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Pashtun diaspora
Pashtun diaspora
refers to ethnic Pashtuns
Pashtuns
who live outside their traditional homeland of Pashtunistan, which is south of the Amu River in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and west of the Indus River
Indus River
in Pakistan.[13] Pashtunistan
Pashtunistan
is home to the majority of the Pashtun community. However, there are significant Pashtun diaspora
Pashtun diaspora
communities in the cities of Sindh
Sindh
and Punjab in Pakistan, in particular Karachi
Karachi
and Lahore. A recent Pashtun diaspora
Pashtun diaspora
has also developed in the Arab states of the Persian Gulf, primarily in the United Arab Emirates. Smaller populations of Pashtuns
Pashtuns
are found in the European Union, North America, Australia
Australia
and other parts of the world. They may also be found in Iran, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar
Qatar
and Bahrain. In Northern India, there are communities of Indians who trace their origins to the traditional Pashtun homeland. The Pashtun ethnic group are believed to have settled in the vast Pashtunistan
Pashtunistan
region in the first millennium C.E.[14][15] According to Ethnologue, they currently number around 50 million,[1] but some sources give slightly lower or higher figures.[16][17][18] In the Indian subcontinent, the group is usually referred to as Pathan.[citation needed]

Contents

1 Native land

1.1 Afghanistan 1.2 Pakistan 1.3 Notable people

2 India

2.1 Pashto-speaking communities 2.2 Urdu
Urdu
and Hindi
Hindi
speaking communities 2.3 Indians of Pashtun ancestry

3 Pashtuns
Pashtuns
in the Middle East 4 Pashtuns
Pashtuns
in Europe

4.1 United Kingdom

5 Pashtuns
Pashtuns
in other parts of the world

5.1 United States 5.2 Canada 5.3 Australia 5.4 South Asia 5.5 Southeast Asia 5.6 East Asia 5.7 Guyana
Guyana
and Suriname 5.8 Latin America

6 See also 7 References 8 Bibliography

Native land[edit]

Pashtun people
Pashtun people
of the Pashtunistan
Pashtunistan
region

Afghanistan[edit] Further information: Ethnic groups in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Afghan diaspora The ethnonym Afghan has been historically used since the 3rd century AD to refer to the Pashtuns, and is now used to describe every citizen of Afghanistan. Pashtuns
Pashtuns
make up the largest ethnic group in Afghanistan, comprising 42–60% [19][20] of the total Afghan population. Approximately 1.7 million Afghan refugees live in neighboring Pakistan. The majority of them are Pashtuns
Pashtuns
who were born in that country.[21] The Pashtuns
Pashtuns
are scattered all over Afghanistan, they can be found in almost every province of the country.[22] Kandahar
Kandahar
is the second largest city in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and a stronghold of the Pashtun culture. The city of Lashkar Gah
Lashkar Gah
in the south, Farah in the west, Jalalabad
Jalalabad
in the east, and Kunduz
Kunduz
in the north are other prominent cultural centres whose populations are predominantly Pashtun. Kabul
Kabul
and Ghazni
Ghazni
each have at least 25% Pashtun while Herat
Herat
and Mazar-i-Sharif
Mazar-i-Sharif
each has at least 10%.[23] Pakistan[edit] Further information: Ethnic groups in Pakistan
Pakistan
and Pakistani diaspora See also: Pathans of Punjab, Pathans of Sindh, Pathans of Kashmir, and Pashtuns
Pashtuns
in Balochistan

Ethnic Pashtuns
Pashtuns
in Pakistan
Pakistan
and Afghanistan

Pashtun tribes
Pashtun tribes
make up the second largest ethnic group in Pakistan, comprising over 25%.[2][24] They form the majority ethnic group in the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) areas, and northern Balochistan. With as many as 7 million by some estimates, the city of Karachi in Sindh
Sindh
Province hosts the largest concentration of urban Pashtuns population in the world[25][26] Some important Pashtun cities of Pakistan
Pakistan
include: Peshawar, Quetta, Zhob, Loralai, Killa Saifullah, Swat, Mardan, Charsada, Mingora, Bannu, Parachinar, and Swabi. The following delineates the Pashtun population in the provinces of Pakistan:

Province Pashtuns

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 26 million[citation needed]

Federally Administered Tribal Areas 5.5 million[citation needed]

Sindh 10 million[25]

Balochistan 5.5 million[citation needed]

Punjab 9 million[citation needed]

Azad Kashmir 350,000[citation needed]

Islamabad Capital Territory 450,000[citation needed]

Pakistan 57.7[2][24]

Smaller Pashtun communities outside Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
can be found in the districts of Attock and Mianwali in Punjab. These and other communities of Pashtun ancestry are often referred to as the Punjabi Pashtun. There are also large communities of Punjabi- Pashtuns
Pashtuns
Such as Niazi and others lives in Khanewal, Kasur, and other larger communities have settled around Multan
Multan
which was formerly part of the Durrani
Durrani
Empire. Pathan community lives in different district of Azad Kashmir. Mainly they are being settled in districts of Poonch, Sudhnuti
Sudhnuti
and Bagh. In Poonch
Poonch
and Sudhnuti
Sudhnuti
they constitute more than 70% population of district. Kashmiri Pashtuns
Pashtuns
mainly consists of Sadozai tribe which are locally known as Sudhan. Approximate population of Sadozais in AJK is 1 million. Sadozai tribe has a strong hold in Rawalakot
Rawalakot
city in Azad Kashmir. Small no of other pashtun tribes in Kashmir
Kashmir
which include Durrani, Tareen, Lodhi, Yousafzai Shinwary and Afridi
Afridi
tribes which extends from Azad Kashmir
Azad Kashmir
to India's Jammu & Kashmir. They speak local languages.[citation needed] In addition to this, some Urdu-speaking communities in Pakistan
Pakistan
trace their ancestry to the ancient Pashtun regions of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Khyber Pakhtunkhawa.[citation needed] Some identify themselves as Bangash, Yousefzai, Ghouri and Durrani. Additionally, a significant number of descendants of Rohillas migrated to Pakistan
Pakistan
after the independence of Pakistan
Pakistan
in 1947.The Rohilla
Rohilla
Pushtuns
Pushtuns
make up 30-30% of the Muhajir community in Karachi. Notable people[edit] Main article: List of Pashtuns India[edit]

Part of a series on

Pashtuns

Native Pashtun areas in orange

Art Culture Diaspora Language Tribes

Kingdoms

Khalji Lodi Suri Hotaki Durrani Barakzai

Religion

Islam

v t e

Further information: Pathans of Kashmir, Rohilla, Pathans of Uttar Pradesh, Pathan of Bihar, Pathans of Gujarat, Pathans of Rajasthan, Pathans of Madhya Pradesh, and Pathans of Tamil Nadu See also: Afghans in India India, as a British colony, once had a large Pashtun population roughly equal to that of Afghanistan, mostly concentrated in what were then the British Indian
British Indian
provinces of the North-West Frontier Province and Baluchistan. In Rohilkhand, they made large settlements subsequent to 14th century and prior to the 20th century. In fact, according to Encyclopædia Britannica, the number of Pashtuns
Pashtuns
in all of India
India
was nearly 31 million, but the speakers of Pashto
Pashto
numbered less than 14 million.[27] Most of this population was allotted, along with its respective provinces, to Pakistan
Pakistan
after the independence in 1947. Today the Pashtuns
Pashtuns
in India
India
can be divided into those who speak Pashto and those who speak Urdu/ Hindi
Hindi
and other regional languages, the Urdu/ Hindi
Hindi
speaking group being the biggest.[28] Pashto-speaking communities[edit] There are a large number of Pashto-speaking Pakhtuns in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.[29] Although their exact numbers are hard to determine, it is at least in excess of 100,000 for it is known that in 1954 over 100,000 nomadic Pakhtuns living in Kashmir
Kashmir
Valley were granted Indian citizenship.[30] Today jirgas are frequently held.[31] Those settled and living in the Kashmir
Kashmir
Valley speak Pashto, and are found chiefly in the southwest of the valley, where Pashtun colonies have from time to time been founded. The most interesting are the Kukikhel Afridis of Dramghaihama, who retain all the old customs and speak Pashto. They wear colorful dress and carry swords and shields. The Afridis and the Machipurians, who belong to the Yusufzai tribe, are liable to military service, in return for which they hold certain villages free of revenue. The Pashtuns
Pashtuns
chiefly came in under the Durranis, but many were brought by Maharajah Gulab Singh for service on the frontier.[32] Pashto
Pashto
is also spoken in two villages, Dhakki and Changnar (Chaknot), located on the Line of Control
Line of Control
in Kupwara District.[33] In response to demand by the Pashtun community living in the state, Kashir TV has recently launched a series of Pushto-language programs.[34] A further small, scattered Pashtun population still exists in some major cities of India
India
with large Muslim populations, with the majority of Pashto-speaking individuals residing in the states of Delhi
Delhi
and Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
India; who also have adopted local languages of the respective areas they live in, as their second language.[35][36] These Pathans, numbering around 14,161,[37][38] have retained the use of the Pashto language
Pashto language
and are still able to speak and understand it. This is partially because until recently, most of these Indian Pashtuns
Pashtuns
were able to travel to Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.[39] Urdu
Urdu
and Hindi
Hindi
speaking communities[edit] See also: Muhajir people The larger number of people claiming Pashtun ancestry in India
India
are Urdu
Urdu
or Hindi
Hindi
speaking. Despite the loss of most of the Raj-era Pashtun population, India
India
still has a large community of Hindustani speakers who trace their ancestry to ancient Pashtun invaders and settlers. They are often referred by the Hindustani pronunciation of the word Pashtun, "Pathan". Major Indian Pathan tribes lived in the following areas. While many persons belonging to these tribes moved to the Afghan- Pakistan
Pakistan
border, others chose to stay and thus, descendants of these tribes still reside in the parts of India
India
listed below:[40]

Tareens or Tarins, properly, in Sarai Tareen, a small town in the city Sambhal
Sambhal
of Uttar Pradesh Kheshgis, Barakzais, Yousafzais and Momands in Khurja, a small town in District Bulandshahre, which lies in close proximity to New Delhi. Pathans in Khurja never marry outside their clan and this led to the preservation of their blue blood. Their alliance is with the Pathans of Bara-Basti (12 villages of pathans belonging to specific tribe in the district bulandshahre). Kheshgi are the most prominent tribe in this area and are only exclusive to Khurja only after KPK and Afghanistan. Rohillas in the Rohilkhand
Rohilkhand
region of Uttar Pradesh Bangashes in Farrukhabad District in Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
and the towns of Kasganj
Kasganj
and Kaimganj
Kaimganj
of Etah District Dilazaks in Village Shahjahanpur in Meerat ghar road Uttar Pradesh, Dilazak in Andhra Pradesh, Bari in Rajistan, Jalandhar
Jalandhar
(Punjab), and Azeem Khail(Pathan Kot) Jammu and Kashmirl. Marwats in Aurangabad in Maharashtra, Azamgarh
Azamgarh
in Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
and Bhopal Yousafzais in Baroda
Baroda
in Gujarat, and Bhopal
Bhopal
in Madhya Pradesh Tonkia Pathan, a community mainly of Yousafzai descent found in Tonk, and other districts of Rajasthan Sorgar community of Rajasthan
Rajasthan
also claims Pashtun ancestry. Lodis and Suris of North India Lodis, Yousafzai and Suris of Bihar Pathans of Gujarat
Pathans of Gujarat
are a distinct Pathan of bawani in western uttar Pradesh. They are mainly kakars . Someare living in villages like Butrara, Taprana, Basi and Balla Majra of Shamli District.

community within the larger community of the Pathans of India. They belonge mainly to the Babi (AKA Babai in Pakistan/Afghanistan), Lohani, Mandori, and Zadran tribes. It is significant to note that a large part of above Pathan diaspora have naturalized themselves in the local culture over the centuries. The term "Pathan" does not refer exclusively and specifically to these Indian Pashtun descendants. Historically the term was used mainly to refer to Pashtuns
Pashtuns
in general by mainstream Indians Muslims included. Most Pashtuns, however, find the term to be insensitive and prefer to be called by their native label. Indians of Pashtun ancestry[edit]

Zarine Khan

Zakir Hussain, President of India
India
from 1967 to 1969[41] Shahrukh Khan, Bollywood
Bollywood
superstar in Indian films[42][43] Madhubala, Bollywood
Bollywood
actress between the 1940s and 1960s Feroz Khan, Bollywood
Bollywood
actor during the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s Saif Ali Khan, Bollywood
Bollywood
actor Parveen Babi, Bollywood
Bollywood
actress during the 1970s and 1980s Salman Khan, Bollywood
Bollywood
actor of Pashtun descent Salim Khan, Salman Khan's father Kader Khan, Bollywood
Bollywood
actor Zarine Khan, Bollywood
Bollywood
actress

Many Pashtuns
Pashtuns
worked in the Indian independence movement. While many supported the Muslim League's demand for Pakistan, some Pashtuns opposed it in favor of a united and secular India, especially members of the Indian National Congress. These included Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, his son Khan Wali Khan, Indian diplomat Mohammed Yunus, Pakistani opposition leader Mufti Mahmud
Mufti Mahmud
and Balochistan-based Pashtun leader Abdul Samad Achakzai. Also among the Pashtuns
Pashtuns
in India
India
are students from Afghanistan
Afghanistan
who are in India
India
to obtain a quality education, including President of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Hamid Karzai[44] and Kabuliwallah Pashtuns
Pashtuns
who are doing business in India.[45] In addition, India
India
has a large number of Hindu and Sikh refugees from Afghanistan
Afghanistan
who are fluent in Pashto, and Dari.[46] Pashtuns
Pashtuns
in the Middle East[edit]

Pashtun man in Al Ain, UAE

Hundreds of thousands of Pasthuns serving as migrant workers reside in the Middle East, particularly in the United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Kuwait, Oman
Oman
and other Arab countries.[47] Many of them are involved in the transport business, while others are employees of construction companies. Over 100,000 Pashtuns
Pashtuns
live in Iran
Iran
as citizens of that country and a further sizable number live among the Afghan refugees. The Pashtuns there are mainly concentrated in the Afghan- Iran
Iran
border, in the South Khorasan Province of Iran.[6] About 300,000 Pashtuns
Pashtuns
migrated to the Persian Gulf countries between 1976 and 1981, representing 35% of Pakistani immigrants.[47] Pashtuns
Pashtuns
in Europe[edit] Further information: Afghan diaspora
Afghan diaspora
and Pakistani diaspora Many Pashtuns
Pashtuns
have migrated from their homeland in South/Central Asia to Europe.[citation needed] United Kingdom[edit] Further information: Afghans in the United Kingdom, British Indian, and British Pakistani The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is home to some 100,000 Pashtuns,[48] making it one of the most populous overseas Pashtun communities in the world and the most populous one in the West. Pashtun diaspora
Pashtun diaspora
in UK have made their presence felt through their restaurants with traditional names like Bab-eKhyber, Hujra, Kabuli pulao etc. and Music. Its one of the most vibrant Pashtun diaspora
Pashtun diaspora
in the west.[49] Pashtuns
Pashtuns
in other parts of the world[edit] United States[edit] Main article: Pashtun American Further information: Afghan American, Indian American, and Pakistani American

Pashtuns
Pashtuns
in the US by state

Pashtuns
Pashtuns
have been present in California
California
at least since agricultural labor was imported in the early 20th century. Since the late 1970s and onwards, Pashtuns
Pashtuns
began immigrating to the USA in large numbers and are well established there. Pashtuns
Pashtuns
in the United States
United States
are famous for running top Afghan cuisine restaurants[50][51][52] and as owners of the fast-food restaurant chain Kennedy Fried Chicken
Kennedy Fried Chicken
that is based in New York City. Canada[edit] Further information: Afghan Canadian, Indo-Canadians, and Pakistani Canadian 1,690 persons characterised their ethnicity as "Pashtun" in Canada's 2006 census.[53] However, in question 17 of Canada's Statcan census form[54] most Pashtuns
Pashtuns
don't put their ethnicity as Pashtuns
Pashtuns
but rather Afghan or Pakistani. Pashtuns
Pashtuns
concentrate in regions with large Afghan and Pakistani communities. Interestingly, there are regions in southern Ontario with a large Pashtun diaspora
Pashtun diaspora
of Pakistani nationality, living Afghan communities with Dari speakers instead of Pashto
Pashto
speakers, causing a large polarization of the word "Afghan", especially irredentist disputes claiming Pakistani Pashtun communities as Afghan nationals. Australia[edit] Further information: Afghan (Australia), Afghan Australians, Indian Australians, and Pakistani Australians In the latter part of the 19th century several thousand men from Afghanistan, Baluchistan, Kashmir, Sind, Rajasthan, Egypt, Persia, Turkey and Punjab, but collectively known as "Afghans", were recruited during the initial British development of the Australian Outback, especially for the operation of camel trains in desert areas.[55] These consisted of men who were not allowed to bring their families with them, many married local Aborigines and are now known as Ghans.[56] During the 1980s and 90s, Pashtuns
Pashtuns
began settling in Perth, Melbourne, Sydney
Sydney
and other major cities of Australia. South Asia[edit] Further information: Pathans of Sri Lanka Southeast Asia[edit] Further information: Pakistanis in Thailand, Pakistanis in Malaysia, Malaysian Indians, Indians in Brunei, Indians in Thailand, Indian Singaporean, and Indian Indonesian Since the early 1900s there have been many generations of Pashtuns
Pashtuns
who migrated from Afghanistan, Pakistan
Pakistan
and the tribal areas of Pakistan (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa). Pashtun settlements in Thailand
Thailand
have been common throughout the provinces. There is even a Thai-Pashtun Friendship Association. The Pashtuns
Pashtuns
are fiercely independent, as a result they often are well treated and respected by the Thai locals. Countries like Indonesia, Singapore, Brunei
Brunei
and Malaysia
Malaysia
also have similar cases of Pashtun settlements, which those who are of descent are quickly assimilated to the local Indian ethnic minority community while those recent migrants or settlers belong to the Pakistani diaspora, since most of the migrants came from Pakistan. East Asia[edit] There may be some Pashtun communities living in parts of China, Taiwan and Japan. Guyana
Guyana
and Suriname[edit] Main articles: Indo-Caribbean
Indo-Caribbean
and Pakistanis in the Caribbean Some people living in Guyana
Guyana
and Suriname
Suriname
claim to be of Afghan descent. Most of them moved to South American countries during the Indian immigration.[57] Latin America[edit] Many Pashtuns
Pashtuns
from Afghanistan
Afghanistan
came to Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Panama, Colombia, Paraguay
Paraguay
and Peru
Peru
as refugees during the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in 1981 and during the internal Afghan conflicts in 1995–1996. See also[edit]

Pathans of Punjab Pathans of Rajasthan Pashtun people Pashtun tribes Pashtun culture Pashtunistan Pakhtunkhwa Rohilkhand Rohilla

References[edit]

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Bibliography[edit]

Ahmad, Aisha; Roger Boase. Pashtun Tales from the Pakistan-Afghan Frontier: From the Pakistan- Afghan Frontier. Saqi Books, 2003. ISBN 0-86356-438-0. Ahmed, Akbar S. 1976. Millennium and charisma among Pathans: a critical essay in social anthropology. Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1980. ISBN 0-7100-0547-4. Ahmed, Akbar S. Pukhtun economy and society: traditional structure and economic development in a tribal society. Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1980. ISBN 0-7100-0389-7. Caroe, Olaf. The Pathans: 500 B.C.-A.D. 1957. MacMillan, 1964. ISBN 0-19-577221-0. Dani, Ahmad Hasan. Peshawar: Historic city of the Frontier. Khyber Mail Press, 1969. ISBN 969-35-0554-9. Docherty, Paddy. The Khyber Pass: A History of Empire and Invasion. Union Square Press, 2008. ISBN 0-571-21977-2. Dupree, Louis. Afghanistan. Princeton University Press, 1973. ISBN 0-691-03006-5. Elphinstone, Mountstuart (1815). An account of the kingdom of Caubul, and its dependencies in Persia, Tartary, and India: comprising a view of the Afghaun nation, and a history of the Dooraunee monarchy. Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme and Brown, 1815. Habibi, Abdul Hai. Afghanistan: An Abridged History. Fenestra Books, 2003. ISBN 1-58736-169-8. Hopkirk, Peter. The Great Game: the struggle for empire in central Asia Kodansha Globe; Reprint edition. Kodansha International, 1994. ISBN 1-56836-022-3. Nichols, Robert. A history of Pashtun migration, 1775–2006. Oxford University Press, 2008. ISBN 0-19-547600-X. Vogelsang, Willem. The Afghans. Wiley-Blackwell, 2002. ISBN 0-631-19841-5. Wardak, Ali. Jirga
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v t e

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Elsewhere

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v t e

Pashtun diaspora

Afghan diaspora Pakistani diaspora Indian diaspora Pashtuns
Pashtuns
in Hazarajat, Turkic and Tajik regions Bihar Gujarat Kashmir Madhya Pradhesh Punjab Rajasthan
Rajasthan
(Sorgar) Sindh Tamil Nadu Uttar Pradesh
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(Putliwale) and (Rohilla) Sri Lanka United States

v t e

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Asia

South

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London Mirpuri Punjabi Sindhi

Americas

Canada

Toronto Vancouver

Caribbean United States

Baloch Houston Pashtun Punjabi Punjabi Mexican Sindhi

Oceania

Australia

Afghan

New Zealand

See also

Sub-diasporas

Baloch Hazara Azad Kashmiri Kashmiri Muhajir Pashtun Punjabi Saraiki Sindhi

Related articles

Anti- Pakistan
Pakistan
sentiment Demographics Foreign relations

Diplomatic missions

Immigration to Pakistan Little Pakistan Ministry of Overseas Pakistanis and Human Resource Development Pakistani nationality law Pakistani passport Pakistani students Visa requirements for Pakistani citizens

v t e

Overseas Pakistanis

Africa

Egypt Libya Somalia South Africa

Asia

South

Afghanistan

Punjabi

Bangladesh India Kyrgyzstan Nepal Sri Lanka

Memons Pathans

Middle East

Bahrain Iran Iraq Israel Jordan Kuwait Lebanon Oman Qatar Saudi Arabia Turkey United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
(Baloch) Yemen

Far East

China
China
(Hong Kong) Japan South Korea

South East

Brunei Burma Indonesia Malaysia
Malaysia
(Jawi Peranakan) Singapore Thailand

Europe

Austria Denmark France Germany Ireland Italy Netherlands Norway Russia Spain Sweden Switzerland Ukraine United Kingdom

London Mirpuri Punjabi Sindhi

Americas

Canada

Toronto Vancouver

Caribbean United States

Baloch Houston Pashtun Punjabi Punjabi Mexican Sindhi

Oceania

Australia

Afghan

New Zealand

See also

Sub-diasporas

Baloch Hazara Azad Kashmiri Kashmiri Muhajir Pashtun Punjabi Saraiki Sindhi

Related articles

Anti- Pakistan
Pakistan
sentiment Demographics Foreign relations

Diplomatic missions

Immigration to Pakistan Little Pakistan Ministry of Overseas Pakistanis and Human Resource Development Pakistani nationality law Pakistani passport Pakistani students Visa requirements for Pakistani citizens

v t e

Afghan diaspora

Middle East

Iran Qatar Turkey United Arab Emirates

Europe

Germany Netherlands Russia United Kingdom

Asia

India Japan Pakistan

Tajiks Uzbeks

Sri Lanka Tajikistan

North America

Canada
Canada
(Pashtun) United States
United States
(Pashtun)

Oceania

Australia
Australia
(Pashtun) New Zealand

See also

Pashtun diaspo

.