Pashtūnistān (Pashto: پښتونستان; also called
Pakhtūnistān, or Pathānistān, meaning the "land of
Pashtuns") is the geographic region inhabited by the indigenous
Pashtun people of modern-day
Afghanistan and Pakistan, wherein Pashtun
culture, language, and national identity have been based.
Alternative names historically used for the region include
"Pashtūnkhwā" and "Afghānistān", since at least the 3rd century CE
Pashtunistan borders Punjab to the east, Persian
and Turkic speaking regions to the west and north,
Kashmir to the
Balochistan to the south.
For administrative division in 1893,
Mortimer Durand drew the Durand
Line to divide Pashtunistan, fixing the limits of the spheres of
influence between King
Abdur Rahman Khan
Abdur Rahman Khan and British India. This
porous line that runs through the centre of the Pashtun region forms
the modern border between
Afghanistan and Pakistan. Roughly, the
Pashtun homeland stretches from areas south of the Amu River in
Afghanistan to west of the
Indus River in Pakistan, mainly consisting
of southwestern, eastern and some northern districts of Afghanistan,
and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, the
Federally Administered Tribal Areas
Federally Administered Tribal Areas and
Balochistan in Pakistan.
Part of a series on
The two Pashtun warrior-poets,
Pir Roshan (Pir Bayazid Khan) and
Khushal Khattak, assembled Pashtun armies to fight against the Mughal
Empire in the 16th and 17th centuries, respectively. In those times,
the eastern parts of
Pashtunistan were ruled by the Mughals, while the
western parts were ruled by the Persian Safavids. The Pashtun region
first gained an autonomous status in 1709 when Mirwais Hotak
successfully revolted against the
Safavids in Loy Kandahar. The
Pashtuns again achieved unity under the leadership of Ahmad Shah
Durrani, founder of the Durrani dynasty, when he established the
Afghan Empire in 1747. In the 19th century, however, the Afghan Empire
lost large parts of its eastern territory to the
Sikh and British
Empires. Famous Pashtun independence activists against the rule of the
British Raj include Bacha Khan, Abdul Samad Khan Achakzai, and Mirzali
Khan (Faqir of Ipi). After the creation of
Pakistan in 1947, Mirzali
Khan and his followers refused to recognize Pakistan, and continued
their war from their base at Gurwek, Waziristan, against the new
1 Origin of term
2 The native people
Delhi Sultanate and the last Afghan Empire
3.2 European influence
3.3 Bannu Resolution
3.4 Independence of
Pakistan in 1947
4 21st century
4.1 Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
6 See also
8 Further reading
Origin of term
An Afghan postage stamp mentioning Pashtunistan.
Further information: Name of Afghanistan, Afghan (ethnonym), Names of
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, and Name of Pakistan
The name used for the region during the middle ages and up until the
20th century was Afghanistan.
Afghanistan is a reference to this land
by its ethnicity, which were the Afghans, while
Pashtunistan is a
reference to this land by its language. Mention of this land by the
Afghanistan predates mention by the name of Pashtunistan,
which has been mentioned by
Ahmad Shah Durrani
Ahmad Shah Durrani in his famous couplet,
by 6th-century Indian astronomer Varahamihira, 7th-century Chinese
pilgrim Hiven Tsiang, 14th-century Moroccan scholar Ibn Battuta,
Mughal Emperor Babur, 16th-century historian
Firishta and many others.
The men of Kábul and Khilj also went home; and whenever they were
questioned about the Musulmáns of the Kohistán (the mountains), and
how matters stood there, they said, "Don't call it Kohistán, but
Afghánistán; for there is nothing there but Afgháns and
disturbances." Thus it is clear that for this reason the people of the
country call their home in their own language Afghánistán, and
themselves Afgháns. But it occurs to me, that when, under the rule of
Muhammadan sovereigns, Musulmáns first came to the city of Patná,
and dwelt there, the people of India (for that reason) called them
Patáns—but God knows!
— Ferishta, 1560–1620
Pashto name Pakhtunistan or
پښتونستان (Naskh)) evolved originally from the Indian word
"Pathanistan" (Hindustani: پٹھانستان (Nastaleeq),
पठानिस्तान (Devanagari)). The concept
Pashtunistan was inspired by the term "Pakhtunkhwa". British
Indian leaders, including the Khudai Khidmatgar, started using the
word "Pathanistan" to refer to the region, and later, the word
"Pashtunistan" became more popular.
The native people
Pashtun people and Pashtun tribes
Pashtun children, indigenous to the
The native or indigenous people of
Pashtunistan are the
known as Pakhtuns, Pathans and historically as ethnic Afghans). They
are the largest ethnic group in
Afghanistan and the second largest in
Pashtuns are concentrated mainly in the south and east
Afghanistan but also exist in northern and western parts of the
country as a minority group. In
Pakistan they are concentrated in the
west and northwest, inhabiting mainly Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, the
Federally Administered Tribal Areas
Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA), and northern Balochistan.
In addition, communities of
Pashtuns are found in other parts of
Pakistan such as Sindh, Punjab,
Gilgit-Baltistan and in the nation's
capital, Islamabad. The main language spoken in the delineated
Pashtunistan region is
Pashto followed by others such as Balochi,
Hindko, Gojri, and Urdu.
Pashtuns practice Pashtunwali, the indigenous culture of the
Pashtuns, and this pre-Islamic identity remains significant for many
Pashtuns and is one of the factors that have kept the Pashtunistan
issue alive. Although the
Pashtuns are politically separated by the
Durand Line between
Pakistan and Afghanistan, many
Pashtun tribes from
the FATA area and the adjacent regions of Afghanistan, tend to ignore
the border and cross back and forth with relative ease to attend
weddings, family functions and take part in the joint tribal councils
known as jirgas. Though this was common before the war on terror
but after several military operations conducted in FATA, this cross
border movement is checked via military and has become very less in
comparison to the past.
Depending on the source, the ethnic
Pashtuns constitute 42-60% of the
population of Afghanistan. In neighboring
Pakistan they constitute 15.42 percent of the 190 million population,
which includes the Hindkowans. In the
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province
Pashto speakers constitute above 73 percent of the
population as of 1998.
Further information: History of
Afghanistan and History of Pakistan
The area during 500 B.C. was recorded as
Arachosia and inhabited by a
people called the Pactyans.
Since the 2nd millennium BC, the region now inhabited by the native
Pashtun people had been conquered by Ancient Iranian peoples, the
Medes, Achaemenids, Greeks, Mauryas, Kushans, Hephthalites, Sasanians,
Arab Muslims, Turks, Mughals, and others. In recent age, people of the
Western world have nominally explored the area.
Arab Muslims arrived in the 7th century and began introducing
the native Pashtun people, some of the Arabs settled in the Sulaiman
Mountains and slowly became Pashtunized over time. The Pashtunistan
area later fell to the Turkish
Ghaznavids whose main capital was at
Lahore serving as the second power house. The Ghaznavid
Empire was then taken over by the Ghorids from today's Ghor,
Afghanistan. The army of
Genghis Khan arrived in the 13th century and
began destroying Persian-speaking cities in the north while the
Pashtun territory was defended by the
Khalji dynasty of Delhi. In the
14th and 15th century, the
Timurid dynasty was in control of the
nearby cities and towns, until
Kabul in 1504.
Delhi Sultanate and the last Afghan Empire
Delhi Sultanate and Durrani Empire
Ahmad Shah Durrani
Ahmad Shah Durrani in 1747 by a 20th-century Afghan
artist, Abdul Ghafoor Breshna.
Delhi Sultanate era, the region was ruled by Turko
Afghan dynasties from Delhi, India. An early Pashtun
nationalist was the "Warrior-poet" Khushal Khan Khattak, who was
imprisoned by the Mughal emperor
Aurangzeb for trying to incite the
Pashtuns to rebel against the rule of the Mughals. However, despite
sharing a common language and believing in a common ancestry, the
Pashtuns first achieved unity in the 18th century. The eastern parts
Pashtunistan was ruled by the Mughal Empire, while the western
parts were ruled by the Persian
Safavids as their easternmost
provinces. During the early 18th century,
Pashtun tribes led by
Mirwais Hotak successfully revolted against the
Safavids in the city
of Kandahar. In a chain of events, he declared
Kandahar and other
parts of what is now southern
Afghanistan independent. By 1738 the
Mughal Empire had been crushingly defeated and their capital sacked
and looted by forces of a new Iranian ruler; the military genius and
commander Nader Shah. Besides Persian, Turkmen, and Caucasian forces,
Nader was also accompanied by the young Ahmad Shah Durrani, and 4,000
well trained Pashtun troops from what is now
After the death of
Nader Shah in 1747 and the disintegration of his
Ahmad Shah Durrani
Ahmad Shah Durrani created his own large and powerful
Durrani Empire, which included Pashtunistan, and most of nowadays
Pakistan, among other regions. The famous couplet by Ahmad Shah
Durrani describes the association the people have with the regional
city of Kandahar:
"Da Dili takht herauma cheh rayad kam zama da khkule Pukhtunkhwa da
ghre saroona". Translation: "I forget the throne of
Delhi when I
recall the mountain peaks of my beautiful Pukhtunkhwa."
The last Afghan Empire was established in 1747 and united all the
Pashtun tribes as well as many other ethnic groups. Parts of
Pashtunistan region around
Peshawar was invaded by Ranjit Singh
Sikh army in the early part of the 19th century, but a few
years later they were defeated by the British Raj, the new powerful
empire which reached the
Pashtunistan region from the east.
Further information: European influence in
Afghanistan and British Raj
Following the decline of the
Durrani dynasty and the establishment of
Barakzai dynasty in Afghanistan, the Pashtun domains began to
shrink as they lost control over other parts of South Asia to the
British, such the
Punjab region and the
Balochistan region. The
Anglo-Afghan Wars were fought as part of the overall imperialistic
Great Game that was waged between the
Russian Empire and the British.
Poor and landlocked, newly born
Afghanistan was able to defend its
territory and keep both sides at bay by using them against each other.
In 1893, as part of a way for fixing the limit of their respective
spheres of influence, the
Durand Line Agreement was signed between
Amir Abdur Rahman
Amir Abdur Rahman and British Viceroy Mortimer Durand.
In 1905, the North-West Frontier Province (today's Khyber
Paskhtunkhwa) was created and roughly corresponded to Pashtun majority
regions within the British domain. The FATA area was created to
further placate the Pashtun tribesmen who never fully accepted British
rule and were prone to rebellions, while the city of
directly administered as part of a British protectorate state with
full integration into the federal rule of law with the establishment
of civic amenities and the construction of railway, road
infrastructure as well as educational institutes to bring the region
at par with the developed world.
During World War I, the Afghan government was contacted by the Ottoman
Turkey and Germany, through the Niedermayer-Hentig Mission, to join
the Central Allies on behalf of the
Caliph in a Jihad; some
revolutionaries, tribals, and Afghan leaders including a brother of
the Amir named Nasrullah Khan were in favour of the delegation and
wanted the Amir to declare Jihad. Kazim Bey carried a firman from the
Khalifa in Persian. It was addressed to "the residents of
Pathanistan." It said that when the British were defeated, "His
Majesty the Khalifa, in agreement with allied States, will acquire
guarantee for independence of the united state of
Pathanistan and will
provide every kind of assistance to it. Thereafter, I will not allow
any interference in the country of Pathanistan." (Ahmad Chagharzai;
1989; pp. 138–139). However the efforts failed and the Afghan
Habibullah Khan maintained Afghanistan's neutrality throughout
World War I (for more information see).
Similarly, during the 1942 Cripps mission, and 1946 Cabinet Mission to
India, the Afghan government made repeated attempts to ensure that any
debate about the independence of India must include Afghanistan's role
in the future of the NWFP. The British government wavered between
reassuring the Afghan to the rejection of their role and insistence
that NWFP was an integral part of British India.
Khudai Khidmatgar were a non-violent group, and Ghaffar Khan
claimed to have been inspired by Mahatma Gandhi. While the Red Shirts
were willing to work with the
Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress from a
political point of view, the
Pashtuns as a people desired independence
Main article: Bannu Resolution
In June 1947,
Mirzali Khan (Faqir of Ipi), Bacha Khan, and other
Khudai Khidmatgars declared the Bannu Resolution, demanding that the
Pashtuns be given a choice to have an independent state of
Pashtunistan composing all Pashtun majority territories of British
India, instead of being made to join the new state of Pakistan.
British Raj refused to comply with the demand of this
Pakistan in 1947
Pakistan Movement and Afghanistan–Pakistan
Ayub Khan, President of
Pakistan from 1958 to 1969, belonged to the
Tareen tribe of Abbottabad.
The concept of
Pashtunistan has varying meanings across
Afghanistan. In Afghanistan, Pashtun nationalists look after the
interests of the Pashtun ethnic group and have support only from
them. They favor the ideas of Lōy Afghānistān or "Greater
Afghanistan", and maintain an irredentist claim on the entire
Pashtun-populated region. The
Pashtunistan demand also served
the cause of domestic Afghan politics, where several successive
governments used the idea to strengthen "Pashtun ethnic support" for
the state. This policy intensified ethno-linguistic rivalry between
Pashtuns and non-
Pashtuns in the country. These claims are
contested in Pakistan, where Pashtun politics centres on political
autonomy rather than irredentist politics.
Since the late 1940s with the dissolution of British India and
independence of Pakistan, some rigid Pashtun nationalists proposed
Afghanistan or creating
Pashtunistan as a future
sovereign state for the local Pashtun inhabitanits of the area. At
Afghanistan became the only government to oppose the entry of
Pakistan into the
United Nations in 1947, although it was reversed a
few months later. On July 26, 1949, when Afghanistan–Pakistan
relations were rapidly deteriorating, a loya jirga was held in
Afghanistan after a military aircraft from the
Pakistan Air Force
bombed a village on the Afghan side of the Durand Line. As a result of
this violation, the Afghan government declared that it recognized
"neither the imaginary Durand nor any similar line" and that all
Durand Line agreements were void. During the 1950s to the
Pashtuns were promoted to higher positions within the
Pakistani government and military, thereby integrating
the Pakistani state and severely weakening secessionist sentiments to
the point that by the mid-1960s, popular support for an independent
Pashtunistan had all but disappeared.
An important development in
Pakistan during the Ayub period
(1958–1969) was the gradual integration into Pakistani society and
the military-bureaucratic establishment. It was a period of Pakistan's
political history which saw a large number of ethnic
high positions in the military and the bureaucracy. Ayub himself was a
Pashto speaking ethnic Pashtun belonging to the Tarin sub-tribe of
the Hazara district in the Frontier. The growing participation of
Pashtuns in the Pakistani Government resulted in the erosion of the
support for the
Pashtunistan movement in the Province by the end of
— Rizwan Hussain, 2005
Afghanistan and Pashtun nationalists did not exploit Pakistan's
vulnerability during the nation's 1965 and 1971 wars with India, and
Pakistan against a largely Hindu India. Further, had
Pakistan been destabilised by India, nationalists would have had to
fight against a much bigger country than
Pakistan for their
In the 1970s, the roles of
Afghanistan reversed, despite
the fresh crackdown on Baloch and Pashtun nationalists by the
government of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. Meanwhile, the new republican
Afghan president, Mohammed Daoud Khan, was a Pashtun nationalist, and
tensions between the two countries over the
Pashtunistan issue almost
led to conflict. The
Pakistan government decided to retaliate
against the Afghan government's
Pashtunistan policy by supporting
Islamist opponents of the Afghan government including future Mujahidin
Gulbuddin Hekmatyar and Ahmad Shah Massoud. This operation
was remarkably successful, and by 1977 the Afghan government of Daoud
Khan was willing to settle all outstanding issues in exchange for a
lifting of the ban on the
National Awami Party
National Awami Party and a commitment
towards provincial autonomy for Pashtuns, which was already guaranteed
by Pakistan's Constitution, but stripped by the Bhutto government when
One Unit scheme was introduced.[clarification needed]
Swat District in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
A village in
Kunar Province of Afghanistan
Nangarhar Province, Afghanistan
Pashtunistan issue is rarely mentioned anymore as a point of
disagreement between Afghan and
Pakistan officials – a far cry from
the 1950s and 1960s when the issue was considered contentious. There
are several arguments from the governments of
Afghanistan and Pakistan
Pashtunistan issue. These arguments sometimes overlap
but can be distinctively defined. The British influence in the
Pakistan was most prominent during the late
19th century and early portion of the 20th century, when the British
sought to reestablish efforts at colonization during Britain's
imperial century. This British experiment was known as The Great Game,
and was a subversive attempt at establishing
Afghanistan as a buffer
zone between British-India and the Tsardom of Russia. By seeking to
accord certain terrain international legitimacy based upon British
failures to assert control over the fiercely independent
tribes in the region, the establishment of a border that would
separate British interests from tribal interests was extremely
important to British foreign policy.
The British demarcation established as a result by the
Durand Line was
a deliberate strategy designed to divide the Pashtun territory along
the border region of
Afghanistan and Pakistan. The overall effect of
the division was to alienate the
Pashtun tribes from their neighbors
as part of the British divide and conquer strategy, or divide and
rule. This strategy had the ultimate effect of fostering
anti-colonialist sentiment in the tribal regions, and
Pashtuns as a
result had a deep desire for independence and freedom from British
Pakistan make up the second largest ethnic group after
Punjabis with about 16% of the population, totaling over 30 million.
This figure only includes the native
Pashto speaking inhabitants of
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Northern Balochistan, and does not include the
Pathans settled in Punjab and
Sindh who make up significant numbers
alongside the native communities of these two provinces. In
addition, there are 1.7 million Afghan refugees of whom majority are
Pashtuns. These refugees, however, are expected to leave
Afghanistan in the coming years. Three Pakistani presidents
belonged to the Pashtun ethnic group.
Pashtuns continue to occupy some
important places in the military and politics, with the major
Awami National Party
Awami National Party led by Asfandyar Wali. In
addition to this, some Pashtun media, music and cultural activities
are based out of Pakistan, with
AVT Khyber being the only
channel in Pakistan.
Pashto cinema is based out of the Pakistani city
of Peshawar. The Pakistani city of
Karachi is believed to host the
largest concentration of Pashtuns.
There are more than 12 million
Pashtuns in Afghanistan, constituting
42% of the population. Other sources say that up to 60% of
Afghanistan's population is made up of ethnic Pashtuns, forming the
largest ethnic group in that country.
Pashto is the first official
language of Afghanistan, the
Afghan National Anthem
Afghan National Anthem is recited in
Pashto language and the
Pashtun dress is the national dress of
Afghanistan. Since the late 19th century, the traditional Pashtunistan
region has gradually expanded to the Amu River in the north. Majority
of the key government positions in
Afghanistan have always been held
by Pashtuns. In addition, many of the non-Pashtun groups in
Afghanistan have adopted the
Pashtun culture and use
Pashto as a
second language. For example, nearly all leaders of non-Pashtun ethnic
Pashtunwali to some degree and are
Pashto language. This includes non-Pashtun leaders such as
Ahmad Shah Massoud, Ahmad Zia Massoud, Ismail Khan, Mohammed Fahim,
Bismillah Khan Mohammadi, Atta Muhammad Nur, Abdul Ali Mazari, Karim
Khalili, Husn Banu Ghazanfar, Muhammad Yunus Nawandish, Abdul Karim
Jamaluddin Badr as well as most other ministers, governors and
Afghanistan makes its claim on the Pashtun areas on the ground that it
served as the Pashtun seat of power since 1709 with the rise of the
Hotaki dynasty followed by the establishment of the Durrani Afghan
Empire. According to historic sources, Afghan tribes did not appear in
Peshawar valley until after 800 AD, when the
Islamic conquest of this
area took place.
Agreements cited by the Afghan government as proof of their claim over
Pashtun tribes include Article 11 of the Anglo-Afghan Treaty of
1921, which states: "The two contracting parties, being mutually
satisfied themselves each regarding the goodwill of the other and
especially regarding their benevolent intentions towards the tribes
residing close to their respective boundaries, hereby undertake to
inform each other of any future military operations which may appear
necessary for the maintenance of order among the frontier tribes
residing within their respective spheres before the commencement of
such operations." A supplementary letter to the Anglo-Afghan
Treaty of 1921 reads: "As the conditions of the Frontier tribes of the
two governments are of interest to the Government of Afghanistan. I
inform you that the British government entertains feelings of goodwill
towards all the Frontier tribes and has every intention of treating
them generously, provided they abstain from outrages against the
people of India."
Durand Line and
Pashtunistan issues have been raised by different
Afghan regimes in the past. However, it may no longer be a concern.
Pashtuns are now so well integrated in Pakistani society that the
majority will never opt for
Pashtunistan or Afghanistan.
Afghan-Pashtun refugees have been staying in
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa for
more than 30 years. Threat perceptions about
re-evaluation so that suitable changes are made in our Afghan
— Asad Munir, Retired brigadier who has served in senior
intelligence postings in Khyber-
Pakhtunkhwa and FATA
Main article: Names of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa
Prominent 20th century proponents of the
Pashtunistan cause have
Khan Abdul Wali Khan
Khan Abdul Wali Khan and Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan. Ghaffar
Khan stated in the
Pakistan Constituent Assembly in 1948 that he
simply wanted "the renaming of his province as Pakhtunistan. Like
Sindh, Punjab, etc." Another name mentioned is Afghania where the
initial "A" in
Choudhary Rahmat Ali
Choudhary Rahmat Ali Khan's theory stated in the "Now
or Never" pamphlet stands for the second letter in "Pakistan".
However, this name has failed to capture political support in the
There was support, however, to rename North-West Frontier Province
Pakhtunkhwa (which translates as "area of Pashtuns"). Nasim
Wali Khan (the wife of Khan Abdul Wali Khan) declared in an interview:
"I want an identity.. I want the name to change so that Pathans may be
identified on the map of Pakistan..."
On 31 March 2010, Pakistan's Constitutional Reform Committee agreed
that the province be named to Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa. This is now
the official name for the former NWFP.
Images of the
Asadabad, capital of
Kunar Province in Afghanistan
Pech River Valley
Watapur District of Kunar Province
Branches of the
Kunar River meet in Nangarhar Province
Kabul River in Jalalabad, Afghanistan
Khyber Pass in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
Khost University in Khost, Afghanistan
Ghazni Province, Afghanistan
Afghan Border Police
Afghan Border Police (ABP) in Paktika Province
Kuchi people in
Paktia Province of Afghanistan
Hanna Lake in Quetta, Pakistan
Dahla Dam in
Helmand Province, Afghanistan
Kajaki Dam in Helmand Province
Awami National Party
Pashtunkhwa Milli Awami Party
Afghan Millat Party
^ a b "
Pakistan population: 187,342,721 [Pashtun (Pathan) 15.42%]".
The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). 2011. Retrieved
Afghanistan population: 30,419,928 (July 2012 est.) [Pashtun 42%] =
12,776,369". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
Retrieved 20 September 2010.
^ Lewis, Paul M. (2009). "Pashto, Northern". SIL International.
Dallas, Texas: Ethnologue:
Languages of the World, Sixteenth edition.
Retrieved 18 September 2010. Ethnic population: 49,529,000 possibly
Pashto in all countries.
^ a b Students' Britannica India. 1–5. Encyclopædia Britannica.
2000. ISBN 9780852297605. Ghaffar Khan, who opposed the
partition, chose to live in Pakistan, where he continued to fight for
the rights of the Pashtun minority and for an autonomous Pakhtunistan
(or Pathanistan) within Pakistan. access-date= requires url=
^ The Modern Review, Volume 86. Prabasi Press Private. 1949. The
Afghan Government is actively sympathetic towards their demand for a
Pathanistan. It has been declared by the Afghan Parliament that
Afghanistan does not recognise the Durand line... access-date=
requires url= (help)
^ The Spectator, Volume 184. F.C. Westley. 1950. Instead it adopted
the programme of an independent "
Pathanistan " — a programme
calculated to strike at the very roots of the new Dominion. More
Pathanistan idea has been taken up by Afghanistan.
access-date= requires url= (help)
^ Various spellings result from different pronunciation in various
Pashto dialects. See
Pashto language: Dialects for further
^ Nath, Samir (2002). Dictionary of Vedanta. Sarup & Sons.
p. 273. ISBN 81-7890-056-4. Retrieved 2010-09-10.
^ "The History of Herodotus Chapter 7". Translated by George
Rawlinson. The History Files. Retrieved 2007-01-10.
^ Houtsma, Martijn Theodoor (1987). E.J. Brill's first encyclopaedia
of Islam, 1913-1936. 2. Leipzig: BRILL. p. 150.
ISBN 90-04-08265-4. Retrieved 2010-09-24.
^ a b "Afghan and Afghanistan". Abdul Hai Habibi. alamahabibi.com.
1969. Retrieved 2010-10-24.
^ a b Muhammad Qasim Hindu Shah (1560). "The History of India, Volume
6, chpt. 200, Translation of the Introduction to Firishta's History
(p.8)". Sir H. M. Elliot. London: Packard Humanities Institute.
^ Pakistan: Analyst Discusses Controversial 'Pashtunistan' Proposal,
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFERL)
^ Shane, Scott (5 December 2009). "The War in Pashtunistan". The New
York Times. Retrieved 2 October 2017.
^ The Faqir of Ipi of North Waziristan. The Express Tribune. November
^ The legendary guerilla Faqir of Ipi unremembered on his 115th
anniversary. The Express Tribune. April 18, 2016.
^ a b c Faultlines, Volume 18. Institute for Conflict Management.
2007. p. 59. The name Pakhtunistan or in soft Pashtu dialect
Pashtunistan evolved originally from the Indian word Pathanistan. The
very concept of Pakhtunistan was taken from the old word Pakhtunkhwa.
Obaidullah Sindhi used Pashtania for Pashtu speaking area of his
Proposed People's Republic of India or Saro-Rajia-i-Hind (Obaidullah's
letter to Iqbal Shaidai on 22 June 1924), Muhammad Aslam, Maulana
Obaidullah Sindhi Kay Siasi Maktubat, Lahore: Niduatal Musanifeen,
1966, p. 34; The report entitled Conditions in India, of the
delegation sent out to India in 1932 by the India League under the
Chairmanship of Bertrand Russell, devoted a chapter to the NWFP,
noting: "...It was also stated to us by a very high official that
Abdul Ghaffar Khan's real plan was to create a "Pathanistan" and not
to work for Indian self-Government".
^ a b "Pashtu Literature Part II". Pashtoonkhwa. Retrieved 2009-06-07.
The name Pakhtunistan or in soft Pashtu dialect
originally from the Indian word Pathanistan. The very concept of
Pakhtunistan was taken from the old word Pakhtunkhwa. The British,
Indian leaders and even the Khudai- Khidmatgars were using Pathanistan
for Pakhtunistan in the beginning, but later on they started using the
^ "The Problem of Pukhtunistan". Khyber Gateway. Retrieved 2009-06-07.
Pathanistan is not Persian but Indian. It shows that the
Khalifa had already acquired the consent of the
Muslim leaders of
India or these leaders might have motivated the Khalifa to first
liberate the Pukhtuns' land (Pathanistan) to build up a strong base
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