 2015, p.414 [7] ^ Report on the excavations at Pātaliputra (Patna); the Palibothra of the Greeks by Waddell, L. A. (Laurence Austine) ^ Scott, David (May 1995). "Buddhism and Islam: Past to Present Encounters and Interfaith Lessons". Numen. 42 (2): 141–155. doi:10.1163/1568527952598657. JSTOR 32701721.  ^ Excavation sites in Bihar, Archaeological Survey of India, retrieved 13 September 2009 .

Sources[edit]

Kosmin, Paul J. (2014), The Land of the Elephant Kings: Space, Territory, and Ideology in Seleucid Empire, Harvard University Press, ISBN 978-0-674-72882-0  Sastri, Kallidaikurichi Aiyah Nilakanta, ed. (1988) [1967], Age of the Nandas and Mauryas (Second ed.), Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-0465-1 

Further reading[edit]

Bernstein, Richard (2001). Ultimate Journey: Retracing the Path of an Ancient Buddhist Monk (Xuanzang) who crossed Asia in Search of Enlightenment. Alfred A. Knopf, New York. ISBN 0-375-40009-5

v t e

Patna
Patna
topics

Patna, Bihar, India

History of Patna

History of Patna Pataliputra Azimabad Ajatashatru Chanakya Chandragupta Maurya Ashoka Aryabhata Magadha Mauryan Empire Haryanka
Haryanka
dynasty Nanda Empire Nalanda Mṛcchakatika Bankipur Central Jail Alliance Air Flight 7412 2013 Patna
Patna
bombings 2014 Patna
Patna
stampede Siege of Arrah

Civic

Government Legislative Assembly Patna
Patna
Municipal Corporation Patna
Patna
Police Patna
Patna
High Court Patna
Patna
Regional Development Authority

Economy

Bihar
Bihar
State Power Holding Company Limited Magadh
Magadh
Stock Exchange Patna
Patna
rice

Satellite town

Danapur Bihta Fatuha Punpun

Localities/ neighbourhoods

Neighbourhoods in Patna

Buildings and landmarks

Patna
Patna
Collectorate Martyrs' Memorial Patna Patna
Patna
Secretariat Raj Bhavan Kargil Chowk 1 Anne Marg Sadaqat Ashram Nagholkothi Beur Central Jail Golghar Maurya
Maurya
Lok Wheeler Senate Hall Shri Krishna Memorial Hall Patna
Patna
International Convention Centre List of tallest buildings in Patna

Transport

Air

Jay Prakash Narayan International Airport Bihta
Bihta
Air Force Station

Rail

Patna
Patna
Junction Rajendra Nagar Terminal Patliputra Junction Patna
Patna
Saheb Gulzarbagh Station Phulwari Sharif railway station Danapur
Danapur
Station Fatuha
Fatuha
Junction railway station Patna
Patna
Metro Patna
Patna
Monorail

Road

Loknayak Ganga Path Mahatma Gandhi Setu Digha–Sonpur bridge

Hospitals

PMCH NMCH AIIMS Mahavir Cancer Institute & Research Centre Ford Hospital and Research Centre Indira Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences

Education

Universities & Colleges

Patna
Patna
University Aryabhatta Knowledge University Chanakya
Chanakya
National Law University Nalanda
Nalanda
Open University Maulana Mazharul Haque Arabic and Persian University Magadh
Magadh
University Central University of South Bihar Indian Institute of Technology Patna
Patna
(IIT-P) National Institute of Technology, Patna
Patna
(NIT-P) National Institute of Fashion Technology (NIFT Patna) All India
India
Institute of Medical Sciences Patna Chandragupt Institute of Management Patna
Patna
Women's College Patna
Patna
Dental College Patna
Patna
College Bihar
Bihar
National College St. Xavier's College, Patna A N College Birla Institute of Technology, Patna R.P. Sharma Institute of Technology Rajendra Memorial Research Institute of Medical Sciences Magadh
Magadh
Mahila College Maulana Azad College of Engineering and Technology

Schools

St. Xavier's High School Don Bosco Academy St. Michael's High School Loyola High School Delhi
Delhi
Public School, Patna DAV BSEB

Sports complex

Moin-ul-Haq Stadium Patna
Patna
Golf Club Patliputra Sports Complex

Shopping complex

Maurya
Maurya
Lok P&M Mall The Mall City Centre List of shopping malls in Patna

Clubs

Patna
Patna
Golf Club Bankipore Club Rotary Club Lions Club

Culture

350th Prakash Parv Patliputra Natya Mahotsav Patna
Patna
Sahib Mahotsav Bhartiya Nritya Kala Mandir Kalidas Rangalaya Premchand Rangshala Rabindra Parishad Culture of Magadh
Magadh
Region

Parks & grounds

Eco Park Patna
Patna
Zoo Buddha Smriti Park Funtasia Water Park Gandhi Maidan

Constituencies

Lok Sabha

Patna
Patna
Sahib Pataliputra

Vidhan Sabha

Kumhrar Digha Bankipur Danapur Patna
Patna
Sahib

Other topics

Patna
Patna
Film Festival Patna
Patna
Book Fair People from Patna Tourism in Patna Bihar
Bihar
Regiment Media in Bihar Tarumitra Super 30 Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Patna

See also

Rajgir Bodh Gaya Nalanda
Nalanda
University Rajgir
Rajgir
Mahotsav Sonepur Cattle Fair

Category Portal WikiProject

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Patna
Patna
division topics

General

Azimabad Battle of Buxar Kaimur Range Nalanda Pataliputra Takht Sri Patna
Patna
Sahib Tourism in Patna

Districts

Bhojpur Buxar Kaimur Nalanda Patna Rohtas

Rivers

Ganges Durgavati Karmanasa Punpun Son

Dams, barrages

Indrapuri Barrage

Transport

NH 2 NH 30 NH 31 NH 82 NH 83 NH 84 NH 110 Ganga rail–road bridge Koilwar Bridge Howrah– Delhi
Delhi
main line Grand Chord Gaya–Mughalsarai section Bakhtiyarpur–Tilaiya line Mahatma Gandhi Setu Mokama–Barauni section Nehru Setu Jawahar Setu Rajendra Setu

Railway stations

Bakhtiyarpur Junction Barh Bhabua Road Danapur
Danapur
Terminal Dehri-on-Sone Fatuha
Fatuha
Junction Gulzarbagh Hathidah Junction Harnaut Khusropur Mokama Junction Patliputra Junction Patna
Patna
Junction Patna
Patna
Sahib Rajendra Nagar Terminal Rajgir

Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
constituencies

Arrah Buxar Jahanabad Karakat Nalanda Pataliputra Patna
Patna
Sahib Sasaram

See also

People from Patna People fr

.