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PASHTūNISTāN ( Pashto
Pashto
: پښتونستان‎, transliteration Pashtūnistān or Pakhtūnistān, meaning "homeland of the Pashtuns
Pashtuns
") is the geographic region inhabited by the indigenous Pashtun people of modern-day Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Pakistan
Pakistan
. Alternative names historically used for the region included "Afghānistān " and "Pashtūnkhwā ", since at least the 3rd century CE onward. Pashtunistan
Pashtunistan
borders Punjab to the east, Iran
Iran
to the west, Persian and Turkic speaking areas to the north, Kashmir
Kashmir
to the northeast, and Balochistan
Balochistan
to the south.

For administrative division in 1893, Mortimer Durand
Mortimer Durand
drew the Durand Line , fixing the limits of the spheres of influence between King Abdur Rahman Khan and British India . This porous line that runs through the centre of the Pashtun region forms the modern border between Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Pakistan. Roughly, the Pashtun homeland stretches from areas south of the Amu River in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
to west of the Indus River
Indus River
in Pakistan, mainly consisting of southwestern, eastern and some northern districts of Afghanistan, and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa , the Federally Administered Tribal Areas
Federally Administered Tribal Areas
and northern Balochistan
Balochistan
in Pakistan.

Part of a series on

PASHTUNS

* Art * Culture * Diaspora * Language * Tribes

KINGDOMS

* Lodi * Suri * Karrani * Hotaki * Durrani * Barakzai

RELIGION

* Islam
Islam

* v * t * e

CONTENTS

* 1 Origin of term * 2 The native people

* 3 History

* 3.1 Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate and the last Afghan Empire * 3.2 European influence * 3.3 Bannu Resolution * 3.4 Independence of Pakistan
Pakistan
in 1947

* 4 21st century

* 4.1 Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

* 5 Gallery * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Further reading

ORIGIN OF TERM

An Afghan postage stamp mentioning Pashtunistan. Further information: Name of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
, Afghan (ethnonym)
Afghan (ethnonym)
, Names of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa , and Name of Pakistan
Pakistan

The name used for the region during the middle ages and up until the 20th century was Afghanistan
Afghanistan
. Afghanistan
Afghanistan
is a reference to this land by its ethnicity, which were the Afghans, while Pashtunistan
Pashtunistan
is a reference to this land by its language. Mention of this land by the name of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
predates mention by the name of Pashtunistan, which has been mentioned by Ahmad Shah Durrani in his famous couplet, by 6th-century Indian astronomer Varahamihira , 7th-century Chinese pilgrim Hiven Tsiang , 14th-century Moroccan scholar Ibn Batutta , Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
Babur
Babur
, 16th-century historian Firishta and many others.

The men of Kábul and Khilj also went home; and whenever they were questioned about the Musulmáns of the Kohistán (the mountains), and how matters stood there, they said, "Don't call it Kohistán, but Afghánistán ; for there is nothing there but Afgháns and disturbances." Thus it is clear that for this reason the people of the country call their home in their own language Afghánistán, and themselves Afgháns . But it occurs to me, that when, under the rule of Muhammadan sovereigns, Musulmáns first came to the city of Patná , and dwelt there, the people of India (for that reason) called them Patáns—but God knows! —  Ferishta , 1560–1620

The name Pakhtunistan ( Pashto
Pashto
: پښتونستان‎ (Naskh )), or in the soft Pashto
Pashto
dialect, Pashtunistan, evolved originally from word Pakhto (پښتو) or Pashto
Pashto
(پشتو). The very concept of Pakhtunistan was taken from the old word Pakhtunkhwa.

THE NATIVE PEOPLE

Main articles: Pashtun people and Pashtun tribes Pashtun children, indigenous to the Pashtunistan
Pashtunistan
region

The native or indigenous people of Pashtunistan
Pashtunistan
are the Pashtuns (also known as Pakhtuns, Pathans and historically as ethnic Afghans ). They are the largest ethnic group in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and the second largest in Pakistan. The Pashtuns
Pashtuns
are concentrated mainly in the south and east of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
but also exist in northern and western parts of the country as a minority group. In Pakistan
Pakistan
they are concentrated in the west and northwest, inhabiting mainly Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
, the Federally Administered Tribal Areas
Federally Administered Tribal Areas
(FATA), and northern Balochistan
Balochistan
. In addition, communities of Pashtuns
Pashtuns
are found in other parts of Pakistan
Pakistan
such as Sindh
Sindh
, Punjab , Gilgit-Baltistan
Gilgit-Baltistan
and in the nation's capital, Islamabad
Islamabad
. The main language spoken in the delineated Pashtunistan
Pashtunistan
region is Pashto
Pashto
followed by others such as Balochi , Hindko , Gojri , and Urdu
Urdu
.

The Pashtuns
Pashtuns
practice Pashtunwali
Pashtunwali
, the indigenous culture of the Pashtuns, and this pre-Islamic identity remains significant for many Pashtuns
Pashtuns
and is one of the factors that have kept the Pashtunistan issue alive. Although the Pashtuns
Pashtuns
are politically separated by the Durand Line
Durand Line
between Pakistan
Pakistan
and Afghanistan, many Pashtun tribes from the FATA area and the adjacent regions of Afghanistan, tend to ignore the border and cross back and forth with relative ease to attend weddings, family functions and take part in the joint tribal councils known as jirgas. Though this was common before the war on terror but after several military operations conducted in FATA, this cross border movement is checked via military and has become very less in comparison to the past.

Depending on the source, the ethnic Pashtuns
Pashtuns
constitute 42-60% of the population of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
. In neighboring Pakistan
Pakistan
they constitute 15.42 percent of the 190 million population , which includes the Hindkowans . In the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Province of Pakistan, Pashto
Pashto
speakers constitute above 73 percent of the population as of 1998.

HISTORY

Further information: History of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and History of Pakistan
Pakistan
The area during 500 B.C. was recorded as Arachosia and inhabited by a people called the Pactyans.

Since the 2nd millennium BC
2nd millennium BC
, the region now inhabited by the native Pashtun people had been conquered by Ancient Iranian peoples
Ancient Iranian peoples
, the Medes
Medes
, Achaemenids , Greeks , Mauryas , Kushans , Hephthalites , Sassanids , Arab Muslims , Turks , Mughals , and others. In recent age, people of the Western world
Western world
have nominally explored the area.

Arab Muslims arrived in the 7th century and began introducing Islam to the native Pashtun people, some of the Arabs settled in the Sulaiman Mountains and slowly became Pashtunized over time. The Pashtunistan
Pashtunistan
area later fell to the Turkish Ghaznavids
Ghaznavids
whose main capital was at Ghazni
Ghazni
, with Lahore
Lahore
serving as the second power house. The Ghaznavid Empire was then taken over by the Ghorids from today's Ghor , Afghanistan. The army of Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
arrived in the 13th century and began destroying Persian-speaking cities in the north while the Pashtun territory was defended by the Khilji dynasty of Delhi
Delhi
. In the 14th and 15th century, the Timurid dynasty was in control of the nearby cities and towns, until Babur
Babur
captured Kabul
Kabul
in 1504.

DELHI SULTANATE AND THE LAST AFGHAN EMPIRE

Further information: Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate and Durrani Empire
Durrani Empire
Coronation
Coronation
of Ahmad Shah Durrani in 1747 by a 20th-century Afghan artist, Abdul Ghafoor Breshna .

During the Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate era, the region was ruled by Turkic dynasties from Delhi
Delhi
, India. An early Pashtun nationalist was the "Warrior-poet" Khushal Khan Khattak , who was imprisoned by the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb for trying to incite the Pashtuns
Pashtuns
to rebel against the rule of the Mughals. However, despite sharing a common language and believing in a common ancestry, the Pashtuns
Pashtuns
first achieved unity in the 18th century after being under foreign rule for many centuries. The eastern parts of Pashtunistan
Pashtunistan
was ruled by the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
, while the western parts were ruled by the Persian Safavids
Safavids
as their easternmost provinces. During the early 18th century, Pashtun tribes led by Mirwais Hotak successfully revolted against the Safavids
Safavids
in the city of Kandahar. In a chain of events, he declared Kandahar
Kandahar
and other parts of what is now southern Afghanistan
Afghanistan
independent. By 1738 the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
had been crushingly defeated and their capital sacked and looted by forces of a new Iranian ruler; the military genius and commander Nader Shah
Nader Shah
. Besides Persian, Turkmen, and Caucasian forces, Nader was also accompanied by the young Ahmad Shah Durrani , and 4,000 well trained Pashtun troops from what is now Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and North-west Pakistan.

After the death of Nader Shah
Nader Shah
in 1747 and the disintegration of his massive empire, Ahmad Shah Durrani created his own large and powerful Durrani Empire
Durrani Empire
, which included Pashtunistan, and most of nowadays Pakistan, among other regions. The famous couplet by Ahmad Shah Durrani describes the association the people have with the regional city of Kandahar:

"Da Dili takht herauma cheh rayad kam zama da khkule Pukhtunkhwa da ghre saroona". Translation: "I forget the throne of Delhi
Delhi
when I recall the mountain peaks of my beautiful Pukhtunkhwa."

The last Afghan Empire was established in 1747 and united all the different Pashtun tribes as well as many other ethnic groups. Parts of the Pashtunistan
Pashtunistan
region around Peshawar
Peshawar
was invaded by Ranjit Singh and his Sikh
Sikh
army in the early part of the 19th century, but a few years later they were defeated by the British Raj
British Raj
, the new powerful empire which reached the Pashtunistan
Pashtunistan
region from the east.

EUROPEAN INFLUENCE

Further information: European influence in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and British Raj

Following the decline of the Durrani dynasty
Durrani dynasty
and the establishment of the new Barakzai dynasty
Barakzai dynasty
in Afghanistan, the Pashtun domains began to shrink as they lost control over other parts of South Asia to the British, such the Punjab region and the Balochistan
Balochistan
region . The Anglo-Afghan Wars were fought as part of the overall imperialistic Great Game that was waged between the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
and the British. Poor and landlocked, newly born Afghanistan
Afghanistan
was able to defend its territory and keep both sides at bay by using them against each other. In 1893, as part of a way for fixing the limit of their respective spheres of influence, the Durand Line
Durand Line
Agreement was signed between Afghan "Iron" Amir Abdur Rahman
Amir Abdur Rahman
and British Viceroy Mortimer Durand
Mortimer Durand
. In 1905, the North-West Frontier Province (today's Khyber Paskhtunkhwa) was created and roughly corresponded to Pashtun majority regions within the British domain. The FATA area was created to further placate the Pashtun tribesmen who never fully accepted British rule and were prone to rebellions, while the city of Peshawar
Peshawar
was directly administered as part of a British protectorate state with full integration into the federal rule of law with the establishment of civic amenities and the construction of railway, road infrastructure as well as educational institutes to bring the region at par with the developed world.

During World War I, the Afghan government was contacted by the Ottoman Turkey and Germany , through the Niedermayer-Hentig Mission , to join the Central Allies on behalf of the Caliph
Caliph
in a Jihad
Jihad
; some revolutionaries, tribals, and Afghan leaders including a brother of the Amir named Nasrullah Khan were in favour of the delegation and wanted the Amir to declare Jihad. Kazim Bey carried a firman from the Khalifa in Persian. It was addressed to "the residents of Pathanistan ." It said that when the British were defeated, "His Majesty the Khalifa, in agreement with allied States, will acquire guarantee for independence of the united state of Pathanistan
Pathanistan
and will provide every kind of assistance to it. Thereafter, I will not allow any interference in the country of Pathanistan." (Ahmad Chagharzai; 1989; pp. 138–139). However the efforts failed and the Afghan Amir Habibullah Khan
Habibullah Khan
maintained Afghanistan's neutrality throughout World War I (for more information see).

Similarly, during the 1942 Cripps mission , and 1946 Cabinet Mission to India , the Afghan government made repeated attempts to ensure that any debate about the independence of India must include Afghanistan's role in the future of the NWFP. The British government wavered between reassuring the Afghan to the rejection of their role and insistence that NWFP was an integral part of British India.

The Khudai Khidmatgar
Khudai Khidmatgar
were a non-violent group, and Ghaffar Khan claimed to have been inspired by Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
. While the Red Shirts were willing to work with the Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
from a political point of view, the Pashtuns
Pashtuns
as a people desired independence from India.

BANNU RESOLUTION

Main article: Bannu Resolution

When the British decided to divide India, the elected members of NWFP assembly and Pashtun Jirga demanded for an independent state of Pashtunistan
Pashtunistan
through the famous Bannu Resolution on 21 June 1947. However, the British colonialists refused to comply to their genuine demand for an independent Pashtunistan. Above all the British even deprived the elected legislative assembly of NWFP of its right to vote in favor of India or Pakistan. A referendum was held and historical Pashtun land was thus merged with the federation of Pakistan.

INDEPENDENCE OF PAKISTAN IN 1947

Further information: Pakistan
Pakistan
Movement and Afghanistan–Pakistan relations Ayub Khan , President of Pakistan
Pakistan
from 1958 to 1969, belonged to the Pashtun Tareen tribe of Abbottabad
Abbottabad
.

Since the late 1940s with the dissolution of British India and independence of Pakistan
Pakistan
, some rigid Pashtun nationalists proposed merging with Afghanistan
Afghanistan
or creating Pashtunistan
Pashtunistan
as a future sovereign state for the local Pashtun inhabitanits of the area. At first, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
became the only government to oppose the entry of Pakistan
Pakistan
into the United Nations
United Nations
in 1947, although it was reversed a few months later. On July 26, 1949, when Afghanistan–Pakistan relations were rapidly deteriorating, a loya jirga was held in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
after a military aircraft from the Pakistan
Pakistan
Air Force bombed a village on the Afghan side of the Durand Line. As a result of this violation, the Afghan government declared that it recognized "neither the imaginary Durand nor any similar line" and that all previous Durand Line
Durand Line
agreements were void . During the 1950s to the late 1960s, Pashtuns
Pashtuns
were promoted to higher positions within the Pakistani government and military, thereby integrating Pashtuns
Pashtuns
into the Pakistani state and severely weakening secessionist sentiments to the point that by the mid-1960s, popular support for an independent Pashtunistan
Pashtunistan
had all but disappeared.

An important development in Pakistan
Pakistan
during the Ayub period (1958-1969) was the gradual integration into Pakistani society and the military-bureaucratic establishment. It was a period of Pakistan's political history which saw a large number of ethnic Pashtuns
Pashtuns
holding high positions in the military and the bureaucracy. Ayub himself was a non- Pashto
Pashto
speaking ethnic Pashtun belonging to the Tarin sub-tribe of the Hazara district in the Frontier. The growing participation of Pashtuns
Pashtuns
in the Pakistani Government resulted in the erosion of the support for the Pashtunistan
Pashtunistan
movement in the Province by the end of the 1960s. — Rizwan Hussain, 2005

Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Pashtun nationalists did not exploit Pakistan's vulnerability during the nation's 1965 and 1971 wars with India, and even backed Pakistan
Pakistan
against a largely Hindu India. Further, had Pakistan
Pakistan
been destabilised by India, nationalists would have had to fight against a much bigger country than Pakistan
Pakistan
for their independence.

In the 1970s, the roles of Pakistan
Pakistan
and Afghanistan
Afghanistan
reversed, despite the fresh crackdown on Baloch and Pashtun nationalists by the government of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
. The Pakistan
Pakistan
government decided to retaliate against the Afghan government's Pashtunistan
Pashtunistan
policy by supporting Islamist
Islamist
opponents of the Afghan government including future Mujahidin leaders Gulbuddin Hekmatyar and Ahmad Shah Massoud
Ahmad Shah Massoud
. This operation was remarkably successful, and by 1977 the Afghan government of Mohammed Daoud Khan
Mohammed Daoud Khan
was willing to settle all outstanding issues in exchange for a lifting of the ban on the National Awami Party
National Awami Party
and a commitment towards provincial autonomy for Pashtuns, which was already guaranteed by Pakistan's Constitution, but stripped by the Bhutto government when the One Unit scheme was introduced.

21ST CENTURY

Kalam
Kalam
, Swat District in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
, Pakistan
Pakistan
A village in Kunar Province of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Nangarhar Province
Nangarhar Province
, Afghanistan
Afghanistan

The Pashtunistan
Pashtunistan
issue is rarely mentioned anymore as a point of disagreement between Afghan and Pakistan
Pakistan
officials - a far cry from the 1950s and 1960s when the issue was considered contentious. There are several arguments from the governments of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Pakistan regarding the Pashtunistan
Pashtunistan
issue. These arguments sometimes overlap but can be distinctively defined. The British influence in the region of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Pakistan
Pakistan
was most prominent during the late 19th century and early portion of the 20th century, when the British sought to reestablish efforts at colonization during Britain's imperial century. This British experiment was known as The Great Game
The Great Game
, and was a subversive attempt at establishing Afghanistan
Afghanistan
as a buffer zone between British-India and the Tsardom of Russia
Tsardom of Russia
. By seeking to accord certain terrain international legitimacy based upon British failures to assert control over the fiercely independent Pashtuns
Pashtuns
and tribes in the region, the establishment of a border that would separate British interests from tribal interests was extremely important to British foreign policy.

The British demarcation established as a result by the Durand Line was a deliberate strategy designed to divide the Pashtun territory along the border region of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Pakistan. The overall effect of the division was to alienate the Pashtun tribes from their neighbors as part of the British divide and conquer strategy, or divide and rule . This strategy had the ultimate effect of fostering anti-colonialist sentiment in the tribal regions, and Pashtuns
Pashtuns
as a result had a deep desire for independence and freedom from British rule.

Pashtuns
Pashtuns
in Pakistan
Pakistan
make up the second largest ethnic group after Punjabis with about 16% of the population, totaling over 30 million. This figure only includes the native Pashto
Pashto
speaking inhabitants of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
and Northern Balochistan, and does not include the Pathans settled in Punjab and Sindh
Sindh
who make up significant numbers alongside the native communities of these two provinces. In addition, there are 1.7 million Afghan refugees of whom majority are Pashtuns. These refugees, however, are expected to leave Pakistan
Pakistan
and settle in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in the coming years. Three Pakistani presidents belonged to the Pashtun ethnic group. Pashtuns
Pashtuns
continue to occupy some important places in the military and politics, with the major political party Awami National Party
Awami National Party
led by Asfandyar Wali . In addition to this, some Pashtun media, music and cultural activities are based out of Pakistan, with AVT Khyber being the only Pashto
Pashto
TV channel in Pakistan
Pakistan
. Pashto
Pashto
cinema is based out of the Pakistani city of Peshawar
Peshawar
. The Pakistani city of Karachi
Karachi
is believed to host the largest concentration of Pashtuns.

There are more than 12 million Pashtuns
Pashtuns
in Afghanistan, constituting 42% of the population. Other sources say that up to 60% of Afghanistan's population is made up of ethnic Pashtuns, forming the largest ethnic group in that country. Pashto
Pashto
is the first official language of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
, the Afghan National Anthem
Afghan National Anthem
is recited in Pashto
Pashto
language and the Pashtun dress is the national dress of Afghanistan. Since the late 19th century, the traditional Pashtunistan region has gradually expanded to the Amu River in the north. Majority of the key government positions in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
have always been held by Pashtuns. In addition, many of the non-Pashtun groups in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
have adopted the Pashtun culture and use Pashto
Pashto
as a second language. For example, nearly all leaders of non-Pashtun ethnic groups in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
practice Pashtunwali
Pashtunwali
to some degree and are fluent in Pashto
Pashto
language . This includes non-Pashtun leaders such as Ahmad Shah Massoud
Ahmad Shah Massoud
, Ahmad Zia Massoud , Ismail Khan
Ismail Khan
, Mohammed Fahim , Bismillah Khan Mohammadi
Bismillah Khan Mohammadi
, Atta Muhammad Nur , Abdul Ali Mazari , Karim Khalili , Husn Banu Ghazanfar , Muhammad Yunus Nawandish , Abdul Karim Brahui , Jamaluddin Badr as well as most other ministers , governors and officials.

Afghanistan
Afghanistan
makes its claim on the Pashtun areas on the ground that it served as the Pashtun seat of power since 1709 with the rise of the Hotaki dynasty
Hotaki dynasty
followed by the establishment of the Durrani Afghan Empire . According to historic sources, Afghan tribes did not appear in Peshawar
Peshawar
valley until after 800 AD, when the Islamic conquest of this area took place.

Agreements cited by the Afghan government as proof of their claim over the Pashtun tribes include Article 11 of the Anglo-Afghan Treaty of 1921 , which states: "The two contracting parties, being mutually satisfied themselves each regarding the goodwill of the other and especially regarding their benevolent intentions towards the tribes residing close to their respective boundaries, hereby undertake to inform each other of any future military operations which may appear necessary for the maintenance of order among the frontier tribes residing within their respective spheres before the commencement of such operations." A supplementary letter to the Anglo-Afghan Treaty of 1921 reads: "As the conditions of the Frontier tribes of the two governments are of interest to the Government of Afghanistan. I inform you that the British government entertains feelings of goodwill towards all the Frontier tribes and has every intention of treating them generously, provided they abstain from outrages against the people of India."

The Durand Line
Durand Line
and Pashtunistan
Pashtunistan
issues have been raised by different Afghan regimes in the past. However, it may no longer be a concern. Pashtuns
Pashtuns
are now so well integrated in Pakistani society that the majority will never opt for Pashtunistan
Pashtunistan
or Afghanistan. Afghan-Pashtun refugees have been staying in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
for more than 30 years. Threat perceptions about Afghanistan
Afghanistan
need re-evaluation so that suitable changes are made in our Afghan policy. — Asad Munir, Retired brigadier who has served in senior intelligence postings in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa and FATA

KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA

Main article: Names of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa
Names of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa

Prominent 20th century proponents of the Pashtunistan
Pashtunistan
cause have included Khan Abdul Wali Khan
Khan Abdul Wali Khan
and Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan . Ghaffar Khan stated in the Pakistan
Pakistan
Constituent Assembly in 1948 that he simply wanted "the renaming of his province as Pakhtunistan. Like Sindh, Punjab, etc." Another name mentioned is AFGHANIA where the initial "A" in Choudhary Rahmat Ali Khan's theory stated in the "Now or Never " pamphlet stands for the second letter in "PAkistan". However, this name has failed to capture political support in the province.

There was support, however, to rename North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) as PAKHTUNKHWA (which translates as "area of Pashtuns"). Nasim Wali Khan (the wife of Khan Abdul Wali Khan) declared in an interview: "I want an identity.. I want the name to change so that Pathans may be identified on the map of Pakistan..."

On 31 March 2010, Pakistan's Constitutional Reform Committee agreed that the province be named to Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa . This is now the official name for the former NWFP.

GALLERY

* Images of the Pashtunistan
Pashtunistan
region

*

Asadabad , capital of Kunar Province in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
*

Pech River Valley *

Watapur District of Kunar Province *

Branches of the Kunar River meet in Nangarhar Province
Nangarhar Province
*

Kabul
Kabul
River in Jalalabad , Afghanistan
Afghanistan
*

Khyber Pass
Khyber Pass
in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
, Pakistan
Pakistan
*

People attending Khost University in Khost
Khost
, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
*

Ghazni
Ghazni
Province , Afghanistan
Afghanistan
*

Afghan Border Police (ABP) in Paktika Province *

Kuchi people in Paktia Province of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
*

Hanna Lake in Quetta
Quetta
, Pakistan
Pakistan
*

Dahla Dam
Dahla Dam
in Kandahar
Kandahar
Province *

Helmand Province , Afghanistan
Afghanistan
*

Kajaki Dam
Kajaki Dam
in Helmand Province

SEE ALSO

* Afghanistan
Afghanistan
portal * Pakistan
Pakistan
portal

* Pashtun nationalism * Bannu Resolution * Awami National Party
Awami National Party
* Pashtunkhwa Milli Awami Party * Afghan Millat Party * Durand Line
Durand Line
* Bacha Khan * Faqir of Ipi

REFERENCES

* ^ A B " Pakistan
Pakistan
population: 187,342,721 ". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). 2011. Retrieved 2012-02-10. * ^ " Afghanistan
Afghanistan
population: 30,419,928 (July 2012 est.) = 12,776,369". The World Factbook
The World Factbook
. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Retrieved 20 September 2010. * ^ Lewis, Paul M. (2009). "Pashto, Northern". SIL International . Dallas, Texas: Ethnologue: Languages
Languages
of the World , Sixteenth edition. Retrieved 18 September 2010. Ethnic population: 49,529,000 possibly total Pashto
Pashto
in all countries. * ^ Various spellings result from different pronunciation in various Pashto
Pashto
dialects. See Pashto
Pashto
language: Dialects for further information. * ^ Nath, Samir (2002). Dictionary of Vedanta. Sarup & Sons. p. 273. ISBN 81-7890-056-4 . Retrieved 2010-09-10. * ^ "The History of Herodotus Chapter 7". Translated by George Rawlinson . The History Files. Retrieved 2007-01-10. * ^ Houtsma, Martijn Theodoor (1987). E.J. Brill\'s first encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913-1936. 2. Leipzig: BRILL. p. 150. ISBN 90-04-08265-4 . Retrieved 2010-09-24. * ^ Students\' Britannica India. 1–5. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2000. ISBN 9780852297605 . Retrieved 2009-06-07. Ghaffar Khan, who opposed the partition, chose to live in Pakistan, where he continued to fight for the rights of the Pashtun minority and for an autonomous Pakhtunistan (or Pashtunistan) within Pakistan. * ^ A B "Afghan and Afghanistan". Abdul Hai Habibi
Abdul Hai Habibi
. alamahabibi.com. 1969. Retrieved 2010-10-24. * ^ A B Muhammad Qasim Hindu Shah (1560). "The History of India, Volume 6, chpt. 200, Translation of the Introduction to Firishta\'s History (p.8)". Sir H. M. Elliot. London: Packard Humanities Institute . Retrieved 2010-08-22. * ^ Pakistan: Analyst Discusses Controversial \'Pashtunistan\' Proposal, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty
(RFERL) * ^ Ahmed, Feroz (1998) Ethnicity and politics in Pakistan. Karachi. Oxford University Press. * ^ Janda, Kenneth; Jeffrey M. Berry; Jerry Goldman (2008). The Challenge of Democracy: Government in America (9 ed.). Cengage Learning. p. 46. ISBN 0-618-81017-X . Retrieved 2010-08-22. Even within the largest ethnic group, the Pashtuns
Pashtuns
(about 50 percent of the population)..." * ^ Congressional Record. Government Printing Office. p. 10088. Retrieved 2010-09-24. * ^ Taylor, William J. Jr.; Abraham Kim (2000). Asian Security to the Year 2000. DIANE Publishing. p. 58. ISBN 1-4289-1368-8 . Retrieved 2010-09-24. * ^ "AFGHANISTAN v. Languages". Ch. M. Kieffer. Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 2010-10-24. Paṧtō (1) is the native tongue of 50 to 55 percent of Afghans... * ^ Brown, Keith; Sarah Ogilvie (2009). Concise encyclopedia of languages of the world. Elsevie. p. 845. ISBN 0-08-087774-5 . Retrieved 2010-09-24. Pashto, which is mainly spoken south of the mountain range of the Hindu Kush, is reportedly the mother tongue of 60% of the Afghan population. * ^ Hawthorne, Susan; Bronwyn Winter (2002). September 11, 2001: feminist perspectives. Spinifex Press. p. 225. ISBN 1-876756-27-6 . Retrieved 2010-09-24. Over 60 percent of the population in Afghanistan is Pashtun... * ^ European Journal of Social Sciences : Volume 8 Number 3 : Poverty Alleviation Through Power-Sharing in Pakistan
Pakistan
Retrieved 5 April 2010 * ^ " Pakistan
Pakistan
Census report 1998". Government of Pakistan. 1998. Retrieved 2010-10-29. * ^ "Country Profile: Afghanistan" (PDF). Library of Congress
Library of Congress
. Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Country Studies on Afghanistan. August 2008. Retrieved 2010-09-10. * ^ "Kingdoms of South Asia – Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(Southern Khorasan / Arachosia)". The History Files. Retrieved 2010-08-16. * ^ John Ford Shroder. " Afghanistan
Afghanistan
- VII. History". Archived from the original on October 31, 2009. Retrieved 2009-10-31. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link ) * ^ http://khyberwatch.com/ * ^ Roberts, J(2003) The origins of conflict in Afghanistan. Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 0-275-97878-8 , ISBN 978-0-275-97878-5 , pp. 92-94 * ^ The Pashtunistan
Pashtunistan
Issue, Craig Baxter (1997), Library of Congress Country Studies. * ^ Rizwan Hussain. Pakistan
Pakistan
and the emergence of Islamic militancy in Afghanistan. 2005. p. 74. * ^ Paul Wolf. "Pashtunistan." Pakistan: Partition and Military Succession. 2004. * ^ "Remembering Our Warriors: Babar \'the great\'." Interview of Maj. Gen. (Retd.) Naseerullah Khan Babar, by A. H. Amin. Defence Journal. April 2001. Retrieved 15 April 2010. * ^ Feroz Ahmed. "Pushtoonistan and the Pushtoon National Question." (Sep., 1973) Pakistan
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Forum, Vol. 3, No. 12. September 1973. pp. 8-19+22. * ^ Senlis Afghanistan-http://www.icosgroup.net/modules/reports/Afghanistan_on_the_brink: Retrieved 23 December 2010 * ^ "Article Sixteen of the 2004 Constitution of Afghanistan". 2004. Retrieved June 13, 2012. From among the languages of Pashto, Dari, Uzbeki, Turkmani, Baluchi, Pashai, Nuristani, Pamiri (alsana), Arab and other languages spoken in the country, PASHTO AND DARI ARE THE OFFICIAL LANGUAGES OF THE STATE. * ^ H. G. Raverty (1898) Tarikh-e-Farishtah; Notes on Afghanistan; Peshawar
Peshawar
District Gazetteer 1897-98. * ^ A B Olaf Caroe. The Pathans 1981. * ^ "Re-evaluation of our Afghan policy". Express Tribune. 15 May 2012. Retrieved 16 May 2012. * ^ BBC News Online
BBC News Online
- Pakistan
Pakistan
debates key amendment bill Retrieved 5 April 2010 * ^ Dawn News - Consensus reached on renaming NWFP Retrieved 5 April 2010

FURTHER READING

THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS PASHTO TEXT . Without proper rendering support , you may see unjoined letters or other symbols instead of Pashto
Pashto
script .

* Ahmed, Feroz (1998) Ethnicity and politics in Pakistan. Karachi: Oxford University Press. * Ahmad, M.(1989) Pukhtunkhwa Kiyun Nahin by Mubarak Chagharzai. pp. 138–139. * Amin, Tahir (1988) -National Language Movements of Pakistan. Islamabad
Islamabad
Institute of Policy Studies. * Buzan, Barry and Rizvi, Gowher (1986), South Asian Insecurity and the Great Powers, London: Macmillan. p. 73. * Fürstenberg, Kai (2012) Waziristan: Solutions for a Troubled Region
Region
in Spotlight South Asia, No. 1, ISSN 2195-2787 (http://www.apsa.info/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/SSA-1.pdf) * Caroe, Olaf (1983) The Pathans, with an Epilogue on Russia. Oxford University Press. pp. 464–465.

* v * t * e

Afghanistan– Pakistan
Pakistan
relations

BILATERAL RELATIONS

* Ambassadors of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
to Pakistan
Pakistan
* Ambassadors of Pakistan
Pakistan
to Afghanistan
Afghanistan

SOCIAL LINKS

* Pashtuns
Pashtuns
* Baloch people
Baloch people
* Afghans in Pakistan
Pakistan
* Pakistanis in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
* Religion in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
* Religion in Pakistan
Pakistan
* Persian and Urdu
Urdu

HISTORICAL LINKS

* Jayapala * Ghaznavids
Ghaznavids
* Ghurid dynasty
Ghurid dynasty
* Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate * Hotak dynasty
Hotak dynasty
* Durrani Empire
Durrani Empire

GEOGRAPHIC LINKS

* Durand Line
Durand Line
* Pashtunistan * Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
* Balochistan
Balochistan
* Pakistan– Afghanistan
Afghanistan
barrier

EVENTS AND CONFLICTS

* Afghanistan– Pakistan
Pakistan
skirmishes * Balochistan
Balochistan
conflict * Soviet–Afghan War
Soviet–Afghan War
* 1995 attack on the Pakistani embassy in Kabul
Kabul
* Taliban insurgency * War in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(2001–2014) * War in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(2015–present) * 2017 Afghanistan– Pakistan
Pakistan
border skirmish

OTHER TOPICS

* AfPak * United Nations
United Nations
Good Offices Mission in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Pakistan
Pakistan
* Anti- Pakistan
Pakistan
sentiment in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
* Afghanistan–India relations * Quetta
Quetta
Shura

CATEGORY:AFGHANISTAN–PAKISTAN RELATIONS

* v * t * e

Nationalism
Nationalism
in South Asia

IDEOLOGIES

* Assamese * Balawaristan * Baloch * Bangladeshi * Bengali * Bodo ( Bodoland
Bodoland
) * Dravidian * Gorkha * Hindu ( Hindutva
Hindutva
) * Indian * Muslim
Muslim
* Sindhi * Kashmiriyat * Khalistan * Naga * Pashtun * Pakistani * Seraiki * Sinhalese * Tamil (Sri Lankan Tamil ) * Tripuri

Organisations and events

* Balochistan
Balochistan
conflict * Bangladesh Liberation War * Bengali Language Movement * Indian independence movement
Indian independence movement
* Jathika Hela Urumaya * Kashmir
Kashmir
conflict * Khalistan movement * Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) * Pashtunistan * Pakistan
Pakistan
Movement * Self-Respect Movement
Self-Respect Movement
* Urdu
Urdu
movement

* v * t * e

Pashtun -related topics

DYNASTIES

* Lodi dynasty * Suri dynasty
Suri dynasty
* Hotak dynasty
Hotak dynasty
* Durrani dynasty
Durrani dynasty
* Barakzai dynasty
Barakzai dynasty
* more

KEY FIGURES

* Bahlul Lodi
Bahlul Lodi
* Sher Shah Suri
Sher Shah Suri
* Mirwais Hotak * Ahmad Shah Khan * Ahmad Shah Durrani * Dost Mohammad Khan * Malalai of Maiwand * Abdur Rahman Khan * Mahmud Tarzi
Mahmud Tarzi
* Soraya Tarzi
Soraya Tarzi
* Amanullah Khan * Malala Yousafzai
Malala Yousafzai
* Mohammed Nadir Shah * Pir of Manki Sharif * Bacha Khan * Wali Khan * Zahir Shah * Daoud Khan * Abdul Ahad Mohmand * Samad Khan * Mohammad Najibullah
Mohammad Najibullah
* Ghulam Ishaq Khan
Ghulam Ishaq Khan
* Mohammed Omar * Hamid Karzai
Hamid Karzai
* Asfandyar Wali Khan * Zalmay Khalilzad
Zalmay Khalilzad
* Mohammad Ashraf Ghani * Abdur Rab Nishtar * Abdul Waheed Kakar * Ayub Khan (President of Pakistan)
Ayub Khan (President of Pakistan)
* Karnal Sher Khan * Faqir of Ipi

CULTURE

* Pashtun culture * Pashtunwali
Pashtunwali
* Pashto
Pashto
* Pashtunization * Pashtun dress * Pashto
Pashto
media * Pashto
Pashto
singers * Pashtun tribes * Loya jirga * Adam Khan and Durkhanai * Yusuf Khan and Sherbano * Jirga

POETS

* Amir Kror Suri * Pir Roshan * Rahman Baba * Khushal Khattak * Nazo Tokhi * Abdul Hamid Baba
Abdul Hamid Baba
* Hussain Hotak
Hussain Hotak
* Ahmad Shah Durrani * Hamza Baba * Ajmal Khattak
Ajmal Khattak
* Kabir Stori * Ghani Khan

Topics and controversies

* Afghan (ethnonym)
Afghan (ethnonym)
* Pashtunistan * Durand Line
Durand Line
* Khudai Khidmatgar
Khudai Khidmatgar
* Kalabagh Dam * Taliban
Taliban
* Names of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
* Anti-Pashtun sentiment

Battles and conflicts

* First Battle of Panipat
First Battle of Panipat
* Battle of Gulnabad * Third Battle of Panipat
Third Battle of Panipat
* Battle of Attock * Battle of Multan
Battle of Multan
* Battle of Shopian * Battle of Nowshera * Battle of Jamrud * Siege of Malakand * Anglo-Afghan Wars * Battle of Maiwand
Battle of Maiwand
* Tirah Campaign * Battle of Saragarhi * Soviet–Afghan War
Soviet–Afghan