FILIPPO ANTONIO PASQUALE DI PAOLI FRS (pronounced ; French: Pascal Paoli; 6 April 1725 – 5 February 1807) was a Corsican patriot and leader, the president of the Executive Council of the General Diet of the People of Corsica. Paoli designed and wrote the Constitution of the state.
The Corsican Republic was a representative democracy asserting that the elected Diet of Corsican representatives had no master. Paoli held his office by election and not by appointment. It made him commander-in-chief of the armed forces as well as chief magistrate. Paoli's government claimed the same jurisdiction as the Republic of Genoa . In terms of de facto exercise of power, the Genoese held the coastal cities, which they could defend from their citadels, but the Corsican republic controlled the rest of the island from Corte , its capital.
Following the French conquest of Corsica in 1768, Paoli oversaw the Corsican resistance. Following the defeat of Corsican forces at the Battle of Ponte Novu he was forced into exile in Britain where he was a celebrated figure. He returned after the French Revolution which he was initially supportive of. He later broke with the revolutionaries and helped to create the Anglo-Corsican Kingdom which lasted between 1794 and 1796. After the island was re-occupied by France he again went into exile in Britain where he died in 1807.
* 1 Biography
* 1.1 Early years * 1.2 President of the Corsican Republic * 1.3 French invasion * 1.4 First exile * 1.5 President of the department of Corsica * 1.6 President of the British protectorate * 1.7 Second exile
Paoli was born in the hamlet of Stretta,
In the rebellion of 1729 over a new tax, the Genovese withdrew into
their citadels and sent for foreign interventions, first from Austria
and then from France. Defeated by professional troops the Corsicans
ceded violence but kept their organisation. After surrendering to the
French in 1739 Giacinto Paoli went into exile in
Corsica was subsequently distracted by the War of the Austrian
Succession during which troops of a number of countries temporarily
occupied the cities of Corsica. In
Corsican exiles in Italy were seeking assistance for the revolution, including a skilled general. In 1736 the exiles of Genoa had discovered Theodor von Neuhoff , a soldier of fortune whom they were willing to make king, but he was unsuccessful and in 1754 languished in debtors' prison in London. The young Pasquale became of interest when in opposition to a plan to ask the Knights of Malta to assume command he devised a plan for a native Corsican government. In that year Giacinto decided that Pasquale was ready to supplant Theodore and wrote to Vincente recommending that a general election be held. The subsequent popular election called by Vincente at Caccia made Pasquale General-in-Chief of Corsica, commander of all resistance.
Corsica at that time was still under the influence of feuding clans, as a result of which only the highland clans had voted in the election. The lowlanders now held an election of their own and elected Mario Matra as commander, who promptly attacked the supporters of Paoli. Moreover, Matra called on the Genovese for assistance, dragging Paoli into a conflict with them. Matra was killed shortly in battle and his support among the Corsicans collapsed.
Paoli's next task was to confine the Genovese to their citadels. His second was to design a constitution which when ratified by the population in 1755 set up a new republic, a representative democracy. Its first election made Paoli president, supplanting his former position.
From a book by Edward Joy Morris , published 1855 *
Oil by Sir
PRESIDENT OF THE CORSICAN REPUBLIC
In November 1755, the people of Corsica ratified a constitution that proclaimed Corsica a sovereign nation, independent from the Republic of Genoa. This was the first constitution written under Enlightenment principles. The new president and author of the constitution occupied himself with building a modern state; for example, he founded a university at Corte .
Main article: French Conquest of Corsica
Seeing that they had in effect lost control of Corsica, Genoa responded by selling Corsica to the French by secret treaty in 1764 and allowing Genovese troops to be replaced quietly by French ones. When all was ready in 1768 the French made a public announcement of the union of Corsica with France and proceeded to the reconquest. Paoli fought a guerilla war from the mountains but in 1769 he was defeated in the Battle of Ponte Novu by vastly superior forces and took refuge in England. Corsica officially became a French province in 1770.
'A literary party at Sir Joshua Reynolds's'. Use a cursor to see who is who.
In London, Paoli attracted the attention of the Johnsonian circle almost immediately for which his expansive personality made him a natural fit. By the time Paoli entered the scene it had in part taken the form of The Club of mainly successful men of a liberal frame of mind. Such behaviour as Paoli showing his bullet-ridden coat to all visitors and then demanding a gratuity for the observation were amusing to the group, which had begun when its members were starting their careers and according to its chronicler James Boswell were themselves needy.
Paoli's memoirs were recorded by Boswell in his book, An Account of Corsica .
After a series of interviews with King
PRESIDENT OF THE DEPARTMENT OF CORSICA
By the time of the
French revolution the name of Paoli had become
something of an idol of liberty and democracy. In 1790 the
revolutionary National Assembly in Paris passed a decree incorporating
Corsica into France, essentially duplicating the work of 1780 but
under a new authority. It granted amnesty to exiles, on which Paoli
embarked immediately for Corsica. He arrived in time for the election
of departmental officers at Orezza, ran for President, and was elected
Napoleon, on leave from his artillery regiment, returned to the regiment at Auxonne , where he was working on a history of Corsica. Writing to Paoli he asked his opinion on some of it and for historical documents. The differences between the two men became apparent. Paoli thought the history amateurish and too impassioned and refused the documents; Napoleon at this point had no idea of Paoli's regal connections in Britain or moderate, even sympathetic, sentiments about royalty.
PRESIDENT OF THE BRITISH PROTECTORATE
Main article: Anglo-Corsican Kingdom
Paoli split from the
French Revolution over the issue of the
execution of the king and threw in his lot with the royalist party. He
did not make these views generally known, but when the revolutionary
government ordered him to take
He had however also sent
Napoleon perceived the situation during the first confrontation with his commander and assumed de facto command but the attack failed and he barely escaped. Enraged, after having been a strong supporter and admirer of Paoli, he and the entire Bonaparte family denounced Paoli as a traitor before the French National Convention . Arrest warrants were issued and sent to Corsica along with a force intended to take the citadels from the royalists, who had supplanted the Genovese after the sale of Corsica. Combining together the Paolists and royalists defeated the Bonapartes and drove them from the island.
Paoli then summoned a consulta (assembly) at Corte in 1793, with
himself as president and formally seceded from France. He requested
the protection of the British government, then at war with
revolutionary France. In 1794 British sent a fleet under Admiral
Samuel Hood . This fleet had just been ejected from the French port of
For a short time,
Corsica was a protectorate of King
Paoli set sail for England in October 1795, where he lived out his final years. Pascale Paoli died on 5 February 1807 and was buried in Old St. Pancras Churchyard in London. His name is listed on the 1879 Burdett-Coutts Memorial amongst the important graves lost.
Pasquale never married and as far as is known had no heirs.
Information about his intimate life is mainly lacking; however, it is
believed he had an affair with
Maria Cosway . However, Robert Harvey
claims he was homosexual, when discussing how
PASQUALE PAOLI AND ITALIAN IRREDENTISM
Italian irredentism was a political or historical
There is no question, however, that Paoli was sympathetic to Italian
culture and regarded his own native language as an Italian dialect
(Corsican is an
Italic language closely related to Tuscan , Sicilian
and, to some extent,
Sardinian language ). He was considered by
Niccolò Tommaseo , who collected his Lettere (Letters), as one of the
precursors of the
Italian irredentism . The "Babbu di a Patria"
(Father of the fatherland), as was nicknamed
We are Corsicans by birth and sentiment, but first of all we feel Italian by language, origins, customs, traditions; and Italians are all brothers and united in the face of history and in the face of God ... As Corsicans we wish to be neither slaves nor "rebels" and as Italians we have the right to deal as equals with the other Italian brothers ... Either we shall be free or we shall be nothing... Either we shall win or we shall die (against the French), weapons in hand ... The war against France is right and holy as the name of God is holy and right, and here on our mountains will appear for Italy the sun of liberty....
("Siamo còrsi per nascita e sentimento ma prima di tutto ci sentiamo italiani per lingua, origini, costumi, tradizioni e gli italiani sono tutti fratelli e solidali di fronte alla storia e di fronte a Dio… Come còrsi non-vogliamo essere né schiavi né "ribelli" e come italiani abbiamo il diritto di trattare da pari con gli altri fratelli d'Italia… O saremo liberi o non-saremo niente… O vinceremo con l'onore o soccomberemo (contro i francesi) con le armi in mano... La guerra con la Francia è giusta e santa come santo e giusto è il nome di Dio, e qui sui nostri monti spunterà per l'Italia il sole della libertà…")
PAOLI COMMEMORATED IN THE UNITED STATES
The American Sons of Liberty movement were inspired by Paoli. Ebenezer McIntosh , a leader of the Sons of Liberty, named his son Paschal Paoli McIntosh in honour of him. In 1768, the editor of the New York Journal described Paoli as "the greatest man on earth". Several places in the United States are named after him. These include:
* Paoli, Pennsylvania , which was named after "General Paoli's Tavern" a meeting-point of the Sons of Liberty and homage to the "General of the Corsicans". * Paoli, Indiana * Paoli, Wisconsin * Paoli, Oklahoma * Paoli, Colorado
* Corsica portal
* ^ A B Gregorovius, Ferdinand (1855). Corsica: Picturesque, Historical, and Social: with a Sketch of the Early Life of Napoleon and an account of the Bonaparte, Paoli, Pozzo di Borgo, and other principal families. Edward Joy Morris (trans.). Parry & M'Millan. pp. 273–275. * ^ Lear, Edward (1870). Journal of a Landscape Painter in Corsica. London: Robert John Bush. p. 260. Downloadable Google Books. * ^ Boyle, Edward (1977). Biographical Essays, 1790–1890. Ayer Publishing. Chapter 5, Pasquale Paoli. ISBN 0-8369-0237-8 . * ^ Nabulsi, Karma (1999). Traditions of War: Occupation, Resistance, and the Law. Oxford University press. pp. 205–206. ISBN 0-19-829407-7 . * ^ Williams, Nicola; Oliver Berry; Steve Fallon; Catherine Le Nevez (2007). France. Lonely Planet. p. 942. ISBN 1-74104-233-X . * ^ Baring-Gould, Sabine (2006). The Life of Napoleon Bonaparte. Adamant Media Corporation. p. 4. ISBN 0-543-95815-9 . * ^ \'A literary party at Sir Joshua Reynolds\'s, D. George Thompson, published by Owen Bailey, after James William Edmund Doyle, published 1 October 1851 * ^ Boswell, James (1768). An account of Corsica, the journal of a tour to that island, and memoirs of Pascal Paoli (1769). London: E. and C. Dilly. * ^ Baring-Gould, page 38. * ^ Baring-Gould, page 40. * ^ "La Maddalena, 22/25 February 1793". Military Subjects: Battles & Campaigns. The Napoleon Series. 1995–2004. Retrieved 29 May 2008. * ^ "The removal of the mortal remains of PASCAL PAOLI from this country to Corsica took place on Saturday, in accordance with the expressed desire of the famous patriot's countrymen". The Morning Post. London. 2 September 1889. p. 4. access-date= requires url= (help ) * ^ The War of Wars, Robert Harvey, Constable and Robinson Ltd, 2006, pp. 59 * ^ N. Tommaseo. "Lettere di Pasquale de Paoli" (in Archivio storico italiano, 1st series, vol. XI).
* This article incorporates text from a publication now in the
public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Paoli, Pasquale".
Encyclopædia Britannica . 20 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
James Boswell 's Account of
Corsica and Memoirs of P Paoli (1768)
* N Tommaseo, "Lettere di Pasquale de Paoli" (in Archivio storico
italiano, 1st series, vol. xi.), and Della Corsica, etc. (ibid., nuova
serie, vol. xi., parte ii.);
* Pompei, De L'état de la Corse (Paris, 1821); Giovanni Livi,
Lettere inedite di